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# Buffer Solution

## What is buffer solution?

Buffer solution is a solution that resist changes in pH when small quantities of an acid or a base added to it. Buffer solution is used to keep pH almost constant. Buffer solution consist of weak acid with its conjugate base or weak base with its acid conjugate . 1. Acidic buffer solution An acidic buffer solution is simply one which has a pH less than 7. Acidic buffer solution consist of weak acid and its conjugate base. Example :

100 mL of 0,1 M acetic acid (CH3COOH) + 50 mL of 0,1 M sodium hidroxyde (NaOH). Mol of CH3COOH = 100 mL x 0,1 mmol mL-1

= 10 mmol Mol of NaOH = 50 mL x 0,1 mmol mL-1 = 5 mmol CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) The ionic equations: CH3COOH(aq) + OH-(aq) CH3COO-(aq) + H2O(l) Initial Reaction Final 10 mmol 5 mmol 5 mmol 5 mmol

5 mmol 5 mmol

The mixed solution is a buffer solution, because its contain CH3COOH (weak acid) and CH3COO- (conjugate base of CH3COOH)

2. Base buffer solution A base buffer solution has a pH greater than 7. Base buffer solution consist of weak base and its conjugate acid. Example :

50 mL of 0,2 M ammonia (NH3) + 50 mL of 0,1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl). Mol of NH3 = 50 mL x 0,2 mmol mL-1 = 10 mmol Mol of NaOH = 50 mL x 0,1 mmol mL-1 = 5 mmol NH3 (aq) + HCl(aq) NH4Cl(aq) The ionic equations: NH3(aq) Initial Reaction Final + H+(aq) 5 mmol 5 mmol NH4+(aq) 5 mmol

## 10 mmol 5 mmol 5 mmol

The mixed solution is a buffer solution, because its contain NH3 (weak base) and NH4+ (conjugate acid of NH3)

## How does buffer solution work?

Buffer solution works to maintain the pH value based on chemical equilibrium principle. Remember, the value of pH is affected by the concentration of H+ or OH-. In this case, the buffer solution need to contain things that can remove any H+ ions or OH- ions that you might add to a reaction due to keep the concentration of H+ or OH- will stay the same. As the result, the pH value will not show a significant change. However, acidic and alkaline (soluble base) buffer solution will do this in different ways. A. Acidic buffer solution We'll take a mixture of Ethanoic acid and Sodium Ethanoate as an example. Ethanoic acid is a weak acid, and the position of this equilibrium will be well to the left: Adding Sodium Ethanoate to this adds lots of extra Ethanoate ions (because the concentration is higher). It will make the position of the equilibrium even further to the left. CH3COONa(aq) CH3COO-(aq) + Na-(aq)

As the result, the solution will contains these important things: a. Unionized Ethanoic acid (as its weak acid); b. Lots of Ethanoate ions from Sodium Ethanoate. c. Enough Hydrogen ions to make the solution acidic.

Adding an acid to this buffer solution The buffer solution must remove most of the new hydrogen ions that will cause the pH would drop significantly. Hydrogen ions combine with the ethanoate ions to make ethanoic acid. Although the reaction is reversible, since the ethanoic acid is a weak acid, most of the new hydrogen ions are removed in this way.

Since most of the new hydrogen ions are removed, the pH won't change very much but because of the equilibria involved, it will fall a little bit.

Adding an alkali to this buffer solution Alkaline solutions contain hydroxide ions and the buffer solution removes most of these. This time the situation is a bit more complicated because there are two processes which can remove hydroxide ions.

Removal by reacting with ethanoic acid The most likely acidic substance which a hydroxide ion is going to collide with is an ethanoic acid molecule. They will react to form ethanoate ions and water.

Because most of the new hydroxide ions are removed, the pH doesn't increase very much.

Removal of the hydroxide ions by reacting with hydrogen ions Remember that there are some hydrogen ions present from the ionisation of the ethanoic acid.

