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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT

SIMEDARBY JOMALINA SDN. BHD BATU 9, JALAN BANTING-KLANG 42500 TELOK PANGLIMA GARANG INDUSTRIAL ESTATE SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN.

WAN SITI NOORHASHIMAH BT W.KAMARUZAMAN KA 09135 IJAZAH SARJANA MUDA KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA DAN SUMBER ASLI UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG JUNE- SEPTEMBER 2012

DECLARATION

I hereby acknowledge that this Industrial Training Report has been verified and it does not contain any CONFIDENTIAL information to be released to the public

Signature : .. Official stamp :. Date :.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In preparing this report, I was in asking with many people especially in Simedarby Jomalina Sdn. Bhd. They have contributed towards my understanding and thoughts. In particular, I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my supervisors, Mr.Varadaraj for encouragement, guidance, critics and friendship. I am also very thankful to all executive, Mr. Masdar Beri, Mr. Suresh Onichandran, Ms. Nurdiyana, all operators especially in refining plant, and all lab assistant in QC Department for their guidance, advice and also motivation. I am also indebted to Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Natural Resources (FKKSA) lectures for their support during my practical in Simedarby Jomalina Sdn. Bhd. My sincere appreciation also extends to my industrial supervisors from Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Ms.Siti Hatijah bt Mortan, manager of Simedarby Jomalina Sdn. Bhd., Dr.Razam bin Abdul Latif and other who have provided assistance at various occasions. Their views and tips are useful indeed. Unfortunately, it is not possible to list all of them in this limited space. I am grateful to all communities of Simedarby Jomalina Sdn. Bhd and friends in the same batch with me who also contribute to industrial training.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

SHORT NAME CPKO CPO COL CPP CST DNOL DNPO FFA I.V JGQRBDPO

FULL NAME Crude Palm Kernel Oil Crude Palm Oil Crude Olein Consumer Packing Plant Crude Stearin Deodorized Neutralized Olein Deodorized Neutralized Palm Olein Free Fatty Acid Iodine Value Jomalina Guaranteed Quality Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil

JGQRBDOL

Jomalina Guaranteed Quality Refined Bleached Deodorized Olein

M&I M.Pt. degrees MEOMA MT NBDPO PAO PKFAD PFAD PORAM RBD RBDPKO RBDPO RBDOL RBDST

Moisture & Impurities Melting Point Malaysian Edible Oil Manufactures Association Metric Tonne Neutralize Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil Palm Acid Oil Palm Kernel Fatty Acid Distillate Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Palm Oil Refiners Association Malaysia Refined Bleached Deodorized Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Kernel Oil Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil Refined Bleached Deodorized Olein Refined Bleached Deodorized Stearin

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

General Background

The overall development of the palm oil in Malaysia is described as having been more colorful. Oil palm was first introduced to Malaysia (then Malaya) in 1875. Early interest in oil palm was as an ornamental plant, and from about 1917 onwards the palm oil sector began its development into what it witnessed today as a multi-billion Ringgit industry. Malaysia has one of the most ideal climatic conditions for growing oil palm, and it is in Malaysia that the crops full potential has been realized and exploited.

Malaysia is the largest producer of the palm oil in the world. Simedarby Jomalina Sdn. Bhd is formerly known as Golden Jomalina Food Industries Sdn. Bhd. It is commenced refining operation in 1977. The area is 4 hectares of factory complex area. The company is acquired by Golden Hope Plantation Berhad in 1984. The Merger of Golden Hope Plantation Bhd., Kumpulan Guthrie and Sime Darby Group to become the new Sime Darby Group in November 2007. They changed to present name in 29 March 2010.

As part of the Sime Darby group, Sime Darby Jomalina is distinct from other refiners by ways of securing continuous premium

quality crude palm oil supply from the plantations. Sime Darby Jomalina

is a leading sustainable solutions provider to the edible oils and fats industry. Our company is certified to the strict requirements of HACCP, ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001 and others. We produced customized premium quality products to meet customers requirements in the business-to-business segment.

Our premier quality products are widely used in food industries globally, with applications in dairy products manufacturing, food

preparation, as well as natural and healthy colorants for food ingredients. The main brands marketed under our company are Golden JomaTM, JomaTM, SAFaRTM and DFaRTM. We are committed to meeting and fulfilling our customers stringent requirements. With our production expertise and professional marketing team, we provide high quality products and excellent service with timely delivery.

Sime Darby Jomalina Sdn. Bhd. produces a wide range of high quality traceable refined palm oil and palm kernel oil products which include industrial shortening, margarine, frying palm oil, dairy fat replacer, animal fat replacer, dough fat, vegetable ghee and cooking oil. Our products are exported to Far East, South East Asia, the Middle East, Europe, Africa and United States of America. Locally, we well position in the Malaysian market.

Sime Darby Jomalina Sdn. Bhd also manufactures tailor-made products to meet consumers specific requirements as well. We are being supported by highly trained and dedicated Innovation Centre Asia under Sime Darby Research Sdn. Bhd which has well over 200 technocrafts, scientist and technicians. They work very closely with our sales and operations team tp serve customer better in providing solutions that meet and extend customers need.

