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FQ: How did “The Reconquest" [La Reconquista] contribute to the development of a Spanish National Identity. !
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Main Idea: The Reconquest, unlike most of the efforts during the Crusading Era, was a 'success'. It lasted from 1063 - 1492 and contributed to the development of a "Spanish" national identity. It united its people under one rule, focused their energies on one task, deﬁned Spain's borders, and identiﬁed a common language and faith. ! CCSS...! I. What do these phrases imply? ! • One nation, under GOD, indivisible... ! • Ein Volk, Ein Reich, Ein Fuhrer ! • Un Rey, Un Ley, Un Fe ! • Para Dios, Para el Rey, Para España ! II. Post-Roman Iberia ! A. Islamic Civilization Invades Iberia (Umayyad Caliphate, 7th-8th C.) ! 1. Came from North Africa across the Strait of Gibraltar.1! 2. Christian Kingdoms and pushed northward. These Christians were the descendants of the Visigoths who moved into this area at the close of the Roman Empire in the west (4th-5th C. CE).! 3. Iberia is conquered by the close of 8th C. except for a narrow east-west strip along the northern coast.! 4. Arabs, as well as Syrians, Berbers and other North African peoples spread throughout the peninsula in succeeding waves that extend over centuries. ! B. Christian Kingdoms, c. 1031! 1. Leon ! 2. Castile ! 3. Navarre ! 4. Aragon! 5. Catalonia !
III. 'La Reconquista', 9th - 15th C.! A. Similarity with the '100 years War'! 1. Contributed to the 'birth' of a nation-state.! 2. Monarchs increasingly depend on the common person for support; as in the case of raising an army.! 3. The effort lasts many years and is comprised of numerous conﬂicts.! B. Similarity with the Crusades! 1. Endorsed by the Catholic Church (Pope)! 2. A goal was to regain control of lands that were once Christian controlled.! 3. The effort lasts many decades and is comprised of numerous conﬂicts.! C. Battle Cry: "San Tiago!"! 1. "Santiago!": The battle-cry of the Christian armies as they struggle to retake the land to their south from the Muslim civilization of Iberia.2!
The movement of Islamic peoples to Iberia is the western branch of the Muslim advance from the Arabian Peninsula beginning! soon after the death of The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in 632 CE.
2. The battle between Christian & Muslim forces in Iberia is seen by the Church as another Crusade. The crusading vision is very strong during this period (Crusades last ~200 years, 1092-1291).3! 3. By the end of the 13th century all of Iberia, except for Granada, belonged to the Christian sovereigns. !
IV. The Final Solution! A. King Ferdinand (of Aragon) marries Queen Isabella (of Castile), 1469. ! 1. Political uniﬁcation of Christian Spain. The “Reconquest” becomes a uniﬁed effort to conquer Granada (which falls in 1492) & end Islamic civilization in Europe ! 2. King Ferdinand is the 'Junior Partner' in the union of the two kingdoms. He is also Machiavelli's model for The Prince.! B. Strengthened National Identity ! 1. To be 'Spaniard' is to be 'Christian'.! 2. 'Spanish' as the unifying language.! 3. Non-Christians given option to Convert (Conversos).! C. The Inquisition, 1478 - 1492 ! 1. Pope Sixtus IV grants permission, after a request from the Catholic Monarchs (Isabella & Ferdinand), to organize and execute the duties of an Inquisition (1478-1492). ! 2. The priest given the task of conducting the Inquisitorial investigation was! Fray Tomas de Torquemada- Grand Inquisitor.4 ! 3. Initial goal was to 'weed out' heresy. It was not to persecute non-Christians. ! D. The Treaty of Capitulation of Granada!
E. 1492- "The Expulsion"! ! Muslims and Jews were expelled from Spain. Non-converts were forced to leave without the property/ wealth their families accumulated. Jews & Muslims that were important to the economic health of a city or region may have been spared some of the requirements placed on their 'less needed' brethren. But even this, at times, wasn't enough to protect the victims from biased attacks, sometimes 'clothed' as Christian religious fervor. ! F. Conversos & Riots by the Communeros! In Spain, the presence of a large population of Christians that were recent converts (Conversos) gave rise to accusations. Many Christians (not converts) were becoming increasingly suspicious about the Conversos' loyalty to the faith. Some Christians, many not as wealthy or inﬂuential as the Conversos, were accusing Conversos of switching to Christianity for the sole purpose of retaining a family's wealth or status.5 These Conversos, as the accusations described, would outwardly display the behavior of pious Christians, but would secretly revert to the practice of the 'old' faith at night, at
The Papacy was supportive of the Catholic monarchs. The campaigns against the Muslims of Iberia was seen as another front in the overall crusade against Islam. Iberia, however, proved to be the only permanently successful crusade 'Christendom' waged against Muslim civilizations. As the conquering Christians increasingly came into contact with Jews and Muslims, certain terms became commonly used to refer to these non-Christians. The terms are derogatory, but are often used benignly in textbooks. Marranos (Jews) meant 'swine' and it was used by the Church of Spain to refer to Jews who were accused of practicing Judaism in secret though they had publicly converted to Christianity and were baptized. Mudejar & Moriscos (Muslim) was used to indicate the condition of the Muslim to whom it is applied. For example, a Mudejar refers to a Muslim who collaborates with the Christians and/ or lives among the Christians in the area north of the last Islamic kingdom in Iberia (Granada). A Morisco is a Muslim who had been baptized and thus underwent the conversion process to Christianity. These baptisms cannot, in general, be accepted as voluntary. Most certainly many of these baptisms were forced or performed under duress/ coercion. The word 'Moors' is derived from the same root as Morisco (a Christian Moor).
Fray Tomas de Torquemada was previously a conﬁdant of Queen Isabela. His association with her no doubt improved his chances of selection to the post of Grand Inquisitor.
As alluded to previously, non-converts to the Catholic faith were not usually permitted to retain the wealth/ status that the family acquired over centuries.!
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home or anywhere that the public view is obstructed. So vehemently did some Spanish Christians (Communeros = Townsmen) believe these accusations, that uprisings caused widespread destruction and conﬁscation of Converso homes and property. The civil strife was so disconcerting to the Catholic Monarchs that they were 'forced' (for political reasons) to request the convening of an Inquisition.!
V. Summary Activity: Why it matters now.! The Crusades left a legacy of distrust between Christians and Muslims that continues to the present.!
Materials/Sources:"Refer to the course calendar for additional materials, assignments and pertinent due dates.! • • • • • • Allan, Tony. Library of Nations: Spain. Alexandria: Time Life Books, 1987. ! La Reconquista. 14 Jul. 1999. Camelot International. 15 Apr. 2000.! Medieval Spain Resource and Reference Links. 18 Apr. 2000. Yahoo. 15 Apr. 2000.! Reconquista. 11 Apr. 1999. Weidenﬂed Archives. 15 Apr. 2000.! Reconquista: a Timeline. The University of Calgary. 23 Nov. 1999. The European Voyages of Exploration. © 15 Apr. 2000.! Reynolds, Edward, Larry S. Krieger, and Kenneth Neill. World History: Perspectives on the Past. Evanston: Mcdougal Littell, 1997.