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MEG Guidance notes on ethical approaches in museum ethnography.

March 2003 1 Introduction The aim of these guidance notes is to inform the conduct of workers in museums who have responsibility for ethnographic collections, to create an awareness of areas of concern particular (although not exclusive) to ethnographic material. These guidelines are not only for museum ethnographers but will also be helpful to those with general or particular responsibility for such collections, such as museum trustees, collection managers, conservators, registrars, stores managers, education officers, designers and marketing staff. The notes are designed to help reduce potential sources of ambiguity in consideration of ethical issues, particularly those which relate to the histories and sensitivities of originating communities. They are intended to encourage good practice in project planning, policy development and responding to specific situations, rather than being prescriptive. There is often no easy resolution to ethical issues raised in everyday museum work but it is important to highlight problems and suggest possible courses of action as well as to provide further sources of advice for particular cases. These notes will contribute to the developing debate on the ethical implications of many forms of museum work, eg those resulting from the deliberations of the Working Party on Human Remains. MEG sees the guidelines as outlining an approach which can be used, even by nonspecialists, to support appropriate planning and procedures, eg concerning both practical issues (such as storage) and wider perspectives (such as acknowledging the rights of originating communities). 2 General statement Why is there a need for guidance notes on ethical approaches to collections management for those with responsibility for ethnographic collections, particularly when guidance already exists in the form of the MA Code of Ethics? By its very nature, in needing to be applicable to all sorts of museums, the Code is a blunt instrument. The MEG feels that additional help may be useful for those with responsibility for ethnographic collections. The need is especially acute in this regard because of the specific history and current circumstances of these collections. Over the last 300 years or so, many originating communities have been physically separated from their material heritage, much of which now exists in museums far from those communities. For them, aspects of history, heritage, identity, and elements of culture, can be embodied within artefacts. Even knowledgeable and skilled elders who retain cultural knowledge comment that working with historic artefacts is like interviewing ancestors, whose lives and even greater knowledge are bound up in the artefacts being studied. For such communities to go forward into the future knowing who they are, they must understand their

histories and must have access to their material heritage. Reviving craft techniques through the study of historic collections may be tied to revival of language, or cultural knowledge about harvesting plant materials, or spiritual knowledge required to understand and use artefacts. For these communities, access to museums and to collections is not simply a desirable social issue; it is a matter of survival. Museum collections of ethnography thus represent a tremendous accumulation of knowledge and a highly significant and often unique resource. The curatorship of such collections presents great challenges and opportunities, a foremost responsibility being the need to take into account the sensibilities of originating communities. A good level of cultural relations and consultancy with these communities is of great importance. Very often originating communities do not have easy access to aspects of their material culture and art held in museums. It is important that access should be provided as freely and cheaply as possible so that, for instance, communities may use those collections to develop or recreate their identities and to include material from UK collections in projects to maintain or revive art and craft traditions. Consultation with originating communities may also relate to the acquisition, documentation, storage and use of ethnographic collections. The manifold relationships between present-day members of originating communities and the great wealth of their heritage which is being looked after by museums in UK are constantly evolving. Developing these guidance notes is a way of acknowledging and responding to this continuous state of change. 3 Elements in the MA Code of Ethics of particular relevance to museum ethnography, The MEG gives its full support to the general and specific content of the MA Code of Ethics. In particular, the attention of those with responsibility for ethnographic collections should be drawn to the following sections of the code Section 2, paragraphs 16, 18: 2. FOCUS ON PUBLIC SERVICE All those who work for or govern museums should ensure that they: 2.16 Declare to the museum, and have approved by its governing body, any significant private collecting that may be covered by the museums acquisition policy. Apply, in any private collecting, the same ethical standards as museums adopt generally, refusing, for example, to acquire illicit material. Collect for private purposes on collecting or field trips only with explicit prior agreement from the museum and if the collecting is incidental and the time involved is reasonable. Make clear to all parties whether an item is being collected for a museum or a private collection. 2.18 Recognise that it is legitimate for people who work in museums to present evidence based on their knowledge and experience of subjects that are a matter of public concern or controversy. Obtain authorisation before making statements on sensitive issues that affect the museum. Base any public comments as far as possible on sound scholarship and reliable information. Section 3, paragraphs 6, 9, 11, and 15:

