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A History of Anatolia
A. Rod Paolini July 3, 2011
Page -2ANATOLIA1 “If I have been able to see farther than others, it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants.”
Sir Isaac N ewton
Paleolithic Era Neolit
30,000 - 10,000 BCE hic Era 10,000 - 3,500 BCE The distinguishing characteristic of this age e btween 8000-5000 BCE is the start of roduction, farming and animal husbandry. Man p n i this age, left the caves and began to live in tone and mud-brick dwellings. The most s m i portant finds related to the Neolithic Age in n Aatolia are in Çatalhöyük.
Ç atal Hüyük
6,500 - 5000 BCE
5,000 - 3,000 BCE
Man started to make pottery of baked clay and to decorate the ceramics. This is understood from the excavation finds in settlement centers such as Hacilar, Can Hasan, Yumuktepe, Gozlukule, Beycesultan, Alisar, Alacahoyuk. Relations with Mesopotamia developed by way of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates
Early Bronze Age
3,000 - 2,000 BCE
The most important finds of this period are in Troy and Alacahoyuk. During this era when the pottery wheel was put into use, the Anatolian man learned to make statuettes of baked clay, marble, alabaster, bronze and gold with both religious and decorative purposes.
Middle Bronze Age
2,000 - 1,700 BCE
The trade relations with various Mesopotamian states and especially with Assyria, caused cultural and artistic interaction and as the result of this interaction an Anatolian style with characteristics of its own was created. The political power dominating this age was the Hittite Empire. The typical characteristics of the age can be understood from the excavation finds in Bogazkoy-Hattusa in Central Anatolia, and the ceramics found in Troy, Western Anatolia prove the relations with the Mycenaean civilization.
Anatolia (Greek for east, or more literally, Land of the Sunrise), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of continental Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey.
Page -3Abraham 1,800 - 1,550 BCE Late Bronze Age 1,700 - 1,200 BCE Hittites 1,800 - 1,200 BCE Iron Age 1,250 Hellenic colonization 1,000 BCE Phrygians 1,200 - 700 BCE Urartian 900 - 600 BCE Lydians 700 - 546 BCE Persians 546 - 333 BCE Alexander the Great 334 - 323 BCE Hellensitic City-States 500 - 200 BCE Celtic 279 BCE - 400 CE Common Era Romans 400 BCE - 400 CE King Attalus III of Pergammon (133 BCE) Mithridates Zela (47 BCE) Parthian Kingdom Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire 395 - 1453 Great Schism (1054) Turks Seljuk Turks Battle of Manzikirt (1071 - Alp Arslan) The Mongols (Genghiz Khan - 1200) Ottoman Turks (Osman I 1300 - 1326) Tatars (Tamerlane) 1402 Ottoman (Osmanli) Empire (1453 - 1923) Fall of Constantinople (May 29, 1453 by Mehmet the Conqueror) Suleyman the Magnificent 1520- 1566 Sieges of Vienna (1529 and 1683) “Sick Man of Europe” (1853) Balkan Wars World War I Armenian massacres Republic of Turkey
Ghenghis Khan led the huge Mongol cavalry force through the Islamic world from 1219 to 1223. He return to Mongolia in 1223, and death in 1227, meant that the main Mongol army withdrew from the Islamic world. A Mongol force did return to Iran in 1250s, however, led by Ghenghis Khan's grandson Hûlâgû, who established the Mongols as a resident ruling power over Iran, Iraq and much of Anatolia, until 1335.
Time line: Major Empires in Tûrkiye Era Date(s) 1800-1550 Predominant Nation or Ruler According to the tradition, Abraham was moving from Ur to Canaan which was in Promised Land (Gen.11:35), when he rested in Harran, near Urfa. Hittite Kingdom Urartian Kingdom Phrygians (King Midas) Hellenic City-States (Part I) start to colonize Aegean coast Lydians (King Croesus) Persians (Cyrus2 the Great); map of Asia Minor Macedonian Empire (Alexander4 the Great; map of Empire) Seleucid Empire 188 BCE 330 CD 133 163 BCE 74 CE Common Era (CE) 330-1453 Roman Period5 (Battle of Magnesia-bySipylus6); map of Asia Minor Pergamon bequeathed to Rome Commagene Kingdom Byzantine Period: Dedication of Constantinople (Roman, Christian, Latinspeaking); map of Empire Ottomans Assyrians and others Medes Cimmerians Lydians Persians Macedonians (Alexander the Great) Divided into smaller empires Conquered by
Before Common Era (BCE)
1800-1200 900-600 800
Hellenic CityStates (Part II) Flourishing time of Hellenic citystates in Asia Minor; Hellenistic Period 400-100 BCE3
Cyrus the Great was not the first Cyrus, but he was the first Cyrus to be king of the Persian Empire. Thus different histories sometimes cite his name as either Cyrus I or Cyrus II.
http://ancienthistory.about.com/homework/ancienthistory/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2F www-personal.umich.edu%2F%7Espalding%2FImagesofAlexander%2FMaps.html While the Roman Empire continued to exist after 330 CE, this date is considered the start of the eastern Roman empire. The term Byzantine was used in a book published in 1557 by Hieronymus Wolf, a librarian of the wealthy Fugger family in Augsburg. It was used to denote the Christian era of the Empire as opposed to its preceding pagan era. Thus the term Byzantine was never used by the people of the Empire and they considered themselves Romanoi (Romans.).
Near Mt. Sipylus which is east of Smyrna (Izmir).
Page -5~640 Emperor Heraclius declares Greek, long the language of the people and the Church, to be the official language of the Empire Arabs (invade Anatolia but defeated by Turks) Selçuk Period Battle of Manzikert (defeat of the Byzantines by the Selçuk Turks) Fourth Crusade and sack of Constantinople (Roman/Latin rule) Timur defeats Selçuk Turks but returns to the east Ottoman Period (Osmanli); Mehmet II conquerors Constantinople/Byzantines From Empire to Republic: declared a republic (President Kemal Atatürk) First Republic Second Republic: Türkiye Today Reconstituted as the second republic Disintegrated and emerged as a republic Mongol
654-1050 1050-1192 1071 map of Constantinople7 1204 1402-1405 map of Empire map of Turkey 1299-1923 1908-1923 1923-1961 1961-
Hittite Kingdom The Hittites were a Bronze Age people of Anatolia. They established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia ca. the 18th century BCE. The Hittite empire reached its height ca. the 14th century BCE, encompassing a large part of Anatolia, north-western Syria about as far south as the mouth of the Litani River (in present-day Lebanon), and eastward into upper Mesopotamia.
Figure 5:004_H ittite_12gods
Figure 6: 003_H ittite_W arriors
The Hittite military made successful use of chariots and by the mid 14th century BCE (under king Suppiluliuma I), they had carved out an empire that included most of Asia Minor as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. After ca. 1180 BCE, the empire disintegrated into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some surviving until the 8th century BCE. Their Hittite language was a member of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family. Natively, they referred to their land as Hatti, and to their language as Nesili (the language of Nesa). The conventional name "Hittites" is due to their initial identification with the Biblical Hittites in 19th century archaeology. Despite the use of "Hatti", the Hittites should be distinguished from the Hattians, an earlier people who inhabited the same region until the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE and spoke a non-Indo-European language called Hattic.
Figure 4 :005_G od Sarruma and King T uthalia IV
Although belonging to the Bronze Age, the Hittites were forerunners of the Iron Age, developing the manufacture of iron artifacts from as early as the 14th century BCE, when letters to foreign rulers reveal the latter's demand for iron goods.
Urartian Kingdom After the fall of the Hittite empire, at the beginning of the first millennium BCE, Urartians established a kingdom in eastern Anatolia, around Lake Van, (present day Armenia) which was to survive for three hundred years (900-600 BCE). They were descendants of Hurrians, and like them were closely related to Hittites. They carried many of the customs and traditions of the Hittites and were considered to be a typical Anatolian culture.
