Guide for Risk Assessment

in Small and Medium Enterprises
6
Manual Handling of Loads
Lifting, Holding, Carrying, Pulling, Pushing
Identification and Evaluation of Hazards; Taking Measures
Section for Electricity
Section for Iron and Metal
Section for Machine and System Safety
Manual Handling of Loads
Lifting, Holding, Carrying, Pulling, Pushing
6
Guide for
Risk Assessment in
Small and Medium Enterprises
Identification and Evaluation
of Hazards;
Taking Measures
Section for Electricity
Section for Iron and Metal
Section for Machine and System Safety
2
Imprint
Autoren: Dieter Schmitter, Suva,
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Luzern, Switzerland
Ulf Steinberg, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin,
Dortmund, Germany
Detlef Trippler, ISSA, Section for Iron and Metal, Germany
Michael Wichtl, AUVA,
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Vienna, Austria
Production: Verlag Technik&Information e.K.,
Wohlfahrtstrasse 153, 44799 Bochum, Germany
Phone +49(0)234-94349-0, Fax +49(0)234-94349-21
Printed in Germany ⅐ August 2010
ISBN 978-3-941441-64-4
3
This brochure is intended to conform to
the requirement for a risk assessment
during operations with manual load han-
dling.
This brochure is structured as follows:
1. Basic Information – Principles
2. Risk Assessment and
Specification of Measures
Annex 1: Assessment Sheet –
Lifting, Holding, Carrying
Annex 2: Assessment Sheet –
Pulling, Pushing
Note:
The objective of the brochure is to im-
plement the Framework Directive on
the introduction of measures to en-
courage improvements in the safety
and health of workers at work
(89/391/EEC) and the individual Direc-
tives issued thereto.
If relevant regulations implemented in-
to national law exist, they shall imper-
atively be observed.
In addition to this brochure, other guides
are planned/available for the following
topics:
Ⅵ Hazards arising from
machinery and other work
equipment
Ⅵ Hazards arising from electricity
Ⅵ Hazardous substances
Ⅵ Hazards arising from
whole-body and hand-arm
vibrations
Ⅵ Hazards arising from explosions
Ⅵ Slipping and falling from a height
Ⅵ Noise
Ⅵ Mental workload
Introductory Note
4
1. Basic Information – Principles
1.1 Legal and normative bases
The bases are the legal regulations of the
respective countries.
On an international level, the Standard
ISO 11 228-1, Ergonomics-Manual han-
dling-Lifting and carrying applies.
For the EU, the Directive 90/269/EEC is
the legal basis for the minimum require-
ments for the protection of workers
against hazards arising from manual han-
dling of loads.
According to Article 4 of the Directive, the
employer is obligated to consider in par-
ticular the characteristics of the load, the
working environment and the require-
ments of the task when identifying and
evaluating hazards likely to occur at the
workplace.
1.2 Manufacturer's regulations
The relevant national regulations for the
limitation of load weights, packing sizes,
ergonomic design etc. shall be taken into
account.
For Europe, especially the Machinery
Directive 2006/42/EC and the Standard
EN 1005, Safety of machinery – Human
physical performance apply.
5
2.1 Hazard identification
The first step of a risk assessment is the
identification of risk features.
With the table given on page 6, the most
important features of manual load
handling shall be checked. The check
does not require specialized knowledge.
When a risk feature was identified, a risk
estimation and evaluation shall be carried
out.
In practice, it has proven of value to carry out the risk assessment in three steps:
hazard identification (clause 2.1), risk estimation and risk evaluation (clause 2.2) and
specification of measures (clause 2.3)
2. Risk assessment and Specification
of Measures
Figure 1: Load transport with cart
6
If one or more questions are answered with „PARTIALLY“ or „YES“, a risk esti-
mation and risk evaluation should be carried out.
Checklist for risk identification (manual load transport)
Note:
Specific regulations apply when operations with manual load handling are
carried out by young persons, older workforce or pregnant women.
Questions Yes Partially No
1. Are loads > 5 kg regularly moved?
Manual load transport may be lifting, holding, carrying, pulling or pushing.
Examples: Setting of building stones, loading of machines, unloading of packages,
holding a portable grinding machine, furniture hauling, putting up scaffoldings,
transfer of patients
2. Is lifting and carrying performed in
unfavourable postures?
