The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the

views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Integrating Gender Equality in Country Partnership Strategies (CPSs): AsDB Experience
Sonomi Tanaka
Lead Gender Specialist Asian Development Bank stanaka@adb.org

What is AsDB CPS?

Intersections between country’s national dev’t strategy and ADB Strategy 2020 Focus on strategic issues; pipeline discussion separate; 10-page short document

AsDB CPS & Programming Cycle
Country Gender Assessment Integrate gender in CPS

Sector & thematic assessments
Country Assistance Performance Evaluation & Final Review Validation

CPS

Program projects with gender mainstreaming

3-year rolling pipeline (Country Operations Business Plan COBP) Integrate key performance of GM projects

Integrate analysis of gender equality results

CPS Final Review (focus on strategic issues)

Annual Country Portfolio Review

Country Partnership Strategy: Procedural Steps
Initiation Preparation Endorsement

Board

IBS

Board Endorsement

RD to present

Management

Government clearance CPS Initiating Meeting (VP) Approval For IBS (VP) MCM

Approval to Circulate

Presented through VP

Regional Department

DG endorsement

DG endorsement

Endorse to Circulate

Peer review

Peer review

Country Team

Draft CIP (Zero Draft CPS)

Strategy Formulation Mission

Recommend to Circulate

STEP1: Country Gender Assessment
• Identify key gender issues in the country and make policy recommendations • 3 types of analytical work informing CPS
– Country Gender Assessments – Country Gender Sector Profiles – Country Gender Assessments Update

• Initial consultations with gender stakeholders • Feed into CPS’s Country Gender Strategy

STEP 2: CPS Formulation (1) Integrating Gender in Document
MAIN TEXT (10 pages)
• Development trends and issues
– Key gender issues and government approach

LINKED DOCUMENTS
• Cross-cutting/Thematic analysis (poverty, gender, environmental, private sector) • Sector assessments (e.g., energy, transport, water and urban, education, finance)
– Sector-specific gender issues and strategies in text and sector roadmap

• The Strategy
– Key gender strategy

• Strategy Implementation • Results Management • CPS Results Framework
– Gender target(s) in sector outcomes – % of pipeline projects to be categorized as “gender mainstreaming” (GEN+EGM)

• • • • • •

Risk assessment and management plan Country & portfolio indicators Country performance assessment ratings CPS formulation CPS final review Country Assistance Program Evaluation (done by evaluation dept)
– Review of previous gender strategy implementation

Example: Lao PDR (CPS 2011)
• CGA: Jointly with WB
– Impressive growth; poverty halved in 15 yrs – But persisting gender inequalities in remote areas and among ethnic minorities in human development, economic empowerment, voice – Heightened risks for women in drastic changes

• CGS (AsDB, WB, Government):
– Two-track approach: Reducing gender disparities and vulnerability for EMs and increasing opportunities for all

Example: Lao PDR (CPS 2011)
• Sector-specific approaches (AsDB):
– Education: Secondary and TVET to go beyond “traditional” gendered fields in the labor market – Energy: Women’s income support along with rural electrification and renewable energy – WSS and Urban: Women’s reduced time poverty and participation in decision-making and job opportunities – Agri/NRM: Access to training and jobs for improved productivity and diversification – Trade and industry: SME development strategy to empowerment – Transport (regional connectivity): HIV, trafficking, and other risk mitigation

Lao PDR CPS: Sector Roadmap Agriculture
Country Sector Outcomes
Outcomes supported by ADB Improved rural productivity and food security Indicators with Targets and Baselines Paddy production increased from 3.1 million tons in 2009 to 4.2 million tons in 2016
Average Average gender gender and and ethnic ethnic disaggregated disaggregated rural incomes rural incomes have increased have by 3% fromby increased 2010from 2010 3%

Country Sector Outputs
Outputs Supported by ADB Irrigation facilities, rural roads, postharvest facilities, and inclusive supply chain logistics expanded and maintained Indicators with Incremental Target (baseline zero) 10,000 ha of irrigated area improved by 2016

ADB Sector Operations
Planned and Ongoing ADB Operations Main Outputs Expected from ADB Interventions

Pipeline Projects (e.g., Nam 85 producer and water groups formed 85 producer and water groups Ngum River Basin and trained with 30% women in 400 formed and trained with 30% Management for Sustainable villages by 2017 villages by 2017 women in 400 475 km of rural access Livelihood , etc) road rehabilitated and Improved ANR policy including postharvest facilities built in environmental safeguard three production centers by Ongoing Operations (e.g. 2016 Sustainable Natural Land use planning maps prepared and in Resource Management and use by 2013 Productivity Enhancement , etc) River basin plans established and implemented in 5 basins with flood forecasting and early warning center established Capacity strengthened in national Capacity strengthened in national and and provincial water resources provincial water resources and and environment administration environment administration offices of offices of which over 40% are which over 40% are female female Increased number of women with access Increased number of women with to credit, technology, and other support access to credit, technology, and related to agricultural production. other support related to agricultural production.

Enhanced Baseline forest natural area at 65% of resources total land area in productivity and 2010 maintained climate by 2016 resilience

Climate-proofed irrigation and transport infrastructure expanded and maintained

Government policies, plans and laws on water and landbased resources operationalized Climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies integrated into ANR sector policy and programs (zero in 2011)

Source: Asian Development Bank

Lao PDR CPS: Results Framework
Agriculture:

(ii)

By 2016, average gender- and ethnic disaggregated rural incomes increased by 3% from 2010

GEN+EGM – 80%

Lao PDR CPS: Results Framework
Education:

(ii) Female share of enrollment reaches 50% in TVET and higher education (up from 40%)

GEN+EGM – 100%

STEP 2: CPS Formulation (2) Processes
• Discuss CGS with the Team during Concept Paper Retreat • Consult with national gender machinery • Work with sector colleagues to integrate gender targets and indicators in sector roadmaps • Work on CPS Results Framework to include gender target(s)

Institutional Incentives for Gender Mainstreaming in CPS
• Operations Manual C2 on Gender & Development (mandatory procedure) – 4 minimum criteria:
– Gender analysis; gender strategy; gender diagnostics in sector assessment and gender indicators in sector roadmap; gender indicators in CPS results framework

• In-house at-entry quality assurance review process (center reviews CPS on compliance)

• ADB Corporate Results Framework and upcoming Gender Equality Operational Plan monitor
– baseline 53% in 2010-2012; target 70% by 2016

• CAPE (Country Assistance Program Evaluation) to evaluate and recommend on gender performance

Challenges & Opportunities
• “Not enough space” • CGA not informing CGS • Get the big picture right • Align with overall strategy; with country context; focus on AsDB’s comparative advantage • Include them in CGS and COBPs • Try hard but if not possible try at project designing level • Start with easier sectors (e.g., education, health, agriculture) • Allow flexibility in time planning • Periodically inform them

• Sector focused structure of CPS often ignore TAs and policy dialogue on gender • CPS as a process does not influence pipeline as much as we’d like
• Gender targets in CPS Results Framework difficult (especially infra) • Time consuming • Women ministry not part

What Worked in AsDB
• Template - Standardize “meaningful” gender spaces • Internal Quality Assurance Mechanism
– Center’s review function – Board and Management

• Accountability
– AsDB Strategy 2020 prioritizing gender – Corporate results framework to report on performance of CPS minimum standards

• Sector Focus – “Engender” sector strategy • Country Team - Gender specialist to work with sector specialists • Streamlining
– Rely on regular interactions in the country and minimize “special inputs” for CPS document

www.adb.org/gender/

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