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CONTENTS

Introduction 2 Description 3 1. What is MHD? 3 1.1 Ideal MHD Equations 1.2 Applicability of MHD to plasmas 4 1.3 The importance of resistivity and kinetic Effects 4-5 1.4 Structures in MHD Systems 6 1.5 Applications 6 2. Magneto Hydro Dynamic Generator 2.1 Principle 2.2 Types of MHD Generator Systems a. Open cycle MHD b. Closed cycle MHD c. Liquid Metal MHD Generators d. Faraday Generator e. Hall Generator f. Disc Generator 2.3 MHD Generator Construction 2.4 Efficiency and Economics 2.5 Toxic byproducts Applications Conclusion Reference
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INTRODUCTION
The Magneto Hydro Dynamic power generation technology (MHD) is the production of electrical power utilising a high temperature conducting plasma moving through an intense magnetic field. The conversion process in MHD was initially described by Michael Faraday in 1893. However the actual utilisation of this concept remained unthinkable. The first known attempt to develop an MHD generator was made at Westing house research laboratory (USA) around 1936.

The efficiencies of all modern thermal power generating system lies between 35-40% as they have to reject large quantities of heat to the environment. We need to improve this efficiency level as in all other conventional power plants like nuclear power plant, hydro-electric power plant, for which first the thermal energy of the gas is directly converted in to electrical energy. Hence it is known as direct energy conversion system. The MHD power plants are classified in to Open and Closed cycle based on the nature of processing of the working fluid. With the present research and development programmes, the MHD power generation may play an important role in the power industry in future to help the present crisis of power. The MHD process can be used not only for commercial power generation but also for so may other applications. It is economically attractive from the design point of view and as far as bulk generation of power is concerned. The MHD process promises a dramatic improvement in the cost of generating electricity from coal, beneficial to the growth of the national economy. Not only that the extensive use of MHD can help in saving billions of dollars towards fuel prospects, lead to much better fuel utilization but the potential of lower capital costs with increased utilization of invested capital also provides a very important economic incentive in this case. The beneficial environmental aspects of MHD are probably of equal or even greater significance. The MHD energy conversion process contributes greatly to the solution of the serious air and thermal pollution problems faced by all steam - electric power plants while it simultaneously assures better utilization for our natural resources. The high temperature MHD process makes it possible to take advantage of the highest flame temperatures which can be produced by combustion from fossil fuel. While commercial nuclear reactors able to provide heat for MHD generators have yet to be developed, the combined use of MHD generators with nuclear heat source holds great promise for the future. In India, coal is by far the most abundant fossil fuel and thus the major energy source for fossil fuelled MHD power generation.

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Hydro. 1. assumes that the fluid has so little resistivity that it can be treated as a perfect conductor. and salt water. a closure approximation must be applied to highest moment of the particle distribution equation..meaning movement. it cannot treat kinetic phenomena. which create forces on the fluid. The set of equations which describe MHD are a combination of the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics and Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. To be more precise. if a set of magnetic field lines are tied into a knot. Ampere's Law in the limit of no electric field and no electron diffusivity.meaning magnetic field. even as it is twisted and distorted by fluid flows in the system. for which he received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1970. 3 .e. or of a non-thermal distribution of their velocities is important. The simplest form of MHD. Lenz's law dictates that the fluid is in a sense tied to the magnetic field lines. liquid metals. As with any fluid description to a kinetic system. the momentum equation. Because MHD is a fluid theory. The idea of MHD is that magnetic fields can induce currents in a moving conductive fluid. The word Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) is derived from Magneto. Examples of such fluids include plasmas. The connection between magnetic field lines and fluid in ideal MHD fixes the topology of the magnetic field in the fluid . The field was initiated by Hannes Alfven . a small rope-like volume of fluid surrounding a field line will continue to lie along a magnetic field line.DESCRIPTION 1. The energy can then become available if the conditions for ideal MHD break down. allowing magnetic reconnection that releases the stored energy from the magnetic field.) In ideal MHD. and a temperature evolution equation. i. This is often accomplished with approximations to the heat flux through a condition of adiabaticity or isothermality. (This is the limit of infinite magnetic Reynolds number. These differential equations have to be solved simultaneously. either analytically or numerically. those in which the existence of discrete particles.for example.1 Ideal MHD Equations: The ideal MHD equations consist of the continuity equation (mass). What is Magneto Hydro Dynamics? Magneto Hydro Dynamics (magneto-fluid-dynamics or hydro-magnetics) is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. and also change the magnetic field itself. in ideal MHD. Ideal MHD. and Dynamics. This difficulty in reconnecting magnetic field lines makes it possible to store energy by moving the fluid or the source of the magnetic field.meaning liquid . then they will remain so as long as the fluid/plasma has negligible resistivity.

