This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Conclusion . A short history of Scotland Icons ♦ Remarkable people ♦ Amazing sites ♦ Curious customs ♦ Scottish folklore 3. Loch Ness… 4.Contents 1. Introduction 2.
that had a pregnant influence in the history of Scotland. and people that took part in the cultural life due to their works. until the inevitable unification with England in 1707. A short history of Scotland . the Scots managed to unite and develop as a well organized country and the permanent struggling to maintain the integrity of their state. and will get in contact through this essay with Scots’ folklore. You will find out about the way. You will also discover important people. Moreover the reader will have the chance to discover.Introduction The work you are going to read is a pure Scottish brand and has the purpose of informing the reader about a few things that I consider worth reading. how Scottish people celebrate important events during the year.
and kings often gathered leading the citizens to discuss matters of government. Scotland got in direct conflict with England for supporting France in the HundredYear War. from which most of the Scots’ king’s wealth came from. on the south by Solway Firth and by the Irish Sea. plague and disorder. the Britons (in the Lowlands). including the islands of Hebrides. After a century of war. and on the west by the North Channel and by the Atlantic Ocean. As the invaders intensified their attacks. and the Angles (in the north part of the Lowlands). Orkney and Shetland is 78. It was inhabited by four groups of people.Scotland is nowadays one of the administrative divisions. These and many others led the Scots to look for allies and one of them was France.790 km2. the Picts (in the north and northeast). It is bounded on the north by the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore Scotland was broke especially that Edward IV’s army occupied Edinburgh in 1482. Like in . From 1399 the Scots demanded that a parliament should meet once a year. a mountainous region passing through the middle of the territory. the Scots (in the western Highlands). The total land area. however. occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. This pact had a major importance for the both countries because they agreed that whenever England attacked one of them the other would make trouble behind England’s back. Scotland had developed as a nation in a number of ways. they tried and partially succeeded to gather. In it’s early times it was a Celtic kingdom with two societies separated by the “Highland Line”. The English repeatedly invaded the Scottish Lowlands. They signed in 1295 the ‘Auld (old) Alliance’ which lasted into the sixteen century. on the southeast by England. on the east by the North Sea. By the end of Middle Ages. But until the great unification the Scottish confronted with permanent British assaults and periodic invaders’ attacks.
Sir William Wallace is considered to be a national hero. mainly because of the wool trade. and executed. The kings that followed were extremely clever diplomats.England. the name of the new state. Because of the disorder in their country. . Edward defeated Wallace's army in the Battle of Falkirk. 1298. and on September 11. met for the first time. Thereby in 1707 the union of Scotland and England was completed by the Act of Parliament and from that moment both countries no longer had separate parliaments and a new parliament of Great Britain. establishing and keeping good relations with both France and England fact that provided help for the social and cultural development of the Scottish society. tried for treason. Although he was outlawed by the English. He was brought to London. at Flodden. he led the ‘people’s army’ into capturing many English fortresses north of the Forth River. He was then elected to the office of guardian of the kingdom. and Wallace was forced into hiding. which grew thanks to the help of the Flemish settlers. The English Parliament offered to remove the limits on trade with the Scots if they agreed to unite with England. On July 22. 1297. ♦ Remarkable people Among the pregnant personalities of Scotland’s history. towns grew in importance. Though Scotland kept it’s own legal and judicial system and it’s own separate Church the new country developed faster culturally because of the mixture of the two people. The eighteen-century brought the most important change in Scotland’s history and that is the union with England. in the Battle of Stirling Bridge. the Scots were considered weak and therefore got under British governing in 1513 after the worst defeat Scotland ever experienced. he severely defeated English forces attempting to cross the Forth.
Scottish literature has its roots in the middle of the thirteencentury. His greatest achievement was gaining the English throne after Elizabeth’s death in 1603. Another well-known Scottish writer is John Galt (1779-1839). and the Continent from medieval times to the 18th century. Daughter of James V. 1625. and ‘The Fair Maid of Perth’ (1828). England.Another important figure is Mary Queen of Scots. ‘Ivanhoe’ (1819). August 15. an occupation that allowed him to write. In his portraits of Scotland. James VI died at the Theobalds in Hertfordshire on March 27. Charles I. The most important writings are ‘Guy Mannering’ (1815). One of the most prominent figures in English romanticism is Sir Walter Scott. 1771. in 1568 she escaped to England where Elizabeth imprisoned her for nineteen years before she was finally executed. She got married again to the Earl of Bothwell who betrayed her and let her surrender to the confederate lords. he showed a keen sense of political and traditional forces and of their influence on the individual. Unfortunately he is remembered as a weak man although he rebuilt the authority of the Scottish Crown.’ The Heart of Midlothian’ (1818). Early in the 1820s he wrote a series of colorful novels . The first writing known as Scottish or lowland Scots is a fragment of an anonymous poem regarding the condition of Scotland after the death of king Alexander III. raised in France. born in Irvine. ‘Old Mortality’ (1816). Trained as a lawyer. he became a legal official. she returned in Scotland after the death of her husband. ‘Rob Roy’ (1818). He was a skillful and cautious ruler as he managed to avoid dangerous conflicts with Spain and France. Francis II. James VI started to rule in 1578 at the age of twelve. ‘The Bride of Lammermoor’ (1819). She married in 1565 Lord Darnley a Scottish nobleman who was assassinated in 1567. Her son. Scott is the first major historical novelist. He was born in Edinburgh. ‘Kenilworth’ (1821). However. and was succeeded to the throne by his son. ‘Quentin Durward’ (1823).
