You are on page 1of 12

Common Rail

Less consumption. Less soot. Less NOx.

MAN Diesel

MAN Diesel Common Rail


Cover: Detail of Common Rail pump valve carrier

MAN Diesel Common Rail

Injection technology for medium-speed four-stroke engines

The coming decades will see a sharp increase in the ecological and economic demands placed on internal combustion engines. Evidence of this trend is the yearly tightening of emissions standards worldwide, a development that aims not only at improving fuel economy but above all at achieving clean combustion that is low in emissions.

Large reductions in NOX, CO2 and soot emissions are a strategic success factor for HFO diesel engines. Special emphasis is placed on low load operation, where conventional injection leaves little room for optimisation since the injection process, controlled by the camshaft, is linked to the engine speed. Thus, possibilities for designing a load independent approach to the combustion process are severely limited. MAN Diesel Common Rail Technology (CR) severs this link in medium-speed four-stroke engines. CR permits continuous and load-independent control of injection timing, injection pressure and injection volume. Thus, CR technology achieves the highest levels of flexibility for all load ranges and yields significantly better results than any conventional injection system. MAN Diesel now offers the industry two mature and fieldtested injection systems that have been tailored to fit specific engine characteristics: CR technology for medium-speed four-stroke engines and ME technology for low-speed two-

stroke engines. ME technology is based on a Pressure Boosted Common Rail System. It differs from the fourstroke CR primarily in its servorail system that supplies high pressure fuel to each cylinder via the pressure booster and simultaneously activates the exhaust valve. MAN Diesel injection systems: variable injection pressure for reduced fuel consumption and lower emissions in all engines from truck diesel engines in MAN commercial vehicles to medium-speed and low-speed engines in MAN Diesel.

MAN Diesel CR Technology Measurably friendly to the environment

Smoke emission 0,9 (rel.)


MAN Diesel Common Rail Technology lowers the emission rate of soot and NOx at all possible engine operating points even when using single injection only, i.e. without pilot or post-injection.
0 25 50 75 100

0,3 0,0

The graph shown here compares conventional and CR injection processes during generator operation over an engine load range of 0 to 00 % at an engine speed of 750 rpm. Due to the flexibility of the injection process, NOx emission,


1,25 1,00

0,75 0,50 0 25 50 75 100

fuel consumption and exhaust opacity can be improved by varying injection pressure and start of injection. Even in the commonly problematic low load range, exhaust opacity can be brought down below the visibility limit.


1,1 1,0

0,9 0,8 0 25 50 75 100

Max. cylinder pressure (bar)

200 150

100 050 0 25 50 75 100

Engine Load (%) Conventional CR

Comparison of engine performance for different injection systems

MAN Diesel Common Rail

General benefits

injection valve

rail unit

control valve
rail cover

pump accumulator throttle valve high pressure pump

Higher efficiency with flexible injection

The old problem with the fixed link between injection pressure and engine speed is well-known. In engines with high effective mean pressure, there is a rapid decline in injection pressure in the low load range, a phenomenon that has a negative effect on the air-to-fuel ratio and on spray atomisation that are key to combustion. Poor combustion is the consequence. The new MAN Diesel CR injection technology permits independent and separate control of injection pressure and timing. Fuel is fed into the rail (pressure accumulator) by an electronically controlled high pressure pump and stored there for each injection. The result is improved combustion and lower emissions with the same or even better fuel economy strong advantages, especially in the critical low load range.


Our CR technology is an ideal tool for lowering pollutant emissions and fuel consumption while giving the user the security that this system will continue to meet the demands of the future: todays diesel engine designs at MAN Diesel already include tomorrows requirements, such as multiple injections.

Retrofit? Retrofit!
CR technology from MAN Diesel takes advantage of a modular high pressure pump system with multiple lobes on the camshaft. The camshaft drives the high pressure pumps, which are equipped with solenoid operated suction throttle valves for pressure control. This layout and the modular structure of the units makes it possible to install MAN Diesel CR technology retrospectively. Thus, many older diesel engines can still benefit from the new technology: simple, fast retrofitting and upgrading for lower emissions with no loss in output. 5

Doing more for the environment

The injection flexibility of MAN Diesel CR technology means decidedly lower NOX and CO2 emissions thanks to highly effective combustion.

Enhancing reliability by thinking ahead


MAN Diesel CR injection technology is synonymous with reliability and reliability begins at the development process.