The resistivity due to these collisions is small. and the particle distributions are therefore close to Maxwellian.1.2 Applicability of MHD to Plasmas: Ideal MHD is only strictly applicable when: 1. the typical magnetic diffusion times over any scale length present in the system must be longer than any time scale of interest. By contrast. long enough along the field to ignore Landau damping. 4 . a meter-sized volume of seawater has a magnetic diffusion time measured in milliseconds. This means that solutions to the ideal MHD equations are only applicable for a limited time for a region of a given size before diffusion becomes too important to ignore. MHD simulation of solar wind 1.so it would seem reasonable to ignore the resistivity. so that the time scale of collisions is shorter than the other characteristic times in the system. We are interested in length scales much longer than the ion skin depth and Larmor radius perpendicular to the field. much longer than the actual lifetime of a sunspot . 2. the magnetic field can generally move through the fluid. The plasma is strongly collisional . following a diffusion law with the resistivity of the plasma serving as diffusion constant.3 The importance of resistivity and kinetic effects: In an imperfectly conducting fluid. 3. One can estimate the diffusion time across a solar active region (from collisional resistivity) to be hundreds to thousands of years. and time scales much longer than the ion gyration time (system is smooth and slowly evolving). In particular.

simple estimates suggest that the resistivity can be ignored. resistivity may still be important: much instability exists that can increase the effective resistivity of the plasma by factors of more than a billion. so that gentle forces applied to plasma for long periods of time can cause violent explosions and bursts of radiation. When this is not the case. This is usually not the case in fusion. When the fluid cannot be considered as completely conductive. bulk mechanical acceleration of material. and heat. so that the time scale of collisions is shorter than the other characteristic times in the system. Another limitation of MHD (and fluid theories in general) is that they depend on the assumption that the plasma is strongly collisional (this is the first criterion listed above). particle acceleration. introducing small spatial scales into the system over which ideal MHD is broken and magnetic diffusion can occur quickly. The enhanced resistivity is usually the result of the formation of small scale structure like current sheets or fine scale magnetic turbulence. This includes an extra term in Ampere's Law which models the collisional resistivity. and the particle distributions are Maxwellian. space and astrophysical plasmas. it is often qualitatively accurate. and captures many of the important properties of plasma dynamics. because MHD is very simple. and is almost invariably the first model tried.Even in physical systems which are large and conductive enough. or we are interested in smaller spatial scales. chemical separation in space plasmas and electron runaway. When this happens. a wide range of instabilities. Landau damping. it is possible to use an extended model called resistive MHD. it may be necessary to use a kinetic model which properly accounts for the non-Maxwellian shape of the distribution function. 5 . However. Effects which are essentially kinetic and not captured by fluid models include double layers. Generally MHD computer simulations are at least somewhat resistive because their computational grid introduces a numerical resistivity. Magnetic reconnection in highly conductive systems is important because it concentrates energy in time and space. but the other conditions for ideal MHD are satisfied. Magnetic Reconnection may occur in the plasma to release stored magnetic energy as waves.

