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International Journal of Mathematics and

Computer Applications Research (IJMCAR)


ISSN 2249-6955
Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar 2013, 51-64
TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.


HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER FOR A HYDROMAGNETIC FLOW OVER A STRETCHING
SHEET WITH VARIABLE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND VARIABLE MASS
DIFFUSIVITY
P. H. VEENA
1
, J. PHAKIRAPPA
2
& V. K. PRAVIN
3

1
Department of Mathematics, Smt. V.G. College for Women, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India
2
Department of Mathematics, Vijayanagar College of Engineering, Bellary, Karnataka, India
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, P. D. A. College of Engineering, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India

ABSTRACT

An analysis is carried out to study heat and mass transfer for a hydro magnetic flow over a stretching
sheet with variable thermal conductivity and variable mass diffusivity. The exact solution of energy and mass
transfer equations are obtained in terms of Kummers functions. The effect of various physical parameters like
magnetic parameter (Mn),chemical reaction parameter (
1
), internal heat generation parameter (
2
), Prandtl
number (Pr) and Schmidt number (Sc) are discussed. The effect of all these parameters on wall temperature
gradient and wall concentration gradient are discussed. The wall temperature gradient increases with magnetic
parameter and internal heat parameter but decreases with Prandtl number.
KEYWORDS: Heat and Mass Transfer, Hydro Magnetic Flow, Stretching sheet, Kummars Function

NOMENCLATURE

B
0
uniform strength of magnetic field Greek symbols
c stretching rate
1
chemical reaction parameter
C concentration
2
internal heat generation parameter
C
w
concentration at wall fluid density
C

concentration at infinity electrical conductivity


C
p
specific heat dynamic viscosity
D mass diffusion coefficient kinematic viscosity
G dimensionless stream function stream function
f- dimensionless pressure function dimensionless temperature
k- thermal conductivity dimensionless concentration
K
1,
K
2
reaction rate coefficient and rate dimensionless similarity variable
of material heat source/sink dimensionless transformed
variable
k

permeability of porous media small parameter


M kummers function
Mn magnetic parameter Subscripts
p- pressure w condition at the wall
Pr prandtl number condition at infinity
Sc Schmidt number derivative with respect to
T temperature
T
w
temperature at wall
T

temperature away from wall
u,v. velocity components in x- and y- direction


52 P. H. Veena, J. Phakirappa & V. K. Pravin
INTRODUCTION
The study of laminar boundary layer over a moving continuous solid surface gained importance in several
industrial processes, such in fibre industry, polymer processing, electrochemistry etc. In the view of these applications,
the pioneering work in this area was done by Sakiadis [1] in his study he analyzed boundary layer over a continuous solid
surface moving with constant speed, Crane [2] extended this problem to stretching sheet with velocity varied linearly with
the distance from a fixed point on the sheet, Gupta and Gupta [3] presented the heat and mass transfer on a stretching sheet
with blowing/suction in a visco-elastic fluid over a stretching sheet, Liu [4] studied the flow and heat transfer of an
electrically conducting fluid of second order over a stretching sheet subjected to a transverse magnetic field, Chakarabarti
and Gupta [5] have presented the hydro magnetic flow and heat transfer over a stretching sheet, Rollins and Vajravelu [6]
have analyzed the heat transfer in an electrically conducting fluid over a stretching surface.
In view of its importance in several engineering applications and industrial processes non-newtonian fluids, Char
[7] presented the heat and mass transfer in a hydrodynamic flow of visco-elastic fluid over a stretching sheet, Sontha et.al.
[8] have studied the heat and mass transfer in a visco-elastic fluid over accelerating surface with heat source/sink and
viscous dissipation, Rajagopal et. al. [9] have analyzed the heat transfer in a fluid over a linearly stretching sheet with
variable thermal conductivity and internal heat generation.
Sarpkaya [10] have studied the flow of non-newtonian fluids in a magnetic field, Anderson [11] have analyzed the
MHD flow of a viscous fluid past stretching surface, Siddeshwar and Mahabaleshwar [12] have studied the effect of
radiation and heat transfer on MHD flow of a visco-elastic liquid and heat transfer over a stretching sheet, Prasad et.al. [13]
examined about the visco-elastic fluid flow and heat transfer over a stretching sheet with variable viscosity.
Many investigators including, Abel et.al.[14], Bujurke et.al.[15],Khan et.al.[16], Soundalgekar et.al. [17] have
studied on visco-elastic fluid over a moving stretching sheet for various flow models and boundary conditions. Motivated
by these analyses on flow and heat transfer of visco-elastic fluid over a moving stretching sheet. In the present study, heat
and mass transfer for a hydro magnetic flow over a stretching sheet with variable thermal conductivity and variable mass
diffusivity is investigated.
The exact solutions energy and mass equations are obtained in terms of Kummers functions. The effect of
various physical parameters like Magnetic parameter (Mn), Chemical reaction parameter (
1
), Internal heat generation
parameter (
2
), Prandtl number (Pr) and Schmidt number (Sc) are discussed. The effect of all these parameters on wall
temperature gradient and concentration gradient are also discussed.
MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION
Consider a steady two dimensional incompressible, electrically conducting fluid past a flat and non-conducting
stretching sheet, then y = 0 with the velocity cx, where c > 0 and x is longitudinal co-ordinate, the magnetic field of
uniform strength B
o
is applied perpendicular to the stretching sheet. The motion of quiescent fluid is driven solely by the
stretching sheet. Applying two equal and opposite forces along the x-axis the sheet is stretched keeping the origin fixed.
The equations governing the problem are given by.
Continuity Equation
0
y
v
x
u
=