Figure 7:006_U rartu_area
The art of metal work was highly advanced in Urartu, and perhaps the greatest proof of this was the fact that Urartu artifacts were exported to Phrygian in the west and then to Tuscany in Italy. This is how the magnificent bull headed cauldrons of Urartu were found in Italy. The most interesting metal artifacts from the Urartu period are metal belts. They left many documents written in cuneiform and hieroglyph, and they contributed a great deal to the Near Eastern art in architecture and engineering fields. The Urartians who knew how to make use of natural forces by constructing dams and water channels (the Canal of Shamiram is still in use today), also made a great development in the field of metallurgy.
Figure 8:007_U rartian_cuneiform
In the 6th ca. BCE, Urartu and Assyria were both exhausted by constant warfare. Having formed the alliance with Scythians, Urartu ended abruptly ca. 585 Figure 9: From a U rartian C auldron BC after the Medes--assisted by Figure 10: U rartian metal belt Scythians-- invaded and destroyed the capital of Tushpa. The remains of the empire were subjugated by the Achaemenid Empire (under Cyrus, Xerxes and Darius). [Cyrus affects Israel, Babylonia and Asia Minor as described below.] Remains of the Urartian Empire in Armenia include the citadels of Erebuni (Yerevan), Teishebaini (Karmir Blur), Argishikhnili (Armavir), fortresses at Metsamor, Giumri, Vanadzor and Sissian, and three fortified cities on Lake Sevan (L'chashen, Gavar and Martuni). When the Uratians started to decline, the Hayasa country to the north united the local tribes upon which it exerted a profound economic and cultural influence, and having penetrated father into the Armenian Highland, subjugated the Uratians which in time became mutually assimilated with the Hayasa people. In this way, during the 6th century BCE, there arose the Armenian Kingdom which comprised large areas of Hayasa, Nairi and Uratu. The process of emergence of the Armenian people that lasted six centuries was thereby completed.
Page -8Phrygian Kingdom The Phrygians, originally from the Balkans (Thrace) arrived in Anatolia in 1200 BCE, and they were among the migrating tribes known as the people of the sea, who were responsible for the collapse of the Hittite Empire. At first they lived in Central Anatolia, building settlements over the ashes of Hittite cities. At the beginning of the 8th century BCE, they became very powerful, setting up a kingdom that dominated most of central and western Anatolia. Their capital was Gordion, named after their king, Gordios, and located on the banks of Sakarya river. As the legend goes, it was Gordius who tied the original knot on the walls of Gordion, saying that whoever loosens the knot would become the world leader. Eventually, it was Alexander the Great who cut the knot with his sword. The Turkish word "Kordugum" which means blind (untiable) knot comes from Gordium. Midas is the name of several Phrygian kings. The first of these kings was said to have been the [adopted] son of Gordius and Cybele, the goddess of the earth, whose first priest he was, and in whose honor he founded a temple at Pessinus According to myth, King Midas lived in a rose-garden palace in Macedonia (a region of present day Greece). Midas wished that everything he touched would turn to gold. The god Dionysus granted him his wish but soon enough, Midas back pedaled since food, drink, and his children also turned to gold. So he pleaded to be set free of the wish, which was granted, but as penance Midas had to wash in the river Pactolus (in present day Turkey). Subsequently, Midas was adopted by childless Phrygian King Gordius.
Figure 13: R uins of the temple of Pessinus
The Phrygian King Midas, is the legendary mythological figure whose ears were transformed into those of an ass, and known for his "golden touch" due to his ability to turn Figure 11: Believed to be the tomb of Midas everything he touched to gold. Some archeologists believe that they have found the tomb of Midas near the modern village of Yassihöyük.
Figure 12:008_C ybele
Phrygians used the same Phoenician alphabet as the Hellenes, and their art was influenced by Hittites, the Urartians from Eastern Anatolia, then later by Ionians from the Aegean. The ruins lie in Ballihisar, near Sivrihisar, 85 miles from Ankara. It was an ancient Phrygian city in the form of a temple-state, with the famous sanctuary of the Great Mother of the gods, Cybele. The cult statue of the Goddess was an unshaped stone, or baitylos, supposed to have fallen down from heaven [meterorite?]. The city of Pessinus reached its highest fame in 204 BCE, when the Roman Senate, in seeking divine aid against the invading Carthaginians led by Hannibal, were advised of a Sibylline prophecy that caused envoys to be sent to Pessinus and transport the cult statue of Cybele to Rome, where it was set up in a temple erected on the Palatine for this occasion. The Phrygians led by king Midas, were unable to resist the attacks of Cimmerian tribes who had begun to spread into Anatolia and Midas committed suicide by drinking bull's blood. Thus the state of Phrygian was wiped out in the late 600 BCE. After the collapse of the Phrygians, the Lydians took over the area.
Page -9Hellenic City-States: Part I Sometime between 2100 and 1600 BCE, Greekspeaking peoples migrated from the Caucuses to the Greek mainland and the Peloponnese. The first group was the Achaeans. It is not clear whether two additional tribes arrived or the Achaeans split apart and devolved into two additional tribes: the Aeolians and the Ionians. The last group to arrive in the 8th century were the Dorians.
Figure 14:009_H ellenic_colonies T he old inhabitants migrated to the shoes of Asia Minor which became the center of H ellenism. A multitude of colonies was set up by the four ancient G reek tribes of historic times: the Ionian D odecapolis (twelve cities) by the Ionians, with Miletus, Phocaea, Ephesus, C olophon and C hios as the most important; the D oric H exapolis (six cities) by the D orians (C nidus, H alicarnassus, C os and the three cities of R hodes) and the Aeolian D odecapolis by the Aeolians, with Lesbos and T enedos as the most important. U p to the end of the 6th century BC E the G reeks had spread westwards as well, mainly to southern Italy and Sicily (Syracuse, C umae, Parthenope, C roton and T aranto) and to Marseilles which became an important C reek centre and commercial supply station for G reek seafarers. C olonies were also established in Macedonia and T hrace.
Figure 15:010_G reece_Aegean
There is a myth which explains the origin of each of these tribes, which is not particularly significant except that it posits an eponymous ancestor named Hellen; and thus these people called themselves Hellenes. The word ‘Greek’ is a Latin word derived from the first (obscure) Greek people with whom the Romans came into contact. While settlements were founded as early as 3000-2000 BCE in Anatolia, the Hellenes founded colonies as early as 1000 BCE. Miletus, Colophon and Priene were founded about 1000 BCE, probably by colonist from the Mycenaean kingdom of Pylos. However, these colonies were destroyed by the Sea-Peoples of the 12th century (who cannot be identified but are believed to have become the Phrygians). New colonies at the same locations were founded in the 8th century. Many of the early city-states were built along side a river that flowed Figure 16:011_Ephesus_harbor into the Aegean Sea. After a few hundred years, the harbors of these cities silted up, thereby requiring a relocation of the city, only to require another move yet again. Note the silted up harbor of Ephesus in the distance. The Aeolians settled the northern portion of Anatolia along the Aegean coast; the Ionions the middle portion; and the Dorians the southern portion. These city-states were never isolated from the Hellenes of the mainland; they were an extension of the mainland, destined to contribute as much, if not more to the aggregate of Hellenic cultural development as the older cities of the west.
Figure 17: Map of Anatolia showing G reek names and names of indigenous peoples
Lydian Kingdom After the fall of Phrygian at the beginning of 700 BCE, Lydians established their capital at Sardis and dominated western Anatolia from about 650 BCE through 545 BCE. Lydians invented money and for the first time in history, coins made of electrum (an alloy of silver and gold) were used in trade. The coins carried the images of a bull and lion, emblems associated with Hittites.