Hydroxide ions can combine with these to make water. As soon as this happens, the equilibrium tips to replace them. This keeps on happening until most of the hydroxide ions are removed.

Again, because you have equilibria involved, not all of the hydroxide ions are removed - just most of them. The water formed re-ionises to a very small extent to give a few hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions.

B. Alkaline buffer solution We'll take a mixture of ammonia and ammonium chloride solutions as an example.Ammonia is a weak base, and the position of this equilibrium will be well to the left:

Adding ammonium chloride to this adds lots of extra ammonium ions. According to Le Chatelier's Principle, that will tip the position of the equilibrium even further to the left.

As the result, the solution will contains these important things: a. lots of unreacted ammonia(as its weak acid); b. lots of ammonium ions from the ammonium chloride; c. Enough hydroxide ions to make the solution alkaline.

Adding an acid to this buffer solution There are two processes which can remove the hydrogen ions that you are adding.

## Removal by reacting with ammonia

The most likely basic substance which a hydrogen ion is going to collide with is an ammonia molecule. They will react to form ammonium ions.

Most, but not all, of the hydrogen ions will be removed. The ammonium ion is weakly acidic, and so some of the hydrogen ions will be released again.

Removal of the hydrogen ions by reacting with hydroxide ions Remember that there are some hydroxide ions present from the reaction between the ammonia and the water.

Hydrogen ions can combine with these hydroxide ions to make water. As soon as this happens, the equilibrium tips to replace the hydroxide ions. This keeps on happening until most of the hydrogen ions are removed.

Again, because you have equilibria involved, not all of the hydrogen ions are removed - just most of them.

Adding an alkali to this buffer solution The hydroxide ions from the alkali are removed by a simple reaction with ammonium ions.

Because the ammonia formed is a weak base, it can react with the water - and so the reaction is slightly reversible. That means that,

again, most (but not all) of the the hydroxide ions are removed from the solution.

C. Example Question

Question:
1. A buffer solution is made by reacting Ammonia 1 M and

Ammonium Chloride 0,8 M. What is the pH? (Ammonias Kb: 1,77 x 105)

Answer: Kw 1014 Ka pKa pH pH pH = Ka.Kb = (Ka).(1,77 x 105) = 5,65 x 1010 = - log Ka = - log 5,65 x 1010 = 9,248 = 9,248 - log (1 / 0,8) = 9,248 - 0,097 = 9,151

## Calculating pH of Buffer Solution

Calculations involving a buffer made from a weak acid and its salt with a strong base.

Therefore the weak acid Ka expression is: Ka= [H+(aq)][A- (aq)] [HA (aq)] 1. [A-(aq)] = acid conjugate 2. [HA(aq)]equilib., = [HA(aq)]initial since little of the weak acid is ionised. 3. [H+]= Ka a g pH= pKa log g

3 mol/ dm

## a= moles of weak acid g= moles of weak base conjugate

Calculations involving a buffer made from a weak alkaline and its salt with a strong acid.
3 mol/ dm

## g= moles of weak acid conjugate

Example :
1. A buffer solution was prepared which had a concentration of 0.20

mol dm-3 in ethanoic acid and 0.10 mol dm-3 in sodium ethanoate. If the Ka for ethanoic acid is 1.74 x 10-5 mol dm-3, calculate the theoretical hydrogen ion concentration and pH of the buffer solution. Answer :

Ka = [H+(aq)] [salt(aq)] [acid(aq)] 1.74 x 10-5 [H+(aq)] pH = [H+(aq)] x 0.10 / 0.20 = 1.74 x 10-5 x 0.20/0.10 = 3.48 x 10-5 mol dm-3 = -log(3.48 x 10-5) = 4.46

## How to make a buffer solution?

1. Acid buffer solution can produced by: a. The weak acid mixed by its salt b. The excess weak acid mixed by strong base. It has to be excess weak acid, so that after strong base become limiting reactant, there is any weak acid that still consist which can become the acid component in buffer solution Weak Acid Concentration > Strong base concentration

