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Introduction Scenario in pakistan Constitution of pakistan Comparison with other countries World bank report. Rights for Working Women Women Working in Agriculture Pregnancy Based Discrimination Sexual Harrassment At Work Women take action! Global Labour Market: Percentage of Female Labour Characteristics of Women Entrepreneurs Challenges Faced by Women Pakistan Working Women Make Their Marks European Professional Women’s Network Steps taken by government Suggestions Critical analysis Conclusion
The regulatory environment does not generally discriminate against women. traditional and religious elements. This category is contemporary rather than traditional. The modern institutional environment has a cosmetic tinge of equality and sometimes even discriminates positively in favour of women. Article 25 of the Constitution of Pakistan (1973).The working environment for women in Pakistan reflects the complex interplay of many factors. the policy environment and the regulatory structures thus embed — or are interpreted — to discriminate against the economic activity of women. This is . and second. The reproductive role limits women to the home. race and class and also empowers the government to take action to protect and promote women’s rights. as well as in the sphere of production and related economic activity. where they bear children and raise the family. The first is made up of social. The social and cultural picture — with slight variations according to geographical region and social class — perpetuates a traditional patriarchal structure with compartmentalized gender roles. The most recent example is the draft Labour Policy of the Government of Pakistan that pays lip service to female labour force issues without announcing any tangible steps to redress the problems of women workers. The traditional systems pose difficulties for women in general and entrepreneurs in particular in two ways. regulatory arrangements and institutional mechanisms. as modern institutions are derived from traditional ones. established rituals and a firm belief system. The tradition of male honor associated with the chastity of their female relations restricts women’s mobility. but even well-intentioned provisions can sometimes result in negative discrimination. taking the form of constitutional structures. limits social interaction and imposes a check on their economic activity. policy documents. Employment figures show that about 90% of workers in this sector are male. The policy and regulatory environments are cosmetically better as they sometimes positively discriminate in favour of women. First. which fall into two basic categories. but the underlying power of tradition and the vested interests of the patriarchal system work to maintain the status quo. cultural and traditional taboos on women allow men to carve legitimacy for themselves in public affairs. The second group of factors derives from the first group. they are inherently discriminatory. guarantees equality of rights to all citizens irrespective of sex. An example would be the highly skewed labour structure of the apparel industry in Pakistan. The social. they inhibit the equity-based composition of modern institutions and their fair working. cultural. The gender bias of this type of system is rigid and deep-rooted as it draws legitimacy from the perpetuation of a traditional mind-set. But contemporary legislation covertly discriminates against women’s economic activity as producers and providers of services. so it is cosmetically impartial. This aspect of the environment has taken shape over many centuries. The stereotyped functions of reproduction and production assigned to women and men determine the overall ambiance of Pakistani society and also establish the status of both sexes. The legal framework. for example. it is anchored in the patriarchal system and clearly manifested in the lower status of women. playing only an auxiliary part in production activity.
While increased access to employment has provided new economic and social opportunities for poor women. Working mothers face everyday barriers as they try to support their families.exactly opposite to the situation in other South Asian countries where 90% of workers in the apparel industry are women. The sex-disaggregated comparison of national statistics and comparative regional benchmarking indicate the disadvantaged position of women who try to start or run a business in Pakistan. and women often comprise between 70-90 percent of the total labor force in EPZs throughout Asia. Forced sexual relations and pregnancy tests. Read more about female temporary workers in global agro-export industries. Women workers are systematically denied their rights to regular pay and regular working hours. UNDP (1996) describes the strong “inside/outside” dichotomy in Pakistan. which become a pre-condition for employment.m. significantly reduce a woman's ability to demand a living wage and break out of poverty. The World Bank Country Gender Profile of Pakistan deplores the fact that the status of women in Pakistan is among the lowest in the world. training opportunities and social services. Latin American and Sub Saharan Africa. Organizing against abuse is also particularly difficult for women. And last but not least. where women are restricted to the “inside” space of home and household. Hence the long hours often required in this industry provide a disincentive to employ women. The logical outcome of a gender-biased environment is the low status and weak bargaining position of women. . the jobs they occupy remain unregulated and unstable. These industries are heavily dependent on cheap unskilled female labor. permanent contracts. because of the highly gendered nature of subcontracting and other forms of flexible work. The domestic responsibilities of women workers make it impossible for them to work long hours outside the home. is a particularly egregious and widespread form of discrimination against women. The male head of a Pakistani family would not allow his female relations to work in a factory after sunset. equal pay for equal work. This restricts women's access to education. employment. women trainees would not be welcome at all the production places where Ustad-Shagird is the predominant mode of apprenticeship. The problem is further compounded by the complex interplay of traditional and contemporary factors. Employers do not like to hire women who might ask for maternity leave/benefits. The difference is explained by a labour regulation in Pakistan that restricts the employment of women after 7 p. Globalization has led to the rise of export processing zones (EPZs) in poor countries throughout the world. and workplace-related sexual violence. safe and non-hazardous work environments. and freedom of association. embodied in the tradition of veiling. Sexual harassment in the workplace.