3. ENCOURAGE PEOPLE TO EXPLORE COLLECTIONS FOR INSPIRATION, LEARNING AND ENJOYMENT All those who work for or govern museums should ensure that they: 3.6 Respond to the diverse requirements of different cultural groups. 3.9 Make provision for those who are not currently prepared or able to visit. Use a variety of means to improve access, such as outreach, publishing or websites. 3.11 Respond positively to peoples expectations of access to museum collections, whether displayed or not. Regularly review the means available to the museum to make collections more accessible, either directly or in electronic or published form. 3.15 Consider restricting access to certain specified items where unrestricted access may cause offence or distress to actual or cultural descendants. Provide separate storage facilities where appropriate. (See also section 7 Recognise the interests of people who made, used, owned, collected or gave items in the collections). Section 4: all of this, with special reference to originating communities: 4. CONSULT AND INVOLVE COMMUNITIES, USERS AND SUPPORTERS 4.0 Museums seek the views of communities, users and supporters and value the contributions they make. Museums actively involve them in developing policy, and balance this with the role of museums in leading and promoting debate. Museums engage with changing needs and values. All those who work for or govern museums should ensure that they: 4.1 Consult and involve groups from communities they serve and their representatives to promote a sense of shared ownership in the work of the museum. 4.2 Use advisory and support groups but do not exploit them. Make the status and influence of advisory and support groups clear to their members, treat their views with respect and protect their confidences. 4.3 Work in partnership with others. Involve partners in decision- making. Treat partners with respect. Exercise the authority vested in the museum responsibly and guard against the unwitting or deliberate misuse of power. Remain sensitive to the possibility that the museum, however unintentionally, may act in a way that lacks empathy. Clarify the aspirations of the museum and partner organisations and establish common ground. Draw up clear statements of objectives and working methods for joint projects. 4.4 Keep up to date with social and economic change affecting any specific communities served by the museum. Work collaboratively with other organisations to address social disadvantage and exclusion. Section 5: paragraphs 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13: 5. ACQUIRE ITEMS HONESTLY AND RESPONSIBLY All those who work for or govern museums should ensure that they: 5.6 Recognise that individuals or communities may have a stronger claim to certain items than the museum. Take account also of scientific arguments for and against leaving items in their original context. (See also Section 7 Recognise the interests of people who made, used, owned, collected or gave items in the collections and Section 9 Research, share and interpret information and collections to reflect diverse views.) 5.8 Reject any item if there is any suspicion that it was wrongfully taken during a time of conflict, unless allowed by treaties or other agreements.

5.9 Reject any item if there is any suspicion that it has been stolen unless, in exceptional circumstances, this is to bring it into the public domain, in consultation with the rightful owner. 5.10 Reject items that have been illicitly traded. Note that the UNESCO Convention (on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property) was finalised in 1970. Reject, therefore, any item if there is any suspicion that, since 1970, it may have been stolen, illegally excavated or removed from a monument, site or wreck contrary to local law or otherwise acquired in or exported from its country of origin (including the UK), or any intermediate country, in violation of that countrys laws or any national and international treaties, unless the museum is able to obtain permission from authorities with the requisite jurisdiction in the country of origin. 5.11 Reject any item that lacks secure ownership history, unless there is reliable documentation to show that it was exported from its country of origin before 1970, or the museum is acting as an externally approved repository of last resort, or in the best judgement of experts in the field concerned is of minor importance and has not been illicitly traded. 5.12 Contact colleagues and appropriate authorities both in the UK and overseas for any information or advice that may be necessary to inform judgement regarding the legitimacy of items considered for acquisition or inward loan. 5.13 Comply not only with treaties which have been ratified by the UK Government, but also uphold the principles of other international treaties intended to curtail the illicit trade, if legally free to do so. Section 6: paragraph 16: 6. SAFEGUARD THE LONG TERM PUBLIC INTEREST IN THE COLLECTIONS All those who work for or govern museums should ensure that they: 6.16 Dispose of human remains with sensitivity and respect for the beliefs of communities of origin. (Refer to guidelines on human remains issued by the Museum Ethnographers Group and see also Section 7 Recognise the interests of people who made, used, owned, collected or gave items in the collections.) Section 7: all of this: 7. RECOGNISE THE INTERESTS OF PEOPLE WHO MADE, USED, OWNED, COLLECTED OR GAVE ITEMS IN THE COLLECTIONS 7.0 Museums try to develop constructive relationships with people who contributed to collections, with representatives of these people, their heirs and cultural descendants, balancing responsibilities to a range of stakeholders. Gifts and bequests of items are usually made in the expectation that items will be preserved. Museums reconcile the wider public interest with that expectation. All those who work for or govern museums should ensure that they: 7.1 Acknowledge that the museum benefits from all those who have contributed to the making, meaning and presence in the museum of its collections. Establish working relationships based on mutual understanding, wherever practical. 7.2 Establish principles that assist people who contributed to collections to develop mutually agreed arrangements with the museum, wherever practical. Specify and record these arrangements clearly and unambiguously.

