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- Introduction to Wireshark and Protocol Analysis
Aim: To analyze various network protocols using Wireshark (Ethereal) Objective: To learn the different „Header Fields‟ of the protocols by capturing live packets using a network protocol analysis tool Prerequisite: Understanding of TCP/IP Layers and its protocols Required Resources: LAN or WAN, Wireshark Network Analyzer Description: Wireshark is a free and open-source packet analyzer. It is used for network troubleshooting, analysis, software and communications protocol development, and education. Wireshark does not manipulate packets on the network, but can only analyze those already present, with minimal overhead. (Further reading: http://is.gd/RazB76) Installing Wireshark: For Windows OS (Windows 7) Download the latest stable version of WireShark (v1.6.5). (Available at http://is.gd/Ys7UeV) Choose all components for installation, including WinPcap. Proceed until completion. WireShark may now be launched by running the application launcher. Checklist: A PC with 256 MB RAM, 40 GB HDD Wireshark with complete installation Proper LAN or WAN to capture the packets For Linux OS (Ubuntu 9.10) Use Ubuntu Software Center to install WireShark. WireShark has to be run with root privileges, so that it has the required permissions to monitor the network interfaces. To do so, type in the following command in the terminal “sudo wireshark” (without quotes).
Procedure: BITS-Pilani 1
PART-I 1. Figure 2 4. press CTRL+E or from the menu. Figure 1 3. Start Wireshark by starting the executable from the installed directory. Select proper interface for capturing packets. In order to stop a running capture. 2. BITS-Pilani 2 . if you would only like to see HTTP packets enter HTTP in the Filter input-box and press Apply. For instance. You will now see a dynamic list of packets being captured by WireShark. Various packets may be filtered based on a certain expression. select Capture –> Stop.
org). 2. You will be able to see the TCP request and the associated acknowledgement packets as shown. Figure 4 BITS-Pilani 3 . 3. Filter for http packets and right click on one of them to follow the TCP stream.Figure 3 PART-II 1. packet capture is tried while trying to access a website (say. Wikipedia. Now.
Figure 7 BITS-Pilani 4 .Figure 5 Figure 6 4. The application layer HTTP packet may also be analyzed.
each dot represents a TCP segment sent. You should see a plot that looks similar to the following plot.5. Figure 8 Here. Similarly. We can examine the amount of data sent per unit time from the client to the server. For that matter one can use Network Traffic Generator tool. Select a HTTP segment in the window and then go to Statistics->TCP Stream Graph->TimeSequence Graph (Stevens). provided the desired protocol (for analysis) should run on the LAN at the time of capturing through Wireshark. Observations: Header format of a TCP packet TCP three way hand-shaking Different Layers in TCP/IP and their header formats Likewise other protocols can also be analyzed using Wireshark. go through other statistical presentations. For example UDP packets should be transferred on the LAN when one is trying to capture it via Wireshark. plotting the sequence number of the segment versus the time at which it was sent. Note that a set of dots stacked above each other represents a series of packets that were sent back-to-back by the sender. In brief some protocol capturing and analysis is shown below. BITS-Pilani 5 .
With UDP. It has no handshaking dialogues.User Datagram Protocol The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet protocol suite. computer applications can send messages. online games. it is a carrier for DNS data. As this is normally IP over unreliable media. It is simple. suitable for bootstrapping or other purposes without a full protocol stack. followed by the DNS protocol explanation. ordering or duplicate protection. such as in streaming media applications for example IPTV The lack of retransmission delays makes it suitable for real-time applications such as Voice over IP. Time-sensitive applications often use UDP because dropping packets is preferable to waiting for delayed packets. avoiding the overhead of such processing at the network interface level. there is no guarantee of delivery. an application may use the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) which is designed for this purpose. UDP provides checksums for data integrity. The datagram format for UDP is explained in below figure in which various fields of UDP datagram are mentioned. UDP uses a simple transmission model with a minimum of protocol mechanism. UDP provides no guarantees to the upper layer protocol for message delivery and the UDP protocol layer retains no state of UDP messages once sent. It is transaction-oriented. UDP is suitable for purposes where error checking and correction is either not necessary or performed in the application. which may not be an option in a real-time system. and many protocols built on top of the Real Time Streaming Protocol. suitable for simple query-response protocols such as the Domain Name System (DNS) or the Network Time Protocol. If error correction facilities are needed at the network interface level. Works well in unidirectional communication. BITS-Pilani 6 . the set of network protocols used for the Internet. suitable for very large numbers of clients. and port numbers for addressing different functions at the source and destination of the datagram. It provides datagram. in this case referred to as datagram. and thus exposes any unreliability of the underlying network protocol to the user's program. suitable for modelling other protocols such as in IP tunnelling or Remote Procedure Call and the Network File System. It is stateless. to other hosts on an Internet Protocol (IP) network without prior communications to set up special transmission channels or data paths. such as the DHCP and Trivial File Transfer Protocol. A number of UDP's attributes make it especially suited for certain applications. suitable for broadcast information such as in many kinds of service discovery and shared information such as broadcast time or Routing Information Protocol As stated above. so we will be analyzing UDP with DNS.
