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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Mammary Glands
Mammary Glands (Breast) is a highly efficient organ mainly used to produce milk and is a mass of glandular, fatty, fibrous tissues. These glands are present in males and females; however, they normally function in the latter gender only. Function The biological role of the mammary glands is to produce milk to nourish a newborn baby and to pass antibodies needed for babys protection against infections (passive immunity) while the immature immune is initiating its function. Breast Anatomy The breast is internally composed of the following parts: Lobes and Lobules Internally, the mammary gland is composed of 15-25 lobes that radiates around the nipple. Each lobe consists of about 20-40 lobules, a smaller milk duct that contains 10-100 supporting alveoli. Glandular tissues are responsible for milk production and transportation which is composed of: 1. Alveoli epithelial grape-like cluster of cells where milk is produced. 2. Ductules branch-like tubules extending from the clusters of alveoli and empties to larger ducts called lactiferous ducts. 3. Lactiferous ducts widen underneath the areola and nipple to become lactiferous sinuses. 4. Lactiferous sinuses collect milk from lactiferous ducts and narrows to an opening in the nipple (nipple pore). Connective tissue supports the breast. Coopers ligaments are fibrous bands that attach the breast to the chest wall and keep the breast from sagging. Blood nourishes breast tissue and supplies the nutrients to the breast needed for milk production.

Nerves make the breast sensitive to touch, hence allowing the babys suck to stimulate the release of hormones that trigger the let-down or milk ejection reflex (oxytocin) and the production of milk (prolactin).

Lymph nodes removes waste products

Adipose tissue (fat) protects the breast from injury. The breast is externally composed of the following parts: Areola pigmented area that surrounds the nipple.

Nipple protruding area at the center of each breast. It contains smooth muscle and is very sensitive to tactile stimulation. Myoepithelial cells- surround the alveoli and contract to expel milk from the alveoli.

Lymphatic System

Functions:
1. Fluid balance 2. Fat absorption 3. Defense Lymphatic Capillaries- are tiny, closed-ended vessels consisting of simple squamous epithelium. They are more permeable than blood capillaries because they lack basement membrane. They remove fluid from tissues. The fluid becomes lymph. Lymphatic Vessels- resemble small veins. They cause lymph to move forward as they are compressed. They have valves that prevent the back-flow of lymph. Lymph nodes- are rounded structures, varying in size from that of small seeds of that of shelled almonds. They filter lymph and produce lymphocytes.

3 Superficial Lymph Nodes 1. Inguinal nodes in the groin 2. Axillary nodes in the axilla 3. Cervical nodes in the neck Lymph nodules- are dense aggregations of tissue formed by the lymphatic tissue that consists of lymphocytes and other cells. Lymphatic sinuses- are spaces between lymphatic tissues which contain macrophages on a network of fibers. Lymph- Clear yellowish fluid derived from interstitial fluid and found in lymphatic vessel.