This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Prof. Hema A Murthy

Network Security

Security Security Services

Crytographic algorithms

Secret key Public key Message digest (DES) (RSA) (MD5)

privacy

authenticity

Message integrity

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

**Secret Key Encryption
**

Plain text Plain text

Encrypt using secret key

Decrypt using secret key

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

**Public Key Encryption
**

• Each participant has a secret key (private key) • The key is not stored

– Publish on the web (for instance)

• To send a message

– Encrypt with public key – To decrypt, decrypt using a private key

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

**Message Digest Encryption
**

• Map a potentially large message into a small fixed length number • Compute checksum for message • Given cryptographic checksum

– Difficult to figure out the message

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

**DES (secret key encryption)
**

• Block cipher (operates on a fixed block of bits) • Encrypts a 64-bit of plain text using a 64-bit key

– Only 56 bits used – Last bit of every byte is a parity bit

**• Three phases in DES
**

– 64-bits in each block are permuted

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

**DES (secret key encryption)
**

– Sixteen rounds of an identical operation are applied to the resulting data and key – The inverse of the original operation is applied to the result

**• During each round – split 64-bit into two 32-bit blocks
**

64-bit

L I ( 32-bit)

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

R I (32-bit)

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

**DES (secret key encryption)
**

– Choose 48-bit from 56-bit key

Li-1 Ri-1 Ki Li-1 = Ri-1 + LI RI

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

F

RI = Li-1

+

F(Ri-1,Ki)

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

**DES (secret key encryption)
**

• Define F, generate Ki • Initially the permuted 56-bit key is divided into two blocks of 28-bit

– Ignore every 8th bit in original key – Each half is rotated 1/2 bits depending upon the round – A table is used to define the rotation of the 28bit

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

**DES (secret key encryption)
**

• DES compression permutation

– 48-bit key is permuted and then used in the current round as key

• Function F combines 48-bit key (Ki) with the right half of data after round i-1 (Ri-1) • Expand R from 32-bit to 48-bit

– Divide R into 4-bit chunks – Expand each chunk into 6-bit

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

**DES (secret key encryption)
**

• 1-bit from left, 1-bit from right • 1st and last bit –use circular shift – they get from each other

– Divide 48-bit into 6-bit chunks – XOR expanded R – Finally pass 6-bit through substitution box to get 4-bit from 6-bit

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

DES (Decryption)

• Algorithm works exactly the same as that of encryption • Apply keys in reverse

– K16, K15, K14, …, K1

**• Encryption of large messages
**

– Cipher block chaining

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

**Cipher Block Chaining
**

B1 B2

Initialising vector

+

+

DES

DES

Cipher 1

Cipher 2

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

**Public Key Encryption (RSA)
**

• Choose two large prime numbers p and q (typically greater than 10100 • Choose

–n=p×q – z = (p-1) ×(q-1)

**• Choose a number d relatively prime to z
**

– z and d are coprimes – GCD (z,d) = 1

• Find e s.t. e × d = 1 mod z

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

**Public Key Encryption (RSA)
**

– Compute these parameters in advance

**• Divide plaintext into blocks s.t. each plaintext is 0 ≤ P < n
**

– i.e group bits such that (if k-bits) 2k < n

• To encrypt P, compute

– c = Pe (mod n)

• To decrypt C, compute

– P = cd (mod n)

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

**Public Key Encryption (RSA)
**

• To encrypt

– e, n required (public key)

• To decrypt

– c, n required (private key)

• Analogy

– Suitcase with a press lock that is unlocked

• Anybody can put stuff inside and lock the suitcase • But suitcase can ONLY be opened by the key

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

Message Digest

Initial Digiest (128 bit) 512 Transform Message Padded 512 512

Transform

**Transform Message Digest
**

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Computer Networks

Prof. Hema A Murthy

Message Digest

• Modern day: Operates on 32-bit quantities • Current digest (d0, d1, d2, d3) • Works on the hope that it is difficult to create the transformations and the initial digest.

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

- Change Advisory Board
- PURCHASE ONLYCase Study on Indian Economy
- Security Overview-Cryptography and Network Security
- Tsunami Investigation Reports
- Doing Business in India
- Doing Business in China
- Aristotle - Rhetoric
- Aristotle - Politics
- Aristotle - On Interpretation
- Aristotle - Nicomachean Ethics
- Aristotle - Metaphysics
- Plato - Timaeus
- Plato - The Seventh Letter
- Plato - The Republic
- Plato - Symposium
- Plato - Sophist
- Plato - as
- Plato - Philebus
- Plato - Phaedrus
- Plato - Phaedo
- Plato - is
- Plato - Lysis, Or Friendship
- Plato - Laws
- Plato - Laches, Or Courage

Lecture on Network Security and its basics.

Lecture on Network Security and its basics.

- cisco ip security
- New Microsoft Office Word Document
- cisco ccna original pdf's
- Linux Penetration
- Fredericks MVCO Infrastructure
- CCIE Qualification Test Sample Questions
- Answering Machine Hack
- SNMP1
- IPSec-22
- Ipsec 2
- Ipsec 1
- Networking [PDF Library]
- SQL Injections
- snmp
- Tracing IP,Nslookups Ect
- SNMP2
- The Tools 2011
- Ipsec
- Ultimate Beginners Guide to Hacking and Phreaking
- SSL Hijacking
- virus kit
- Basic Hacking
- Windows Password Files
- Keygen Usefull Break Points Howto
- Major Operating System Files
- iPhone Ultimate Tips and Tricks
- solve k maps and digital crcuits simplifications
- Conspiracy Theories in American History
- A Crypto-watermarking Method
- A Crypto-watermarking Method
- Network Security

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd