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First Report

A NOVEL arrowhead TECHNOLOGY for


Low Cost Hybrid Bt-Cotton Seed Production

Demonstration of CHA Technology at PSC farm, Khanewal

By Muhammad Boota Sarwar

Federal Seed Certification & Registration Department G-9/4, Islamabad, Ph: 051-9260126

Bulk of the Hybrid Bt-Cotton seed production in China, India, Israel and Vietnam is being done through manual emasculation and pollination resulting in huge cost of hybrid seed production which is ultimately transferred to the cotton growers.

Fig: Manual emasculation of cotton flowers

The novel hybrid Bt-cotton seed production technology replaces cumbersome laborious job of emasculation with low cost Chemical Hybridizing Agent (CHA).
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Technology provider

SEED CARE SERVICES

TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FACILITATOR

Federal Seed Certification & Registration Department

Technology consumer

HYBRID SEED PRODUCING COMPANIES

TECHNOLOGY BENEFICIERIES

Cotton Growers of Pakistan

Benefits of Hybrid Cotton Seed Production Traditional breeding takes long time in combining beneficial traits available in two different varieties whereas hybrids instantly integrate such traits in one go.

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2. High yields, good fiber quality, bollworm resistance, herbicide tolerance, CLCuV resistance, heat and drought tolerance traits can be integrated through hybrid seed production. 3. Studies indicate increase in yield up to 25% due to hybrid vigor, depending upon genetic distance.
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Hybrid Bt-cotton with CLCuV resistance and herbicide tolerance traits will reduce cost of insecticides and weed-control to the tune of 50% and boost farmers yield and income by 30%. Hybrid seeds provide inbuilt technology protection, in absence of plant breeders rights, to the seed companies.

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6. Hybrid seeds will ensure uniform cotton quality for the benefit of textile industry. 7. National goal of increasing cotton yields to meet industry needs can be realized through extensive use of hybrid Bt-cotton seeds.

History of CHA Technology Development for Cotton


1. Cytoplasmic male sterility based hybrid seed production is being done for various crops but so far such economically viable system is not available for cotton. 2. Efforts have been made world-wide for development of chemical hybridization agents for cotton hybrid seed production but all the gametocides tried were neither stable nor costeffective. 3. Pakistan Agriculture Research Council (PARC) is also working on identifying suitable gametocide for cotton through at least 5 development projects but still the results are not encouraging. 4. Pakistan Central Cotton Committee (PCCC) also tried for suitable gametocide for cotton but no reliable result came out.
5. Seed Care Services (SCS) started work on this issue in 2007 at

Hyderabad exclusively with its own resources. In first year known gametocides were tried individually but none came up to expectations. 6. Next year (2008) various combinations of gametocides, herbicides, defoliants and hormones were tried on three genotypes of cotton and two combinations were found satisfactory as chemical hybridizing agents.
7. In 2009 low cost combination CHA was put to intensive trial at

Hyderabad for synchronization of genotype x temperature regime x physiological stage of the plant x dose x frequency of application. On the basis of the results synchronization formula was finalized. 8. This year (2010) the CHA technology for hybrid cotton seed production has been subjected to extensive nation-wide trials from Kunri to Pind Dadan Khan to clearly know strength of technology and for final tuning of practical application.

The Novel Arrowhead Technology for Low Cost Hybrid Bt-Cotton Seed Production
1. China, India, Israel and Vietnam are leading hybrid cotton seed

producing countries however bulk of the Hybrid Bt-Cotton seed production is being done through manual emasculation and pollination resulting in huge cost of hybrid seed production which is ultimately transferred to the cotton growers. 2. Hybrid cotton seed production requires daily 10-15 workers per acre for 100-120 flowering days to intensively work for emasculation and pollination of female flowers and this labor cost constitute 60% of total cost of hybrid cotton seed production.