The University of . Located here is the 11th-century Chapel of Saint Margaret. a land-development organization. and museums of modern art and Scottish history. The Edinburgh International Festival. ‘The Annals of the Parish’ (1821) and ‘The Entail’. the Royal Scottish Museum (1854). and ‘Lawrie Todd’ (1830). the capital of Scotland also a very important industrial center and seaport. Among Edinburgh's cultural institutions are the National Gallery of Scotland (1859). he wrote several works. is a worldrenowned arts festival. The city’s central dominating landmark is Edinburgh Castle. First of all there is Edinburgh. The Castle Rock is connected to the 16th-century royal Scottish residence of Holyrood Palace by a road known as the Royal Mile. held here annually since 1947. the first novel to deal with Scottish settlers in Canada. the main thoroughfare of the Old Town district of the city. the Scottish National Portrait Gallery (1882). a horrifying study of greed and obsession. the city's oldest structure. including ‘The Ayrshire Legatees‘ (1820).about Scottish life. After his return from Canada to live in England and Scotland. including ‘The Life of Lord Byron’ (1830). a biography of his friend. ♦ Amazing sites If you ever want to visit Scotland here you have some sites you definitely have to visit. Between 1825 and 1829 he served in Canada as an official of the Canada Company. rising on sheer cliffs above the city.
with great potential is the Grampian chain. They extend through the center of Scotland in a southwestern to northeastern direction. At the western extremity of the mountain mass is Ben Nevis. however they spring either from the passage of the seasons such as those surrounding the advent of spring or mid summer at Stonehenge. Orkney and Prince Edward’s island which offer a terrific view of the mountains. emerging from the sea. Another thing it is that there is no really satisfactory definition of custom therefore Shakespeare tried to sum it up in ‘As you like it’: “Hath not old custom made this life more sweet Than that of painted pomp?” . Other important cities are Glasgow. Among the islands surrounding Scotland. Another Scottish site. These and many others turned Scotland in one of Europe’s most appreciated countries for its landscapes and mysteries that are well known worldwide. is famous for the way it celebrates certain events. and Britain in general. Among the famous passes through them are those of Aberfoyle and Killiecrankie. In the north the mountains are more rugged and difficult to traverse. the highest peak in Great Britain. or from festivities and rites associated with the Christian Church. It is a fact that these traditions have very uncertain chronological base. The Grampians are famous for the finest deer forests in Scotland. Aberdeen and Dundee. which rises 1343 m (4406 ft) above sea level. the most famous are Shetland.Edinburgh (1583) is especially noted for its schools of medicine and law. Curious Customs Scotland.
and there’s a good reason for the people of Carhampton to keep alive the custom of ‘Wassailing the apple trees on the 17th of January. where it is ritualistically broken up with a hatchet. where they drink its health and sing the wassail song: “Old apple tree.An interesting custom that is called ‘Burning the Clavie’ takes place in Burghead. Locals link this custom with the suggestion that there was a Roman altar at Doorie and see a relation between the Clavi and ‘clavus’ the Latin for nail. pine cones. Let every man take off his hat And shout to the old apple tree! Old apple tree we wassail thee And hoping thou wilt bear Hatfuls. attached to a stout length of wire. Hip hooray!’ and fire shotguns to the tree to frighten the evil spirits. The clavie is the base of a wooden barrel. After it had been lit one of the clavie-crew takes it on his shoulders and begins a hazardous tour of the town. mounted on a pole and filled with tar-soaked wood. These are just a few customs that are still kept alive in Scotland from time immemorial. Morayshire at 11 January. we wassail thee. Others take the clavie in turn until it reaches an ancient mound called Doorie. the ‘Swinging of Fireballs’ is held. at Stonehaven in Kincardineshire. stuffed with drift wood. The fireballs burn up to twenty minutes. After mulling some cider they take it out to a selected tree. capfuls. three-bushel bagfuls And a little heap under the stairs” After that they shout ‘Hip. On the 31st of December. The people burn the old year out in a very dramatical way. And hoping thou wilt bear For the Lord doth know where we shall be Till apples come another year For to bear well So let us merry be. . Somerset is cider country. by lighting up baskets made of wire-netting.
