Channel: Messages themselves are transferred through a medium called channel. (However is it not sufficient to only have two parties there should also be cooperation and understanding between them). ideas. Ex: in oral communication the air or telephonic wires are commonly used channels. • For sharing the information you need two parties without which it is not possible. • The communication has its root in the latin word communicare. The Communication cycle: • To understand that whether you have communicated successfully or not you must get feedback ZKLFK LV \RXU REVHUYDWLRQ RI UHFLSLHQW¶V UHVSRQVH.Department of MCAof Technology KNS Institute Technical Communication CH-1 Notes ChapterTechnical Communication and Ethics 1 What is Communication and Explain the Process of Communication? Or Explain Communication Cycle or Brief the Essentials of Effective Communication? Communication Defn: Communication can be defined as the exchange of information. and knowledge between sender and receiver through an accepted code of symbols. Communication environment: Communication takes place in a well defined set-up. Ex: A Class room is the Communication environment when a teacher delivers lectures to students. Language is the tool we use through these channels to exchange information. Note: it is termed effective only when the receiver receives the message intended by the sender in the same perspective. Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Page 1 Ahmed . which means to share. Your communication is fully effective only when you get the desired response from the receiver. This is called as Communication environment.

in the Telephone line. • You say good bye to your family as you leave home. But you might notice that this is not always the case. • When your alarm clock goes off a communication through sound. Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Page 2 Ahmed . or too high a volume or pitch from loud speakers. which causes hindrance (delay) in the transmission of the message.Department of MCAof Technology KNS Institute Technical Communication CH-1 Notes Essentials of Effective communication: • • • • • A Common Communication environment Cooperation between the sender and the receiver. • Ex: Channel noises are distortion due to the faulty backgrounds. noise. Why because of noise Noise Defn: Noise is defined as any unplanned interface in the communication environment. Noise can be classified as channel and semantics. • Where as Channel noise develops externally. misspellings. faulty grammar. • In Written Communication Illegal Handwriting can be termed as channel noise. 3) Explain General and Technical Communication briefly and give the Characteristics of General and Technical Communication? General and Technical Communication: • Communication is important not only in an organization but also in daily life. semantics noise is generated internally. Selection of an appropriate channel Correct encoding and decoding of the message Receipt of the desired response and feedback. and incorrect punctuation. • Ex: ambiguous sentence structure. 2) Give the Defn of Noise? Give a Brief Note on Noise? Noise: When you communicate you desire that the message received should be the same as the message sent. • Your boss calls tell you to take up with a new project business related communication.

Since language is not exact. etc.Department of MCAof Technology KNS Institute Technical Communication CH-1 Notes Characteristics of General and Technical Communication. graphics.they may have been onomatopoeic (formation of words from there sound). 4) Explain How Language plays a vital rule in communication? Or explain how language works as a tool of communication? And briefly explain the characteristics of a language? Language as a Tool of Communication • • • • • • When you try to define a language the first thing what comes in mind is word. many times it leads to misunderstanding. (The DXGLHQFH¶V H[SUHVVLRQV. By changing the word order in a sentence you can change its meaning and even make it meaningless. GLPO\ OLW URRP. WKH SRGLXP DQG \RXU QHUYRXVQHVV)People use language as a barrier to shape the experiences.etc. In fact most of the words evoke certain meaning because people have agreed that the symbols (words) represent specific meaning. drizzle and murmur. • • Characteristics of Language: When we think of any event in our life then lots of pictures will come in mind ex: your first presentation. Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Page 3 Ahmed . Thus language is directly dependent on people and cannot exist in isolation. A few such words that still persist in the English language are buzz. How did the word acquire a meaning? Ex: the connection between a wooden plank balanced on four legs and the word LV « «? Ans: TABLEvery first words there may have been some correlation between the symbol and the In the sense. vocabulary or graphics. General Communication Technical Communication Contains a general message Informal in style and approach No set pattern of communication Mostly oral Not always for a specific audience Contains a technical message Mostly formal Follows a set pattern Both oral and written Always for a specific audience Doesn’t involves the use of Frequently involves jargon(Expressions used technical by professionals).