2. Base buffer solution can produce by a. The weak base mixed by its salt b. The excess weak base mixed by strong acid It has to be excess weak base, so that after strong acid become limiting reactant, there is any weak base that still consist which can become the base component in buffer solution Weak Base Concentration > Strong Acid concentration Example: 1. Making acid buffer solution

Weak acid CH3COOH only can decompose partially. To make acid buffer solution CH3COOH/CH3COO- , the consentration of CH3COO- has to be increased.

## CH3COOH(aq) CH3COO-(aq) Weak Acid Ionized partially

H+(aq)

+ Conjugate Base

The concentration of conjugate base CH3COO- can be increased by a. Added salt, like CH3COONa to the weak acid CH3COOH(aq)
(aq)

H+(aq)

CH3COO-

CH3COONa(aq) Salt

CH3COO-(aq)

+ Na+(aq)

## So ,the acid buffer solution is CH3COOH/CH3COO-

b. Added strong base like NaOH to excess weak acid solution. CH3COOH(aq) + H 2O
(l)

Na+(aq) +

## Limiting Reactant So ,the acid buffer solution is CH3COOH/CH3COO-

2. Making Base Buffer Solution Weak Base NH3 only can decompose partially. To make acid buffer solution NH3/NH4+ , the consentration of NH4+ has to be increased.

H2O

(l)

## NH4+ (aq) Ionized partially

+ OH-(aq)

Conjugate Acid

The concentration of conjugate acid NH4+ can be increased by a. Added salt, NH4+ Cl to the weak base NH3 NH3(aq) NH4+ Cl Salt +
(aq)

H2O

(l)

NH4+ (aq)

+ OH-(aq)

## So ,the base buffer solution is NH3/NH4+

b. Added strong acid like HCl to excess weak base solution. NH3(aq)
(aq)

Cl-(aq) +

## excess weak base Conjugate acid

Limiting Reactant

So ,the base buffer solution is NH3/NH4+ Question: Check this solution, including buffer solution or not, prove it briefly! 1. CH3COOH + Ca(CH3COO)2 2. 50 mL CH3COOH 0,1 M + 50 mL NaOH 0,2 M Explanation 1. Themixture of solution of CH3COOH and Ca(CH3COO)2 is a buffer solution because its consist of weak acid CH3COOH and conjugate base CH3COO- from Ca(CH3COO)2 2. The mixture of 50 mL CH3COOH 0,1 M and 50 mL NaOH 0,2 M is not buffer solution because CH3COOH is not in excess CH3COOH + M R mmol S : 0 5 mmol 5 mmol 5 mmol : : 5 mmol 5 mmol OH-

CH3COO-

+ -

H 2O

10 mmol 5 mmol

5 mmol

## Function of Buffer Solution

1. The blood in the human body has a pH range of 7.35 to 7.45, and when human blood pH above 7.8 will cause human organs can be damaged, so it must be maintained with the range of pH buffer solution. 2. Keeping the pH of body fluids that H+ excretion in the kidneys are not disturbed, the acid dihydrogen posphat (H2PO4 ) with a base monohidrogen posphat (HPO4 -2) 3. Maintain pH of processed food in cans that are not easily damaged / oxidized (benzoic acid with sodium benzoate Carbonate buffer H 2 CO 3 (aq) -> HCO 3 (aq) + H
+

(aq)

Carbonate buffer very important role in controlling blood pH. Marathon runners can have acidosis(the decrease in blood pH caused by a high metabolism that increases the production of bicarbonate ions). Conditions acidosis can lead to heart disease, kidney, diabetes Miletus (diabetes) and diarrhea. People who climb in the mountains without supplemental oxygen can suffer from alkalosis, it can increase in blood pH. Oxygen levels are a little on the mountain climbers can make breathing more quickly, so that the carbon dioxide gas is released too much, whereas CO 2 can be soluble in water produces H 2 CO 3. it makes blood pH will rise. The condition can lead to alkalosis is hyperventilation (breathing too much, sometimes because of anxiety and hysterical). 4. Hemoglobin Buffer In the blood, there is hemoglobin can bind oxygen to further carried to cells throughout the body. Equilibrium reaction of oxy-hemoglobin buffer solution is: HHB + O
2