1
Heat and Mass Transfer for a Hydromagnetic Flow over a Stretching Sheet 53
with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Variable Mass Diffusivity
Momentum Equation

0
2
2
2
u u p u
u u
x y x y

| |
+ = +
|

\
2

2 2
2 2
( )
v v p v v
u v
x y x x y

| |
+ = + +
|

\
3
Heat Equation
( )
2 2
2 2 2
( )
T T T T
Cp u v k K T T
x y x y

| |
+ = + +
|

\
..4
Mass Equation
( )
2 2
1 2 2
( )
C C C C
u v D K C C
x y x y


+ = + +

5
By introducing the variable thermal conductivity and variable mass diffusivity, the momentum equations (2) and
(3), mass equation (4) and heat equation (5) becomes,
Momentum Equation

0
2
2
2
u u p u
u B u
x y x y

| |
+ = +
|

\

'
u
k

6

2
2
v v p v
u v
x y x y

| |
+ = +
|

\
7
Heat Equation
( )
2
T T T
Cp u v k K T T
x y y y

| | | |
+ = +
| |

\ \
..8
Mass Equation
( )
1
C C C
u v D K C C
x y y y

| |
+ = +
|

\
..9
where u and v are velocity components in x-direction and y-direction, p is pressure C and C

are concentration
and concentration at infinity, T and T

are temperature and temperature at infinity, is the fluid density, is the dynamic
viscosity, is the electrical conductivity, D is the mass diffusion coefficient, Cp is the specific heat of the fluid under
constant pressure, k is the thermal conductivity, K
1
and K
2
are reaction rate coefficient and rate of material heat
source/sink.
The boundary conditions for the above system of equations are defined as follows
u = cx, v = 0, p = p
w
C = C
w
= C

+ Ax
54 P. H. Veena, J. Phakirappa & V. K. Pravin
T = T
w
= T

+ Bx at y = 0 ...10
u = 0, CC

, TT

at y ...11
where A and B are constants,
To obtain an exact solution to the stretching boundary layer problem of hydro magnetic flow, we introduce a
dimensionless stream velocity of the form
( ) ( ) ( )
1
, ,
2
w
c
c xG y p p c f

| |
= = =
|
\
12
Then the velocity components in terms of stream function
(x, y) are given by
( ) ( ) ' , u c xG v c G
y x



= = = =

13
where =

is kinematic viscosity
Clearly continuity equation (1) is satisfied by introducing equation (13)
SOLUTION OF MOMENTUM EQUATION
To solve momentum equations (6) and (7), substituting equations (12) and (13) in (6) and (7) we get two ordinary
differential equations for G and f as below
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 '''
2
' " ( ) ' G G G G Mn K G = + 14
and ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
' ' "
2
G G f G = 15
The corresponding boundary conditions for G and f are
G (0) = 0
'
G (0) = 1, f (0) = 0 16

'
G ( ) 0 17
Where, Mn =
c
B
o

2
- magnetic parameter

2 '
k
k c

= - permeability parameter
The solution of equation (14) with respect to boundary conditions (16) and (17) is obtained as
G () = ( )

e 1
1
where
2
1 Mn k = + + 18
Heat and Mass Transfer for a Hydromagnetic Flow over a Stretching Sheet 55
with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Variable Mass Diffusivity
By direct integration and using boundary condition. (16) and (17), we get the solution of equation (15) i.e
dimensionless pressure f() as follows.

