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GAC Tsamara Alifia
Descriptive Statistics It is concerned with the collection, organization, and presentation of numeral data. For example, annual incomes, share prices, ages of patients, and so on. Inferential statistics Used to analyze and interpret data so that we can reach meaningful conclusions from the data. Population It is the set of all observations, measurements, or data values of interest. Doesn’t really refer to human or animal population. Parameter It is a numerical measure used to describe an entire population. Census Access to an entire population. Sample A portion or subset of the population. It’s easier and cheaper instead of examining an entire population. Sample size The size of sample or that we will use, or the values that should be chosen. Simple random sample One of the most common methods to collect data. In such samples, every item in the population has the same chance of being selected. Random numbers Generated by a random process, often using computer software. Statistics A numerical measure used to describe a sample. Variable The characteristics that being studied and it can assume different values. Data Called Data when it’s referring to information about the variable. Quantitative Called quantitative when the characteristic is nonnumerical. Qualitative The values that quantitative can take. Discrete variable One that can assume only separates distinct values. Gaps or breaks occur between the values the variable can assume. Continuous variable One that can assume any value within a given interval. Nominal The simplest type of data and consist only of names, labels or categories. It isn’t numerical but often has an assigned or coded value. Ordinal Data that can be ranked or arranged in some order. Interval Doesn’t have a definite zero value but the differences between any two values can be measured. Ratio Includes a definite zero value and the ratio of any two values is meaningful. Raw data Data can be presented as raw data in the order collected. Array The data can be organized by sorting it in order of increasing or decreasing magnitude to obtain the array. Frequency distribution Listing all of the data values and the number of times each data value occurs to condense the Array data. Frequency The number of times a data value occurs. Frequency table The table of data values and the number of times each data value occurs. Class (class interval)






















UNIT 2  STATISTICS
GAC Tsamara Alifia
The data chosen that will keep the data value to belong to one and only one class. Class limits Expressed in the same units as the data values. Class boundaries Lie halfway between the upper and lower class limits and are expressed to the nearest halfunit. Class frequency The number of data values that lie in a class. Tally mark A vertical stroke that will help us to count the number of data values in each class. Class width (size, length) The difference between the upper and lower class boundaries. Class marks Used to represent the values in each class. Frequency polygon Frequency polygons are a graphical device for understanding the shapes of distributions. They serve the same purpose as histograms, but are especially helpful for comparing sets of data. Dot frequency graph (dot plot) It is a statistical chart consisting of data points plotted on a fairly simple scale, typically using filled in circles. Line frequency graph Often used to represent a set of data values in which a quantity varies with time. Histogram A graphical method for displaying the shape of a distribution. It is particularly useful when there are a large number of observations. Relative frequency The term relative frequency is used for the ratio of the observed frequency of some outcome and the total frequency of the random experiment. Relative frequency distribution shows the number of data values in each of several nonoverlapping classes. Grouped relative frequency distribution When there’s too much information presented and make us difficult to discern what the data is really like, we group the data to gain understanding about distribution. Frequency histogram A bar graph of a frequency distribution in which the widths of the bars are proportional to the classes into which the variable has been divided and the heights of the bars are proportional to the class frequencies. Cumulative frequency The total of a frequency and all frequencies below it in a frequency distribution. Cumulative frequency distribution A cumulative frequency distribution is a plot of the number of observations falling in or below an interval. Cumulative frequency table ogive A graph plotted from a cumulative frequency table. Also called Cumulative Frequency graph. Cumulative relative frequency The number of observations falling in a given class in a frequency table, plus all observations falling in earlier classes, divided by the total number of observations. Cumulative relative frequency distribution A cumulative relative frequency distribution is a tabular summary of a set of data showing the relative frequency of items less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class. Cumulative relative frequency table Presents the total count for each category and the relative frequency or percentage of time in which each category occurs. Frequency curve



















UNIT 2  STATISTICS
GAC Tsamara Alifia
Obtained by joining the points of frequency polygon by a freehand smoothed curve. Symmetric A distribution in which observations equidistant from the central maximum have the same frequency. Skewed Measures the lack of symmetry of a probability distribution. Skewed to the right (positively skewed) A curve is said to be skewed to the right (or positively skewed) if it tails off toward the high end of the scale (right tail longer than the left) Skewed to the left (negatively skewed) A curve is skewed to the left (or negatively skewed) if it tails off toward the low end of the scale. Unimodal The distribution of a variable that possesses only one peak or mode, often occurring in a system of normal distribution where the distributions are not symmetrical. Mode A statistic defined as the most frequently occurring data value. It is sometimes used as an alternative to the mean or median as a measure of central tendency. Bimodal The mode is usually defined as the midpoint of the interval containing the highest frequency count. Bimodal is the condition when there’s two high points in a distribution. Multimodal The mode is usually defined as the midpoint of the interval containing the highest frequency count. Multimodal is the condition when there are more than two or many high points in a distribution. Jshaped (exponential) Has an initial peak and then tails off to the right. Uniform (rectangular) Called a rectangular distribution when the distribution is spread evenly. Stemandleaf diagram (stemplot) A plot where each data value is split into a "leaf" (usually the last digit) and a "stem" (the other digits). It makes us easier and quicker to display raw data visually. Leaf Represent and determine the last significant digit for the whole data item. Stem Represent and determine the previous digit for the whole data item. Ordered stemandleaf diagram When we sort the values that have been recorded in the order, which we’ve collected in ascending order. Pie chart A type of graph in which a circle is divided into sectors that each represents a proportion of the whole. Bar chart A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent.