most of the electric current is compressed into thin. where current sheets separate topologically distinct domains. 6 . nearlytwo-dimensional ribbons termed current sheets. and electromagnetic casting. MHD is related to engineering problems such as plasma confinement. 1. which is quite thin compared to the magnetic domains (which are thousands to hundreds of thousands of kilometers across). liquid-metal cooling of nuclear reactors.1.4 Applications : MHD as a science has its application in geophysics as well in astrophysics. isolating most of the earth's ionosphere from the solar wind.4 Structures in MHD Systems: Schematic view of the different current systems which shape the Earth‟s magnetosphere In many MHD systems. Current sheets in the solar corona are thought to be between a few meters and a few kilometers in thickness. These can divide the fluid into magnetic domains. inside of which the currents are relatively weak. power generation (among others). Another example is in the earth's magnetosphere.

The differently charged electromagnetic layers produced by the dynamo effect on the earth's geomagnetic field enable the appearance of the aurora borealis. So hightemperature MHD was developed as a topping cycle to increase the efficiency of electric generation. especially when burning coal or natural gas. MHD generators are different from traditional electric generators in that they can operate at high temperatures without moving parts. Magneto Hydro Dynamic Generator The MHD (magneto-hydro-dynamic) generator or dynamo transforms thermal energy or kinetic energy directly into electricity. The unique value of MHD is that it permits an older single-cycle fossil-fuel power plant to be upgraded to high efficiency. 7 . less expensive technologies. The mechanical dynamo. From their perspective the earth is a global MHD dynamo and with the aid of the particles on the solar wind produces the aurora borealis. It has also been applied to pump liquid metals and for quiet submarine engines. uses the motion of fluid or plasma to generate the currents which generate the electrical energy.2. As power is extracted from the plasma of the solar wind. The fluid dynamo. The basic concept underlying the mechanical and fluid dynamos is the same. the particles slow and are drawn down along the field lines in a brilliant display over the poles. Natural MHD dynamos are an active area of research in plasma physics and are of great interest to the geophysics and astrophysics communities. MHD generators are now practical for fossil fuels. but have been overtaken by other. MHD was eagerly developed because the exhaust of a plasma MHD generator is a flame. however. still able to heat the boilers of a steam power plant. such as combined cycles in which a gas turbine's or molten carbonate fuel cell's exhaust heats steam for steam turbine. The functional difference between an MHD generator and an MHD dynamo is the path the charged particles follow. in contrast. uses the motion of mechanical devices to accomplish this.

as a working fluid. x is the cross product. generally operate using a high-speed flow of steam or other gas. In the case of hydroelectric generators. Where      F is the force acting on the particle (vector). was much more successful and yielded power levels in excess of 10 kW. The negative charges tend to move in one direction. utilizing a liquid fossil fuel-“seeded” with a potassium compound. Hundstad. Stewart. A later experiment at Westinghouse by Way. on the other hand. Similar power levels were achieved at the Avco Everett laboratories 8 . This generator (which was of the annular Hall type) utilized the products of combustion of natural gas. the energy required to maintain the rotation is supplied by the gravitational motion of river water. or MHD. To test this concept Faraday immersed electrodes into the Thames River at either end of the Waterloo Bridge in London and connected the electrodes at mid span on the bridge through a galvanometer. Faraday reasoned that the electrically conducting river water moving through the earth's magnetic field should produce a transverse emf.1 MHD Power Generation (The Principle): When an electrical conductor is moved so as to cut lines of magnetic induction. OeCorso. The simplest form of this law is given by the vector equation. and Young (1961). Q is charge of particle (scalar).period 1938-1944. The experiments did not produce the expected power levels because of the low electrical conductivity of the -gas and the lack of existing knowledge of plasma properties at that time. The heat source required to produce the highspeed gas flow may be supplied by the combustion of a fossil fuel or by a nuclear reactor (either fission or possibly fusion). At the present time nearly all electrical power generators utilize a solid conductor which is caused to rotate between the poles of a magnet. This induced electric field. Kemeny. or motional emf. and the positive charges in the opposite direction. Small irregular deflections of the galvanometer were in fact observed. power generation. v is velocity of particle (vector). under the guidance of Karlovitz. provides the basis for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy The Lorentz Force Law describes the effects of a charged particle moving in a constant magnetic field. The production of electrical power through the use of a conducting fluid moving through a magnetic field is referred to as magneto-hydro-dynamic. the charged particles in the conductor experience a force in a direction mutually perpendicular to the magnetic field (B) and to the velocity of the conductor (v).2. B is magnetic field (vector). One of the earliest serious attempts to construct an experimental MHO generator was undertaken at the Westinghouse laboratories in the . It was recognized by Faraday as early as 1831 that one could employ a fluid conductor as the working substance in a power generator. Turbo-generators. The vector F is perpendicular to both v and B according to the Right hand rule. and electron beam ionization.