>> Should a high pressure pump fail:

MAN Diesel CR systems are equipped with at least two high pressure pumps and the system can easily be operated with only one high pressure pump.

>> Should the rail pressure controller fail:

A safety valve with an additional mechanical pressure control valve ensures the continued MAN Diesels experience in the development and production of high pressure injection systems has been consistently advanced and implemented in CR technology. In addition to theoretical investigations of safety concept, test operations with HFO on MAN Diesel system test rigs are of central importance and make it possible to immediately define any preventive measures required to guard against potential technical problems. Consequently, CR technology from MAN Diesel is able to offer excellent reliability in all operating situations and, from the outset, brings with it a high degree of maturity. operability of the system.

>> Should a rail pressure sensor or the speed/ top dead centre sensor malfunction:
Important sensors are redundant to ensure that here, too, the system will continue to operate.

>> To protect against fuel escaping from leaking fuel pipes:

All high pressure lines, rails and high pressure connections are double wall insulated.

>> To protect against uncontrolled injections:

Flow limitation valves at each cylinder prevent unintended injection.

MAN Diesel Common Rail

Detailed pre-tests using system test rigs with HFO in Augsburg

As a matter of principle, MAN Diesel has kept the basic concept of its Common Rail Technology as simple as possible and has integrated technically proven components into the design. For example, in keeping with this philosophy, the design does not use a separate servo circuit for activating the injection valve. Less maintenance is one of the benefits. Also, integrated into the CR technology are well-proven components with long service experience, such as injection valves and nozzles. The injection control valves are on the rail outside of the cylinder head, resulting in greater system reliability.

Mature technology
Introduction of the 32/40CR on the market was preceded by years of intensive, practise oriented development at MAN Diesel using the Augsburg test facilities. Subsequent tests performed in co-operation with a customer yielded such positive results that today, MAN Diesel is able to offer a mature technology that reliably guarantees an optimum level of performance, environmental compatibility and economy.

Modular pump system for greater reliability

MAN Diesel engines use either two or three high pressure pumps, depending on the number of cylinders. The pumps are capable of accumulating a pressure of up to  00 bar in the rail system. This design offers added machine reliability, because even if one pump should fail, the engine will continue to be operable.

A high pressure rail segment for control valves

In principle, there are several possible designs for the fuel accumulator. For example:

>> one high pressure rail for the entire engine, >> independent high pressure rail segments for two
or three cylinders,

>> individual accumulators for each cylinder.

MAN Diesel decided on one high pressure rail segment for two cylinders, as with this design, medium-speed four-stroke engines can achieve a maximum level of pressure stability and operating reliability while at the same time taking advantage of a simple and integral structure. The concept of modular elements has also been implemented in the rail segment design. Types 2/0 and

Type 48/60B

/0B use the same base elements. Only the lengths of the rail units were adjusted.
Type 32/40

In addition, on both ends of the segment the patented valve support integrates the control valves with solenoid, flow limiter and connections for high pressure lines.

Modular rail unit with integrated control valve for different engines

MAN Diesel Common Rail

ECU The electronic heart of the MAN Diesel CR System

The heart of MAN Diesel CR injection technology is the electronic control unit (ECU). It calculates pressure, injection timing and injection volume on the basis of numerous operational parameters recorded by sensors, such as engine speed, cylinder top dead centre, load pressure and rail pressure. The calculated current pulses are then output to the solenoids of the control valves (rail segment) and suction throttle valve (high pressure pump). At precisely the right time, the control valves receive a pulse that causes the injection valves to open. As soon as enough fuel has been injected, the valves close. The ECU is the key to flexible combustion and thus to minimizing emissions at a low level of fuel consumption.

Ready for the future

MAN Diesel is working to adapt CR technology for fuel/water emulsions. Furthermore, the combustion process is undergoing continuous development with respect to CR technology. A significant advantage in the trade off between NOx-soot emission and fuel consumption was achieved on the single cylinder research engine in Augsburg by means of an increased compression ratio and the so-called Miller gas exchange valve timing in combination with pilot injections that are feasible with our CR technology.


MAN Diesel SE
Stadtbachstr.  22 Augsburg Germany Phone + 2 22-0 Fax + 2 22-2

Copyright MAN Diesel SE Subject to modification in the interest of technical progress. D225EN-N2 Printed in Germany KW-070

MAN Diesel a member of the MAN Group