Amanda Camacho. A survey conducted in 2008 found that 35% of cut-flower workers in the main cut-flower growing region of Colombia had been subcontracted out through employment agencies or work cooperatives. particularly since the global economic crisis. Paraguay Farms. Women are most vulnerable to the labor rights violations accompanying contractor labour. meaning that they must chose to either give up their income or continue to work while pregnant. also face discrimination in the workplace. Women are also not granted pregnancy leave. Women workers in the Honduran melon industry have reported facing sexual harassment in the workplace from both coworkers and bosses. and the short statutes of limitations prevent women from being able to bring formal charges against their employers. Women have been uniquely affected by the rise in unstable forms of employment. The story of Peruvian asparagus worker. Women whose pregnancies aren’t discovered by their employers are often faced with the impossible dilemma of being fired for revealing their pregnancy (maternity leave is virtually non-existent in the industry). who was fired after becoming pregnant. The union is nearly 90% women and Amanda is one of the many single mothers. they have been able to negotiate for a modest raise. the prohibitive cost of legal fees. so they are stuck in the lowest rung of the employment latter where jobs are unstable and have fewer protections. It has become all too common for employers to require mandatory pregnancy testing and then to discriminate and fire workers according to the results. just like working women around the world. The double burden of domestic work on women is one of the reasons for women’s over-representation in precarious employment.” a common union busting mechanism in Colombia. . Women workers who have organized have been able to avoid being replaced by subcontracted workers.The agro ondustrial sector has become increasingly occupied by temporary workers worldwide. Workers decided to organize when they saw their senior co-workers being replaced by workers from temporary agencies or labor “cooperatives. or risk the safety of their fetus in order to put food on the table. Women are consistently victims of sexual harassment at work. Women are often newer to the workforce then men or have less education. revealing that 55% of female Ecuadorian cut-flower workers faced sexual harassment on the job. Honduran women. Women workers in many agro-export industries are often victims of gender based discrimination. are rarely considered for promotions. They receive lower wages. Single mothers particularly benefit from unions as they struggle to raise a family with one income. Because Amanda and her co-workers successfully avoided being replaced. Most of these cases of rights violations go unpunished because the high level of workplace intimidation. benefits and job stability. a Colombian cut-flower worker recently led a successful union organizing effort at her company. hired under short-term contracts (if any contract) by employment agencies or subcontracted recruiters. and are generally barred from higher paying positions.