The story of the Lydians begins, rather dramatically, with the accession to the Lydian throne of Gyges in 685 BCE as told by Herodotus: “‘Now it happened that Candaules was in love with his own wife...’ ‘...Candaules, anxious to confirm his own rapturous admiration of her beauty, arranged for Gyges, an incredulous friend, to watch from a discreet hiding place when his wife was preparing for bed. The plan miscarried, and the queen, understandably incensed, secretly compelled Gyges to contrive her husband’s assassination.’ Gyges thus became king. The Lydian kings had burial mounds constructed to hold their tombs which can be seen today. The site is located six miles north of Sardis at Bin Tepe. between the Hermus (Gediz) river and the Gygean Lake (Mermere Gölü). Its most notorious and last king was Croesus, know for wealth and extravagance. The expression “rich as Croesus” is still applied to someone who flaunts his riches. Much of the gold came from the Pactolus River which flows through the valley and was said to be affected by Midas’s “golden touch.” Lydia became a vassal to the Persians. In deciding whether or not to revolt from his vassalage to Cyrus the Great of Persia, Croesus sought the Oracle at Delphi in Greece. “You will destroy a great empire” was the reply. Croesus attacked and was defeated in 547 BCE. The Oracle had not stated which empire he would destroy. Sardis became the center of four Persian states. Anatolia remained under Persian domination for 200 years until 300 BCE. [It was during this period that the Persians twice crossed Anatolia in order to attack the Hellenes as described below.] However, it was merely a political dominance, without any evidence of Persian culture's influence. Subsequently, Sardis fell in turn to the Athenians, the Seleucids, and the Attalids until bequeathed to the Romans in 133 BCE. Under the Roman Empire, it was the metropolitan capital and center of judicial administration of the Roman province of Lydia. Destroyed by an earthquake in 17CE, the city was rebuilt and remained one of the great cities of Anatolia until the later Byzantine period. It was obliterated in 1402 CE by the Mongol Timur (Tamerlane). Its ruins include the ancient Lydian citadel and about 1,000 Lydian graves. Excavations of Sardis have uncovered more remains of the Hellenistic and Byzantine city than of the Lydian town described by the Greek historian Herodotus. We will return to this site for a description during its Hellenistic period.
Page -11Persian Empire After the Lydian Kingdom was defeated by the Persian king Cyrus, Anatolia came under the control of the Persians. An empire is defined as “a major political unit having a territory of great extent or a number of territories or peoples under a single sovereign authority.” Such was the Persian Empire. It should be remembered that the Chaldeans, Figure 20:014_Persian500 under their famous king, Nebuchadnezzar II, had conquered and sacked Jerusalem in 586 BCE and relocated much of its population to Babylonia. The Persians, under their king, Cyrus the Great, conquered the Chaldeans and allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem in 539 BCE. [Many did but many stayed, thus continuing the diaspora.] 559-529 521-486 486-465 424-401 401 CyrusI I (the Great) Cambyses Darius I (the Great) Xerxes Darius II Cyrus III the Younger The Persians (also called the Achaemenians after the founder of the dynasty) also conquered the Ionic city-states as well as Lydia. The most important works remaining from this period which lasted between 546-334 BCE are the famous Royal Road, which runs from Sardis to Susa in Babylonia (southern Iraq), and the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum, Turkey).
Mausolus, with his queen Artemisia, ruled over Halicarnassus and the surrounding territory for 24 years. Mausolus, though he was descended from the local people, spoke Greek and admired the Hellenic way of life and government. He founded many cities of Hellenic design along the coast and encouraged Hellenic democratic traditions.
Then in 353 BCE Mausolus died, leaving his queen Artemisia, Figure 21:015_Mausoleum who was also his sister (It was the custom in Caria for rulers to marry their own sisters), broken-hearted. As a tribute to him, she decided to build him the most splendid tomb in the known world. It became a structure so famous that Mausolus's name is now associated with all stately tombs through our modern word mausoleum. The building was also so beautiful and unique it became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Page -12Hellenic City-States: Part II These city-states established colonies themselves: the Milesians founded the cities along the coast of the Propontis (now the Sea of Marmara), namely Abydus (Çanakkale) and Cyzicus; along the coast of the Black Sea, they founded Sinope and Trapezus. The twelve cities of Ionia formed a Pan-Ionic League, primarily a religious federation based on a cult of Poseidon, whose principal sanctuary was at Melia, on the north coast of the Mycale peninsula. However they seem at this time to have been irremediably disunited, and suffered accordingly when called upon to face aggression from Persia. After the capture of Sardis, the Lydian capital, in 547 BCE, the Persians completed the subjugation of all of Asia Minor, including the Hellenic city-states. Asia Minor was divided into provinces and governed by a Persian satrap (governor), usually a Persian nobleman. In addition, local military forces were stationed in each province. The satrap’s main responsibility was to collect tribute (taxes) and recruit men into the Persian army; he had little contact with the local city-states who were allowed to govern themselves, but under a ‘despot’ responsible to the satrap. In 511 BCE, Darius I (the Great) led an expedition into Europe and brought along the despot of Miletus named Histiaeus. As a reward for saving his army while in retreat, Darius insisted he return to Susa with him. In Miletus, the despot’s prolonged absence created an opportunity for a widespread anti-Persian intrigue. This led to the Ionian Revolt (I), championed by the deputed tyrant of Miletus named Aristagoras. He attempted to convince the Spartans and then the Athenians to attempt to conquer the Persian Empire, thereby securing their own empire. The Spartan king, Cleomenes sent him packing, but the Athenians made a modest contribution of men and ships. With some additional forces, Aristagoras endeavored to create a diversion by marching on Sardis. The Ionion army, as might have been expected, failed to take the citadel where the Persian garrison was ensconced, but succeeded (rather vindictively) in setting fire to the town itself–an outrage for which responsibility was afterward attributed to the Athenians. The Persians isolated and recaptured one city after another. They treated the Milesians harshly, deporting them to a place called Ampe, at the head of the Persian Gulf. However, the Persians did substitute a more democratic form of administration, and regular meetings of representatives of each city to settle their differences. Darius, however, gave orders to his staff to regularly remind him of his grudge against the Athenians. The Persians mounted expeditions against the Hellens in 492 and 490 BCE. In the first, his fleet met with a storm while rounding the triple peninsulas of Chalcide and was almost completely destroyed. In the second, his troops landed at Marathon where the Hellens prevailed against all odds. His successor, Xerxes, launched a third expedition on a fabulous scale in 483 BCE. Of historic interest for Anatolia, his engineers constructed a bridge of boats across the Hellespont (Dardanelles), near Abydus (Çanakkale), only to have storm sweep it away. In addition to executing most of the engineers, he ordered a ceremonial ‘chastisement’ of the Hellespont with 300 lashes.
Figure 24 017_Greece_Ancient
Page -13The Persian navy was defeated at the Battle of Salamis. The army was defeated at Plataea, to the south of Thebes (479 BCE). The final blow was struck against the Persian reserve force at Mycale. To liberate the cities of the Mediterranean coast, a battle took place on the river Eurymedon (now Köprü Çayý). In the end, the Anatolia city-states continued to rent their land and were dependent upon the Persians for protection. By and large, the Hellens were not unhappy with Persian rule although they preferred to be free. As long as they paid their taxes, provided men and material for the army, and didn’t fight among themselves, the Persians, as with most Empires, allowed their nations/kingdoms to rule themselves. It should be noted, however, that almost an equal number of Hellenic states were preparing to fight on the Persian side, and a good many did. Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus (now Bodrum) is an example. The so-called Persian Wars reflects the viewpoint of the Greeks. It is often interpreted as a victory of the Greek nation when in fact no such nation existed; this late-day interpretation is partly for Greek political consumption and partly to fortify Western ideals. The March Upcountry (Anabasis): Cyrus III, who had been appointed Viceroy of Asia Minor in 407 BCE, planned an expedition to Babylon with the intention (at first concealed from his Figure 25:017_Anabasis Hellenic mercenaries) of dethroning his brother, Artaxerxes. His army marched unopposed down the Euphrates, encountered the imperial forces at Cunaxa, near Babylon. The Hellenes routed the Persians but Cyrus was killed. Under the cover of a truce, the Persians treacherously murdered the Hellenic officers, thus requiring one of the soldiers to take command: Xenophon. Under his leadership, they marched over a thousand miles across the highlands of eastern Anatolia, to reach the Black Sea near Trebizond. From the time of the enlistment by Cyrus, the entire expedition lasted a year and three months.
