1
Heat and Mass Transfer for a Hydromagnetic Flow over a Stretching Sheet 53
with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Variable Mass Diffusivity
Momentum Equation
0
2
2
2
u u p u
u u
x y x y
 
+ = +

\
2
2 2
2 2
( )
v v p v v
u v
x y x x y
 
+ = + +

\
3
Heat Equation
( )
2 2
2 2 2
( )
T T T T
Cp u v k K T T
x y x y
 
+ = + +

\
..4
Mass Equation
( )
2 2
1 2 2
( )
C C C C
u v D K C C
x y x y
+ = + +
5
By introducing the variable thermal conductivity and variable mass diffusivity, the momentum equations (2) and
(3), mass equation (4) and heat equation (5) becomes,
Momentum Equation
0
2
2
2
u u p u
u B u
x y x y
 
+ = +

\
'
u
k
6
2
2
v v p v
u v
x y x y
 
+ = +

\
7
Heat Equation
( )
2
T T T
Cp u v k K T T
x y y y
   
+ = +
 
\ \
..8
Mass Equation
( )
1
C C C
u v D K C C
x y y y
 
+ = +

\
..9
where u and v are velocity components in xdirection and ydirection, p is pressure C and C
are concentration
and concentration at infinity, T and T
are temperature and temperature at infinity, is the fluid density, is the dynamic
viscosity, is the electrical conductivity, D is the mass diffusion coefficient, Cp is the specific heat of the fluid under
constant pressure, k is the thermal conductivity, K
1
and K
2
are reaction rate coefficient and rate of material heat
source/sink.
The boundary conditions for the above system of equations are defined as follows
u = cx, v = 0, p = p
w
C = C
w
= C
+ Ax
54 P. H. Veena, J. Phakirappa & V. K. Pravin
T = T
w
= T
+ Bx at y = 0 ...10
u = 0, CC
, TT
at y ...11
where A and B are constants,
To obtain an exact solution to the stretching boundary layer problem of hydro magnetic flow, we introduce a
dimensionless stream velocity of the form
( ) ( ) ( )
1
, ,
2
w
c
c xG y p p c f
 
= = =

\
12
Then the velocity components in terms of stream function
(x, y) are given by
( ) ( ) ' , u c xG v c G
y x
= = = =
13
where =
is kinematic viscosity
Clearly continuity equation (1) is satisfied by introducing equation (13)
SOLUTION OF MOMENTUM EQUATION
To solve momentum equations (6) and (7), substituting equations (12) and (13) in (6) and (7) we get two ordinary
differential equations for G and f as below
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 '''
2
' " ( ) ' G G G G Mn K G = + 14
and ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
' ' "
2
G G f G = 15
The corresponding boundary conditions for G and f are
G (0) = 0
'
G (0) = 1, f (0) = 0 16
'
G ( ) 0 17
Where, Mn =
c
B
o
2
 magnetic parameter
2 '
k
k c
=  permeability parameter
The solution of equation (14) with respect to boundary conditions (16) and (17) is obtained as
G () = ( )
e 1
1
where
2
1 Mn k = + + 18
Heat and Mass Transfer for a Hydromagnetic Flow over a Stretching Sheet 55
with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Variable Mass Diffusivity
By direct integration and using boundary condition. (16) and (17), we get the solution of equation (15) i.e
dimensionless pressure f() as follows.
2 '
f( ) = G ( ) + 2G ( )  2 19
Therefore, solutions for the velocity components and pressure takes the following form
' 
u = c x G ( ) = c x e
20
v = ( )
1 e
c G c
 
