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Assignment Cover Sheet

Student Name: Student Number:

Syed Redwanur Rahman


Unit Name:

s239377
Unit Code:

Cross Cultural Management


Lecturers Name:

PRBM016

School of Law and Business Charles Darwin University Casuarina NT 0909


Phone: (08) 8946 6830

Susan Bandias
Assessment Title: Culture and Managerial Implications

Semester: 2 Applied for Extension:


N/A NO YES to

Year: 2012

Assignment 2
Due Date (dd/mm/yyyy): Lodgement Date (dd/mm/yyyy): (dd/mm/yyyy)

15-10-2012

15-10-2012

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DO NOT LODGE BY FAX nor EMAIL nor at LECTURERS OFFICE


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DECLARATION BY STUDENT
I certify that this assignment is my own work, based on my own personal study and research, and that I have acknowledged all material and sources in the preparation of this assignment, whether they be books, articles reports, lecture notes, any other kind of document or personal communication. I also certify that this assignment has not previously been submitted for assessment in any other course or at any other time in the same course and that I have not copied in part or whole or otherwise plagiarised the work of other students and/or persons. I have read the Universitys Academic and Scientific Misconduct Policy and understand its implications.* http://www.cdu.edu.au/governance/documents/3.3AcademicandScientificMisconduct_000.pdf Student Signature: Lodging Electronically
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Assignment 2 PRBM 016

Syed Redwanur Rahman s239377

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Table of Contents
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 Introduction..3 Demographic Comparison of Workforce.4 Workforce Diversity Comparison.4 Comparison of Legal Framework.....4 Comparison of Power Distance...6 Comparison of Group Orientation...6 Comparison of Gender Preference.7 Comparison of Uncertainty Avoidance..7 Comparison of Approach of Looking into future...7 Comparison of Business Negotiation Process..8 Conclusion..8 References.9

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1.0 Introduction:
In assignment 1, over all cultural differences between India and Canada were explored taking some of the critical dimensions into consideration. Based on these differences and exploiting the knowledge of that analysis, this paper has been prepared with a quest of investigating about whether and how cultural factors and issues have any role to play in determining the organizational culture and management process of businesses in a particular country and how these processes and culture differ from one country to another. For the purpose of preparing this paper and undertaking the analysis as well, the perspective of India and Canada has been taken into consideration.

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2.0 Demographic Comparison of the workforce:


Indias workforce is preponderantly young. Large numbers are entering the professional workforce at a time of rapid economic expansion that provides increased opportunity for the well qualified and well connected. However, access to professional education, socialization, entry and career advancement is still disproportionately concentrated among social groups that have traditionally dominated the professional fields. Despite its much strength, the educational system doesnt provide sufficient trained talent for the job market, particularly the IT sector that is the new economys engine for growth. This puts special pressures on employers in India around finding, competing for, holding and cultivating the skilled employees they need. In the Canada the average age of the workforce is older, mirroring the age demographics of the population. Changes in Canadian society have brought an unprecedented social diversity into the workforce, not only immigrants from all over the world, but segments of the society previously excluded or under-represented in the professions, especially in managerial and leadership roles. Corporate cultures, employment policies and networks of influence have been forced to change. The principal challenge for Canadian employers today lies less in finding diverse talent, but in developing it and creating an environment that supports social cohesion amid the diversity (About.com 2012).

3.0 Workforce Diversity Comparison:


Unlike In India where the main diversity categories are gender, religion, place of birth (ethno-linguistic region) and, for Hindus the caste system, in Canada the operative diversity categories are not only gender, race/ethnicity, national origin, and religion, but also disability, age, marital status, immigration/citizenship status, armed forces veteran status and sexual orientation. Discourse about diversity distinguishes between social groups that are under-represented in the societys institutions of wealth, power and privilege, and are therefore protected classes, and those that have had greater access to opportunities and professional advancement.

4.0 Comparison of Legal Framework:


In Canada, the past two decades have seen the development of a robust system of anti-discrimination legislation, including mechanisms for monitoring compliance and redress for violations. It includes legal accountability up the corporate chain of command for discriminatory or harassing behavior in the workplace. It includes protection of employees from hostile work environment situations and protection against retaliation for bringing forward complaints. The success of a number of lawsuits against corporate offenders has helped create a climate where discriminatory practices are no longer considered acceptable, and the expected social norm for corporations is compliance with the law.

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By comparison, the legal safeguards redress mechanisms and monitoring processes in India are less developed; discrimination in recruitment, selection and career advancement are less likely to be aggressively challenged. In India the approach toward correcting caste-based employment discrimination has been quantitatively fixed reservations (quotas) in public-sector jobs, state-financed colleges and legislatures. The pros and cons of this approach are passionately debated, in ways reminiscent of public controversies in the early days of civil rights and affirmative action legislation more like the United States. Recent attempts by the Indian government to extend the reservations system to the private sector have met stiff resistance from Indian industry, and this initiative is now on hold. Backlash against the existing reservations system has also won some legal victories. A sign of voluntary change is the adoption by most of Indias major IT companies of the U.N. Global Compacts principles8 regarding the elimination of discrimination with respect to employment and occupation.