All postures which strongly deviate from a normal and comfortable posture are
considered as unfavourable.
Examples: bending far forward, twisting or lateral inclining of the upper part of the body,
load far from body or above shoulder height, hollow-back, kneeling, crouching
3. Is handling made more difficult by the
nature of the load?
Examples: bulky, unshaped, instable, hardly seizable, hot, cold, sharp-edged,
smooth surface, unfavourable balance point
4. Is handling made more difficult by unfavourable
working conditions?
Examples: confined area of movement, small room height,
uneven or soft or slippery floor, long ways, cold or very warm rooms,
poor lighting
5. Are there complaints from the workforce?
Examples: too heavy load weights, back and joint pain, high working speed,
time pressure, increasing exhaustion
7
2.2 Risk estimation and risk evaluation
2.2.1 Key indicator method for lifting, holding and carrying
Key indicator methods may be used for
risk estimation and risk evaluation.
Hence, orientating evaluations are possi-
ble. They take into account the most im-
portant features of manual working oper-
ations. Due to different types of physical
stress and working features, risk estima-
tion and risk evaluation with key indica-
tors are carried out separately for
The result points to deficiencies in
design and shows whether physical
overload is possible or probable for
the activity concerned. From this, direct
measures for technical, organizational
and person related design can be de-
rived.
For evaluating the features, it is abso-
lutely necessary to have a good know-
ledge of the activity to be evaluated.
If this is not the case, an evaluation must
not be made.
Rough estimates or presumptions will
yield wrong results. More detailed esti-
mates require special ergonomic analy-
ses.
The key indicator method describes the
type and characteristic of relevant work-
ing features. These are features having
an important influence on the physical
strain:
● time duration, frequency
● load weight
● posture
● working conditions
The description of the activitiy is supple-
mented by a risk evaluation, which pic-
tures the probability of physical over-
load.
Figure 2: Manual lifting and carrying at a
bakery
Lifting – holding – carrying
and
Pulling – pushing
8
Operating procedures for the key indica-
tor method lifting, holding, carrying
Evaluation is principally made for par-
tial activities and is to be based on
one working day. If during a partial ac-
tivity load weight and/or postures change,
the values shall be averaged.
If within a total activity several partial ac-
tivities with clearly differing load handling
operations occur, they shall be estimated
and documented separately.
The assessment sheet for lifting,
holding and carrying can be found in
Annex 1.
3 steps are necessary for the evaluation:
Step 1: Determination of the
time rating points
Step 2: Determination of
the key indicator rating
points
Step 3: Evaluation
When determining the rating points, the
establishment of intermediate steps
(interpolation) is in principle allowed. A
frequency of 40 results, for example, in
a time rating point of 3
The sole exception is an effective load
of ≥ 40 kg for a man and ≥ 25 kg for
a woman. These loads give uncompro-
misingly a load rating point of 25.
Step 1:
Determination of the time rating point
Determination of the time rating point
is made on the basis of the table sepa-
rately for three possible types of load
handling:
● For partial activities characterised by
regular repeating of short lifting,
lowering or moving operations, the
number of operations is decisive for
the time rating.
● For partial activities characterised by
holding a load, the total time of hold-
ing is taken as basis.
Total time = number of
holding operations x time for an
individual holding operation
● For partial activities characterised by
carrying a load, the total way covered
with the load is taken as basis. Amean
walking speed of 4 km/h ≈ 1 m/s is
assumed.
9
Step 2:
Determination of rating points
of load, posture and working
conditions
► Load weight
● Determination of the load weight is
made on the basis of the table, sepa-
rately for men and women.
● If different loads are handled during
the activity under evaluation, a mean
value may be calculated, as long
as the individual load does not exceed
40 kg for men and 25 kg for women.
For comparison, also peak values may
be used. Then it is the reduced fre-
quency of these peak values which
shall be taken as basis and by no
means the total frequency.
● For lifting/holding/carrying/lowering
activities the effective load shall be
taken as basis. Effective load means
the real action force which is neces-
sary for the workforce for moving the
load.
This action force does not correspond
to the load mass in each case. When
tilting a carton, only 50 % of the load
mass will have an effect.
► Posture
Determination of the rating points of pos-
ture is made on the basis of the pic-
tograms contained in the table. The pos-
tures during load handling which are
characteristic for the partial activity shall
be used.
