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Goulds Pumps

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Goulds Pumps is a brand of ITT Corporation. www.goulds.com

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Introduction to Pump Curves
A performance curve is normally a curved line drawn on a grid or graph of vertical and horizontal lines. This curved line represents the performance of a specific pump. The vertical and horizontal lines represent units of measure that illustrate that performance. In our application there is a tank or well full of water. We want to use the water for a specific process or in a home. Often the water is at a lower level and gravity will not allow it to flow uphill, so a pump is used. A pump is a machine used to transfer or move a volume of water (or fluid) a given distance. This volume is measured over a period of time expressed in gallons per minute (gpm) or gallons per hour (gph). This volume is also referred to as capacity or flow. The pump develops energy called discharge pressure or total dynamic head (tdh). This pressure is expressed in units of measure called pounds per square inch (psi) or feet of head(ft.). NOTE: 1 psi will push a column of water up a pipe a distance of 2.31’. A performance curve is used to determine which pump best meets the system requirements.

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This is the ability of the pump to produce pressure expressed in feet of head.feet of water. It is important to determine the value of each grid line or square. left hand corner with 0 and go up the vertical axis. These numbers relate to the ability of the pump to produce flow of water expressed as capacity in gallons per minute (GPM). The numbers start at the bottom. Onthe left hand side of the graph Total Dynamic Head (TDH) is shown with the unit of measure in feet. The other unit of measure is gallons per minute and is shown across the bottom (horizontal axis).Example 1 The graph below would be used to illustrate a pump’s performance. Also shown are the metric measures in meters for the TDH and cubic meters per hour for the capacity. left corner with 0 and go to the right. Start at the bottom.31 feet) and water was the liquid being pumped. This reading is converted to feet (1 psi = 2. METERS FEET 500 140 TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD 120 100 400 300 80 60 40 100 20 0 0 0 0 5 1 2 10 3 15 4 20 5 25 6 30 7 35 GPM 8 m3/h 200 CAPACITY 3 . This is another term which means a gauge was installed at the discharge of the pump and a reading was taken in psi. Sometimes the measure will say total dynamic head -. which is a term used by many engineers.

) to feet of head and this is the pump’s maximum Total Dynamic Head (TDH) at 0 capacity. A second point (2) is marked on the graph to indicate this performance. Covert this psi reading (1 psi = 2. The valve is opened until the flowmeter reads 5 gpm and another pressure reading is taken from the gauge.31 ft. METERS FEET 500 140 1 2 TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD 120 100 400 300 80 60 40 100 20 0 0 0 0 5 1 2 10 3 15 4 20 5 25 6 30 7 35 GPM 8 m3/h 200 CAPACITY 4 . This is referred to as the maximum shutoff pressure.Example 2a To produce a performance curve the pump is operated using a pressure gauge. This process is continued at 5 gpm increments across the graph. A mark is placed on the graph to indicate this performance (Point 1). throttling valve and flowmeter installed in the discharge pipe. The pump is run with the throttling valve completely closed so there is no flow and a reading is taken from the pressure gauge.

Head (H) is expressed in feet and capacity (Q) is expressed in gallons per minute (GPM). This curved line is called a head/capacity curve.Example 2b We now connect all the points. The pump will always run somewhere on the curve. METERS FEET 500 140 TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD 120 100 400 H-Q 300 80 60 40 100 20 0 0 0 0 5 1 2 10 3 15 4 20 5 25 6 30 7 35 GPM 8 m3/h 200 CAPACITY 5 .

Now look at the 18GS20. 3/4 HP 6 impellers. When you add impellers. RPM 3450 60 Hz 500 0 0 1 5 2 10 3 15 4 20 5 25 6 30 7 35 8 40 GPM m3/h CAPACITY 6 . Let’s compare two sizes: 1. 2 HP 14 impellers. First look at the 18GS07. At 15 GPM capacity this model will make 158 feet. Here is a composite performance curve (more than one pump) for the 18GS performance submersible. This allows the pump to go deeper in a well.Example 3 There are many different type curves shown in our catalog. There is a separate curve for each horsepower size. the pump makes more pressure (expressed in feet). but also takes more horsepower. 2. . At 15 GPM capacity this model will make 360 feet. . COMPOSITE PERFORMANCE CURVES METERS 320 300 280 260 240 TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 400 18GS20 300 18GS15 200 100 0 18GS10 18GS07 FEET 1000 900 18GS50 800 700 600 18GS30 1 GPM RECOMMENDED RANGE 6 – 28 GPM 20 Ft.

