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1.0 INTRODUCTION
This report is prepared for the designing of the production process units of phthalic
anhydride. For this purpose all units will be investigated one by one. Air compressors are
utilized to raise the pressure of a volume of air and are available in many configurations that
will operate over a very wide range of flow rates and pressures.
The original air compressor is the lung. When you take a deep breath to blow
out your birthday candles, for example, you're increasing the pressure of the air in your
lungs, which effectively is an air compressor containing pressurized air. You then use the
force of the air in your lungs to blow out the flames of your birthday candles.
Eventually, man-made air compressors were created. These generally fall into one
of two types, positive displacement or dynamic, defined by its mode of operation. A
positive displacement air compressor works by filling and then emptying an air
chamber. Three common types of positive displacement air compressors are:
reciprocating, rotary screw and rotary sliding vane. A dynamic air compressor, on the
other hand, uses a a rotating device to accelerate and then decelerate air. This process uses
the speed or velocity of the air to increase the air's pressure. Centrifugal air compressors are
dynamic air compressors.
Compressed air can be used in a variety of ways. It can be used to alter the
chemical composition as in the case of making fertilizer or it can be used for industrial
purposes like production line manufacturing processes or it can be used to maintain
industrial plants. Perhaps the most well known use of the air compressor is in the case of
pneumatic tools like air powered nail guns, staplers, sanders, spray guns, or ratchet
wrenches. Air compressors can also be used to move debris.
Another way to group air compressor types is by the number of stages it has. A
two- stage air compressor is usually used for heavy duty use. This type of unit offers a
higher level of compression than smaller, single stage air compressors. A two-stage air
compressor can store air for future use, and is more energy efficient since it produces
more air per unit of horsepower than a single stage compressor. Also, less heat is
generated in a two-stage compressor, which means that wear on the unit is reduced.
For the modeling of the compression of gas, there are two theoretical
relationships between temperature and pressure in a volume of gas undergoing
compression. Although neither of them model the real world exactly, each can be useful
for analysis.
2

2.0 RESULTS

Table 1 : Results of Compressor

Pr
1
0.0268
Tr
1
2.24
z
1
0.98
v
1
(m
3
/h) 9986.4
Nominal Polytropic Head per Stage (H
p
)
(kNm/kg)
30
Nominal Polytropic Efficiency (
p
) 0.76
Nominal Maximum No. of Stages 10
Speed at Nominal Polytropic Head/Stage 11500
x 0.37
T
2
(K) 451
T
2
(
o
C) 177.85
Pr
2
0.0806
Tr
2
3.14
z
2
0.99
z
avg
0.985
H
p
(Nm/kg) 95672.5
Number of stage 4
speed 10268
Gas power (kW) 420.75
Total Power (kW) 448.75
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compressor
Stream ID 1 2
Temperature C 25. 0 177. 2
Pressure bar 1. 013 3. 040
Vapor Frac 1. 000 1. 000
Mole Flow kmol/hr 415.000 415.000
Mass Flow kg/hr 12014. 458 12014. 458
Volume Flow cum/hr 10150. 308 5116.801
Enthalpy MMkcal/hr -0. 001 0. 439
Mole Flow kmol/hr
AIR 415.000 415.000
Table 2: Results of ASPEN
Table 2 : Result of ASPEN

Table 2 : Result of ASPEN

Table 2 : Result of ASPEN

4

3.0 APPENDIX
STEP 2 :
24 . 2
8 . 132
298
0268 . 0
7 . 37
013 . 1
Pr
10
*
1
1
1
5
1 1
1
.
1 1
= = =
= = =
=
=
K
K
T
T
Tr
bar
bar
P
P
P
RT z
v
m v V
c
c

z
1
= 0.98 (From Figure 8)
h
m
kg
m
h
kg
v
h
kg
m
kg
m
kg
g
g
mol
v
air
3 3
1
.
3
5
1
4 . 9986 827 . 0 * 12032
12032
827 . 0
1
1000
*
97 . 28
1
*
013 . 1 * 10
298 * 314 . 8 * 98 . 0
= =
=
= =

STEP 3
From Table 7:
Frame : 29 M
Nominal Polytropic Head per Stage (H
p
) : 30
Nominal Polytropic Efficiency (
p
) : 0.76
Nominal Maximum No. of Stages : 10
Speed at Nominal Polytropic Head/Stage : 11500

STEP 4
3
1
3
Pr
1
2
= = =
P
P
o essureRati x = 0.37,
ad
=0.72 (From Figure 9)
k =1.4
5

C K T
T
T T
x
T
o
ad
8 . 177 15 . 273 451 451
298 298 *
72 . 0
37 . 0
*
2
2
1 1 2
= = =
+ =
+ =
q


4 . 3
8 . 132
451
0806 . 0
7 . 37
013 . 1 * 3
Pr
2
2
2
= =
= = =
Tr
bar
bar
P
P
c

z
2
= 0.99 (From Figure 8)
985 . 0
2
98 . 0 99 . 0
2
2 1
=
+
=
+
=
z z
z
avg


STEP 5
( )
kg
Nm
H
mol
kmol
kmol kg
K
K molm
N m
H
k n
P
P
n
n
mW
T R z
H
p
p
p
n
n
avg
p
5 . 95672
1 3
1000
1
*
064 . 1
1 064 . 1
* / 97 . 28
298 * ( 314 . 8 * 985 . 0
064 . 1 76 . 0 * 4 . 1 *
1
1
* *
064 . 1
1 064 . 1 2
3
1
1
2
1
=
(


|
.
|

\
|
=
= = =
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
q



6

STEP 6
Head per Stage = Stage
kg
Nm
/ 30000

STEP 7
Number of Stage = stage
stage
H
H
p
p
4 2 . 3
30000
5 . 95672
~ = =
Speed = Speed at Nominal Head/Stage *
age NumberofSt
stage
H
H
p
p
*

Speed = 10268
4 * 30000
5 . 95672
* 11500 =

STEP 8
kW W
s
h
H m
GasPower
p
p
75 . 420 420753
3600
1
*
76 . 0
5 . 95672 * 12032
*
.
~ = = =
q


From Figure 11;
Assuming Labyrinth or Dry Carbon Ring Seal chart;
Losses (kW) =28 kw = kj/s = KN/s
Total kW =28+420.75=448.75 kW