Sean Li Math 7370 Notes − Spring 2013 Algebraic Number Theory Lecture 19 − 3/4/13 Want to show there is a one-to-one

correspondence between prime ideals of A not touching S and prime ideals of S −1 A. Corollary 2 (proved last lecture). If P1 , P2 are prime ideals of B such that P1 ⊂ P2 such that P1 ∩ A = P2 ∩ A = ℘ implies P1 = P2 . Corollary 3. Given any prime ideal ℘ of A, there exists a prime ideal P of B such that A ∩ P = ℘. Proof. Diagram: f

A ϕ1 A℘

B ϕ2

g

B℘

Let m be a maximal ideal of B℘ , then g −1 (m) is a prime ideal of A℘. But it is maximal by the proposition that g −1 (m) contains ϕ1 (℘). But g −1 (m) is the ideal of A℘ generated by ϕ1 (℘). so the pullback of m to A via g ◦ ϕ1 is ℘. If ϕ−1 (m) = P , then P ∩ A = ℘. 2 This has shown dim A = dim B if the last step is guaranteed to preserve the inclusion relation. Recap. R F

Z

Q

(1) How are prime ideals of R related to those in Z? Used localization and integral depen-

dence. (2) How are arbitrary ideals of R related to prime ideals of R? Used the Noetherian property of R. Definition. An ideal I is called irreducible if I = I1 ∩ I2 implies I = I1 or I = I2 . Proposition 1. In a noetherian ring, every ideal is a finite intersection of irreducible ideals. Proof. Suppose there were an ideal I that is not a finite intersection of irreducible ideals. Let I = I1 ∩ I2 where I = I1 , I2 , and I1 is not a finite intersection of irreducible ideals. Then I ⊂ I1 with proper subset. Then apply same argument to I1 , etc. However, an infinitely extending chain contradicts that the ring is noetherian. Definition. An ideal is called primary if xy ∈ I implies x ∈ I or y n ∈ I for some n. Example. In Z, this corresponds to I being generated by a prime power. Theorem. In a noetherian ring, every irreducible ideal is primary. Proof. By replacing A by A/I we may assume 0 is irreducible. We want to show 0 is primary. Consider the chain Ann(y n ), this chain must stabilize. Assume Ann(y n ) = Ann(y n+1 ), etc. We claim that (x) ∩ (y n ) = 0. Let z ∈ (x) ∩ (y n ), and let z = ax and z = by n . Then 0 = axy = by n+1 =⇒ b ∈ Ann(y n+1 ) =⇒ b ∈ Ann(y n ). Thus x = 0 or y n = 0, so 0 is primary.

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