If due to the sequence of the working
progress different postures are taken, a
mean value may be calculated from the
rating points of posture for the partial ac-
tivity being evaluated.
► Working conditions
For determining the rating points of
working conditions, the working con-
ditions prevailing in time shall be
taken. Occasional discomfort without
any safety relevance shall not be con-
sidered.
Safety-related features shall be docu-
mented in the description field „Check
of the workplace necessary for other
reasons“.
Step 3:
Evaluation
The evaluation of each partial activity is
made by means of a point value relat-
ed to the partial activity (calculation by
addition of the rating points of key indi-
cators and by multiplication with the time
rating points).
● Evaluation basis are bio-mechanic
effect mechanisms in connection with
dose models.
It is taken into account that the inter-
nal strain of the lumbar spine crucial-
ly depends on the bending forward of
the upper part of the body and on the
load weight and that it rises with in-
creasing strain duration and/or fre-
quency, lateral inclination and/or
twisting.
● Summarising evaluations for se-
veral partial activities are proble-
matic, because they are beyond
the informational value of this orien-
tating analysis.
In general, they require more detailed
work related analytical procedures
for risk assessment.
Assessment Sheet – Lifting, Holding, Carrying
Where there are a number of individual activities with considerable physical strains, they must be estimated separately.
Workplace/Activity:
1
Palletizing packages
4
p
Lifting or displacement
operations (< 5 s)
H
Number
on working day
Time rating
points
T
< 10 1 < 5 min 1 < 300 m 1
10 to < 40 2 5 to < 15 min 2 300 m to < 1 km 2
40 to < 200 4 15 min to < 1 hr 4 1 km to < 4 km 4
200 to < 500 6 1 hr to < 2 hrs 6 4 km to < 8 km 6
500 to < 1000 8 2 hrs to < 4 hrs 8 8 km to < 16 km 8
• 10
Examples: laying bricks,
p
E
Effective load
1
) for women Load rating point
< < 5 kg 1
1 5 to < 10 kg 2
2 10 to < 15 kg 4
3 15 to < 25 kg 7
• NJ 25
or moving load. This action force does not correspond to the load mass in each case.
W
, p g
3 When lifting, holding, carrying und lowering load is near to medium to body
2
3 Low bending or far bending forward
3 Slightly bending forward with simultaneous twisting of trunk
3 Load far from the body or above shoulder height
4
3 B ding far forward with simultaneous twisting of trunk
g g g g pp g
Space for movement restricted and unfavourable ergonomic conditions:
­e. g. 1.: space for movement restricted by too low high or working area less than 1,5 m
2
or
2.: posture stability impaired by uneven foor or soft ground
1
1
st
step
Determination
of time rating
points
2
nd
step
Determination
of rating points
of load, posture
and working
conditions
Using Assessment sheet (Lifting, Holding, Carrying), see Annex 1, one finds:
10
At a packing place of a company pack-
ages with a load weight of 14 kg are
moved from the packing table to a pallet
on the floor. This activity is carried out by
a female workforce
The following marginal conditions occur:
● 180 moving operations per shift
● 14 kg load weight
● low bending or far bending forward
during lowering
● bad gripping conditions
Figure 3: Work at packing place
● Derivable design necessities
From this risk estimation design
necessities and approaches can
immediately be seen. In principle,
the causes of high rating points shall
be abolished. In detail, this means
organisational regulations in case
of high time rating points, reduction
of the load weight or the use of lifting
means in case of high load rating
points and the improvement of
the workplace design in case of high
posture rating points.
Evaluation example
11
Step 2:
Determination of rating points
of mass, positioning accuracy,
speed, posture and working
conditions
► Transport means
There are different ways of moving
loads by pulling or pushing:
● without auxiliary means, the load is
rolled or pulled with sliding
● barrows (wheelbarrow, one-axle
barrow)
● Roll containers, rollers without
drawbar and trolleys with drawbar,
hand pallet trucks
● Manipulators, suspension and
guide rails
It is important that the auxiliary means
are suited for the working task. Type,
size, and weight of the goods to be
conveyed, distance covered and quali-
ty of the road, tilting stability and fre-
quency of use shall be taken into ac-
count.
2.2.2 Key indicator method for pulling and pushing
Manual load handling also covers trans-
port on trolleys, roller belts or with han-
dling aids.
Instead of being carried, loads are
pushed or pulled.