W artificial. URRW • µQHVFLUH¶ first school. . we Thinking of our PHDQW WR my school. are they not the same words being used to describe the building in different call state. or audio-visual recordings. . some meaning is lost in the process.&( KDV FKDQJHV LW PHDQLQJ RYHU KXQGUHG RI \HDUV? 7RGD\ µQLFH¶ LV XVHG Q RU WR LJQRUDQW. When required. • We must avoid mistaking a changed reality for an unaltered one because of unchanged language.WWDNH WKH ZRUG µA. ([: OHW XV GRHVQ¶W • Now the process of the word AIDS created is easy to trace but this is not always possible. We still called it LW¶V EH it our school. RXWVLGH GHVFULEH VWXSLG. LQ DQ LV 2) Language is Restricted: DEVWUDFW ZD\. after many years it now looks antediluvian and dilapidated. • WKH PLQGV meanings to words as they need to and modify these meanings according to Human Attach VRPHWKLQJ RI changing needs. created by human • SHRSOH. when we were in school the building was new and modern. /DWLQ • No symbol can transmit the exact reality. we should corroborate with other available alternatives. 5) Write a note on Characteristics of a Language? Characteristics of Language: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Artificial Restricted Abstract Arbitrary Creative Redundant Recursive 1) Language is Artificial: /DQJXDJH LV FUHDWHG E\ as they need it. LW FDPH WR PHDQ µ)RROLVK¶. • While communicating we should keep two things in mind.'6¶. • We need to use Language as accurate as possible. H[LVW LQ • LVRODWLR Do you know how the ZRUG 1. AQG LQ WKLUWHHQ FHQWXU\ (QJOLVK. such as non-verbal cues. This did not exist until people were infected by this. graphical elements.WV • When we think and translate our thoughts into language. • Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Page 4 Ahmed . This why we say language is DV µJRRG¶ SHRSOH. .Department of MCAof Technology KNS Institute Technical Communication CH-1 Notes Being aware of the basic characteristics of language may help us understand this better and communicate more effectively.

Ex: edutainment = education + entertainment. It is this that makes all generalization possible. The word nice had acquired many meanings like Pleasant. All of you meet together to see me in the afternoon at 3 pm. This is because of the necessity. Etc. Etc. • Ex: verbal. • 1) 2) 3) 4) 4) Language is Arbitrary: There is no direct relationship between a word and the idea or object it represents. Dress represents any thing from Frock to sari Similarly table can be a tea table or Computer table or Dining Table etc. 6) Language is Repetitive: Whatever language you use it has the capacity for redundancy or repetition. friendly (Ironic) bad or unpleasant (Formal) involving a very small details or difference. Here even if you remove all of you and afternoon still it gives the same meaning. enjoyable or attractive Kind. every year innumerable word will be added up in dictionary.  a peace ([: D µWDEOH¶ DFWXDOO\ NQRZQ of furniture with four legs and wooden plank used for DV keeping things will be called a table. gives different meaning spoken or written and also connected with words or using words. Ex: a couple of girls are riding their bicycles. • Sometimes this arbitrary aspect of language causes problem.Department of MCAof Technology KNS Institute Technical Communication CH-1 Notes 3) Language is Abstract: (using generalized words) • • We say language is abstract because it represents generalized idea of things or thoughts. Bur not always sees the example below. 5) Language is Creative: Language is indeed very creative. Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Page 5 Ahmed . We can accept this sentence because repetition gives meaning to it. Ex: Table or dress. Abstract is an important feature of language.

body receiver. Ex: when you feel hot switch on the fan where the brain gives instruction to you body part to do that work. LW ZDV UDLQLQJ«. ZKLFK ZDV WKH GD\. Interpersonal Communication: Communication at this level refers to the sharing of information among people. which he borrowed from me to wear to his LQWHUYLHZ. Intrapersonal Communication: This takes place within an individual. Brain sender. electrochemical impulse is message. continue this sentence because this sentence can still continue to give proper Still you can meaning. Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Page 6 Ahmed . 6) Explain the Different levels of Communication? Levels of Communication Human Communication takes place at various levels. ZKLFK ZDV RQ :HGQHVGD\. 7KDW¶V ZK\ ZH VD\ LW ODQJXDJH LV UHSHWLWLYH. Ex: this man who is wearing a crumpled suit.Department of MCAof Technology KNS Institute Technical Communication CH-1 Notes 7) Language is Recursive: Recursive the characteristics of a language which enables you to generate any number of sentences using the same basic grammatical templates. • Extra personal • Intrapersonal • Interpersonal • Organizational • Mass Extrapersonal communication: Communication between human beings and non human entities is extra personal Ex: when your pet dog comes to you.