We have included a sheet called (4A) “How to figure horsepower and operating cost”. From this point read vertically DOWN until you touch the efficiency curve line. Then go horizontally to the right to find the percent. 2.” Pump manufacturers describe pumps in terms of the flow rate at the best efficiency point. . In Example 4. In this example it would be 72%. You may want to make copies and pass this out. Then go horizontally to the right to find the percent. 1. the pump would be classified as a 425 gallon per minute pump. Find 425 GPM at 800’. Efficiency as a percentage is shown on the scale at the right side of the grid. The highest point of the efficiency curve line is called the “B. you want to select the one that has the best efficiency. Find 425 GPM at 500’. with larger pumps.E. From this point read vertically UP until you touch the efficiency curve line.P or “Best Efficiency Point”.Example 4 Here is a different kind of curve you will find used on some grids called “efficiency curve”. EFFICIENCY CURVE LINE SHOWN BY ITSELF METERS FEET 250 800 700 2 80 70 60 72% TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD 200 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 1 40 30 20 10 0 100 50 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 GPM 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 m3/h CAPACITY Efficiency % 150 50 7 . In this example it would be 72%. This sheet shows why.

20.10 and the Cost Savings per hour \$ .8 HP 12.8 HP) Pump 2 67% eff. 15 HP motor (14.8 HP) Note: Impeller trim to 375’ TDH Pump 1 = Pump 4 = Difference = 14. the savings is \$60.00) and the difference in price is paid back in 160 days.0 HP x \$ .10/KWH.1 HP) Pump 4 74% eff.0 HP Pump 4 Pump 1 Cost = \$4. TDH 460V There are several which will meet this application: Pump 1 65% eff. We multiply the HP difference 2. In 30 days.8 HP 2. 8 . Gravity = Specific Gravity of Water is (1) 1 HP = 746 Watts 3960 = Constant WATTS = Volts x Amps Note: No motor is 100% efficient. 15 HP motor (16. If the pump runs 10 hours per day then the cost savings is \$2. so we say 1 HP = 1000 Watts which is (1) kilowatt or KW The formula for figuring brake horsepower (BHP) is as follows: GPM x Total Dynamic Head (TDH) x Sp. Gravity 3960 x Efficiency (Decimal) Select a submersible pump for the following application: 100 GPM at 375 ft.600 Cost = 4.00 per day. 15 HP motor (14. 15 HP motor (12.4 HP) Pump 3 67% eff.How to Figure Horsepower and Operating Cost BHP = Brake Horsepower Sp.280 Cost difference = \$ 320 We assume — 1 kilowatt hour (KWH) cost \$ . Take the cost difference and divide by the cost savings per day (\$320 / \$2.

which results when there is insufficient head on the pump. 0 0 100 20 200 40 60 300 80 400 100 500 120 600 140 GPM 50 0 0 m3/h CAPACITY 9 . What is the efficiency? 70% is correct. To determine this find 350 GPM at 300’ again. install a throttling valve and throttle the pump to 575 GPM when running the pump open discharge. When your capacity/head that you plan to use falls between two horsepower sizes. There is one other consideration called upthrust. Under normal conditions the thrust in a submersible pump is downwards. Note that each curve line stops just past 575 GPM. From this point go horizontally to the right until you touch the 40 HP H-Q curve line. COMPOSITE PERFORMANCE CURVES METERS FEET 250 800 700 600 80 70 70% 60 50 HP/5 STG. Efficiency % 200 TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD 150 500 40 HP/4 STG.Example 5 Find the point 350 GPM at 300 feet. this thrust is upset and goes the opposite way because the impeller is not developing sufficient head. We have decided to use the 40 HP pump and our head requirements are 300 feet. 10 HP/1 STG. We have to install a throttling valve. To prevent this. At abnormally high flows. This is called upthrust. will always run somewhere on its curve. 20 HP/2 STG. the curve line you always use is the one above or the larger horsepower. toward the motor. If we don’t. A pump . At 420 GPM what is the pump’s efficiency? 72%. 400 50 40 30 20 10 0 100 300 200 100 30 HP/3 STG. and throttle the pump capacity to 350 GPM. which may occur when running the pump at open discharge. the pump will run with a capacity of 420 GPM.

45).Example 7 Here is a new curve line shown called BHP (Brake Horsepower).1m 15 4. We really have 3. Find 110 GPM at 71’. Then go horizontally to the right to find the horsepower required. The motor used is 3 HP with 1. Find 110 GPM at 71’ again.1 m 1. From this point read vertically down until you touch the BHP curve line. BHP % 20 60 15 40 10 BHP EFF.6 m 10 5 3.15 = 3.15 service factor (3 x 1. it is 3. TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD 25 80 EFF. LIFT 20 6.1 BHP .45 HP to use.1 5 0 20 20 10 0 0 0 20 5 40 10 60 15 80 20 100 25 120 30 140 GPM m3/h CAPACITY 11 . BHP is charted to the right just past efficiency scale. COMPOSITE PERFORMANCE CURVES 3500 RPM SELF-PRIMING CENTRIFUGAL METERS FEET 30 100 H-Q 3HP ODP 5 1/8 dia. What is the efficiency? 66% is correct. In this case.5 m 70 60 50 40 30 4 3 2 1 3. Imp.