(g)

HBO

2-

+H

5. Phosphate Buffer In the intra-cell fluid, the presence of phosphate buffer is very important in regulating blood pH. Buffer is derived from a mixture of dihydrogen phosphate (H 2 PO 4 -) with monohidrogen phosphate (HPO 3 2 -).

PO

(aq) + H

(aq) >

H 2 PO

(aq)

PO

## (aq) + OH - (aq) -> HPO

2-

(aq)) + H 2 O (aq)

Phosphate buffer to maintain a blood pH 7.4. Buffer outside cells are few in number, but very important for urinary buffer solution. 6. Water Saliva as a Buffer Solution Teeth can dissolve if put in a strong acid solution. Email damaged teeth can cause bacteria into the tooth. To maintain the pH of saliva in the mouth about 6.8. Saliva contains a phosphate buffer solution to neutralize the acid formed by fermentation leftovers. 7. Maintain the pH balance of plant. A method of planting with media other than soil, usually done in a glass room using mendium water containing nutrients, called hydroponics. Each plant has a specific pH in order to grow well. It is therefore necessary that the pH of the buffer solution can be maintained. 8. Buffer solution on Drugs Acetylsalicylic acid is the main component of aspirin tablets, a painrelieving drugs. Presence of acid in aspirin can cause changes in the pH of the stomach. This pH change resulted in an establishment hormones to stimulate blood clotting, blocked; thus bleeding can not be avoided. Therefore, the aspirin added MgO can transfer the excess acid. The existence of a buffer solution can be seen in everyday life as in medicine, photography, leather and dye industries. In addition to the application, there is a function of the application of the concept of buffer solution in the human body such as body fluids. Body fluids can be in the intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid. Where is the main support system in liquid intraselnya as H2PO4-and HPO42- that can react with an acid and a base. The buffer system, can maintain a nearly constant blood pH is about 7.4. In addition, the implementation of these buffers can be encountered in everyday life as in the eye drops. 9. Buffer solution in the field of pharmaceutical In the field of pharmaceuticals (drugs) many active substances must be in a state of stable pH. Changes in pH will cause the efficacy of the active

substance is reduced or lost altogether. For injectable medications or eye drops, the pH of these drugs should be adjusted to the pH of body fluids. pH for eye drops should be adjusted to the pH of the water so as not to cause eye irritation causing sores in the eye. Likewise, the injection should be adjusted to the pH of blood so as not to cause alkalosis or acidosis in the blood. 10. Buffer Solution In Baby Shampoo Hair is composed of keratin protein. Chemical bonds in the hair protein, such as hydrogen bonds and disulfide bonds. Bond is stable at pH 4.6 to 6.0. if PH shampoo is too high or low ,it will break the tie in the hair protein. As a result, the hair can be damaged. with a PH balanced shampoo containing buffer solution that PH with PH shampoo hair. Babies have finer hair, hair than adults. In addition, oil and sweat glands in the skin of the baby's head has not been functioning perfectly. Therefore, a little baby shampoo should contain active ingredients and has a PH balance. Another reason to choose baby shampoo is pH balanced shampoo is not painful when exposed to eye. Resources (Function of Buffer Solution) : http://4rgasaputra.blogspot.com/2011/04/fungsi-dan-peranan-larutanpenyangga.html http://environmental-realm.blogspot.com/2012/04/importance-of-buffersin-physiological.html http://kimiadahsyat.blogspot.com/2009/06/fungsi-larutan-penyangga.html