Thus, transport of high load weights be-
comes possible and transport of load
weights between 10 and 50 kg is effec-
tively facilitated.
However, important basic rules shall be
observed in order to prevent possible
hazards.
Operational procedures for
the key indicator method pulling,
pushing
The assessment sheet for pulling and
pushing is given in Annex 2.
Step 1:
Determination of time rating points
Operating sequence, time duration,
frequency and distances covered are
ascertained.
3
rd
step: Evaluation
The rating points relevant to this activity are to be entered and calculated in the diagram.
Load rating points
+
Posture rating points
+
Working conditions rating points
=
Total
x
Time rating points
=
Risk score
4
4
1
9 4 36
The evaluation result shows an increased stress. The essential design deficiency is the un-
favourable posture
3
rd
step
Evaluation
12
Regard shall also be paid to the er-
gonomic design of the handles with
protection against hand injuries and,
if necessary, brake mechanisms.
► Load weight
Weights of the transported load and
the transport means moved simul-
taneously are ascertained. Rough refer-
ence values are sufficient. In case
the weight was not given, it can be esti-
mated.
In most cases, the weight of
barrows and trolleys is given on the
type plate.
If the load weight cannot be estimated
or if weight specifications are missing
(e.g. for manipulators), an extended
analysis should be performed.
Figure 6: Use of roll containers
Figure 4: Stair climbing barrow
Figure 5: Transport trolley
13
►Speed of motion
It is determined how quick and how
exact pulling and pushing is perform-
ed.
Quick movements and high accuracy
of motion is not only very exhaust-
ing but also increases the risk of acci-
dents.
►Posture
During pulling and pushing the posture
should be upright with low inclination
and without twisting of the trunk.
This is possible by an ergonomic instal-
lation of the handles. Drawbars, spars
at barrows which are too short, missing
handles or loads blocking the view can
lead to unfavourable postures. Twisting,
bending and inclining of the trunk
reduce possible physical forces and
put severe strain on the muscular-
skeletal system.
►Working conditions
The most important influencing vari-
ables, i. e. the distance covered (travel-
ling distance) and the technical state of
the transport means are determined.
Soft floors, rough pavement, potholes,
gutters, steps as well as up-slopes and
down-slopes may strongly aggravate
transport and make it impossible to a
certain extent.
The same impeding effects are given
by sliding or tight rolls, deformed hand-
les and defective brakes. Attention shall
also be paid to obstacles on the drive-
way, unsecured differences in altitude
and lateral inclinations which may cause
tilting over.
Step 3:
Evaluation
For evaluation, the results of step 1
and step 2 shall be summarized and
three complex questions shall be
answered:
● Is the ratio between the required
action forces and the available phy-
sical forces adequate?
Is application of the forces always
safe and does no excessive exhaus-
tion arise?
● Are favourable postures possible?
Do unfavourable postures only occur
occasionally and are is twisting and
bending during pulling and pushing
avoided?
● Are the conditions safe?
Is there no accident hazard due to
slipping or tilting over of the load,
falls or crushing of the hands?
14
ers or in narrow passages occur fre-
quently.
● Passages are often not wide
enough, in parts poorly lightened and
not free from obstacles.
Assessment Sheet – Pulling, Pushing
The overall activity must be broken down into individual activities. Each individual activity involving major physical strain must be assessed separately.
Workplace/Activity:
1
t
t D t i tion of time rating points (Select only one column!)
Roll container loaded

more than 5 metres)
N y Time rating points
< 1
2
4
6
8
10
E n furniture transport in buildings
o
0,5 0,5 0,5
1
2
3
4
5
G
Speed of motion
slow (< 0,8 m/s) fast (0,8 to 1,3 m/s)
1 2
H
2 4
Trunk slightly bending forward or slightly twisted (one-sided pulling) 2
ypassed, , g y, bearings worn
2
DifñcuIt:
­unpaved or roughly paved roadway, potholes, severe soiling, ­inclines of 2 to 5°,
­industrial trucks have to be torn loose when starting up ­rollers or wheels soiled, bearings run sluggishly
4
Complicated:
Evaluation example
A truck is charged with commissioned
goods in roll containers. The weight of
the roll containers is between 40 and
190 kg.
Design deficiencies are:
● Roll containers are not adapted
to the conditions of use.