Page -14Macedonian Empire “For I myself believe that there was at that time no race of mankind, no city, no single individual, to which the name of Alexander had not reached.” Arrian8 Phillip II of Macedonia (north of Greece) conquered the combined armies of Thebes and Athens at Chaeronia, east of Delphi in 338 BCE. He seems to have admired Hellenic civilization and attempted to form a federal constitution under his leadership. He also dreamed of a pan-Hellenic crusade against Persia. He was assassinated in 336 BCE and succeeded by his son, Alexander.
In 334 BCE, with his army, Alexander crossed from Thrace to Anatolia at Abydus, and won a battle at the river Granicus near the modern town of Karabiga. He advanced through Anatolia. Most cities opened their gates and submitted to his suzerainty; but some did not such as Miletus. He then moved south to Lycia, before turning north to Gordium, where he cut the Gordian knot. (According to legend, whoever undid this knot would have control of Asia; Alexander simply cut it with his sword). He then proceeded Figure 27:019_Alexander_portrait south through the Cilician gates to Tarsus and then southeast, where, near the small town of Issus (north of Antioch), he engaged the Persian army (which included Greek mercenaries [259, p.55]) led by their king, Darius III. It was a rout, and Darius was captured. From Anatolia, Alexander proceeded south into Egypt and then east as far Figure 28:020_Alexander_route as the Indian Kush.
The Persian dominance of Asia Minor was merely political, without much influence of the Persian culture. In contrast, the Greeks of Alexander implanted a long lasting Hellenic legacy. Throughout the non-Greek speaking country, he garrisoned Hellenic soldiers who inter-married with local peoples; he instituted city-states (polis) but without full rights; he introduced the Greek language and Greek literature; he had cities built with grand walls, stadiums, theaters and gymnasiums. Alexander had no alternative but to re-establish the structure of Persian administration: regional divisions of the country called satrapies and governed by generals, with an overall authority in Sardis. The free Hellenic city-states were largely excluded from this authority. Alexander succumbed to illness in 324 BCE and died at age 33. No heir had been appointed to the throne, and his generals adopted Philip II's illegitimate son, Philip Arrhidaeus, and Alexander's posthumous son by Roxana, Alexander IV, as kings, sharing out the satrapies. Some years later, both kings were murdered. Alexander’s generals, known as Diadochs, had established their own kingdoms comprising Alexander's empire (see map/figure 21): & Ptolemy Lagus, Alexander's half-brother (Egypt and Palestine); & & & & Seleucus Nicator (Mesopotamia and Syria); Cassander (Macedonia and Greece); Antigonus (Asia Minor) Lysimachus (Thrace).
Figure 29:021_Anatolia_240BC E
Arrian (Flavius Arrianus), fl. 2d cent. CE, Greek historian, philosopher, and general.
Page -15Antigonus was defeated and killed at Ipsus (on the road from Afyon to Konya) by Lysimachus, whose army was supported by that of Seleucus and a great many elephants. Twenty years later Lysimachus himself was eliminated by his previous ally in 301 BCE. Even with the internecine wars among Alexander’s generals, most of Anatolia thrived. While the western and southern coasts were thoroughly Hellenic, the rest of Anatolia was a blend of Hellenism and Orientalism. For example, the temple-states were still numerous and owned much land. Their religion, which was usually based on the worship of the great pre-Aryan fertility goddess, was something foreign to Hellenics and Persians alike. The temple-lands were cultivated by peasants, and from their daughters were recruited the female templeslaves (or temple-priestesses or temple-prostitutes, depending upon your point of view). In some cases, the goddess might acquire the image of a Hellenic goddess and name, such as the transformation of Cybele to that of Artemis at Sardis. The Seleucids did not attempt to eliminate the temple-states; rather they expropriated all land save that needed to maintain the sacerdotal community. [The priestly families remained undiminished, and, centuries later, they provided bishops for the Christian Church.] This redistribution of land facilitated the foundation of new Hellenic settlements. These new settlements together with some older ones were adopted as Hellenic provincial centres, and usually renamed after the contemporary Seleucid monarch: thus Mopsuestia became Seleucia with Antiocha’s and Cesarea’s everywhere. Hellenic culture and Hellenistic methods of administration also spread gradually to the native states, the exception being feudal Armenia. It was during this period that Antiochus I (69 - 34 BCE) had monumental structures built in the province of Commagene, near the present day city of Urfa.
Page -16Commagene Kingdom At the summit of Nemrut Da (Nemrut mountain), near the city of Urfa on the Euphrates, a tumulus (artificial burial mound) of Antiochus I of Commagene (69 - 34 BCE) rises 150 feet above the natural rock. It includes statues of gods, goddesses and also the kings as well as their tumuli. The Commagene Kingdom was part of the Seleucid Empire, gaining its independence if 163 BCE; it lasted until 72 CE when Syria was conquered
Figure 30:060_N emrud_Antiochus
Figure 31:061_N emrud_reliefs
by Roman general Vespasian and became an eastern province of Rome. Antiochus claimed that his father was a descendant of Persian king Darius the Great and his mother Laodike was a descendant of Alexander the Great. His dual cultural identity made him bring both Persian and Hellenistic gods and goddesses together in front of his tumulus. Today it is crowded with the damaged remains of memorial sculptures, indifferent in style but all of colossal size, the fallen heads alone are up to ten feet high. The foundation walls facing the courtyard has writings about the laws and commands of the country as well as some scripts indicating the birthday of the king and the details of the official worshiping ceremony. The lion reliefs on the western courtyard carries some astronomical symbols of nineteen stars on the background and on the body of the lions. There are also figures of a crescent and three planets on the same axis indicating a specific astronomical event which happened in 62 or 61 BCE, the 7th of July when Jupiter, Mercury and Mars came onto the same axis when observed from the Earth on this date.
Figure 32:062_N emrud_statues
Page -17The following are photographs of the ruins of the more impressive Hellenic city-states of western Anatolia. Note that the architecture includes both Greek and Roman construction. Pergamon As with most ancient Greek cities, there are two cities: the acropolis (high city) or citadel that is located on the top of a hill or mountain that contains a fortress in the event of an attack and siege. Government and religious buildings plus the aristocratic families were located there. The lower town was usually housing for the less wealthy
Figure 37:022_Pergamon_altar Figure 35:023_Pergamon_Athena
Figure 36:024_Pergamon_H adrian
Figure 33:025_Pergamon_T heaterG reek
Figure 34:026_Pergamon_T heaterR oman
inhabitants. Pergamon’s location seems to have been chosen primarily for its defensive position and its beauty. The ancient city of Elaea served as its harbor. The acropolis also included a very large library. Mark Antony very generously gave it to Cleopatra of Egypt as a gift to be added to her collection in the library of Alexandria, Egypt. That library and its books were then destroyed by a fire set by Christians as a means of destroying pagan learning and practices. Equally famous was Pergamon’s hospital or asklepeion, a word that comes from a hero in Greek mythology named Asclepius who was a healer. The asklepeion consisted of several edifices for various states of treatment. For example a recovery room enabled doctors to reinforce their instructions to their patients who were recovering from the influence of drugs. The treatment was entirely psychological designed to make the patient believe that he/she had received the magic touch of Asclepius; however, patients did received herbal medicines that may have provided some real treatment.
