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Question 1 of 25

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In thermochemistry, a "coupled reaction" is based on the concept that:

A a thermodynamically favorable reaction can be used to drive a thermodynamically u . simultaneously B . C . D . E . "like dissolves like" and "opposites attract"

the enthalpy and entropy of a reaction are interdependent ("coupled") on each othe

all reactions reach a thermodynamic equilibrium ("coupling") at a specific set of con

a nonstandard-state reaction can be "coupled" with a standard-state reaction to resu

Question 2 of 25

Score: 1

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Calculate the equilibrium constant Keq for the following reaction at 25C. (S values in J/molK: N2(g), 191.5 ; O2(g), 205.0 ; Cl2(g), 223.0 ; NOCl(g), 261.6) N2(g) + O2(g) + Cl2(g) 2NOCl(g) H = 103.4 kJ

A . B . C

2.43 x 1020 2.01 x 1010 8.82 x 1029

. D 6.99 x . 1024 E 5.91 x . 1017 Answer Key: D

Question 3 of 25

Score: 1

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Consider the following equilibrium at 25C and select the false statement below. N2H4(g) N2(g) + 2H2(g) Hrxn = 95 kJ

A Keq < 1 . B S is . positive C G is . negative D G = 0 . E Qeq = Keq . Answer Key: A

Question 4 of 25

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The exothermic reaction NH3(g) + HCl(g) NH4Cl(s) proceeds spontaneously at 25C even though there is a decrease in disorder in the system (gases producing a solid). Why?

A there is a phase change from gases to solid which means G is zero which, when c .

B the decrease in entropy of the system is offset by an increase in . the entropy of the surroundings caused by the release of heat from the system to C the exothermic reaction increases the temperature from 25C to a higher temper .

D the decrease in entropy of the system is offset by an increase in the entropy of th . surroundings

Answer Key: B

Question 5 of 25

Score: 1

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A saturated solution of iron(II) hydroxide at 25C contains 1.0 x 10 5 M Fe2+ ions. Determine the G for the solution at this temperature. A . B . C . D . E . 17 kJ/mol 0.85 kJ/mol 29 kJ/mol 8.1 kJ/mol 82 kJ/mol

Answer Key: E

Question 6 of 25

(worth

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Crystallization of sodium acetate from a supersaturated solution occurs spontaneously at constant temperature and pressure. What can you deduce about the signs of S and H for this process? A . B . C . D . S 0 S 0 S 0 S 0 < 0 and H < > 0 and H > < 0 and H > > 0 and H <

Question 7 of 25

Score: 1

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Calculate G for the reduction of Fe2O3 by CO at 25C: Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) 2Fe(s) + 3CO2(g) (Hf data: CO2(g), 393.5 kJ/mol; Fe2O3(s), 822.2 kJ/mol; CO(g), 110.5 kJ/mol) (S data: Fe(s), 27.2 J/molK; CO2(g), 213.6 J/molK; Fe2O3(s), 89.9 J/molK; CO(g), 197.9 J/molK)

(Consider: Is the value that you calculate for G here the same value that you calculated for G using Gf in the other question?)

A 3900 . kJ B 3500 . kJ C 30.3 kJ . D 39.0 . kJ E 3.5 . kJ Answer Key: C

Question 8 of 25

Score: 1

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Which of the following reactions would you predict to be spontaneous at all temperatures (assuming H-rxn does not change significantly with temperature)? A 2Ag(s) + 3N2(g) 2AgN3(s) . H-rxn = +1240 kJ/mol B Na2CO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) . H-rxn = 834 kJ/mol C C6H6(l) + 3H2(g) C6H12(l) . H-rxn = 207 kJ/mol D H2S(g) + 2O2(g) H2SO4(l) .