Impersonality: This kind of communication is largely impersonal as the participants are unknown to each other.. 7) Explain the Flow of Communication ? The Flow of Communication: • Information flows in an organization both formally and informally.. television. upwards.Department of MCAof Technology KNS Institute Technical Communication CH-1 Notes Ex: informal communication (meeting with your family members) or formal communication (official meeting). books. The characteristics of type of communication: Large reach: Mass media communication reach audience scattered over a wide geographic area. lateral or diagonal as shown below..Etc. Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Page 7 Ahmed . Mass Communication: For this kind of communication we require a mediator to transmit information. Internal Operational  conducting work within an organization is classified as internaloperational. External Operational  communication with people outside the organization. These are several mass media communication such as journals. Organizational Communication: Communication in an organization takes place at different hierarchical levels.. • This type of communication can flow in various directions • Downwards. • Internal operational and external operational communication can be described as formal. Personal  all communication in an organization that occurs without purpose as far as business is concerned.

Ex: sales manager communicates directly with the vice president. Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Page 8 Ahmed . Upward communication: When subordinates send reports to inform their superiors or to present their findings and recommendations the communication flows upwards. when manager inform. Lateral or Horizontal Communication: This form of communication takes place among peer groups or hierarchically equivalent employees.Department of MCAof Technology KNS Institute Technical Communication CH-1 Notes Downward communication: flow from a manager. Such communication is often necessary to facilitate. Diagonal or Cross-wise communication: Diagonal or cross wise communication flow in all directions and cuts across functions and levels in an organization. down the chain of communication. instruct or request their subordinates the communication takes place in downward pattern. save time and bridge the communication gap among various departments. coordinate.

we see two subordinates reporting to one senior. The wheel network refers to several subordinates reporting to a superior. Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Page 9 Ahmed . The Communication Network is Classified as 1) Formal Network models 2) Informal Networking Model Formal Network models • • • • • Chain network Y-network Wheel network Circle network All channel network Chain network: The Chain Network represents a vertical hierarchy in the in the flow of communication.Department of MCAof Technology KNS Institute Technical Communication CH-1 Notes 8) Explain Communication Network in Detail? Explain its types? Or Explain Formal Communication Network in detail? Or Explain Informal Communication Network in detail? Or Give the Characteristics of Grapevine? Or Give the Advantages and disadvantages of informal communication or grapevine? Communication networks: A variety of patter emerges when communication combines through vertical and horizontal channels. Y-network: Are in effect a multi-level hierarchy and a combination of horizontal and vertical flow of communication? If we turn the Y upside. The circle network allows employees to interact with adjacent members but no further.

enables each employee to communicate freely with others. to develop their human resources. 2) Informal Network Model. And in turn their productivity. This informal network is very active in almost every organization. For effective use of communication network.Department of MCAof Technology KNS Institute Technical Communication CH-1 Notes The All channel network which is least structure. Here the message is passed from one person to another along single strand. Types of informal networks: • Single strand • Gossip • Probability • cluster Single Strand: It is the way in which most people view the grapevine. The wheel and all channel network are preferred if speed of communication is a priority. Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Page 10 Ahmed . The chain. Y and wheel network serves best when accuracy is crucial. we need to remember the following: No single network is suitable for all occasion. Some organizations consciously use it to great effect.

Probability type of Network: each person tells other at random.Department of MCAof Technology KNS Institute Technical Communication CH-1 Notes Note: Grapevine: the means of transmission of rumors. is the Lecturer: Syed Khutubuddin Page 11 Ahmed Disadvantages Reveal some degree of error Be harmful in case it is baseless or imaginary Lead to misunderstanding because of incomplete information . Gossip Network: One person passes information to all the others. Cluster: The most popular pattern of grapevine communication refers to that flow of information in which some people tell a selected few of the other. Characteristics of Grapevine: Advantages Not expensive Rapid Multidirectional Not be reliable as nobody takes capable of If carefully cultivated.

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