7.3 Articulate clearly intentions and expectations about projects such as commissions, collaborations and workshops. Specify agreements over matters such as funding, copyright, site preparation and maintenance. Make written exhibition policies available to exhibitors. (See also Section 4 Consult and involve communities, users and supporters). 7.4 Inform originating communities of the presence of items relevant to them in the museums collections, wherever practical. 7.5 Respect the interests of originating communities with regard to elements of their cultural heritage present or represented in the museum. Involve originating communities, wherever practical, in decisions about how the museum stores, researches, presents or otherwise uses collections and information about them. 7.6 Consider restricting access to certain specified items, particularly those of ceremonial or religious importance, where unrestricted access may cause offence or distress to actual or cultural descendants. (See also section 3 Encourage people to explore collections for inspiration, learning and enjoyment.) 7.7 Deal sensitively and promptly with requests for repatriation both within the UK and from abroad of items in the museums collection, taking into account: the law; current thinking on the subject; the interests of actual and cultural descendants; the strength of claimants relationship to the items; their scientific, educational, cultural and historical importance; their future treatment. Refer to guidelines on Restitution and Repatriation issued by Resource, the Council for Museums, Archives and Libraries and guidelines on human remains issued by the Museum Ethnographers Group. Refer to any subsequent guidance issued by the bodies and their successors listed above. (See also Section 6, Safeguard the long term public interest in the collections). 7.8 Exercise sensitivity and seek professional advice whenever acquiring items from fieldwork. Consider always the desirability of recording and preserving items where they are. Uphold guidelines issued by relevant bodies. 7.9 Exercise sensitivity and seek professional advice whenever reminiscence and oral history work is undertaken. Uphold guidelines issued by relevant bodies. 7.10 Follow up accepted gifts or bequests with a written acknowledgement and confirmation of the terms on which the gift or bequest is being accepted. (See also Guidelines for Donors to Museums, issued by the Museums Association Ethics Committee and Section 5 Acquire Items Honestly and Responsibly). 7.11 Uphold and comply with conditions set by benefactors and accepted by the museum, unless changed circumstances mean that conditions need to be reconsidered in the light of what is generally held to be the public interest. Section 8: paragraphs 0, 1, 4: 8. SUPPORT THE PROTECTION OF NATURAL AND HUMAN ENVIRONMENTS 8.0 Collections in museums represent the rich diversity of the worlds natural and human environments. Museums promote learning without jeopardising this diversity. They contribute to sustainable economic activity and benefit local and wider communities. All those who work for or govern museums should ensure that they: 8.1 Value and protect natural and human environments. Prevent abuse of places of scientific, historic or cultural importance. Exercise due diligence procedures when acquiring or borrowing items. Uphold appropriate national and international