These specialty produced from our very own Premium Quality (PQ) Crude Palm Oil includes: 1. Special Animal Fat Replacer (SAFaRTM ) vegetable fats to replace animal fats in frozen food products 2. Jomalina Guaranteed Quality (JGQTM) - products-products made from Premium Quality CPO 3. Golden JomaTM Red Palm SuperOlein - red palm oil with very high beta carotene content 4. Customised oil products with specific parameters for frying,

application in dairy products, colourants and as healty food ingredient

Organization Chart

Head of Factory Operation

Head of Department, Production

Senior Executive, Planning

Executive, Production Clerk, Production Senior Operator

Operator

Process Control Technician

Attendant

CHAPTER 2

TRAINING ACTIVIES

1.1

Scope This chapter will cover all the information data related to Physical Refining Plant (Plant 22) operations and control from feed raw material of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) to the processing parameters and control in order to get the desired quantity and quality of products that meet or exceed the customers requirements. This plant has a capacity of 700MT/day. The main product from this plant is Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) and by products Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD).

1.2 Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) Process Flow

CPO

Pumping to Bleacher Feed Tank Phosphoric Acid Degumming Bleaching Earth

Bleaching under vacuum

Niagara Filter

Aluvion & Pocket Filter

Bleached Palm Oil Holding in the tank

Pumping to deodoriser P22

Cartridge Filter

Daeration & Pre-heating

Deodorization

Cooling

Fatty Acid Scrubbing & Condensation

RBDPO storage

PFAD storage

1.3 Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD):

Palm Fatty Acid Distillate is by product obtained from condensation of fatty acid and other volatile materials during the deodorization stage in the physical refining of crude palm oil. The fatty acids produced from the various fat splitting processes are purified and separated into fractions or even individual fatty acids by distillation and fractionation. Fatty Acid Distillation. of crude fatty acids removes both the low and high boiling impurities as well as odor bodies. Fatty acids are extremely sensitive to heat, oxidation, and corrosion effects. This is due to the reactive acid group at the end of the long carbon chain. These factors are taken into consideration in the design of the distillation unit and its operating parameters.

Distillation is carried out under high vacuum and lower temperatures and with the shortest residence time allowable. Technical design of most distillation units features high vacuum with no allowance for air leakage, effective heating to achieve short contact time, good circulation for effective mass transfer between vapor and condensate, and steam economy. Internal arrangements of the column vary among suppliers with the ultimate purpose of achieving the design objectives. The basic steps in processing are about the same.

Figure 1: Continuous Fatty Acid Distillation

Crude fatty acid is predried and degassed under vacuum and fed to the distillation unit, which is operated at a vacuum of 1.2 kPa or less and a temperature of approximately 200 . Modern stills use thermal oil or high pressure steam as the heat source. Stripping steam is provided to improve circulation and reduce partial pressure, thus lowering the temperature and reducing degradation losses. The steam facilitates the removal of low boiling impurities as well as odor and color bodies from the vapor exiting the system and from the light ends. The distilled fatty acid has an almost water white color and is free of the major impurities. The heavy ends consist of the higher boiling components, usually of lower quality, which can either be withdrawn separately or recycled directly for redistillation The bottoms or residue are charred viscous

polymerized material, which is disposed of by blending with heavy residual oil and used as boiler fuel. It may also find use as an asphalt additive.

Master of Product Code and Customers. Product Type 190kg Drum Code PFAD-45/48DR(JM)-01-001 190kg Drum PFAD-45/48DR(JM)-01-002 Customers Polymeric Technology S/B Sun Rythym S/B Brand -

Process and QC Limit i) PFAD-45/48- DR(JM)-01-001 Packing Clearance Packaging FFA (Palmitic) % min M & I % max Total Fatty Matter % min 0.5 95 1.0 95 1.0 95 70 Despatch Control 190kg Drum 70 70 Buyer Spec

ii)

PFAD-45/48- DR(JM)-01-002 Packing Clearance Packaging FFA (Palmitic) % min M & I % max 0.5 1.0 1.0 70 Despatch Control 190kg Drum 70 70 Buyer Spec

Total Fatty Matter % min

95 (basic 97)

95 (basic 97)

95 (basic 97)

Determination of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) 1.1 Principle The fat is dissolved in an appropriate solvent after which the solution is titrated with Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The amount of KOH solution consumed is a measure of the acidity of an oil or fat. Free fatty acid (FFA) content is calculated as percentage by weight of fatty

acid of specified molecular weight, according to the type of oil or fat under investigation. Noemally, Palmitic acid with a molecular weight of 256 is taken. In a number of cases an average molecukar weight, more appropriate to the nature of the oil or fat is used. In each report, the basis must be clearly stated.