Rolls are too small and often
get stuck in driveway irregulari-
ties.
● Roll containers have no tilting
stability during driving as the balance
point is too high.
● The required physical forces are
already too high at slight up-slopes
and down-slopes.
● Ergonomic handles with protection
against hand injuries are not avail-
able. Crushing at other roll contain-
Using Assessment sheet (Pulling, Pushing), see Annex 2, one finds:
Figure 7: Transport with roll container
1
st
step
Determination
of time rating
points
2
nd
step
Determination
of rating points of
mass, positioning
accuracy, speed,
posture and
working conditions
15
2.3 Specification of Measures
Based on the risks determined in
clause 2.2, concrete measures can be
derived.
That means planning of load trans-
port operations, provision of auxiliary
means for manual load transport
and measures for health-oriented be-
haviour and for training and super-
vision.
The following clauses are based on the
Suva Check List "Moving heavy loads
by hand" (www.suva.ch/waswo/67089).
Further analysis
The risk assessment made with key
indicator methods does not always lead
to final evaluations.
For example, in case of complicated
operating cycles, when preparing invest-
ment plans or during work of persons
under difficult conditions (e.g. firefighters)
further analyses are necessary.
These analyses require more time and
workforce and specialised ergonomic
knowledge.
Contact partners are national authorities
and special health and safety at work
institutions.
The evaluation result shows an increased strain. The essential design deficiency is the un-
favourable driveway with ramps, narrow points and irregularities.
3
rd
step: Evaluation
Die für diese Tätigkeit zutreffenden Wichtungen sind in das Schema einzutragen und auszurechnen.
Mass/industrial truck
+
Positioning accuracy/speed of motion
+
Posture rating points
+
Working conditions rating points
=
Total
x
Total ratings
points
x 1,3 = Risk score
for
women
employees
2
2
2
4
10 4 40
3
rd
step
Evaluation
16
2.3.2 Aids for manual load transport
When purchasing aids, it is imperative
to let the persons who are to work
with them later on have a say. They
are the specialists and may contribute
to the procurement of the correct
equipment.
Important for superiors:
● to appoint competent person or body
responsible for the procurement of
transport equipment
● to check auxiliary transport means
for suitability prior to procurement
● to let the workforce have a say in the
procurement of transport equipment
● to train the workforce in the use of
new transport equipment
● to give the necessary period of famil-
iarization during the introduction of
new transport equipment
Figure 8: Moving of loads with a vacuum
lifting device
● to check and maintain transport equip-
ment regularly
2.3.1 Planning of transport operations
Transport operations shall be taken as
seriously as production flows.
Good planning saves unnecessa-
ry, risky, awkward or improvised
transports with inadequate transport
means.
Important for superiors:
● to make sure during planning and
work preparation that appropria-
te and sufficient transport equipment
is available
● to make sure that regularly re-
peated transport is automated, if
possible
● to take account of the time needed
for transports during planning of
work and production flows
● to take care during ordering of
operating resources and materials
that the packs can be transport-
ed without problems
● to give the instruction that operating
resources and materials that need
to be transported manually are
only purchased in units of 25 kg at
maximum
17
During lifting and carrying of loads,
the risk of physical overload frequent-
ly occurs. To avoid this, it is of special
importance that the loads lifted are
not too heavy and that the workforce
uses correct lifting and carrying tech-
niques.
Important for superiors:
● to consider age, gender and constitu-
tion of the persons involved during
workforce planning
● to limit load weights
● to calculate and arrange for recreation
breaks for activities requiring frequent
load transport
● to always mark loads, which are
heavier than 10 kg with their actual
weight
● to train the workforce in correct lifting
and carrying
● to inform the workforce on possible
consequences of incorrect lifting
2.3.3 Lifting and carrying
Figure 9: Good body posture during lifting
of loads
Generally, a single training on the cor-
rect handling of loads is not sufficient.
Superiors shall supervise observance of
the instructions
Important for superiors:
● to carry out training courses on load
transport consistently with all the
workforce concerned
● to address and correct the work-
force, when they behave incorrect-
ly during load transport
● to ensure that existing transport
equipment are being used consis-
tently
● to encourage the workforce to notify
deficiencies and to suggest improve-
ment measures
2.3.4 Training and supervision
Lift, push, load or carry in a way well-thought-out – you'll be okay.