 Typically for a large scale power station to approach operational efficiency in computer models.  Faraday generator: The Faraday generator is named after the man who first looked for the effect in the Thames River. In these latter experiments. They are as follows:   Open Cycle MHD generators: They operate with the products of combustion of a fossil fuel and are closest to practical realization. 9 . When an electrically conductive fluid flows through the tube.by Rosa (1961) using arc-heated argon at 3000˚K –“ seeded” with powdered potassium carbonate. and the disc. classified according to the working fluid and the anticipated heat source. Economics. closed-cycle MHD generators utilizing a gas will require that the generator operate in a nonequilibrium mode. The amount of power that can be extracted is proportional to the cross sectional area of the tube and the speed of the conductive flow. and Toxic byproducts.2 Types of MHD generator systems: During the decade beginning. The conductive substance is also cooled and slowed by this process. steps must be taken to increase the electrical conductivity of the conductive substance. A simple Faraday generator would consist of a wedge-shaped pipe or tube of some non-conductive material. which can be drawn off as electrical power by placing the electrodes on the sides at 90 degree angles to the magnetic field. while the operating principle remains the same. the Hall generator. about 1960 three general types of MHD generator systems evolved.“seeding” the working gas with small concentrations of potassium was essential to provide the necessary number of free electrons required for an adequate electrical conductivity. The working fluid for a closed cycle system can be either a seeded noble gas or a liquid metal. although fossil fuel heat sources have also been considered. Because of temperature limitations imposed by the nuclear fuel materials used in reactors. MHD generators typically reduce the temperature of the conductive substance from plasma temperatures to just over 1000 °C. The heating of a gas to plasma or the addition of other easily ionizable substances like the salts of alkali metals accomplishes this increase in conductivity.) 2. Closed Cycle MHD generators: They are usually envisaged as operating with nuclear reactor heat sources. in the presence of a significant perpendicular magnetic field. These are the Faraday generator. These issues are affected by the choice of one of the three MHD generator designs. (Other possible seeding materials having a relatively low ionization potential are the alkali metals Cesium and Rubidium. There are limitations on the density and type of field used. a charge is induced in the field. In practice a number of issues must be considered in the implementation of a MHD generator: Generator efficiency. flowing through ducts. Liquid Metal MHD generators: They operate basically with liquid metals.