=

\
21
and
w
p=p  ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
1
2 1 1 2
2 2
w
c
c f p e e
(
= + +
22
SOLUTION OF HEAT EQUATION
To find solution of equation (8), we define a dimensionless temperature as
() =
w
T T
T T
23
Substituting equations (13), (18) and (23) into the heat equation (8) and using boundary conditions equations (10)
and (11), we have
( )
( )
( )
2
2
1
1 ( ) ( ) ( ) Pr ( ) Pr 2 ( ) 0
e
e
+ + + + = 24
and (0) = 1, ( ) 0 25
where, Pr
p
C
k
=  prandtl number
2
2
p
k
C
+ + =
56 P. H. Veena, J. Phakirappa & V. K. Pravin
0
(0) 1, =
0
( ) 0 = 27
2
1 1 2 1 1 0 0
(1 )
( ) Pr ( ) Pr( 2 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
e
e
+ + =
1
(0) 0, =
1
( ) 0 = 28
2 2 2 2
(1 )
( ) Pr ( ) Pr( 2 ) ( )
e
e
+ +
0 1 1 0 0 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ( ) ( )
=
2
(0) 0 = ,
2
( ) 0 = 29
Higher order equations can be similarly obtained.
Here we have considered only zeroth order equations.The zeroth order equations in the form of confluent hyper
geometric function i.e. kummers function defined as
1
( )
( , , ) 1
( ) !
n
n
n n
a z
M a b z
b n
=
= +
where M is kummers function
and
( ) ( 1)( 2)..........( 1)
( ) ( 1)( 2)...........( 1)
n
n
a a a a a n
b b b b b n
= + + +
= + + +
To slove equation (27) we define new variable
2
Pr
se where s
= = 30
With this substitution (27) transforms to
2
0 0 0
( ) (1 ) ( ) (2 ) ( ) 0 s
+ + + = .31
0
( ) 1, s
=
0
( ) 0 = .32
The solution (31) subjected to boundary conditions (32) in terms of are obtained as
0 0
0 0
0
2
0
0 0
0
4
( ,1 , )
2
( )
4
( ,1 , )
2
a b
a b
M b
a b
M b s
+
+
+
=
+
+
.33
where
Heat and Mass Transfer for a Hydromagnetic Flow over a Stretching Sheet 57
with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Variable Mass Diffusivity
0
2
0 2
4
a s
b s s
=
=
Solution (33) can be re casted in terms of as
0 0
( ) 0 0 0
0 1
0 0 0
( 2, 2 1, )
( )
( 2, 2 1, )
p q
M p q q se
c e
M p q q s
+
+ +
=
+ +
.34
where
1 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
( 2)
[ ( ) ( 2, 2 1, ) ( 1, 2 2, )]
2 1
p q
c p q M p q q s s M p q q s
q
+
= + + + + +
+
0
0
,
2
a
p =
0
0
2
b
q = 35
And the dimensionless temperature gradient at the sheet derived as
0 0
0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
( 2)
( ) [ ( 2, 2 1, ) ( 1, 2 2, )]
2 1
p q
c p q q s M p q q s
q
+
= + + + + +
+
36
where
1
2 0 0 0
[ ( 2, 2 1, )] c M p q q s
= + + 37
SOLUTION OF MASS TRANSFER EQUATION
To find solution of equation (9), we define a dimensionless concentration as
( )
w
C C
C C
38
Substituting equations (13), (18) and (38) into the mass transfer equation (9) and using boundary conditions
equations (10) and (11), we have
( )
( )
( )
2
1
1
1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ( ) 0
e
Sc Sc e
+ + + + = 39
and (0) 1, = ( ) 0 = 40
where, Sc
D
=  Schmidt number
1
1
k
c
=  Chemical reaction parameter.
PERURBATION SOLUTION
We employ perturbation technique to slove nonlinear equation (24) and so we assume,
2
0 1 2
= + + + 41
58 P. H. Veena, J. Phakirappa & V. K. Pravin
Substituting (41) in to equations (39) and (40) and equating like terms with powers of ,we obtain the boundary
value problems.
0 0 1 0
(1 )
( ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) 0
e
Sc Sc e
+ + =
0
(0) 1, =
0
( ) 0 = 42
2
1 1 1 1 1 0 0
(1 )
( ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
e
Sc Sc e
+ + =
1
(0) 0, =
1
( ) 0 = 43
2 2 1 2
(1 )
( ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( )
e
Sc Sc e
+ +
0 1 1 0 0 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ( ) ( )
=
2
(0) 0 = ,
2
( ) 0 = 44
Higher order equations can be similarly obtained.
Here we have considered only zeroth order equations.The zeroth order equations in the form of confluent hyper
geometric function i.e. kummers function defined as
1
( )
( , , ) 1
( ) !
n
n
n n
a z
M a b z
b n
=
= +
where M is kummers function
and
( ) ( 1)( 2)..........( 1)
( ) ( 1)( 2)...........( 1)
n
n
a a a a a n
b b b b b n
= + + +
= + + +
To slove equation (42) we define new variable
2
Sc
re where r
= = 45
With this substitution (42) transforms to
1
0 0 0
( ) (1 ) ( ) (2 ) ( ) 0 r
+ + + = .46
0
( ) 1, r
=
0
( ) 0 = .47
The solution (46) subjected to boundary conditions (42) in terms of are obtained as
Heat and Mass Transfer for a Hydromagnetic Flow over a Stretching Sheet 59
with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Variable Mass Diffusivity
1 1
1 1
1
2
0
1 1
1
4
( ,1 , )
2
( )
4
( ,1 , )
2
a b
a b
M b
a b
M b r
+
+
+
=
+
+
.48
where
1
2
1 1
4
a r
b r r
=
=