Page -18Sardis I found the temple of Artemis at Sardis to be one of the most spiritual sites of my tour. Unfortunately photography cannot show the mountains that surround the temple providing a very focused spot. As discussed above, the goddess originally worshiped by the indigenous people was Cybele, but with the domination of the Hellenes, the invaders introduced a goddess of similar attributes (syncretism) called Artemis.
Figure 41:029_Sardis_G ymnasium
The gymnasium was more than a “gym.” It was part of the Figure 40:030_Sardis_Synagogue educational system for adolescence along with military schooling (ephebeia). For non-Greeks, it was an entryway to Hellenization. “The process of acculturalization was achieved as much in the gymnasia of the ephebeia as in the classroom. It was in the halls of the former that the Egyptian, Syrian or Jew acquired the dress, manners, style and connections that marked him as part of the ruling class and distinguished him from the non-Hellenized barbaroi.” [Peters, p. 198] [A slight contradiction to the above statement, a gymnasium was a place to exercise naked.] The Synagogue is from the 3rd century CE and once was a part of the gymnasium and restored to be a synagogue. Sardis had the largest known ancient synagogue. Its size and grandeur are a testimony to the prosperity of the Jews in Sardis during Roman times and to their eminent position in the city. However, one of the obstacles to citizenship (polites) for a Jew was the offering of sacrifice to the gods of the city-state (polis) and later the Roman Empire, something the Jew, as it was later for the Christian, was forbidden to do by a fundamental principle of his own politeia, the Mosaic Law. [Peters, p. 297]
Page -19Priene As happened to most of the cities that located their harbor at the river entrance to the sea, the rising alluvium made the original site uninhabitable, and a new site was chosen only to suffer the same fate. Today, the Latmic Gulf is a wide, cultivated plain, from which the sometime island of Lade rises in the form of a small hill. Priene is now nearly ten miles from the sea.
Figure 44:031_Priene_MtMycale Figure 42:032_T emple_Athena
The city was built according to Hippodamian form, that is, grid streets with planned location of the agora surrounded by stoas, stadium, gymnasium, theater, prytaneion (meeting house and dining room for senate members), bouleuterion (council chambers).
During the Byzantine age (13th century CE), the city was abandoned after a major earthquake and a severe malaria epidemic.
Figure 43:033_Priene_ Theater
Page -20Miletus The remains of the building, with its entrances and vaulted corridors, display all the distinguishing features of the Roman period. To the east of the stadium are the baths of Faustina and, adjacent to the baths, city defense walls dating from the reign of the Emperor Justinian. There is also a Serapeum, or temple of Serapis, from the 3rd century CE. From here one arrives at the southern agora built in the Hellenistic period with shops in the southern and eastern wings. The monumental gate in the north-eastern corner of the agora leads into the city center. The Romans developed technique of mortaring bricks together and thereby able to construct arches, vaults and domes of large size. Rome and Anatolia became the showpieces of this new architectural technique in a very short time. Cities in western, southern and even Figure 49:038_Miletus_stoa central Anatolia were adorned with gymnasiums, stadiums, theaters and roads paved with marble and lined with colonnades. Water was channeled into the cities via aqueducts springing from fountains.
A nymphaeum was a monument consecrated to the nymphs, especially those of springs. Originally natural grottoes, tradition assigned these as habitations of local nymphs. The monuments were sometimes arranged so as to furnish a supply of water. The majority of them were rotundas, and were adorned with statues and paintings. They served the threefold purpose of sanctuaries, reservoirs and assembly-rooms. A special feature was their use for the celebration of marriages.
Figure 50:039_Miletus_N ympaheum_restore
Three “natural philosophers” or natural scientists from Miletus were Thales (625-545 BCE), Anaximander (610-540 BCE) and Anaximenes (mid-6th BCE).
Page -21Didyma Located ca. 10 km S of the city of Miletus and inland from the small port of Panormos, the site of Didyma (a pre-Hellenic name) was a cult center with a spring and sacred grove before the arrival of the Ionian Greeks. In the Archaic period the first temple of Apollo was constructed and a Sacred Way, lined with sculptures, led from Panormos to the sanctuary. Additional structures at the sanctuary included a temenos wall, stoas, and a circular altar and a sacred well before the temple.
The open-cella Archaic temple was replaced by a larger unroofed temple in the Hellenistic period. The Hellenistic temple of Apollo, although never completed, survives as one of the largest and most impressive examples of ancient Greek architecture. The temple housed a small Naiskos within the open cella and had an unusual room between the pronaos and cella which may have served as the Chresmographeion (office of the oracle). Also present at the sanctuary were other shrines, a stadium, and a settlement of priests and attendants. Although musical and drama contests were held as part of the Festival of the Great Didymeia every four years, there is no theater nor odeion at the sanctuary.
Figure 54:043_D idyma_T emple_1
Little is known about activities at Didyma during the 5th and 4th centuries BCE, but it seems to have suffered a decline. Figure The sanctuary and the office of the 55:044_D idyma_T emple_2 oracle was revived ca. 311 BCE when the sacred spring reappeared (or was rediscovered) on the occasion of a visit from Alexander the Great. In the following decades, Selencus embellished the sanctuary and commissioned the new Hellenistic Temple of Apollo. The sanctuary grew in wealth and fame and work on the temple continued for the next 200 years. In 278 BCE the sanctuary suffered under the raids of Gauls, but construction work on the temple was resumed. At 70 BCE the Figure 56:045_D idyma_T emple_3 sanctuary was sacked by pirates and work on the temple stopped. The sanctuary continued to function and in 100 CE, Trajan commissioned a new paved road to the sanctuary from Miletus.
By the 3rd century CE, Christianity had become well established in the Miletus area, and the sanctuary at Didyma fell into disuse. About 262 CE the Temple of Apollo (which had never been completed, despite five centuries of service), was converted into a fortress against the invading Goths.
Figure 57:046_D idyma_Medusa
Page -22Greek Oracles The ancient Greeks felt a deep need for guidance in the problems of life, but, unlike many believers in the modern world who are guided by the Bible, the Koran or the holy books of Eastern religions, the Greeks had no such sacred writings. Greek poets were often thought to be inspired by the Muses, but this did not make their poetry the work of the gods. Even their priests were of little help; their function was to perform public worship, mostly by offering sacrifices to particular gods. They delivered no sermons and heard no confessions. At best they could decide the questions of religious law - whether a certain act had made the inquirer impure and how he could be cleansed. In contrast, an oracle provided answers to questions, typically: 1. Religious/philosophical questions; 2. Whether or not to pursue certain policies or actions; 3. Foretelling the future. At a number of temples throughout the Greek world, there were oracles to which the inquirer, whether a private individual or a state, could bring a question and receive an answer which was supposed to express the will of the gods by speaking through a medium, in this case, a prophetess. The age of the oracles dates from around 700 BCE to about 300 CE. The word oracle describes three things. It describes the person through which the god speaks. It also describes the actual temple or shrine of the god. Lastly it describes the answer given by the god through the prophet. The major oracles were: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 Delphi at Delphi, Greece Dodona, northwest (Epirus) Greece Olympia, Elis, Greece Didyma, near Miletus, Anatolia Claros near Colphon, Anatolia
These temples were mostly, though not all, dedicated to Apollo, whose cult had spread from Asia Minor to the metropolitan Greece. I have yet to read a definitive treatise on oracles, but only incomplete descriptions of particular oracles, mainly Delphi, Didyma, and Claros. I’ve also concluded that many of these descriptions simply reiterate attributes stated by other writers with no verification of the assertions. For example, it is widely believed that the prophetess at Delphi was inspired, either by breathing hallucinogenic fumes emanating from below the tripod upon which she sat as at Delphi, or by eating hallucinogenic inducing herbs. Geologists have negated the existence of a volcanic source at Delphi, and the eating of herbs is strictly conjecture. As to the organization of an oracle, I have read a rather detailed description of Didyma where there were five positions: the prophetess who was supposedly inspired by the god; a thespod who interpreted the somewhat incoherent utterance of the prophetess; a transcriber who wrote the interpretation in “neat iambic verse;” [27, p.175]; and a secretary that recorded and keep a record of the oracle (questioner, question, answer); the priest who performed the sacrifices to the god. Much is made of the obtuse nature of oracles, but such characterization is too general; most are fairly direct but a bit general. I’ve concluded that the answers were probably the result of considerable thought and research. At Didyma, The thespode had a day or more in which to reflect and to listen to supplicant’s question. These oracular shrines had “libraries and archives.” [27, p.188] “In the second and the early third century, there were philosophers serving as prophets.” I have concluded that oracles were sources of independent thinkers–ancient ‘think-tanks–and not just crackpots.