solar. Finally.e. the maximum actual efficiency of the system will be limited by the maximum temperature employed in the energy conversion device. vertical electrodes on the sides of the duct. The Faraday currents flow in a perfect dead short around the periphery of the disk. the Carnot efficiency) is determined by the temperature of the heat source. the fluid flow speed varies. The normal scheme is to place arrays of short.The main practical problem of a Faraday generator is that differential voltages and currents in the fluid short through the electrodes on the sides of the duct. it has simple parallel field lines. The first and last electrodes in the duct power the load. misaligning the Faraday current with its intended electrodes. currently most efficient answer is the Hall effect disc generator. The resulting magnet uses a much smaller percentage of the generated power. like a turbo generator. To get this field. These shorts of the Faraday current induce a powerful magnetic field within the fluid. and a duct wrapped around the edge. Each other electrode is shorted to an electrode on the opposite side of the duct. As the load varies. First. The optimal magnetic field on duct-shaped MHD generators is a sort of saddle shape. the magnet can be closer to the fluid. Many research groups have tried to adapt superconducting magnets to this purpose. the maximum potential efficiency of such a system (i. A disc generator has fluid flowing between the center of a disc. In accordance with thermodynamic considerations. Most further refinements of MHD generators have tried to solve this problem. and voltages are higher because there is less shorting of the final induced current. An MHD generator. The most powerful waste is from the Hall effect current.  Disc generator: The third. induced field makes current flow in a rainbow shape between the first and last electrodes. the generator is compact for its power. this design has problems because the speed of the material flow requires the middle electrodes to be offset to "catch" the Faraday currents. because the fluid is processed in a disk. so the magnet is also smaller. The future electrical power needs of industrial countries will have to be met for the most part by thermal systems composed of a heat source and an energy conversion device. The magnetic excitation field is made by a pair of circular Helmholtz coils above and below the disk. etc. is an energy conversion device and can be used with any high-temperature heat source-chemical. nuclear. This makes the Faraday duct very inefficient. a large generator requires an extremely powerful magnet. and magnetic field strengths increase as the 7th power of distance. Another significant advantage of this design is that the magnet is more efficient. However. Losses are less than a Faraday generator. This design currently holds the efficiency and energy density records for MHD generation.  Hall generator: The most common answer is to use the Hall effect to create a current that flows with the fluid. The Hall Effect currents flow between ring electrodes near the center and ring electrodes near the periphery. However.. with varying success. The closer the temperature of the working fluid in the energy conversion device to the temperature of 10 . but in a chord of a circle at right angles to the Faraday current. Second. This secondary. and making the generator's efficiency very sensitive to its load.

in contrast to turbines. the higher the maximum potential efficiency of the overall system. at the present time large central station power production is limited to the use of a single energy-conversion scheme-the steam turbo-generator-which is capable of operating economically at a maximum temperature of only 850˚K. up to about 3000˚K. reduced thermal pollution. It is clear that a temperature gap exists in our energy conversion technology. A spectrum of heat source temperatures is currently available. Higher operating efficiencies would lead to improved conservation of natural resources. Calculations show that fossil-fuelled MHD generators may be capable of operating at efficiencies between 50 and 60 percent. The over-all efficiencies of present central-station power-producing systems are limited by this fact to values below about 42 percent. they can operate at much higher temperatures. However. which is a fraction of the potential efficiency. The essential elements of a simplified MHD generator are shown below in the figure. and lower fuel costs. A field of magnetic induction „B‟ is applied transverse to the motion of an electrically conducting gas flowing in an insulated duct with a velocity „u‟. A Simplified MHD generator 11 . This type of generator is referred to as a continuous electrode Faraday generator.the heat source. do not require the use of moving solid materials in the gas stream. Because MHD power generators. Studies currently in progress suggest also the possibility of reduced air pollution.