health. initiates action and activity without direction.6% in 1996/97. and results in income. Studies reveal that there are multiple general individual characteristics of women business owners that promote their creativity and generate new ideas and ways of doing things. subjective process. Limited access to the essentials of life undermines their capabilities.8% in urban areas. confront women entrepreneurs. globalization of social and economic environments. the activity rate of women in the labour market has increased in the last two decades. They employ other people. as in many other developing countries. In Denmark it is 46. Barriers. financing. Characteristics reflected in research of women entrepreneurs show a woman who is highly motivated. provide valuable services. The crude activity rate (% of labor force in total population) for women in rural areas is 10. poverty and social exclusion. Women businesses in Pakistan are typically characterized thus: .9%. Societal. Other challenges faced by all enterprises and women in particular are. political contacts. In the USA and Canada it grew from 37% and 32% respectively in 1970 to 45% in 1990. In the Netherlands it increased from 24. Women entrepreneurs in the developing world make a large and often unrecognized contribution to their countries' economic development. and extortion. In Pakistan it merely increased from 6.6% in 1993. clean drinking water and proper sanitation. some perceived and some self-imposed. and play a vital role in the development of emerging market economies worldwide.2% in 1975 to 40. as they do not enjoy the same opportunities as men. In the area of international business obstacles include limited international business experience. has a high internal locus of control. legal aspects. The segregation of the sexes starts early and becomes a way of life. In Europe.7% and 6. Transition economies can pose difficult hurdles such as banking. Therefore they face many challenges. and propensity toward achievement. women are handicapped in society. They are not only deprived of financial resources but also lack access to basic needs such as education. In Pakistan. Their ambitions and aspirations are suppressed. In the developing economies WEs are a diverse group ranging from those who manage large conglomerates to those who operate roadside restaurants. Women's decision processes indicate a highly personal. bureaucracy that daily invents new mechanisms for the simplest procedures. limits their ability to secure gainful employment. and management. customs tariffs.6% in 1968/69 to 13.3% in urban areas) and the refined activity rate (% of labor force in population of persons having 10 years of age and above) is for women in rural areas is 16% and 8. some real. cultural and religious attitudes also impede women in business. inadequate business education and lack of access to international networks. marketing.
About 60% of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan have opted for traditional business such as parlors. and financial matters are taken care of by male family members. but lack conducive environment to embark on such a journey of developing their career. health. urban women are better placed in terms of accessing information than those operating in the rural areas. Many women are learning skills such as embroidery. sewing. low incomes and poor investment capacity. bakeries. lacking peer support and business associations. However. Some of the basic problems a highlighted by various research studies undertaken by women entrepreneurs are: Lack of information Lack of Micro Financing Schemes Lack of Skill Development Lack of Entrepreneurship/Business Skills Lack of Marketing Facilities Lack of Product Designs Lack of Networking and Trust Building Expensive Raw Material Low Quality Control . They are entering in the field of education. Gradually things are improving for a woman. improvements need to be realized in the rural areas where women still lag behind due to the lack of awareness to engage themselves in other activities. which has been caused by their tremendous determination and courage. but the largest number is employed in the garments and handicrafts sector. This hampers their growth. Women entrepreneurs are seen in subordinate roles. They not only lack the financial resources but also lack awareness for facilities available to develop their skills. In rural areas even where top positions are filled by women entrepreneurs most of the opportunities are diverted towards enhancing the skills of men. as there is no time due to domestic chores taking precedence over anything else. economic necessity is forcing more and more women to engage in some sort of employment. with low levels of education and technical skills. lacking role models. Women are essentially performing house-hold chores and helping their family in the fields. engineering. IT and active participation is seen in the sports and politics arena. However. This is because of the restrictions placed on them by the society which does not allow them to receive formal training and to enter the market place.Most women-headed businesses operate from home. low exposure to business. In general. There is a potential envisaged to develop the handicrafts sector and create income generation measures for these women as they possess the talents and aptitude for entrepreneurial development. knitting for income generation. without relieving them of their traditional roles. boutiques.