Page -23Ephesus Ephesus is the most restored of all the Hellenistic cities on the Aegean coast. When flooded with tourist in the summer time, it almost has the look and feel of a living city. One needs to be reminded that up to the beginning of the ‘archaeological era’ in the middle of the 19th century, not one single stone remained visible above ground.
The silting up process threatened the commercial viability of the city, and Lysimachus (360 BCE – 281 BCE) had the city completely rebuilt on the new and present site. Having difficulty persuading the more conservative inhabitants of the old city to relocate, Strabo reports that he stopped up the sewers and flooded them out. From then onwards, Ephesus became the veritable capital of Asia until the third century CE.
Figure 60:050_Ephesus_C elsusLibrary
The restored library shows the niches into which statutes were placed. The Temple of Hadrian is easily identified by its Roman arches. The Romans invented cement which enabled them to construct more ornate and elegant structures than the Hellens. The Romans used marble as a facade, which, unfortunately, later inhabitants removed in order to construct other buildings. Of more utilitarian value, this latrine shows that water flowed under the seats to remove the sewage while water also flowed in the small trough that ran under the legs of persons, allowing them to clean their sponges which they then hung on the wall. The splashing water of a fountain in the middle of the room drowned out more offensive noises. The Artemisium shown at the left is a artistic impression of the appearance of the temple which was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Only a single column remains today. Alexander offered to rebuild the previous edifice that had burned, but the Ephesians tactfully refused on the grounds that ‘it was unseemly for one god to dedicate a temple to another.”
Figure 62:051_Ephesus_HadrianT emple
Page -24Myra The city of Myra is located on the Mediterranean coast in the province of Lycia. It is famous for its rock-cut tombs of Myra’s early inhabitants. A few stand free from the cliff-face on little platforms, but the majority are mere facades, divided into doubly or triply recessed panels, and curiously resemble the rectilinear mullioned windows of Elizabethan England. The facade is occasionally surmounted by a pediment, beneath which the projecting ends of wooden joints are imitated in stone. There are also tombs with open porticoes, ornamented with sculptured friezes and free-standing columns. There is also one tomb whose facade is turned sideways to face an Figure 65:055_Myra_tombs2 open vestibule, embellished with life-size figures in relief. Other similar figures are carved on the rock-face between the tombs or above the pediments. In Roman times, Myra was on the sea and was the port where St. Paul changed ships on his way to Rome in about 60 CE. The city is well known for its amphitheater (the largest in Lycia) and the plethora of rock-cut tombs carved in the cliff above the theater Constantine made Myra the capitol of Lycia as well as a bishopric. St. Nicholas was one of Figure 68:057_Myra_masks2 Myra's early bishops in the 4th century CE, famous for his miracles and known for his kindness. He later became the patron saint of Greece and Russia as well as of children, sailors, merchants, scholars, those unjustly imprisoned, and travelers. Legend has it that St. Nicholas threw bags of gold down a chimney to three sisters as dowries to save them from a life of prostitution. This legend led to the development of the mythical figure of Santa Claus. After the death of St. Nicholas, Myra became a rich pilgrimage center with many new churches.
Because of Arab raids, flooding, and earthquakes, Myra was mostly abandoned by the early 11th century.
Hellenistic Period Initially Pergamon was a vassal state of the Seleucid Empire, but in 263 BCE, Eumenes I declared himself independent of Antiochus I; when he died in 241 he was succeeded by his nephew Attalus I.
In 279 BCE, bands of Celtic Gauls stormed across Anatolia and created havoc among neighboring Hellenistic states. Invited from Europe by Bythian king, Nikomedes in 278 BCE, Celts, called Galatians, Pergamon's king Attalus defeated the Celts, though they eventually settled in a territory in Central Anatolia to which they gave their name, Galatia, and named its capital Angora (Anycra, now Ankara). [It is to these people that the apostle Paul wrote one of the gospels.] The original Attalid territory around Pergamon in the province of Mysia was greatly expanded by 188 BCE with the addition of Lydia (excluding most Hellenic coastal cities), part of Phrygia, Lycaonia, and Pisidia (from 183 BCE), all former Seleucid territories. This expansion was accomplished as the result of Eumenes II's alliance with Rome in its conflict with the Seleucid Antiochus III. When Eumenes' son and second successor, Attalus III was near death and childless, he willed that his kingdom to Rome. It has been surmised that he did so to prevent a relative, Aristonicus, from succeeding him. At the time, the slave unrest had spread east of the Adriatic, and Pergamon was also shaken by a wider social unrest. Perhaps Attalus believed that only Rome would be able to maintain law and order in his empire. At any rate, Attalus died in 133 BCE, and Rome accepted Pergamon as its inheritance. Rome established the province of Asia Minor in 129 BCE, which included Ionia and the territory of Pergamon, but left the other regions to neighboring kings, who were clients of Rome.
Page -26Roman Period The Attalid kings were still reigning in Pergamon when Rome began for the first time to take a hand in the affairs of Asia Minor. Eumenes II appealed for help when the armies of the Seleucid King Antiochus the Great (for his legacy, see below) penetrated to the Maeander, and it was partly as a result of this appeal that in 190 BCE the first full-scale Roman invasion took place. The Romans defeated Antiochus at the battle of Magnesiaad-Sipylum (today’s Manisa). The Romans were able to consolidate their commercial footing. There was a prodigious increase in trade and an invading army of Roman businessmen that established a banking system. With the emergence of Mithradates Eupator, King of Pontus, the Hellenic city-states were caught between the imperial west and eastern Barbarian resistance for which they suffered greatly. They lost their Hellenic character and emerged as components of the new Roman Imperium. Mithradates was a colorful historical character: he killed his mother and younger brother, and he was a thorn in the side of the Romans for 25 years. He conquered Asia Minor, Thrace, and Macedonia. He exterminated an estimated 100,000 Italians in his retribution against the Romans, and he became a rapacious despot of the Hellenic states. Various generals were sent to deal with Mithradates. The Roman commander Cotta had stationed one part of his forces at Chalcedon (present day Haydarpaºa) on the Bosphorus which were destroyed by Mithradates. Mithradates then lay seige to the island city of Cyzicus but had to withdraw due to lack of supplies; in doing so, his forces were caught and cut to pieces by Roman mobile units. His Pontic fleet was caught and defeated by a Roman squadron under the command of Lucullus at the entrance to the Hellespont (Dardanelles) while the remaining half was battered to pieces by a storm in the Euxine (Black Sea), though he escaped alone in a small pirate ship and eventually reached Sinope. Having relocated to Cabeira (Niksar), he reinforced his army. Mithradates was again defeated by Lucullus but again escaped, eventually making his way to the kingdom of Armenia which was ruled by his son-in-law Tigranes. Again, Lucullus inflicted a defeat at Tigranocerta (southwest of Lake Thosprotis (Van) near Nisibis), yet again Mithradates and Tigranes escaped. Lucullus was relieved of his command, and in his stead was placed the most noted general to confront Mithradates: Gnaeus Pompeis Magnus, better known as Pompey. He had just successfully completed a campaign of routing the pirates of the Cilician coast that were inflicting heavy losses on Roman trade with the East. Pompey defeated Mithradates at the source of the Euphrates river in 68 BCE. Yet again, Mithradates escaped and fled to Erzurum. [Pompey then pacified the Syria and Palestine, the last remnants of Seleucid authority, and then concluded a treaty with the Parthians.] It was then reported that Mithradates was dead, apparently committing suicide having learned that his son Pharnaces had succeeded in usurping his throne and allying himself with Pompey. When the news of his death reached Rome, there was a public festival for ten consecutive days. Pompey then faced a more formidable foe: his fellow countryman, Julius Caesar. Mithradates’ son, Pharnaces, at the urging of Pompey’s Roman political supporters, revolted against the Roman garrison. After dispatching Pompey’s army at Pharsalus in Thessaly, Caesar defeated Pharnaces at Zela (now Zile), a battle immortalized by his remark: ‘I came, I saw, I conquered.’ His brief tenure instituted a more liberal policy with regard to tribute resulting in renewed prosperity in Asia Minor.