The rate at which directed energy is extracted from the gas by the electromagnetic field per unit volume is -u• (J x B).. 12 . The electrical power delivered to the load per unit volume of a MHD generator gas is given by P = -J•E ………………………. which is added to the induced field. and the short circuit current is Jy = . Therefore the electrical efficiency of the MHD generator is defined as ηe =(J•E) / ( u• (J x B) )…………………(7) For the generator being discussed.σuB. In terms of the coordinate system shown in the fig.uB)………………….The Charged particles moving with the gas will experience an induced electric field „u x B‟ which will tend to drive an electric current in the direction perpendicular to both u and B...(4) For the generator shown in the fig above P = u2B2K(1 . and the upper electrode is an anode.. Since the electrons flow in the opposite direction. This current is collected by a pair of electrodes on opposite sides of the duct in contact with the gas and connected externally through a load....K)………………. For general load conditions. The negative sign indicates that the conventional current flows in the negative y-direction.. it is conventional to introduce the loading parameter given by the expression Jy=σ (Ey. For the purposes of initial discussion it is assumed that both u and σ are uniform. ηe=K. At short circuit Ey = 0. Neglecting the Hall effect. we have At open circuit Jy = 0. For the characteristic conditions u ~1000 m sec-1 and B ~2 T.K). the bottom electrode must serve as an electron emitter.(3) Where0 ≤ K ≤ 1 and Jy = -σuB(1 . the open circuit electric field is uB ~ 2000 V m-1. The Faraday generator therefore tends to higher efficiency near open circuit operation. results from the potential difference between the electrodes.. or cathode.(6) for K = 1/2.………………….(2) K= Ey / uB.(5) This power density has a maximum value Pmax=σu2b2/4………………….. and so the open circuit electric field is „uB‟. the magnitude of the current density for a weakly ionized gas is given by the generalized Ohm's law as J = σ(E + u x B)…………………(1) The electric field E.

the electrodes may be segmented in the manner indicated in the fig given below and separate loads connected between opposed electrode pairs. The various geometrical constructions of the MHD generator are shown as follows: 13 .A Faraday MHD generator To circumvent the deleterious consequences of the Hall Effect.

2.Electrode connections for linear MHD generators. Very simply the hole in the dome is one third the diameter of the extended tube. or any other. Then it is just striked without crushing it. The difference is that high temperature gases are by law of physics. plasmas. This most basic component is designed on the same principals as a pulsed rocket engine. Below. and plasmas conduct electricity as 14 .3 MHD generator construction: This series of diagrams conclude the structural design of a MHD Generator. and the utilization of stepping motors to regulate frequency. A simple test of a similar system would be a plastic 1 gallon milk jug filled with smoke. would require a high pressure pump. it will produce smoke rings. This device is designed to produce a explosive pulse of gas. Consistently. This diagram is intended to produce a flaming smoke ring. This is managed very simply by a few structural features that are not visible in this diagram. The fuel injection system is not defined but. is the combustion chamber. The camber shape is correct to produce a flaming smoke ring.

well as wire. Kick EMF then intensifies an existing magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet. This diagram shows the position of the receiving coil which is used like any typical generator's output coil. This is the position of the coil/permanent magnet pair. A loop of conductive gas. 15 . Basically. act like a short circuited loop of wire. hot enough to produce plasma. Underneath it is another shorted loop of wire that produces an even more intense magnetic field. is one of the basics of vacuum tube theory. welding gases. From that point a second receiving coil is used to accumulate the energy in the exploding gas. some fuels to burn. and hydrogen often qualify. which. Plasmas occur around the same temperatures at which Thermionic Emission takes place. This power generator works on the principal of two known factors discovered present in standard rotary generators.

The good point of it is that it can convert hydrogen directly to water and electricity. The combustion serves two purposes. 16 . CO2. or liquid helium. or can. The objective of the position of the coolant injectors is to produce a layer of cold gas around and over the combustion plate.Now. or flaming smoke ring by the time it escapes the dome and enters the exit tube. In the exit tube the gas must be burning clear past the receiving coil. like nitrogen. then there's a little trick to keep all but the radiated heat away from the metal. one is to shape the detonation of the fuel in order to produce a vortex. and the velocity or horsepower of the escaping gas is almost directly converted to watts. By size and weight a rocket engine is always small horse per horse. not reach a true temperature of conductivity that the burning fuel will. if we choose to build a device for continuous operation. based on the mix ratio. This gas will expand explosively but. That's by introducing a neutral gas.