Besides impeller damage. It is important to correct for the specific gravity of the liquid and to convert all terms to units of “feet absolute” in using the formulas. the velocity increases and the pressure decreases. of vapor at the same temperature. Figure 4 shows four typical suction systems with the NPSH Available formulas applicable to each. ft. the NPSH Available can be determined by a gage reading on the pump suction. less the vapor pressure of the liquid in feet absolute.Example 8 continued Centrifugal Pump Fundamentals NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAd (NPSH) ANd CAVITATION The Hydraulic Institute defines NPSH as the total suction head in feet absolute. Cavitation is a term used to describe the phenomenon which occurs in a pump when there is insufficient NPSH Available. Pump manufacturer’s curves normally provide this information. NPSH Required is a function of the pump design. NPSH Available is a function of the system in which the pump operates. called vapor pressure. A liquid increases greatly in volume when it vaporizes. or “implosion” is so rapid that it may be heard as a rumbling noise. we must keep it in liquid form. hv= Velocity head in the suction pipe at the gage connection. The NPSH Required is the positive head in feet absolute required at the pump suction to overcome these pressure drops in the pump and maintain the liquid above its vapor pressure. The pressure which a liquid exerts on its surroundings is dependent upon its temperature. determined at the suction nozzle and corrected to datum. As the liquid passes from the pump suction to the eye of the impeller. the head may be reduced and unstable and the power consumption may be erratic. The temperature at which this vaporization occurs will decrease as the pressure of the surrounding medium decreases. the fluid begins to vaporize or boil. In an existing system. The only way to prevent the undesirable effects of cavitation is to insure that the NPSH Available in the system is greater than the NPSH Required by the pump.VP ± Gr + hV Where Gr = Gage reading at the pump suction expressed in feet (plus if above atmospheric. The pressure of the liquid is reduced to a value equal to or below its vapor pressure and small vapor bubbles or pockets begin to form. There are also pressure losses due to shock and turbulence as the liquid strikes the impeller. as if you were pumping gravel. This pressure. 13 . expressed in feet. it is an analysis of energy conditions on the suction side of a pump to determine if the liquid will vaporize at the lowest pressure point in the pump. When the vapor pressure within the fluid reaches the pressure of the surrounding medium. minus if below atmospheric) corrected to the pump centerline. Simply stated. Vibration and mechanical damage such as bearing failure can also occur as a result of operating in cavitation. they rapidly collapse. The NPSH Required varies with speed and capacity within any particular pump. cavitation normally results in reduced capacity due to the vapor present in the pump. It is obvious from the above that if we are to pump a fluid effectively. The centrifugal force of the impeller vanes further increases the velocity and decreases the pressure of the liquid. is a unique characteristic of every fluid and increases with increasing temperature. The collapse. NPSH is simply a measure of the amount of suction head present to prevent this vaporization at the lowest pressure point in the pump. As these vapor bubbles move along the impeller vanes to a higher pressure area. It is the excess pressure of the liquid in feet absolute over its vapor pressure as it arrives at the pump suction. and under severe conditions can cause serious pitting damage to the impeller. The following formula applies: NPSHA = PB . This action may be progressive. Also. One cubic foot of water at room temperature becomes 1700 cu. The forces during the collapse are generally high enough to cause minute pockets of fatigue failure on the impeller vane surfaces. The accompanying noise is the easiest way to recognize cavitation.

in feet absolute. LS = Maximum static suction lift in feet. Note: See Vapor Pressure Chart in Technical Manual. in feet absolute. hf = Friction loss in feet in suction pipe at required capacity. VP = Vapor pressure of the liquid at maximum pumping temperature. in feet absolute (see page 16). LH = Minimum static suction head in feet. p = Pressure on surface of liquid in closed suction tank.Example 8 continued Centrifugal Pump Fundamentals NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAd (NPSH) ANd CAVITATION 4a SUCTION SUPPLY OPEN TO ATMOSPHERE – with Suction Lift 4b SUCTION SUPPLY OPEN TO ATMOSPHERE – with Suction Head PB C L LS LH PB NPSHA = PB – ( VP + LS + hf ) C L NPSHA = PB + LH – ( VP + hf ) 4c CLOSED SUCTION SUPPLY – with Suction Lift 4d CLOSED SUCTION SUPPLY – with Suction Head p C L LH LS p NPSHA = p – ( LS + VP + hf ) C L NPSHA = p + LH – ( VP + hf ) PB = Barometric pressure. 14 .