Figure 70: 062_Asia_Minor_Zela
Page -27When Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BCE, the unstable political situation was resolved with the formation of the Second Triumvir. The result for Asia Minor was a new tyranny in the person of Mark Antony, who initially demanded 10 years of taxes in advance. His famous first meeting with Cleopatra was a Tarsus in Cilicia. They later spent a year at Ephesus. The defeat of Antony by Octavian ushered in an unbroken peace that lasted two centuries with gradual changes and developments such as the spread of Western Civilization and the popularization of Christianity. St. Paul, the Christian apostle, was born in Tarsus in Cilicia. The map shows his four journeys in his lifetime. The cities of Anatolia that he visited include: Antioch, Seleucia, Perge, Antioch (in Pisidia), Iconium, Lystra (where he was stoned), Ephesus (he stayed for 3 years), Derbe, Assos, Troas, and Miletus. He wrote to the church at Ephesus (Ephesians), to the church at Galatia (Galatians), and the church at Colosse (Colossians) Some four to six years Figure 71:058_StPaul_journeys after the death of Christ, St. John is said to have accompanied the Virgin Mary to Ephesus, where it is believed they dwelt in a small house over which now stands the Council Church, or the Church of the Virgin Mary. This assertion was recorded by the [Ecumenical] Council of Ephesus which met in 431 CE. Later St. John brought the Virgin Mother to a house on the slopes of Büülbüül Mountain, the position of which was later forgotten, until research was begun in 1891 to find traces of it The house is typical of Roman architectural, and is entirely made of stone. In the 4th century CE, a church, combining her house and grave, was built. The original two-stored house, which consisted of an anteroom (where today candles are proposed), bedroom and praying room (Christian church area) and a room with fireplace (chapel for Muslims). A front kitchen fell into ruins and has been restored in 1940's. Today, only the central part and a room on the right of the altar are open to visitors.
Figure 72:059_Ephesus_MarysH ouse
Page -28Byzantine Period In 324 CE, Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus, better known as Constantine (and also later given the appellation, the Great) became sole augustus or emperor of the Roman Empire. In 330 CE, he officially dedicated the city of Byzantium as the eastern capital of the Empire, often called the “Second Rome” or "New Rome," but officially renamed “The City of Constantine” or Constantinople. He had initially chosen Troy as the site of the new capital but thought better of his initial selection, considering Byzantion’s geographical location and topography. It’s eponymous founder thought the same (see text box).
According to Strabo, Byzantion is thought to have been founded by the colonists from Megara led by Byzas in the 7C BC. The popular legend has it that Megarians, before coming here, he went to the oracle in Delphi and asked for instruction on where to found a new colony. The answer give was "opposite the city of the blind". When Byzas came to area, he noted the older city of Chalcedon on the Asian side. He concluded that the inhabitants of Chalcedon must be blind not to see the advantages of the site on the peninsula.
It should be mentioned that there are other, and older founding myths of the city.
There is only conjecture as to why Constantine relocated the capital but among the most probable are the following: 1) the wealth of the Empire had shifted from Rome and Italy to the eastern provinces as the soil of Italy had become depleted; food had to be imported and farmers had migrated to the city to become an unwieldily mob. 2) the threat to the Empire was in the northeast and southeast so that a Constantinople could provide a better means of directing military defense. 3) Constantine could build a city as a monument to his own glory. 4) Constantine could build a Christian city. At the time of the death of Constantine, rule of the Empire was apportioned to his three sons, and eventually the there was an emperor in the west at Rome Figure and an emperor in the east at Constantinople. The western half disintegrated 73:064_C onstantine under the assaults of the barbaric tribes, its end marked by the deposing of the emperor by Odoacer, king of the Goths, in 476 CE. The eastern half of the empire continued for another thousand years, and its citizens continued to consider themselves Romans (Romanoi in Greek). While Latin was the official language, Greek was the dominant tongue spoken, and in 640 CE, it became the official language. Under Theodosius I (emperor from 379 to 395), the Olympic (i.e., pagan) religion was suppressed and Christianity adopted as the religion of the state9; under Justinian (emperor 527-565), a a law was passed in 528 CE that required every pagan to present himself and his family for baptism. To mark the distinctive eras of Olympian and Christian by historians after the fall of the eastern Roman Empire in 1453, a librarian of the wealthy Figure 74:063_Byzantine_Empire Fugger family in Augsburg, one Hieronymus Wolf, coined the term Byzantine history in his biography of Zonaras in 1557. Thus we have a Roman Empire, called today Byzantium, whose citizens called themselves Romanoi, and who spoke Greek. In an attempt to describe this empire, I describe a few institutions and some significant historical events.
In the year 392 A.D., Hera and Zeus, Demeter and Poseidon, Hermes and Athena, Apollo and Aphrodite and several other Olympian deities were officially pronounced dead. Their death was confirmed by the edicts and policies of Theodosios the Great.” In Byzantine and Ancient Greek Religiosity by Demetrios Constantelos, p. 1.
Page -29End of Paganism: With the adoption of Christianity as a state religion, various policies were instituted to suppress the cultic worship of the Greek and Roman gods and goddesses: 1) the clergy was freed from municipal offices ( a position which entailed funding of building projects and services), extraordinary taxes, and all forms of forced labor; church property was also exempt from taxation. 2) members of the court were forbidden under the severest penalties to consult oracles, augurs or soothsayers. Over the years, the marble and stone of the temples and altars were removed to be used in the building of churches. [This same practice was employed by the Ottomans in their building of mosques and houses.] 3) temple lands, money and plate were confiscated; sacrifices prohibited. 4) non-Christians were gradually stripped of their civil rights. 5) every pagan had to present himself and his family for baptism. The state also acquiesced in vigilantism: “Hypatia, a mathematician and head of the Neoplatonic school at Alexandria, was murdered by a Christian mob 415. There were basilicas in the Roman Empire before the birth of Christ. A basilica was an official government building, usually located in Rome or any major city, at the central plaza. A basilica had a special shape to it; usually a large rectangular building with the entrance on a long side and with two rows of columns along the long side. Supposedly Constantine changed the structure so as to form a church building by relocating the entrance to a short side and rounding the other end to form the apse. Church of Pergamon (Kizil Avlu or Kýzýl Avlu) was built on two tunnels covering the stream and it is the only church whose location is known definitely among all the churches mentioned in Bible. Also called the "Red Basilica," it was actually built for God Serapis (Serapeion) during the 5th century CE. There are two towers on the right and left sides. The tower on the left side is used as a mosque today.