H-rxn = 793 kJ/mol E CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + O2(g) . H-rxn = +179 kJ/mol Answer Key: B

Question 9 of 25

Score: 1

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The G for the following reaction is 2.60 kJ/mol at 25C. What is the minimum partial pressure of I2(g) required for the reaction to be spontaneous in the forward direction at 25C if the partial pressures of H2 and HI are 3.50 atm and 1.75 atm, respectively? H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g) A 3.0 atm . B 2.5 . atm C 0.20 . atm D 1.4 . atm E 1.1 . atm Answer Key: B

Question 10 of 25

Score: 1

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Select the true statement below. A when G > 0, the system can release free energy . B when Q < K, the system can release no more free energy . C when G < 0, the system can release free energy until Q = K . D when G > 0, G is the maximum useful work obtainable from the . system E when G = 0, G must also = 0 . Answer Key: C

Question 11 of 25

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Would you predict that the following reaction would proceed to an appreciable extent at 25C? MnO2(s) + 4H+(aq) + 2Cl(aq) Mn2+(aq) + Cl2(g) + 2H2O(l) (Hf values (kJ/mol): MnO2(s), 520; Cl(aq), 167; Mn2+(aq), 221; H2O(l), 286) (S values (J/molK): MnO2(s), +53; Cl(aq), +57; Mn2+(aq), 74; Cl2(g), +223; H2O(l), +70)

A . B . C .

no because G is positive and Keq < 1 yes because G is negative and Keq < 1 yes because G is negative and Keq > 1

D no because G is negative and Keq < 1 . E yes because G is positive and Keq > . 1

Question 12 of 25

Score: 1

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Which of the following reactions is spontaneous at low temperatures but nonspontaneous at high temperatures? A N2(g) + 3Cl-2(g) 2NCl3(l) . H = +230 kJ B C6H12O6(s) + 6O2(g) 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) . H = -2816 kJ C C6H5OH(s) C6H5OH(l) . (H should be inferred by student) D CaO(s) + 3C(s) CaC2(s) + CO(g) . H = +462 kJ E CS2(g) + 3Cl2(g) CCl4(g) + S2Cl2(g) . H = -238 kJ Answer Key: E

Question 13 of 25

Score: 1

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Calculate G at 25 C for a reaction in which Ca2+(aq) combines with CO32 (aq) to form a precipitate of CaCO3(s) if the concentrations of Ca2+(aq) and CO32(aq) are 0.023 M and 0.13 M, respectively. (G = 47.94 kJ) A 62.3 . kJ/mol B 47.8 . kJ/mol C 46.7 . kJ/mol D 33.5 . kJ/mol E 17.8 . kJ/mol Answer Key: D

Question 14 of 25

Score: 1

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The standard molar entropy of vaporization (Svap) for benzene is 88 J/molK at 25C. Consider this information, along with the following standard molar enthalpies of formation (Hf) for benzene at 25C, and estimate the normal boiling point of benzene. (Hf [C6H6(l)] = 49 kJ/mol; Hf [C6H6(g)] = 80 kJ/mol) A . B . C . D . E . 79C 91C 65C 84C 110C

Answer Key: A

Question 15 of 25

Score: 1

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The equilibrium constant Kp for the reaction below is 0.113 at 298K, which corresponds to a standard free-energy change (G) of 5.40 kJ/mol. In a certain experiment, the initial pressures are PNO2 = 0.122 atm and PN2O4 = 0.453 atm. Calculate G for the reaction at these pressures. N2O4(g) 2NO2(g) A 13.9 . kJ/mol B 5.32 . kJ/mol C 2.15 . kJ/mol D 4.11 . kJ/mol E 3.06 . kJ/mol Answer Key: E

Question 16 of 25

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The equilibrium reaction CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g) reaches G = 0 at 835C. At this temperature:

A the reaction becomes exothermic . B H = S . C the decomposition of CaCO3 begins . D the percent yield of CaO reaches . 100% E the pressure of CO2 is 1 atm . Answer Key: E

Question 17 of 25 Given the following:

Score: 1

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4NO(g) 2N2O(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g) + O2(g) 2NO2(g)

G = 139.56 kJ G = 69.70 kJ

calculate G for the reaction: 2N2O(g) + 3O2(g) 4NO2(g).