In the case of illness all expenditures must be paid by the factory owner. linking several thousand business women across Europe. pushing boundaries in the corporate sector in Pakistan. More than a third of the marketing departments are women and more revolutionary is the fact that more than 70 per cent of its factory floor workers are women. females will share their problem with lady supervisor easily. But that is not the entire picture. Through mass media. She has been working in the television industry for 32 years. The government also assure saftey for women in public and private sector. There should be a lady doctor in factory to take care medical problems of female’s workers. European Professional Women’s Network is a vibrant growing pan-European federation of more than 17 women’s network. We aim to share knowledge across Europe. she says she was never aware of a glass ceiling. Therefore realizing the vast potential that women entrepreneurs posses and translating this potential into profits is imperative. NDTV met some women who are breaking the glass ceiling. In the case of death of any worker. in this case. Our common objective is to provide women with the tools. These bills include women protection bill. which is grounded in the belief that promoting private businesses is key to growth. forthright. Their development can only lead to greater economic growth. Supporting businesses with strong associations can strengthen the structural adjustment reforms that are part of the current international wave of decentralization. Musharraf Hai has been heading the multinational. with regular. Unilever Pakistan for more than four years now. There is great potential in the Women Entrepreneurship sector. We combine a sophisticated online networking platform. starting at a time when very few women were seen in the media. natural spirit of entrepreneurship is a powerful key to economic development. and are participating in several Europe-wide initiatives. Government has passed many bills regarding the safety of working and non working women in pakistan. Non-Conducive Working Environment Nurturing an individual's. acid attack bill etc. sexual harrasment bill. There should be lady supervisor to supervise the female workers. seminars. There is need of a staff . knowing she's operating in a predominantly conservative society. Government should take notice that there should be necessary facilities for the working women in garment factories. no nonsense. Sultana Siddiqui in contrast is soft spoken and cautious in her approach. positive change in the attitude of the society members towards working women may be expected. Bold. offline events in many cities across Europe. networks and support they need to assume leadership. There is need for protective laws that would limit women’s hours of work and monitor their working conditions. Pakistan has often hit the headlines for gross gender violations like honour killings and gang rapes. the factory owner must financially support her family. Bad behavior of supervisor should be noticed by the owner of the factory. The situation in pakistan is not still good but the present government took many steps in this regard which shows in future women would be more safe in home and at work place.
From the above findings it was also clear that in the private sector unmarried workers were preferred.5%) respondents. A majority was married (53.5%) women respectively. Canteen and medical facility must be existed in the factory.5%) respondents feel that working women’s financial independence has negative impact on theirs husband’s self esteem. Extra understanding and support was received from family by 155 (77. In two factories. should provide them such opportunities at their own door to increase their family income. Those women who could not work outside the home easily. Salaries of the female workers must be increased. At the same time it was concluded that due to lack of education. and they reported satisfied with their job. Overtime should not be necessary. there was not even facility of rest room or canteen where they could take rest during break. it can be concluded that economic motives and economic problems of families were the forces driving for the working women to involve in the economic activities.5%) women felt they did not have enough time for themselves. youngster had less awareness about their problems. economic problems and other problems.5%) with more than grade XII education (67%). It was also concluded that majority of the working women had low salary.room where women workers can take rest during the period of rest. Although the majority of the major obstacle in their way to serve is the unfavorable attitude of relatives and society members. Those who were not satisfied . but at the same time there seems certain positive changes in the attitude of the friends. Confidence in working women is higher than non-working women according to 142 (71%) respondents.5%) were finding it difficult to carry out home responsibilities because of it. govt.05 years. working women were treated badly by the male colleagues. Mostly the working women belonged to the poor families. In factories. Financial benefits outweigh other disadvantages according to 105 (52. so they are not given fair treatment and proper attention to their problems by the administration. Eighty one (40. Supervisor of the unit in the factory must impose the same rules and regulation on workers.5%) and 115 (57. Based on study findings.5%) respondents. The mean age was 29. Pension and gratuity should be available to the female workers.5%) and eighty (40%) respondents respectively. colleagues and family members. had bad conditions of their families. Some working women did not say anything about facility due to lack of education and awareness. Sixty three (31.5%) women were working due to need and eighty three (41. Working women viewed that perception of people towards working women were changing but with low speed. The status of working women is better than non-working women according to 123 (61. Most the factory workers were not conscious of their rights to articulate demands in exchange for their great contributions to industry. Two hundred working women were interviewed. Marriage prospects of working women and their children are better than non-working women and their children according to eighty one (40. Open meeting should be arranged in which female workers must have freely discussion in this meeting. One hundred twenty three (61.
with their work told that their economic problems forced them to work in that situation. .
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