conventions and treaties on protection of natural and human environments, whether or not they have been ratified. (See section 5 Acquire items honestly and responsibly) 8.4 Develop purchasing and resale policies that address environmental and human rights issues. Section 9: paragraphs 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 11: 9. RESEARCH, SHARE AND INTERPRET INFORMATION RELATED TO COLLECTIONS, REFLECTING DIVERSE VIEWS All those who work for or govern museums should ensure that they: 9.3 Make information publicly accessible. Conduct research with the intention of making it public. Publish research promptly and make it widely available. (See also section 3 Encourage People to Explore Collections for Inspiration, Learning and Enjoyment). 9.5 Cultivate a variety of perspectives on the collections to reflect the diversity of the communities served by the museum. 9.6 Represent ideas, personalities, events and communities with sensitivity and respect. Recognise the humanity of all people. Develop procedures that allow people to define, and seek recognition of, their own cultural identity. (See also section 7 Recognise the interests of people who made, used, owned, collected or gave items in the collections). 9.7 Respect the views of others and their right to express those views, unless illegal to do so or inconsistent with the purpose of museums as socially inclusive institutions. Strive to dispel prejudice and indicate clearly the part played by opinion or conjecture in interpretation. 9.9 Recognise the assumptions on which interpretation is based and that presentational styles may shape perception in unintended ways. Consider carefully the impact of interpretations that exclude any reference to people associated with the items. 9.10 Strive for editorial integrity and remain alert to the pressure that can be exerted by particular interest groups, including lenders and funders. 9.11 Keep records and presentations as accurate and as up to date as possible. Record differences of expert opinion. Correct errors in documentation or presentations without delay, when they are brought to light. Section 10: paragraphs 7, 11, 13: 10. REVIEW PERFORMANCE TO INNOVATE AND IMPROVE 10.7 Establish principles to inform trading and commercial activities so that they are consistent with the aims of the museum and, where possible, enhance the quality of the service. Do not allow trading and commercial activities to bring the museum into disrepute, reduce public access, subject the collections to unacceptable risk or jeopardize finances. (See Section 8 Support the protection of natural and human environments). 10.11 Undertake and delegate only such duties as are commensurate with individual knowledge and skills. Co-operate fully with any appropriate scrutiny, appraisal or evaluation. Seek and act on advice, whenever necessary, from colleagues in other museums, museum support bodies and consultants. Obtain, when necessary, specialist expertise through contracts or consultancies. (See Section 4 Consult and involve communities, users and supporters). 10.13 Strive to increase the diversity of staff and members of the governing body so that they adequately represent the museums present and potential audience.

4 Extra guidance notes not covered by the Code of Ethics There are some situations in which the particular programmes in which ethnographic collections are involved may lead to the necessity of taking additional factors into account or placing special emphasis on some areas of the code. The following are the sections and paragraphs within the code in which this is significant: Glossary: Collection: To include all the elements which comprise that entity, not just the objects themselves, including their form, design, and meanings, but also the documentation archive and any images, sounds, songs and stories which go with them, plus specialised knowledge which could include information in the archive to which access may be restricted. Making accessible: The notion of accessibility should, where practicable, include encouraging access by members of originating communities, via the internet as well as in more traditional ways. Users: It is always necessary for those with responsibility for ethnographic collections to bear in mind that an essential category under the heading of actual or potential users is members of originating communities and that they should always be regarded as an important target audience. Section 2: Focus on Public Service. Paragraph 12: In some circumstances, for instance when visiting a community in the course of field work, it may be culturally inappropriate to refuse a gift, or accept it on behalf of the museum. In such a situation, it is advisable to pursue a course of openness about such personal gifts, accepting them initially in a personal capacity but notifying the appropriate authority as soon as it is possible to do so, and subsequently transferring the gift to the museum. The openness could take of the form of a conditional acceptance of the gift using terms which fit the occasion or relationship. Section 4: Consult and involve communities, users and supporters. Museums hold collections in trust not just for their local audiences, but for members of originating communities whose material heritage collections comprise. Physical or political distance between museums and originating communities does not negate the potential importance of access to material heritage by community members. There is therefore need for a general reminder that communities served by the museum should be assumed to include originating communities from which collections come. Consultation in this context is often a very tall order: A balance has to be struck between the nature and scale of the project, and achievable goals; as ever it needs careful planning, so that hopes arent raised which cant be realised. An effort should be made to find out whether there are likely to be sensitivities concerning particular objects; this could be done in the first instance by contacting any of the institutions listed below for initial guidance. Consideration should be given to involving people from or representatives of originating communities in the consultative process relating to any major museum project involving more than a few ethnographic items. From past experience, specific areas of curation and museum work on which originating communities especially welcome contact include the following: redisplay; writing labels; development of products for gift shop and logos e.g. stationery;