2 '
f( ) = G ( ) + 2G ( ) - 2 19
Therefore, solutions for the velocity components and pressure takes the following form

' -
u = c x G ( ) = c x e

20
v = ( )
1 e
c G c

| |
=
|
\
21
and

w
p=p - ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
1
2 1 1 2
2 2
w
c
c f p e e


(
= + +

22
SOLUTION OF HEAT EQUATION
To find solution of equation (8), we define a dimensionless temperature as
() =
w
T T
T T

23
Substituting equations (13), (18) and (23) into the heat equation (8) and using boundary conditions equations (10)
and (11), we have
( )
( )
( )
2
2
1
1 ( ) ( ) ( ) Pr ( ) Pr 2 ( ) 0
e
e

+ + + + = 24
and (0) = 1, ( ) 0 25
where, Pr
p
C
k

= - prandtl number

2
2
p
k
C

= -internal heat generation parameter.


PERURBATION SOLUTION
We employ perturbation technique to slove non-linear equation (24) and so we assume,

2
0 1 2
= + + + ---26
Substituting (26) in t equations (24) and (25) and equating like terms with powers of ,we obtain the boundary
value problems.

0 0 2 0
(1 )
( ) Pr ( ) Pr( 2 ) ( ) 0
e
e

+ + =
56 P. H. Veena, J. Phakirappa & V. K. Pravin

0
(0) 1, =
0
( ) 0 = ---27

2
1 1 2 1 1 0 0
(1 )
( ) Pr ( ) Pr( 2 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
e
e

+ + =
1
(0) 0, =
1
( ) 0 = ---28
2 2 2 2
(1 )
( ) Pr ( ) Pr( 2 ) ( )
e
e

+ +

0 1 1 0 0 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ( ) ( )

=
2
(0) 0 = ,
2
( ) 0 = ---29
Higher order equations can be similarly obtained.
Here we have considered only zeroth order equations.The zeroth order equations in the form of confluent hyper
geometric function i.e. kummers function defined as
1
( )
( , , ) 1
( ) !
n
n
n n
a z
M a b z
b n

=
= +


where M is kummers function
and
( ) ( 1)( 2)..........( 1)
( ) ( 1)( 2)...........( 1)
n
n
a a a a a n
b b b b b n
= + + +
= + + +

To slove equation (27) we define new variable

2
Pr
se where s

= = 30
With this substitution (27) transforms to

2
0 0 0
( ) (1 ) ( ) (2 ) ( ) 0 s


+ + + = .31

0
( ) 1, s

=
0
( ) 0 = .32
The solution (31) subjected to boundary conditions (32) in terms of are obtained as

0 0
0 0
0
2
0
0 0
0
4
( ,1 , )
2
( )
4
( ,1 , )
2
a b
a b
M b
a b
M b s


+
+
+
=
+
+
.33
where
Heat and Mass Transfer for a Hydromagnetic Flow over a Stretching Sheet 57
with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Variable Mass Diffusivity

0
2
0 2
4
a s
b s s
=
=

Solution (33) can be re casted in terms of as
0 0
( ) 0 0 0
0 1
0 0 0
( 2, 2 1, )
( )
( 2, 2 1, )
p q
M p q q se
c e
M p q q s

+
+ +
=
+ +
.34
where

1 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
( 2)
[ ( ) ( 2, 2 1, ) ( 1, 2 2, )]
2 1
p q
c p q M p q q s s M p q q s
q


+
= + + + + +
+
0
0
,
2
a
p =
0
0
2
b
q = 35
And the dimensionless temperature gradient at the sheet derived as

0 0
0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
( 2)
( ) [ ( 2, 2 1, ) ( 1, 2 2, )]
2 1
p q
c p q q s M p q q s
q