Emasculation

Pollination

3. The novel hybrid Bt-cotton seed production technology replaces

cumbersome laborious job of emasculation with low cost Chemical Hybridizing Agent (CHA). 4. The work on insect-pollination regime is underway to replace hand pollination in hybrid cotton seed production fields to further cut labor cost.
5. The cost of hybrid Bt-cotton seed production will be reduced by

50% and the farmers will get hybrid seed at reduced price.

Financial Analysis of the New Technology 1. National cotton seed requirement with standard germination is 40,000 MT and with relaxed germination is 65,000 MT.
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If 25% area is targeted for hybrid Bt-cotton production then at least 20,000 acres are needed for hybrid seed production. Labor cost of emasculation and pollination with average requirement of daily 10 workers for 100-120 days for 20,000 acres is estimated as Rs. 2,000 million. The emasculation work cost accordingly will be Rs. 1,300 million.

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4. Studies show that labor cost of emasculation and pollination constitute 60% of the total seed production cost.
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The novel CHA technology will reduce cost of emasculation to the tune of Rs. 260 million thus saving Rs 1,040 million (50% of the hybrid cotton seed production cost).

6. Farmers will get hybrid Bt-cotton seed produced through CHA technology at 30% low price as compared to seed produced through conventional method. 7. The value of new CHA technology in case of 25% and 75% hybrid cotton production is Rs. 260 million and Rs. 780 million per annum respectively.

Technology Demonstration Sites


(Open for visit of professionals)

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Mian Muhammad Saleem, Beacon Seed Corporation farm, Kunri, district Umerkot. Cell # 03003300370 Mr. Muhammad Atif, Sindh Pacific Seed Corporation farm, Tando Allah Yar. Cell # 03003081810

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3. Ch. Abdul Latif, progressive grower farm, Bandhi, district Naushehro Feroze. Ph # 0242480164
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Ch. Muhammad Ikram, Resham Seed Corporation farm, Rahim Yar Khan. Cell # 03008670181 Mr. Munir Ahmed Naz, M/s Ali Akbar farm, Multan. Cell # 03464994049 Ch. Muhammad Umar, Director Farms, Punjab Seed Corporation, Pirowal, Khanewal. Ph # 0652680155 Syed Tariq Shah, Deputy Director FSC&RD, AARI, Faisalabad farm. Ph # 041723449

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8. Malik Anwar Hussain, President Poultry Association Punjab, progressive grower farm, Pind Dadan Khan. Cell # 03135342274

Successful Demonstration of Low Cost Hybrid Bt-Cotton Seed Production Technology At Punjab Seed Corporation Farm, Khanewal
1. Date of sowing: March 16, 2010. 2. Number of female genotypes: 3 (highly susceptible to CLCuV

with Cry 1Ac Bt-gene)


3. Male parent used: MN-814 (non-Bt with CLCuV tolerance)

4. First spray of CHA: April 4, 2010 5. Subsequent spray of CHA: May 20, 2010, June 24, 2010 6. Male sterility observed: 99% 7. Boll setting: success equal to manual emasculation.

Photo: 9-7-2010

CHA emasculated flower

Boll setting

Photo: 15-6-2010: Visit

of professionals

First Report of Other Sites of Technology Demonstration Kunri: Date of sowing of one female line: 3-5-2010 Date of first spray of CHA: 9-6-2010 Efficacy of CHA for emasculation: 100% Tando Allah Yar: Date of sowing of one female line: 22-5-2010 Date of first spray of CHA: 25-6-2010 Efficacy of CHA for emasculation: 99%

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i) ii) iii)
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3. Punjab Seed Corporation Khanewal: (second sowing)


i) ii) iii)

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Date of sowing of one female line: 15-4-2010 Date of first spray of CHA: 20-5-2010 Date of second spray of CHA: 24-6-2010 Efficacy of CHA for emasculation: 100%

4. Reports awaited from following sites: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Bandhi, district Naushehro Feroze Rahim Yar Khan Punjab Seed Corporation Khanewal: (third sowing) Multan Faisalabad Pind Dadan Khan

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