training museum staff in cross-cultural awareness and culturally specific handling techniques; conservation. Section 5: Acquire items honestly and responsibly It is important to be clear about exactly what is being acquired when an acquisition is being made. Does it include the right to use designs on objects or photograph the object, or reproduce the object for sale, as well as the physical object itself? In other words, the whole notion of intellectual property rights should be considered. Paragraph 5: re Co-operate rather than compete with other UK museums when collecting. The scope of application of this point must be international; museums in relation to collecting must include museums wherever collecting takes place throughout the world, not just in the UK. Similarly related public organisations should include those in originating communities. It is especially important to emphasise the necessity of collectors co-operating with local museums in the places where they are making collections. See also section 7.3 and 7.10 re copyright and marketing. Section 6: Safeguard the long-term public interest in the collections Paragraph 12: In transferring items, attempts should be made to canvass and abide by the views of the originating communities from which the items were obtained, particularly where this may involve returning the items to those communities. Section 7: Recognise the interests of people who made, used, owned, collected or gave items in the collections. This section is in general a great help to ethnography curators. However, MEG feels that greater stress should be placed on encouraging contact and consultation with originating communities. Where circumstances permit, seek to consult and involve representatives of originating communities in museum activities, particularly research, collections care and conservation, the preparation of exhibitions and publications. Section 9: Research share and interpret information related to collections, reflecting diverse views. In addition to the requirement of making the results of research widely available, it is good practice to deposit copies of the results of fieldwork, list of objects collected, etc with representatives of the community in which the fieldwork was carried out. 5 Case studies highlighting the issues

What does consultation mean and how does it work in practice? It should be emphasised that it is not to be lightly undertaken without planning, preparation and an awareness of all the sensibilities needed. The process usually has cost and time implications which must be investigated before embarking. These case notes will give examples of what has been done in a number of different places and situations. Jones, 1992, describes how the Birmingham City Museum involved local communities in their gallery redevelopment.

Herle, 1994, records a collaboration between the Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology and an indigenous expert in the collection, documentation, storage and display of Nepalese ritual artefacts See OHanlon, M. 1993, on collecting with input from a Papua New Guinea community. See Herle, 2000, for an account of the planning and production of an exhibition linking present-day Torres Strait Islander communities to the collections made by the 1898 Cambridge Expedition. Peers and Brown 2002 and 2003, both describe (in 2003 very fully) the process of collaborative research project on photo collections at the Pitt Rivers Museum. Moser 2002 outlines a UK university-based team working on an archaeological research programme in Egypt which is designed to maximize local community involvement. Fienup-Riordan 1998 (reprinted in Peers and Brown 2003) describes a visit by Yupik elders to a European museum to research collections and return knowledge to their community. Ames 1999 (reprinted in Peers and Brown 2003) describes the process of negotiation and learning by museum staff at the Museum of Anthropology, University of British Columbia when creating a collaborative exhibition with a local First Nations group. Shelton 2000 (reprinted in Peers and Brown 2003) describes the involvement of originating community representatives in a UK museum context during the design of a new gallery. Clavir, 2002, gives an account of an extensive survey to understand culturally appropriate approaches to conservation from First Nations perspectives. 6 Contacts for further information and guidance These museums have significant ethnographic collections and experienced staff: Belfast: Ulster Museum 01232 383000: Ask for Curator of Archaeology & Ethnography. Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery 0121 464 5994: Ask for Curator of Human History responsible for ethnography. Brighton Museum & Art Gallery 01273 290900: Ask for Curator of World Art & Anthropology. Bristol City Museum & Art Gallery 0117 922 2635: Ask for Collection Officer, Ethnography. Cambridge: University Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology 01223 333516. Edinburgh: National Museums of Scotland 0131 225 7534: Ask for Department of History and Applied Art.

Exeter: Royal Albert Memorial Museum 01392 665858: Ask for Curator of Ethnography. Glasgow City Museums 0141 287 2783: Ask for Curator, World Cultures. Ipswich Museum 01473 213761: Ask for Curator of Human History. Leeds City Museum 0113 247 8275: Ask for Curator of Anthropology. Liverpool: National Museums & Galleries on Merseyside, Liverpool Museum 0151 478 4399: Ask for Department of Ethnology. London: British Museum, Department of Ethnography 020 7323 8041/4. London: Horniman Museum 0208 699 1872: Ask for Department of Anthropology. Manchester Museum 0161 275 2634: Ask for Keeper of Ethnology. Oxford: Pitt Rivers Museum 01865 270927. 7 Bibliography