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5.0 Comparison of Power distance:


Indian people are very sensitive to the rank/position of people, and such awareness shapes their behavior towards it. They are used to a system of hierarchy in the workplace, where senior colleagues are obeyed and respected. Discussion is almost always lead by the most senior person. Supervisors are expected to monitor an individual's work and shoulder the responsibility of meeting deadlines. In Canada, hierarchy is not a big issue, rather, Canadian people and organization utterly believe in team playing. Seniors and superiors are there to support the juniors and team members to reach the organizational goal. Canadian culture indicates a greater equality between societal levels, including government, organizations, and even within families. This orientation reinforces a cooperative interaction across power levels and creates a more stable cultural environment.

6.0 Comparison of Group Orientation:


India is a collectivist culture and their strength is that they work well in teams. Individuals tend to do things together, for example, if one person gets up to get tea, he may ask several people to follow. Indians usually have lunch together in the office as oppose to eating alone. Moreover, In India, there is a noticeable lack of privacy and a smaller concept of personal space, where several generations used to live together under one roof. For Indian business practices, this places an additional importance on interpersonal contacts, avoidance of conflict and a more indirect approach to communication. On the other hand, Canadian business practice also emphasizes on team playing, but from time to time the Canadian people like to maintain their privacy and prefer to have their own spaces while they are not involved in any official or business activities. In India there is no standard for rewarding individuals of a company that are proactive in their career advancement. This concept is traditional to an individualistic culture, which India is not. Doing business in India involves building relationships. Indians only deal favorably with those they know and trust - even at the expense of lucrative deals. It is vital that a good working relationship is founded with any prospective partner. This must take place on a business level, i.e. demonstrating strong business acumen, and at a personal level, i.e. relating to your partner and exhibiting the positive traits of trustworthiness and honour.

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7.0 Comparison of Gender Preference:


Women in business are very common in India, and they are treated with respect in the work place. However, one should wait for a female business colleague to initiate the greeting. Indian men do not generally shake hands with women unless female initiate it. In Canada too, women in business are very common and they have got the equal respect and position in the society. On top of it, women and men always go side by side in business activities, they blend well and there is no special gap in between men and women in Canada.

8.0 Comparison of Uncertainty Avoidance:


Indians appreciate punctuality but may not reciprocate it. It is always a common practice to make any sort of business appointments well before the business dealings. Indian people always prefer indirect communication other than direct communication. In comparison, Canadian people are very cautious of their time. Business meetings and official activity timing is maintained very strictly and punctuality is the order of the day for the Canadian businesses. Canadians are also fond of direct communication and they maintain both way clean and transparent communication process throughout the hierarchy.

9.0 Comparison of Approach of looking into future:


Indian culture indicates that Indians are more persistent and thrifty and hence is the organizational culture and management process in India. Indians have a sense of shame that is shared amongst a group of people and relationships are viewed by order of status. It is expected that the Indian businessperson will plan further out in their business plans because of their need for Long-Term Orientations. Its interesting to note that even when Indians travel abroad they work very hard and sacrifice a lot for long-term benefit, which is the education of their children. Sticking to one job throughout the life is also an indication of long term orientation culture in India. On the other hand Canadian culture is an indicator of short term orientation. Canadian businesses and people are always keen of setting short term goal and plans and they love to move forward step by step.

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10. Comparison of Business Negotiation Process:


In general, Indians are cautious in accepting a new ideas or proposals. Openness to a new idea depends not only on its quality, but also on its source and endorsement. That is, information about whom else has implemented it or who has proposed it has a major influence on the decision about a new idea. Canadians, on the other hand, are very much receptive of new ideas and it does not matter which source the new idea is generated from. Canadian business culture and decision making process always appreciate involvement employees of all levels, as long as they are consistent with business. Indians usually do not express their disagreements openly and directly; doing so is considered discourteous. But in Canada, opinion of everybody is taken very seriously and communication is very much direct and open irrespective of its sensitiveness. Bargaining for the price or additional concessions is normal in India. Indian negotiators expect and value flexibility in negotiation. Therefore, sometimes a straightforward offer may be perceived as a rigid stand. In Canada, bargaining is very much low. Business dealings do not normally involve any kind of bargaining unless previously declared and chances of this happening is low as well. Making a decision, in Indian organizations, is often a long-drawn out process. This is not only because of the bureaucratic nature of many Indian organizations, but also because a decision may have to be ratified by people who may not be present at the negotiating table. On the other hand, in Canada, administrative process always remains straight forward and simple and decision making process is not a lengthy one.

11. Conclusion:
From the above analysis, it is very much clear that significant difference lies in between the organization culture and management process of India and Canada. There is no denying the fact that culture plays a huge role in determining the organizational culture and hence the decision making processes in these countries.

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References:
Madhukar Shukla 2012, Your Guide to India, viewed 3 August 2012, http://www.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=India:_About_India_-_Part_1 Madhukar Shukla 2012, Your Guide to India, viewed 3 August 2012, http://www.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=India:_About_India_-_Part_2 Wikipedia 2012, Section Twenty Seven of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, viewed 4 August 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Section_Twentyseven_of_the_Canadian_Charter_of_Rig hts_and_Freedoms Wikipedia 2012, Culture of Canada, viewed 5 August 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Canada About.com 2012, Canadian Statistics, viewed 4 August 2012, http://canadaonline.about.com/cs/statistics/a/workforcestats

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