That was of course a poor quality information but as technology advanced. The Highland Fling is a traditional folk dance very appreciated Scotland. the bagpipes and Scottish dances. But Samuel Pepys collected the first traces of folklore in Scotland in the 17th century. bagpipers began to play for the Highland troops serving the English Army. better evidence could be kept regarding folklore. Although bagpipes are found throughout the world. bagpipers have accompanied Scottish troops through many wars. and the bagpipe is the instrument most often associated with it. Scotland is probably the country most identified with the instrument. . Among the things that resisted as time went on the most important are the kilt.Scottish folklore The Scottish folklore has its roots in the early Celtic manifestation of culture. Since that time. Around 1670. It was originally a dance performed after battle.
the eyewitnesses like Margaret Cameron and her brother who ‘fled in terror’ after watching a 20-foot animal ‘like a huge caterpillar’ crash trough foliage on the other side of tiny Inchnacardoch Bay. A biologist at the Natural History Museum. and go looking for something which could prove to be an embarrassment in their careers”. narrow lake. From then on. On 28 May 1934 Brother Richard Horan. These and many others pretend seeing the monster but the scientists state that in the early 60es the press had been inundated with hundreds of reports of eyewitness sightings and there seemed a proper investigative body. Another sightseeing was in 1952 when Greta Finlay and her 12year-old son observed a long-necked animal looking at them from a distance of 20 yards which ‘paralyzed them with fear’. Thereby Loch Ness researcher Alistair Boyd explains: “The stability of their career probably depends. was first seen in 1933 by Mr.Loch Ness One of Scotland’s greatest mysteries is Loch Ness. on maintaining the status quo. “As you can quite . and the greatest depth is about 230 m (about 754 ft). The average width of the lake is about 2 km. before it dived. Lambshead says that scientists always gave a nervous twitch when the Loch was mentioned. a long.H. The Ness River drains into Moray Firth. The lake has a great reputation because of the “monster” that inhabits it. as the locals call it. George Spencer who described it as a large grey animal with an undulating neck hurrying across the road in front of his car. Dr. one of the Benedictine monks at Fort Augustus Abbey confesses watching for five minutes a long-necked animal dart about in the water at a distance of just 30 yards. forming part of the Caledonian Canal. to some extent. Nobody really wants to stick their neck out. in the northern part of the country. Nessie.J. Although the pastimes of ‘monster hunting’ would gain semi-credibility as crypto-zoology (the study of ‘cryptids’ or unknown animals) the scientific community preferred to avoid an affiliation with such a fringe subject. P. It extends in a northeastern direction for 37 km from Fort Augustus to a point near the city of Inverness.
A more recent investigation is the 1987 ‘Operation Deepscan’ consisting of a flotilla of 20 motor-cruisers strung out across the loch. Therefore we must act wisely in order not to lose our identities as nations and individuals. Nothing is sure but I tend to agree with the fact that the Loch Ness monster is not really a monster but a word. genuine mistakes of wild life. The way I see the problem there is one simple matter that we have to do and that is holding on to our beliefs and analyzing all the consequences of every action In the hope that we would not become a huge mixture of traditions and customs I want to add that the Scottish had offered a good example of how to behave in the new era and my suggestion is that we should follow that example. The process of globalization that we pass through. . Conclusion After days of researching and looking for information I began realizing that Scotland is a modern country that hasn’t yet forgotten its traditions. customs and moral values. In a world that everything happens so fast.and the sightings continue. And yet the mystery remains. it could be the kiss of death to your career as an example one of my predecessors was actually sacked from his job for going up to the loch”. which has caused the subject to be classed as a silly-season joke. to deprive us of everything we respect and care for in this moment. The research was considered to be ambiguous and therefore more ‘art’ than ‘science’ because it didn’t indicate the length of the underwater target. driftwood and the occasional April Fool pranks have combined to make this subject the butt of much ridicule. we tend to put away the only things that really define us as human beings. Fake photographs.imagine. scanning the depths with a sonar. confesses the doctor. one way or another. three still remained unexplained to this day. is going. Although many targets were dismissed as stationary debris or shoals of fish.
45. II. 1993. 118. Andy “The complete visitor’s guide to Loch Ness”. p 16. 73-79. 107. IV. p 25. David “An illustrated history of Britain”. p 21. Owens. Martin “Curious Customs”. 2000. Longman. 138. III. Britannica Encyclopedia .43. 1989.Bibliography I. Mainstream Publishing. 17. Green. 112. 31. McDowall. Impact Books.