+
= + + + + +
+
36
where
1
2 0 0 0
[ ( 2, 2 1, )] c M p q q s

= + + 37
SOLUTION OF MASS TRANSFER EQUATION
To find solution of equation (9), we define a dimensionless concentration as
( )
w
C C
C C

38
Substituting equations (13), (18) and (38) into the mass transfer equation (9) and using boundary conditions
equations (10) and (11), we have
( )
( )
( )
2
1
1
1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ( ) 0
e
Sc Sc e

+ + + + = 39
and (0) 1, = ( ) 0 = 40
where, Sc
D

= - Schmidt number

1
1
k
c
= - Chemical reaction parameter.
PERURBATION SOLUTION
We employ perturbation technique to slove non-linear equation (24) and so we assume,

2
0 1 2
= + + + ---41
58 P. H. Veena, J. Phakirappa & V. K. Pravin
Substituting (41) in to equations (39) and (40) and equating like terms with powers of ,we obtain the boundary
value problems.

0 0 1 0
(1 )
( ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) 0
e
Sc Sc e

+ + =

0
(0) 1, =
0
( ) 0 = ---42

2
1 1 1 1 1 0 0
(1 )
( ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
e
Sc Sc e

+ + =

1
(0) 0, =
1
( ) 0 = ---43

2 2 1 2
(1 )
( ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( )
e
Sc Sc e

+ +

0 1 1 0 0 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ( ) ( )

=

2
(0) 0 = ,
2
( ) 0 = ---44
Higher order equations can be similarly obtained.
Here we have considered only zeroth order equations.The zeroth order equations in the form of confluent hyper
geometric function i.e. kummers function defined as

1
( )
( , , ) 1
( ) !
n
n
n n
a z
M a b z
b n

=
= +


where M is kummers function
and
( ) ( 1)( 2)..........( 1)
( ) ( 1)( 2)...........( 1)
n
n
a a a a a n
b b b b b n
= + + +
= + + +

To slove equation (42) we define new variable

2
Sc
re where r

= = 45
With this substitution (42) transforms to

1
0 0 0
( ) (1 ) ( ) (2 ) ( ) 0 r


+ + + = .46

0
( ) 1, r

=
0
( ) 0 = .47
The solution (46) subjected to boundary conditions (42) in terms of are obtained as
Heat and Mass Transfer for a Hydromagnetic Flow over a Stretching Sheet 59
with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Variable Mass Diffusivity

1 1
1 1
1
2
0
1 1
1
4
( ,1 , )
2
( )
4
( ,1 , )
2
a b
a b
M b
a b
M b r


+
+
+
=
+
+
.48
where

1
2
1 1
4
a r
b r r
=
=

Solution (48) can be re casted in terms of as

1 1
( ) 1 1 1
0 1
1 1 1
( 2, 2 1, )
( )
( 2, 2 1, )
p q
M p q q re
c e
M p q q r

+
+ +
=
+ +
.49
where
1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1
( 2)
[ ( ) ( 2, 2 1, ) ( 1, 2 2, )]
2 1
p q
c p q M p q q r r M p q q r
q


+
= + + + + +
+
1
1
,
2
a
p =
1
1
2
b
q = 50
And the dimensionless temperature gradient at the sheet derived as
1 1
0 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
1
( 2)
( ) [ ( 2, 2 1, ) ( 1, 2 2, )]
2 1
p q
c p q q r M p q q r
q