Example 8 continued Centrifugal Pump Fundamentals VAPOR PRESSURE OF WATER 35 30 Deduct Vapor Pressure in Feet of Water From the Maximum Allowable Suction Head at Sea Level. 25 Vapor Pressure in Feet of Water 20 15 10 5 40 60 80 100 120 140 Water Temperature °F. 160 180 200 220 15 .

Our requirement is 140 GPM at 95 ft. 60 50 5H P 10 3H P 0 0 0 0 20 40 10 60 80 20 100 120 30 140 160 180 GPM 40 m3/h CAPACITY 16 . What happens if we install the pump and don’t trim the impeller? Our head requirement is 95 ft. Your capacity is 157 GPM. 1½ = Discharge size in inches 2 = Suction size in inches 6 = Basic diameter of the impeller in inches. but in a different format. What is the brake horsepower required? A little less than 5 HP What is the ef. The pump will make 109 ft.) Consider our original requirement again: 140 GPM at 95 ft. EFF. Read vertically up from 140 GPM until you meet the curve line. 140 GPM at 95 ft. ficiency? 71% is correct. horizontally to the right until you meet the curve line. What is the NPSHR? 13 ft. trimming the impeller to the proper diameter will make the pump meet your exact requirements. since the pump with the 515⁄16 inches diameter will more than meet our needs. 40 50 6 60 65 7 70 8 Model 3656/3756 11/2 x 2-6 3500 RPM Group S 10 72 12 14 73 16 72 70 65 18 20 TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD 40 120 30 80 20 40 5 1/8 dia. This is a Model 3656. is correct. Can the installation handle this extra head? Remember. MOdELS 3656/3756 S GROUP PERFORMANCE CURVES METERS FEET NPSHR 5.Example 9 Here is a centrifugal pump curve showing information that we have already covered. If we use a throttling valve on the discharge side of the pump we can regulate the capacity of the pump to 140 GPM using the standard impeller. We can properly trim the impeller to meet our requirement. (The head/capacity requirements should always be furnished when the pump is ordered. 1½ x 2-6 ODP . The top head/capacity curve line shows an actual impeller diameter of 515⁄16 inches.5 50 160 5 15/16 dia. Follow 95 ft.

Horsepower is given so we don’t have to calculate what it is.15 service factor.37 BHP 5 HP x 1. The grid shows an ODP motor (Open Drip Proof) which has a 1. EFF.Example 10 To better understand brake horsepower as shown in these two curves.5 50 160 5 15/16 dia.15 SF = 5.75 available horsepower The 515⁄16” diameter impeller at 150 GPM uses more than 5 HP but does not exceed 5. consider the following: Brake horsepower (BHP) is the actual horsepower delivered to the pump shaft. 3960 x Pump Efficiency Compare the two curves at 150 gallons per minute.5% = 5. . 150 x 100 x 1. The formula for figuring brake horsepower is: Brake Horsepower = BHP = GPM x Feet Head x SP.75 HP .GR. 40 50 6 60 65 7 70 Model 3656/3756 11/2 x 2-6 3500 RPM Group S 8 10 72 12 14 73 72 16 70 65 18 20 TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD 40 120 30 80 20 5 1/8 dia.0 3960 x 70. MOdELS 3656/3756 S GROUP PERFORMANCE CURVES METERS FEET NPSHR 5. 60 50 10 40 3H 5H P P 0 0 0 0 20 40 10 60 80 20 100 120 30 140 160 180 GPM 40 m3/h CAPACITY 17 .

40 6 7 50 60 65 70 72 8 10 12 14 72 70 4 3/4 dia.64 BHP 3960 x 67% MOdELS 3656/3756 S GROUP PERFORMANCE CURVES METERS FEET NPSHR 5.0 = 4. BHP = 150 x 82 x 1.Example 11 Now look at the grid for TEFC motor (totally enclosed — fan cooled). 5 HP x 1.0 SF = 5 available horsepower The 55⁄8” diameter impeller at 150 GPM does not exceed the 5 HP line. A TEFC motor has a 1. 65 60 16 18 20 50 160 Model 3656/3756 11/2 x 2-6 3500 RPM Group S TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD 40 120 30 80 20 40 5 5/8 dia. 50 5H P 10 3H P 0 0 0 0 20 40 10 60 80 20 100 120 30 140 160 180 GPM 40 m3/h CAPACITY 18 .5 EFF.0 service factor.