A 0.16 kJ . B 209.26 . kJ C 69.86 kJ . D 69.86 . kJ E 0.16 kJ . Answer Key: E

Question 18 of 25

Score: 1

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Calculate G at 25C for the precipitation of lead(II) chloride from mixing 100. mL of 0.025 M lead(II) nitrate solution with 100. mL of 0.15 M sodium chloride solution. The G for the reaction at 25C = 27.36 kJ/mol. (Hint: write out reaction equation also, consider total solution volume) A 41 . kJ/mol B 12 . kJ/mol C 29 . kJ/mol D 3.7 kJ/mol . E 4.2 . kJ/mol Answer Key: D

Question 19 of 25

Score: 1

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The Hvap for pure water is 40.65 kJ/mol. Calculate the Svap for pure water. A . B . 175 J/molK 9.18 J/molK

C 109 . J/molK D 217 J/molK . E 7.33 . J/molK Answer Key: C

Question 20 of 25

Score: 1

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Consider the following equilibrium system at 25C and select the false statement below. Ag+(aq) + Br(aq) AgBr(s) Keq = 2 x 1012 at 25C

A the G for this system is predicted to be < 0 at . 25C B at 25C, [Ag+]eq = [Br]eq = 1 M . C the G for the system at equilibrium is = 0 at 25C . D the H for this system is predicted to be < 0 at . 25C E the S for this system is predicted to be < 0 at . 25C Answer Key: B

Question 21 of 25

Score: 1

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Consider the equilibrium MgCO3(s) MgO(s) + CO2(g). If the H = 117.6 kJ/mol and the S = 174.7 J/molK, at about what temperature will this reaction become product-favored (assuming that H and S are temperature-independent)? A this reaction will not become product-favored at any . temperature B 149 K . C 674 K . D 592 K . Answer Key: C

Question 22 of 25

Score: 1

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Calculate G for the reduction of Fe2O3 by CO at 25C: Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) 2Fe(s) + 3CO2(g) (Gf data: CO2(g), 394.4 kJ/mol; Fe2O3(s), 741.0 kJ/mol; CO(g), 137.3kJ/mol) (Consider: Is the value that you calculate for G here the same value that you calculated for G using Hf and S data in the other question?)

A -60.6

. kJ B +60.6 . kJ C -30.3 . kJ D +30.3 . kJ E -15.1 . kJ Answer Key: C

Question 23 of 25

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The equilibrium constant Kp for the reaction CO(g) + Cl2(g) COCl2(g) is 5.62 x 1035 at 25C. Calculate Gf for COCl2 at 25C. (Gf for CO(g) = 137.3 kJ/mol at 25C) A . B . C . D . E . 160 kJ/mol 341 kJ/mol 66.7 kJ/mol 188 kJ/mol 274.6 kJ/mol

Question 24 of 25

Score: 1

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Consider the following equilibrium at 25C: MX(s) M+(aq) + X(aq) G > 0 at 25C Which of the following statements is true?

A Ksp of MX(s) must be > 1 . B if Qsp/Ksp = 1, then G must be = 0 . C when G = 0, [M+] = [X] = 1.0 M . D precipitation begins when G = 0 . E no dissolution of MX(s) will occur until the system is heated to the point where G . <0 Answer Key: C

Question 25 of 25

Score: 1

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Calculate the temperature (in C) to which silver ore, Ag2O, must be heated to spontaneously decompose the ore to oxygen gas and solid silver metal at standard state. (Hf of Ag2O(s) = 31.05 kJ/mol; S values: Ag(s), 42.55 J/molK; O2(g), 205.1 J/molK; Ag2O(s), 121.3 J/molK) A . B . C 195 C 374 C 467

. C D 843 . C E 234 . C Answer Key: A