+
= + + + + +
+
51
where
1
2 1 1 1
[ ( 2, 2 1, )] c M p q q r

= + + 52
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The equations for the steady flow of incompressible viscous fluid and heat transfer over a stretching sheet with
variable thermal conductivity and variable mass diffusivity are examined. The energy and mass equations are solved
analytically in terms of Kummers functions. The effect of various physical parameters like Magnetic parameter (Mn),
Prandtl number (Pr), Schmidt number (Sc), Chemical reaction parameter (
1
) and internal heat generation parameter (
2
)
are examined on dimensionless temperature profiles () and concentration profile ().
Fig.1 (a) shows the graph of dimensionless temperature profile () versus for the different values of magnetic
parameter (Mn), we noticed from the figure that temperature at the fixed location increases with increase in values of
magnetic parameter (Mn).
Fig.1(b) is the the graphical representation of dimensionless temperature profile () versus for the different
values of Prandtl number (Pr), we observe from the figure that the temperature at a given point decreases with an increases
in the Prandtl number (Pr).
Fig.2 (a) is depicted to study the dimensionless concenttration profile ()) versus for the different values of
magnetic parameter (Mn), we noticed from the figure that concentration at the fixed location increases with increase in
values of magnetic parameter (Mn).
60 P. H. Veena, J. Phakirappa & V. K. Pravin
Fig.2(b) presents the dimensionless concentration profile () versus for different values of Schmidt number
(Sc), we noticed from the figure that temperature lowered with the increase in the values of Schmidt number (Sc).
Table-1; Shows the results at the sheet

(0) for the Magnetic parameter (Mn), Prandtl number (Pr) and Internal
heat generation parameter (
2
). We observed that the values of temperature gradient

(0) increases as Magnetic parameter


(Mn) and internal heat generation parameter (
2
) increases where as of temperature gradient

(0) decreases as Prandtl


number (Pr) increases.
Table-2 Shows the results at the sheet

(0) for the Magnetic parameter (Mn),Schmidt number (Sc) and Chemical
reaction parameter (
1
). We observed that the values of concentration gradient

(0) decreases as increase in the values of


Magnetic parameter (Mn) and Schmidt number (Sc).
APPENDICES
Table 1: The Results at the Sheet

(0) for the Parameters Mn,
2
, and Pr


Mn
2
Pr

(0)
0 0 6 -5.28125
1 -4.14490
5 -2.78282
10 -2.47842
15 -2.38487
20 -2.34731
20 -0.2 3 -2.29232
-0.1 -2.18423
0 -2.04117
20 0 0.2 -1.98800
0.7 -1.96994
1 -1.96627
5 -2.22784
15 -3.7896
25 -6.69981

Table 2: The Results at the Sheet

(0) for the Parameters Mn,


1
and Sc

Mn
1
Sc

(0)
1 0 2 -1.74755
10 -1.87729
20 -1.98519
40 -2.05499
60 -2.07600
20 0 1 -1.96627
-0.1 -2.01232
-0.2 -2.04980
-0.3 -2.08404
20 0 0.2 -1.98800
0.5 -1.97525
1.5 -1.9703
2.5 -2.00927
Heat and Mass Transfer for a Hydromagnetic Flow over a Stretching Sheet 61
with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Variable Mass Diffusivity
0 1 2 3 4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Fig.1(a).Vari ation of () Vs for Pr=0.2 and different val ues of Mn
()

Mn=20
Mn=40
Mn=60
Mn=80

0 1 2 3 4
0 .4
0 .5
0 .6
0 .7
0 .8
0 .9
1 .0
0 1 2 3 4
0 .4
0 .5
0 .6
0 .7
0 .8
0 .9
1 .0
0 1 2 3 4
0 .4
0 .5
0 .6
0 .7
0 .8
0 .9
1 .0
0 1 2 3 4
0 .4
0 .5
0 .6
0 .7
0 .8
0 .9
1 .0
F i g . 1 ( b ) . V a r i a t i o n o f ( ) V s f o r M n =2 0 a n d w i t h d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f P r
( )

F i g . 1 ( b ) . V a r i a t i o n o f ( ) V s f o r M n =2 0 a n d w i t h d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f P r
( )

P r = 0 . 8
P r =0 . 6 P r = 0 . 4
P r = 0 . 2
F i g . 1 ( b ) . V a r i a t i o n o f ( ) V s f o r M n =2 0 a n d w i t h d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f P r
( )

F i g . 1 ( b ) . V a r i a t i o n o f ( ) V s f o r M n =2 0 a n d w i t h d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f P r
( )


0 1 2 3 4
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05
Fig.2(a). Variation of() Vs for Sc=0.5 and different values of Mn
()

Mn=20
Mn=40
Mn=60
Mn=80

0 1 2 3 4
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Fi g.2(b).Vari ati on of () Vs for Mn=20 and different values of Sc
()

Sc=0
Sc=0.5
Sc=1
Sc=1.5

62 P. H. Veena, J. Phakirappa & V. K. Pravin
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