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The Wilcoxon sum rank test This test deals with problems with the following characteristics: i.

The problem objective is to compare two populations
ii. The data are either ranked or quantitative where the normality requirement necessary to

perform the equal-variances t-test of µ1 = µ2 is unsatisfied. iii. The samples are independent. Example: A pharmaceutical company is planning to introduce a new painkiller. In a preliminary experiment to determine its effectiveness, 30 people were randomly selected, of whom 15 were given the new painkiller and 15 were given aspirin. All 30 were told to use the drug when headaches or other minor pains occurred and to indicate which of the following statements most accurately represented the effectiveness of the drug they took. 5 4 3 2 1 = = = = = the drug was extremely effective the drug was quite effective the drug somewhat effective the drug was slightly effective the drug was not at all effective

The responses are listed below using the codes. Can we conclude at the 5% significance level that the new painkiller is perceived to be more effective? New painkiller: Aspirin: Solution The objective is to compare two populations: the perceived effectiveness of the new painkiller and of aspirin. We recognize that the data are ranked, because except for the order of the codes, the numbers used to record the results are arbitrary. Finally, the samples are independent. These factors tell us that the appropriate technique is the Wilcoxon rank sum test for independent samples. We denote the effectiveness scores of the new painkiller as 1, and 2 represents the effectiveness score of aspirin. Because we want to know whether the new painkiller is better that aspirin, the alternative hypothesis is: H1: The location of population 1 is to the right of the location of population 2. 3, 5, 4, 3, 2, 5, 1, 4, 5, 3, 3, 5, 5, 5, 4 4, 1, 3, 2, 4, 1, 3, 4, 2, 2, 2, 4, 3, 4, 5

Each of the 25 people was asked to rate the ride on the following 5-point scale. The sign test The sign test is employed in the following situations: i. 1 2 3 4 5 = = = = = ride is very uncomfortable ride is quite uncomfortable ride is neither uncomfortable nor comfortable ride is quite comfortable ride is very comfortable Do these data allow us to conclude at the 5% significance level that the European car is perceived to be more comfortable that the North American car? Data = signt1 Solution The problem objective is to compare two populations of ranked data. . The problem objective is to compare two populations ii. The sign test is applied.The complete test follows: H0: H1: The two population locations are the same The location of population 1 is to the right of the location of population 2. with the following results. We conclude that the data were generated from a controlled experiment. The experimental design is matched pairs Example In an experiment to determine which of two cars is perceived to have the more comfortable ride. the subjects were assigned to take either the new painkiller or aspirin. Because the 25 people rated both cars. That is. The data are ranked iii. 25 people rode (separately) in the back seat of an expensive European model and also in the back seat of North American midsized car. The data provide sufficient evidence to infer that the new painkiller is perceived to be more effective that aspirin. we recognize the experimental design as matched pairs.

Second. we would be more secure in our conclusion. The data are either ranked or quantitative but non-normal iii. two aspects of the experiment that may detract from the conclusion that European cars provide a more comfortable ride. . First. The experiment should have been conducted so that the car each subject rode in first was randomly determined.H0: The two population locations are the same H1: The location of population 1 (European Car rating) is to the right of the location of population 2 (North American car rating). If the subjects were blindfolded. however. they may have answered on their preconceived bias that European cars are more expensive and therefore better. There are. that may have influenced their ratings. was the order in which each subject rode two cars varied? If all of the subjects rode the North American car first and the European car second. The problem objective is to compare two or more populations ii. Hypothesis: Ho: H1: The locations of all the kth populations are the same At least two population locations differ. The samples are independent. Kruskal-wallis test The kruskal-wallis test is applied to problems with the following characteristics: i. did the respondents know in which car they were riding? If so. There is relatively strong evidence to indicate that people perceive the European car to provide a more comfortable ride than the North American car.