UDP Datagram The UDP datagrams are captured (using Wireshark) when system is trying to use DNS query Figure 10. UDP Datagram captured Using Wireshark BITS-Pilani 7 .Figure 9.
In the query response manner DNS server serves the clients. TCP Vs UDP Packet Sent Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers. for which UDP is used as work horse. BITS-Pilani 8 . distributed keyword-based redirection service. By providing a worldwide. format of a particular DNS query and the flow graph of the DNS query-response mechanism. services. UDP TCP Figure 11. all are captured using Wireshark. or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. Following figures will be showing the capturing of DNS queries. It associates information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. for example here is the comparison of TCP and UDP packets sent on time scale. it translates domain names meaningful for users to the numerical IP addresses needed for the purpose of locating computer services and devices worldwide.The analysis of various protocols can be done using the “Analysis” option. the Domain Name System is an essential component of the functionality of the Internet. Most prominently.
Flow Graph for Captured DNS Query Response BITS-Pilani 9 . DNS Packet Format Captured through Wireshark Figure 14.Figure 12. Capturing DNS Query Wireshark Figure 13.
nor is it regularly employed by end-user network applications. It is chiefly used by the operating systems of networked computers to send error messages indicating. ICMP can also be used to relay query messages. Figure 15. that a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached.Internet Control Message Protocol The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. for example. ICMP differs from transport protocols such as TCP and UDP in that it is not typically used to exchange data between systems. ICMP Header Format Figure 16. ICMP Message and Format BITS-Pilani 10 .
IGMP can be used for one-to-many networking applications such as online streaming video and gaming.Internet Group Management Protocol The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a communications protocol used by hosts and adjacent routers on IP networks to establish multicast group memberships. IGMP Packet Format Figure 18. Figure 17. IGMP Packet Header Format Captured through Wireshark BITS-Pilani 11 . and allows more efficient use of resources when supporting these types of applications. IGMP is an integral part of IP multicast.
BITS-Pilani 12 . Carefully analyze the different attributes captured in a stream and see what such fields contain. DHCP.Figure 19. Can you see what goes through a hacker‟s mind! Also many other protocols such as IPv6. ARP and many more can be observed using Wireshark. you should think how a network protocol reader like Wireshark can function as a network “sniffer”. Flow Graph for IGMP Observation Scope: After observing the packet formats with their header fields. The standard procedure for capturing and analyzing such protocols are same and as above.
: Date: Signature BITS-Pilani 13 .Observation Sheet Experiment Name: Introduction to Wireshark and Protocol Analysis Procedure: Observation Table: S. No Questions What is the IP address used by 1 the client computer? What is the TCP port number 2 used by the client computer? What is the sequence number of the TCP SYN segment that is used to initiate the TCP 3 connection between the client computer and destination? What is the sequence number of the SYNACK segment sent 4 by destination to the client computer in reply to the SYN? What is the length for 5 captured UDP packet header? Which flag is set in a captured 6 DNS query and why? What are the observed type(s) of ICMP message captured 7 using Wireshark? What is the version of ICMP 8 used? Suggestions (if any): Answers Name: ID No.
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