MHD and a steam Rankine cycle can convert fossil fuels into electricity with an estimated efficiency up to 60 percent. However. compared to the 40 percent of a typical coal plant. the exhaust of an MHD generator burning fossil fuel is almost as hot as the flame of a conventional steam boiler. These efficiencies make MHD unattractive. since conventional Rankine cycle power plants easily reach 40%. Typical open-cycle Hall & duct coal MHD generators are lower. by itself. the 22% efficiency record for closed-cycle disc MHD generators was held by Tokyo Technical Institute. Reactors of this type operate at temperatures as high as 2000 °C. near 17%. for utility power generation. A magnetohydrodynamic generator might also be heated by a Nuclear reactor (either fission or fusion). The peak enthalpy extraction in these experiments reached 30. By routing its exhaust gases into a boiler to make steam.4 Generator Efficiency and Economics As of 1994. By pumping the reactor coolant into a magnetohydrodynamic generator before a 17 .2.2%.

MHD generators for fossil fuels are inherently expensive. MHD generators have also been proposed for a number of special situations. care must be taken with the coolant of the electromagnetics and channel. MHD generators have not been employed for large scale mass energy conversion because other techniques with comparable efficiency have a lower investment and operating cost. this equipment is an additional expense. However. Also. nuclear or isotopic heat sources. eliminating a source of tell-tale mechanism noise. In spacecraft and unattended locations..traditional heat exchanger an estimated efficiency of 60 percent can be realised. recycles potassium ionization seed from the fly ash captured by the stack-gas scrubber. linked to solar. One possible conductive coolant is the molten salt reactor‟s molten salt. Similarly. since molten salts are electrically conductive. the electrodes must be both conductive and heat-resistant at high temperatures. In submarines. the chemical 18 . The alkali metals commonly used as MHD fluids react violently with water.5 Toxic byproducts MHD reduces overall production of hazardous fossil fuel wastes because it increases plant efficiency. the patented commercial "Econoseed" process developed by the U. with simpler equipment than an MHD topping cycle. If high efficiency is needed in a new plant. it's cheaper to simply add more low-temperature steamgenerating capacity. low speed MHD generators using liquid metals would be nearly silent. A certain amount of electricity is required to maintain sustained magnetic field over 1 T. To get more electricity from coal. Because of the high temperatures. However.S. coal gasification feeding molten salt or solid oxide fuel cells is expected to have superior efficiencies because the fuel cell bypasses the inherent inefficiencies of a heat engine. low-speed metallic MHD generators have been proposed as highly reliable generators. 2. making tungsten a common choice. If molten metal is the armature fluid a MHD generator. In MHD coal plants. Advances in natural gas turbines achieved similar thermal efficiencies at lower costs. the walls of the channel must be constructed from an exceedingly heat-resistant substance such as yttrium oxide or zirconium dioxide to retard oxidation.

)  MHD has got application in the field of orbital power generation platforms and space propulsion. 3. Applications:  MHD was developed as a topping cycle to increase the efficiency of electric generation. by far the most abundant fossil fuel and thus the major source of energy for fossil fuelled MHD power generation.byproducts of heated.  It is used in the liquid metal cooling of nuclear reactors and electromagnetcic casting. electrified alkali metals and channel ceramics may be poisonous and environmentally persistent.It not only helps in increasing the efficiency problem in the thermal power plants but in one way it solves the power deficit problem as far as bulk power generation is concerned.  MHD power generation fueled by potassium-seeded coal combustion gas showed potential for more efficient energy conversion (the absence of solid moving parts allows operation at higher temperatures. It has also been applied to pump liquid metals and for quiet submarine engines.In India .The beneficial environmental aspects of MHD generator are far more significant in today‟s world. Before large central station power plants with coal as the 19 . CONCLUSION MHD process has got a wide range of applications of which the MHD generator is a major one. It is coupled with a pulsed detonation rocket engine (PDRE) to simultaneously create propulsion. especially when burning coal or natural gas.

techsearch.htm www.org/wiki/MHD_generator www.answers.wikipedia.en.energy source can become commercially viable .com www. REFERENCES       www.edufive.org/wiki/magnetohydrodynamics www. further development is necessary.wikipedia.en.britannica.com www.com 20 .