Figure 10: Prevention of lifting and
carrying activities through verti-
cally adjustable work tables
and roller conveyors
18
Annex 1
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Annex 1
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21
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3
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3
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.
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A
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22
P
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m
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s
Annex 2
A
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m
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t
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h
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t

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23
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t
i
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k
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l
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,
b
e
n
d
i
n
g
4
C
o
m
b
i
n
a
t
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o
f
b
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n
d
i
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g
a
n
d
t
w
i
s
t
i
n
g
8
1
)
T
h
e
t
y
p
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c
a
l
p
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m
u
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d
.
T
h
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p
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p
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k
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c
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r
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o
c
c
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l
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y
.
.
Annex 2
W
o
r
k
i
n
g
c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
s
W
o
r
k
i
n
g
c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
s
r
a
t
i
n
g
p
o
i
n
t
G
o
o
d
:
­
f
o
o
r
o
r
o
t
h
e
r
s
u
r
f
a
c
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s
l
e
v
e
l
,
f
r
m
,
s
m
o
o
t
h
,
d
r
y
,
­
n
o
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n
c
l
i
n
e
,
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o
o
b
s
t
a
c
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e
s
i
n
w
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r
k
s
p
a
c
e
,
­
r
o
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l
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r
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r
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l
s
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n
e
a
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y
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n
o
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v
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d
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t
w
e
a
r
i
n
t
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w
h
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l
b
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a
r
i
n
g
s
0
R
e
s
t
r
i
c
t
e
d
:
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f
o
o
r
s
o
i
l
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d
,
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l
i
t
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n
,
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o
f
t
,
­
s
l
i
g
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c
l
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e
u
p
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2
°
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o
b
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p
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v
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,
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l
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,
n
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e
r
r
u
n
e
a
s
i
l
y
,
b
e
a
r
i
n
g
s
w
o
r
n
2
D
i
f
ñ
c
u
I
t
:
­
u
n
p
a
v
e
d
o
r
r
o
u
g
h
l
y
p
a
v
e
d
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o
a
d
w
a
y
,
p
o
t
h
o
l
e
s
,
s
e
v
e
r
e
s
o
i
l
i
n
g
,
­
i
n
c
l
i
n
e
s
o
f
2
t
o
5
°
,
­
i
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
a
l
t
r
u
c
k
s
h
a
v
e
t
o
b
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t
o
r
n
l
o
o
s
e
w
h
e
n
s
t
a
r
t
i
n
g
u
p
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r
o
l
l
e
r
s
o
r
w
h
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l
s
s
o
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l
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d
,
b
e
a
r
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n
g
s
r
u
n
s
l
u
g
g
i
s
h
l
y
4
C
o
m
p
l
i
c
a
t
e
d
:
­
s
t
e
p
s
,
s
t
a
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r
s
,
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n
c
l
i
n
e
s
>
5
°
,
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b
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d
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c
a
t
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m
"
r
e
s
t
r
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c
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e
d
¨
t
o
"
d
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f
f
c
u
l
t
¨
8
I
n
t
h
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t
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m
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t
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d
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t
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a
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c
o
m
p
l
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m
e
n
t
a
r
y
i
n
s
p
i
r
i
t
.
25
E
d
.
b
y
·
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26
National Aspects
27
National contact person
The following ISSA International Sections on Prevention elaborated the brochure.
They are also available for further information:
www.issa.int
Click on “Prevention Sections” under “Quick Links”
ISBN 978-3-941441-64-4
ISSA Section for
Iron and Metal
c/o Allgemeine
Unfallversicherungsanstalt
Office for International
Relations
Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65
1200 Vienna · Austria
Fon: +43 (0) 1-33 111-558
Fax: +43 (0) 1-33 111-469
E-Mail: issa-metal@auva.at
ISSA Section for
Electricity
c/o Berufsgenossenschaft
Energie Textil Elektro
Medienerzeugnisse
Gustav-Heinemann-Ufer 130
50968 Köln · Germany
Fon: +49 (0) 221- 3778- 6007
Fax: +49 (0) 221- 3778- 196007
E-Mail: electricity@bgetem.de
ISSA Section for
Machine and System Safety
Dynamostrasse 7-11
68165 Mannheim · Germany
Fon: +49 (0) 621-4456-2213
Fax: +49 (0) 621-4456-2190
E-Mail: info@ivss.org

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