1.2

Reagents Solvent : ISO Propyl Alcohol (IPA). Neutralize shortly before use with 0.1N KOH solution by drop wise addition using

phenolphthalein as indicator. KOH solution : 0.1N aqueous solution accurately standardized Phenolphthalein indicator: 1% in IPA. 5g Phenolphtalein powder into 500g IPA.

1.3

Apparatus Electric sources hot plate with stirrer Magnetic stirrer bar Beaker, 150ml Digital burette, 25ml Analytical balance, capable of weighing to the nearest 0.001g

1.4

Method 1. Dissolved the oil or fat in at least 50ml of the solvent, if necessary by gentle heating. 2. Titrate while swirling (the magnetic stirrer) using Phenolphtalein as indicator Titration is carried out at room temperature 3. The end point is reached when a permanent pink colour is obtained. This should persist for at least 30seconds 4. The weight of the oil and the normality of titrant are chosen as follows:

Oil type

Approx amount of oil to be weighed (g)

Accuracy of weighing (mg)

Normality of alkali (N)

Crude Oil Refined oil, neutralised oil Acid oil, fatty acid distillate

3 20

1 10

0.1 0.1

0.5

0.1

1.5

Calculation

Free Fatty Acid (FFA) % :

Where, W: Weight (g) of the sample V: Volume (ml) of KOH solution N: Normality of KOH M: Molecular weight of fatty acid

Normally, assume a molecular weight (MW) of 256 for palm oil. The following values are often used: Type of acid Lauric Acid Palmitic Acid Oleic Acid Molecular weight 200 256 282

In the analysis report, the value which is applied should be clearly mentioned. Report results as follows: FFA <5% to nearest 0.01% FFA between 5-10% to nearest 0.05% FFA>10% to nearest 0.1%

Determination of Lovibond Colour

1.1

Scope The test specifies a method for the determination of the Lovibond colour of palm oil and palm oil products.

1.2

Apparatus Lovibond Tintometer Model E (Manual) Lighting Cabinet

Glass cell 5.25 (1334.1mm) or 1 (25.4mm)

1.3

Method Refined samples are first heated if cloudy, filtered to remove impurities if any. (Refer SOP QC Section 8Heating Instruction for Quality) Read colour in 5.25 or 1 cell depending on stages of refining the oil has undergone Colour is reported as Red (R) and Yellow (Y) Lovibond units. Sometimes, Blue (B) and Neutral (N) filters are used to improve the colour matching

1.4

Expression of Result Expression the results in term of the following: 1. The numbers of red, yellow and blue or neutral standars necessary to obtain the match 2. The optical path length of the cell used Only standard cell sized shall be used. Colour measurement taken in one cell sized shall not be used calculate colour values for another cell sized.

Note: 1) Samples must be in liquid form 2) Tintometer shall NOT be set up facing a window or in direct sunlight 3) Glass cell must before use be throughly clean and dry

Determination of Slip Melting Point (SMP) 1.1 Definition The slip melting point is the temperature at which the fat softenes or becomes sufficiently fluid to slip or run

1.2

Apparatus Capillary glass tubing, internal diameter 0.8-1.2mm, wall 0.2-0.3mm, and length approxiamately 7cm

Thermometer -20

to 60

(graduated 0.2

Glass beaker 500-600ml Test tube, internal diameter about 10mm, 1mm thickness length 7cm with cap Heat sources or electric stirring hot plate with rheostat magnetic stirrer Thermostat water bath or incubator set 10 +/- 1 or

refrigerator freezer also can be used but care should be exercise to avoid opening it frequently once the samples being tempered in it.

1.3

Method 1) Melt the sample and filter through filter paper to remove any impurities and the last traces of moisture. The sample must be absolutely dry 2) Dip at least 3 clean capillary tubes into the completely liquid sample so that the fat stands approxiamately 10mm high in the tubes. Solidify the sample at once by holding the ends of the tubes that contain the sample pressed against a piece of ice untill the fat has solidified. Do not allow the open ends of the tubes to touch the ice. Wipe the tubes against a piece of tissues paper as quickly as possible. 3) Place the capillary tubes in a test tube with a tight cover into a beaker and hold in a refrigerator at 4 to 10 (40 to 50 )

over night (16 hours). Remove the tubes from the refrigerator and attach with a rubber band or by any other suitable means to the thermometer so that the lower ends of the tubes are even with the bottom of the mercury bulb of the thermometer 4) Suspend the thermometer in a 600ml beaker of a clear distilled water. The bottom of the thermometer is immersed in a water to a depth of +/-30mm

5) Adjust the starting temperature of the bath to 8-10

below

the expected slip point of the sample. Agitate the water bath by means of a magnetic stirrer and heat slowly so as to increase the batch temperature at the rate of 1 slowing down to 0.5 approached. 6) Continue heating until the fat column rises in each tube. Observe the temperature of the water at which each column rises and calculate the average of all tubes. The diffrence between the three values should not be more 0.3 per minute

per minute as the slip point is

1.4

Expression of Result Record the average value of triplicate results as the slip melting point, expressed in one decimal place.

Sources: 1. http://camtrip.biz/fatty_acid.html