Solution (48) can be re casted in terms of as
1 1
( ) 1 1 1
0 1
1 1 1
( 2, 2 1, )
( )
( 2, 2 1, )
p q
M p q q re
c e
M p q q r
+
+ +
=
+ +
.49
where
1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1
( 2)
[ ( ) ( 2, 2 1, ) ( 1, 2 2, )]
2 1
p q
c p q M p q q r r M p q q r
q
+
= + + + + +
+
1
1
,
2
a
p =
1
1
2
b
q = 50
And the dimensionless temperature gradient at the sheet derived as
1 1
0 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
1
( 2)
( ) [ ( 2, 2 1, ) ( 1, 2 2, )]
2 1
p q
c p q q r M p q q r
q
+
= + + + + +
+
51
where
1
2 1 1 1
[ ( 2, 2 1, )] c M p q q r
= + + 52
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The equations for the steady flow of incompressible viscous fluid and heat transfer over a stretching sheet with
variable thermal conductivity and variable mass diffusivity are examined. The energy and mass equations are solved
analytically in terms of Kummers functions. The effect of various physical parameters like Magnetic parameter (Mn),
Prandtl number (Pr), Schmidt number (Sc), Chemical reaction parameter (
1
) and internal heat generation parameter (
2
)
are examined on dimensionless temperature profiles () and concentration profile ().
Fig.1 (a) shows the graph of dimensionless temperature profile () versus for the different values of magnetic
parameter (Mn), we noticed from the figure that temperature at the fixed location increases with increase in values of
magnetic parameter (Mn).
Fig.1(b) is the the graphical representation of dimensionless temperature profile () versus for the different
values of Prandtl number (Pr), we observe from the figure that the temperature at a given point decreases with an increases
in the Prandtl number (Pr).
Fig.2 (a) is depicted to study the dimensionless concenttration profile ()) versus for the different values of
magnetic parameter (Mn), we noticed from the figure that concentration at the fixed location increases with increase in
values of magnetic parameter (Mn).
60 P. H. Veena, J. Phakirappa & V. K. Pravin
Fig.2(b) presents the dimensionless concentration profile () versus for different values of Schmidt number
(Sc), we noticed from the figure that temperature lowered with the increase in the values of Schmidt number (Sc).
Table1; Shows the results at the sheet
(0) for the Magnetic parameter (Mn), Prandtl number (Pr) and Internal
heat generation parameter (
2
). We observed that the values of temperature gradient
(0) for the Magnetic parameter (Mn),Schmidt number (Sc) and Chemical
reaction parameter (
1
). We observed that the values of concentration gradient
(0)
0 0 6 5.28125
1 4.14490
5 2.78282
10 2.47842
15 2.38487
20 2.34731
20 0.2 3 2.29232
0.1 2.18423
0 2.04117
20 0 0.2 1.98800
0.7 1.96994
1 1.96627
5 2.22784
15 3.7896
25 6.69981
Table 2: The Results at the Sheet
(0)
1 0 2 1.74755
10 1.87729
20 1.98519
40 2.05499
60 2.07600
20 0 1 1.96627
0.1 2.01232
0.2 2.04980
0.3 2.08404
20 0 0.2 1.98800
0.5 1.97525
1.5 1.9703
2.5 2.00927
Heat and Mass Transfer for a Hydromagnetic Flow over a Stretching Sheet 61
with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Variable Mass Diffusivity
0 1 2 3 4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Fig.1(a).Vari ation of () Vs for Pr=0.2 and different val ues of Mn
()
Mn=20
Mn=40
Mn=60
Mn=80
0 1 2 3 4
0 .4
0 .5
0 .6
0 .7
0 .8
0 .9
1 .0
0 1 2 3 4
0 .4
0 .5
0 .6
0 .7
0 .8
0 .9
1 .0
0 1 2 3 4
0 .4
0 .5
0 .6
0 .7
0 .8
0 .9
1 .0
0 1 2 3 4
0 .4
0 .5
0 .6
0 .7
0 .8
0 .9
1 .0
F i g . 1 ( b ) . V a r i a t i o n o f ( ) V s f o r M n =2 0 a n d w i t h d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f P r
( )
F i g . 1 ( b ) . V a r i a t i o n o f ( ) V s f o r M n =2 0 a n d w i t h d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f P r
( )
P r = 0 . 8
P r =0 . 6 P r = 0 . 4
P r = 0 . 2
F i g . 1 ( b ) . V a r i a t i o n o f ( ) V s f o r M n =2 0 a n d w i t h d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f P r
( )
F i g . 1 ( b ) . V a r i a t i o n o f ( ) V s f o r M n =2 0 a n d w i t h d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f P r
( )
0 1 2 3 4
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05
Fig.2(a). Variation of() Vs for Sc=0.5 and different values of Mn
()
Mn=20
Mn=40
Mn=60
Mn=80
0 1 2 3 4
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Fi g.2(b).Vari ati on of () Vs for Mn=20 and different values of Sc
()
Sc=0
Sc=0.5
Sc=1
Sc=1.5
62 P. H. Veena, J. Phakirappa & V. K. Pravin
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