Association of Social Anthropologists. Guidelines for good research practice (Available on the ASA web site, or from ASA, Department of Anthropology, University of Durham, Stockton Campus, University Boulevard, Tornaby, Stockton-on-Tees, TS17 6BH) Brodie, N., Doole, J. & Watson, P. 2000. Stealing History: The Illicit Trade in Cultural Property. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research (Available from the Museums Association 24 Calvin St., London E1 6NW) Clavir, M. 2002. Preserving What Is Valued: museums, conservation and First Nations. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Conaty, G. T. 1989. 'Canada's First Nations and museums: a Saskatchewan experience', The International Journal of Museum Management and Curatorship, 8 (4): 407-13. - - (1996), 'Working with Native advisory groups', Alberta Museums Review, 22 (2), 52-3. Fienup-Riordan, Ann. 1998. Yupik elders in museums: fieldwork turned on its head. Arctic Anthropology 35 (2), 49-58. Flynn, G. and D. Hull-Walski 2001. 'Merging Traditional Indigenous Curation Methods with Modern Museum Standards of Care', Museum Anthropology 25(1):3140. Herle, Anita. 1994. Museums and shamans: A cross-cultural collaboration. Anthropology Today 10 (1), 2-5. - - 2000. Torres Strait Islanders: Stories from an Exhibition. Ethnos, 65:2. Holm, M. and Pokotylo, D. 1997 'From policy to practice: a case study in collaborative exhibits with First Nations', Canadian Journal of Archaeology, 21: 1-11.

Jaarsma, Sjoerd R. 2002. Handle with Care: Ownership and Control of Ethnographic Materials. Univ. of Pittsburgh Press. Jones, J.P. 1992. 'The colonial legacy and the community: the Gallery 33 project', in I. Karp, C.M. Kreamer and S.D. Lavine (eds) Museums and Communities: the politics of public culture, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Legget, Jane. 2000. Restitution and Repatriation Guidelines for good practice. London: Museums & Galleries Commission. (Available from Resource, the Council for Museums, Libraries and Archives, 16 Queen Annes Gate, London, SW1A 9AA) Macaulay, S.P. 1999. '"Keeping Taonga warm": museum practice and Maori guardianship', Journal of Museum Education, 24 (3): 14-17. Moser, Stephanie. 2002. Strategies for community archaeology, World Archaeology. (and reprinted in Peers and Brown 2003) Museum Ethnographers Group. 1994. Professional guidelines concerning the storage, display, interpretation and return of human remains in ethnographical collections in UK museums. Journal of Museum Ethnography 6:22. (Also published as Appendix 1 in Legget (2000) and available on the MEG web-site) Museums Association Ethics Committee. 2002. Codes of Ethics for Museums. London: Museums Association. - - 1996-99. Ethical Guidelines: No 1 Acquisition (June 1996), No 2 Disposal (June 1996), No 3 Trading and Commercial Activities (1997) No 4 Access (1999). London: Museums Assoication. OHanlon, M. 1993. Paradise: Portraying the New Guinea Highlands. London: British Museum Press. - -. 2000. Introduction to 'Hunting the Gatherers: ethnographic collectors, agents and agency in Melanesia'. Berghahn Books ISBN 1571815066. - - 2000. 'A view from afar: memories of New Guinea Highland warfare' in Dresch et al Anthropologists in a wider world. Berghahn Books. Peers, Laura. 2003 Strands Which Refuse to be Braided: Beatrice Blackwoods Ojibwe Collection at the Pitt Rivers Museum. (Submitted to Journal of Material Culture, July 2002) Peers, Laura and Brown, Alison K. 2002. Sharing Knowledge. Museums Journal May:25-27. -- 2003. Museums and Source Communities: A Routledge Reader. London: Routledge. Shelton, Anthony A. 2000. Curating African Worlds. Journal of Museum Ethnography 12, 5-20.

Simpson, Moira. 1997. Museums & Repatriation: an account of contested items in museum collections in the UK, with comparative material from other countries. London: Museums Association. Stephens, M. 2003. A Mellon Fellowship at the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution. In press: UKIC: Conservation News, 82, January 2003. Other useful references will be found in recent issues of the Journal of Museum Ethnography. A file of recent case studies on repatriation and other related information is being maintained by the MEG Secretary, check web site under committee details for contact address. Please let the MEG Chair know of ideas for additions, particularly for the case studies and bibliography, check web site under committee details for contact address.