The red brick construction contrasts markedly with the white limestone and marble of the public buildings on the acropolis. “Originally, the red-brick building was covered with marble but this has long been stripped and now only the floor retains its marble finish.” [67, p. 178] Eastern Orthodox Church: While initially one Christian church, the bishop of Rome and the bishop of Constantinople soon had differences as to religious dogma and organizational authority. With the demise of the western empire, the western Church ceased to be attached to any one state although it had its protectors; but it attempted to be a universal church, hence the name Catholic (katholikos). The eastern Church was imperial and constituted a department of the state administration. It was nationalist in its attitude; adoption of Christianity went hand in hand with nationalism. For example, the conversion of Vladimir, Prince of Kiev, after his marriage to Anna, the Byzantine emperor’s daughter, set about proselytizing and converting towns and villages en masse. The Orthodox Church tended (and continues) to be more mystical and liturgical (ritual), and particularly concerned with questions of arcane theogony (nature of God). Consequently, there were several disputes about dogma, within the church and between it and the Catholic Church. For example, in the early days of Christian belief, the Third Person of the Trinity was held to proceed directly from God the Father. Then, towards the end of the sixth century, the fatal word filoque – ‘and the Son’ – began to appear. The West adopted this dogma while the East deemed it the vilest heresy. Often these disagreements were expressions of politico-national struggles. One result was severance of all bonds of rite and dogma between East and
Page -30West. Eventually, the Great Schism of 1054 became an official separation.
Page -31Defending the Boundaries of the Empire: The history of the Empire consists in large measure of wars in defense of borders from invaders or rebellions of nations within. Over the course of a thousand yeas, the Byzantine Empire fought the following nations or ethnic groups: 1. Persians/Parthians 2. Vandals, Lombards, Ostogoths, Visigoths (as Roman Empire) 3. Avars (550) 4. Slavs (576, 746) 5. Magyars (400 - 500) 6. Bulgars (late 900's - 1300) 7. Pechenegs (1091) 8. Normans (1080's) 9. Arabs/Saracens (800's) 10 Turks a. Seljuks (1071) b. Osmanlis As a consequence, the demand for resources for the military put an extreme strain on the economy and on the political and social structures. There were constant conflicts over succession to the emperorship, and over economic policies that favored one group over another.
Cruelty--East and West Basil II Bulgaroktonos, ("the Bulgar-slayer" ): In a decisive battle with a Bulgarian army in 1014, the Bulgarian army was taken by surprise, panicked and fled; some 15,000 were captured. “Of each hundred prisoners, ninety-nine were blinded; to one man a single eye was left, that he might conduct the remainder to the presence of their king.” First Crusade: In addition to ravaging the land and women, and plundering the towns and villages of Byzantium, the Crusaders “battered their way to Jerusalem, slaughtering all the Muslims in the city and Factions in the city: alive versus Greens The names burning all the Jews Bluesin the main synagogue.” originally referred to the colors worn by the two principal teams of charioteers. They existed as two “semi-political parties” which combined on occasion to form a local militia. The Blues tended to be the party of the big landowners (and religious orthodoxy) while the Greens represented trade, industry and the civil service (and monophysitism). Called the Nika revolt, in 532, both parties had gathered in the Hippodrome for a rally and the acclamation of a new emperor. Justinian, reinforced by the empress, Theodora, ordered the imperial bodyguard to quell the rioters. The principal exits were secured, and 30,000 were slain.
Crusades: The Seljuk Turks first appear in the late tenth century, a nomadic tribe that had adopted the faith of Islam as Muslims. They had migrated westward and were hired as warriors by the Persian Empire in its conflict with the Fatimids of Egypt and its Shi’ite ruler. As did/do most nomads, the Seljuks often raided settlements, and thus the Byzantines saw them as a menace and engaged the Seljuk army, the latter led by sultan Arp Arslan, at Manzikert near Lake Van in 1071. The Byzantine army was routed. Much of the blame for this defeat lies with the prior emperor, Constantine X Ducas, who “pursued a virulently anti-military policy because he saw the aristocratic Anatolian families that led the army as an unnecessary expense and a theat to his power. The power of the army was based on the theme or provinces with governors and their militias. These were decimated over the years following Manzikert, thereby leaving the Byzantines significantly weaker relative to other military powers. After fending off threats from the Normans (1080's) and the Pechenegs (1091), the Emperor Alexius I Comnenus sent emissaries to the West seeking military assistance in order to free Christian communities in Asia Minor that were suffering beneath the Turkish tide, and to counter the Turkish armies that were at the very gates of Constantinople with an imminent threat to all of Christendom. Alexius and successive emperors got more than they bargained for: four successive armies of crusaders came through the Empire to engage the infidels. In addition to ravaging the countryside, pillaging and raping women, the Crusaders became embittered towards the Byzantines in disputes over authority and ownership of land (kingdoms) plus a bitter mistrust of each other.
Page -32Economy and Trade: The Emperior Alexius Comnenus had received assistance from the Republic of Venice in repulsing the Normans in 1081; in return he had granted trading privileges in Constantinople and elsewhere on terms calculated to outbid Byzantine merchants. [It provoked the rich, who might have been encouraged to invest their capital in shipbuilding and trade, to rely on the more familiar security of landed property. The consequence was a decline in the wealth of the Empire.] In 1171, there occurred an anti-Latin demonstration in Constantinople: all Venetians in the empire were arrested and their property was confiscated. The Venetians (Italians!) did not forget. They too began to think in terms of putting Constantinople under Western control as the only means of securing their interest in Byzantine trade. Relations with the West and the Isolation of the Empire: There were many characteristics and actions of the Empire that caused relations with the West to become diffident and hostile: 1. The differences between the churches; 2. The strictness of its Byzantine court etiquette; 3. The haughtiness of their heritage (They saw themselves as heirs of the ancient, imperial Roman Empire and called themselves Romani while the West called them Rhomaioi (the Greek form of “Romans” or more often Graeci (Greeks); 4. The wealth and refinement of its material civilization, that is, the Byzantines were seen as unmanly; 5. The West saw the East as traitorous during the Crusades 6. Their dependency upon the Venetians, Genoese and Pisans for trade and naval support. The Ending The fourth crusade, composed mainly of Frankish (French) knights, led by an Italian, Boniface of Monserat, and by the Venetian Doge, Enrico Dandolo, conquered Constantinople and pillaged the city of its adornments (see images Figure 76:067_U rbans_cannon above). While the Greeks regained the City some years later, they were never strong enough to withstand the surging tide of Ottoman Turks. Their estranged relations with the West brought them sympathy but little relief (one Crusade was initiated but defeated by the Turks), and on May 29, 1453, the Empire succumbed.10
Queller, Donald E., and Madden, Thomas F., The fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1997.
Page -33City of Constantinople When regional characteristics were combined with the influences of Christianity, new styles were created. As early as the sixth century, Constantinople had a system of street-lighting, sports, equestrian games or polo-playing, and above all chariot races in the circus or hippodrome shown as a model below; the outline of the stadium still exists as a park. Note the square end of the hippodrome has twelve doors which were raised to start the Figure 77:070_C _palace_view chariot race. Atop the box was a triumphal quadriga (a sculpture of a car or chariot drawn by four horses abreast). Taken by the Venetians in the sack of the city in 1204 CE, they are now in the west facade gallery of San Marco Figure 80:069_C_aquaduct Basilica in Venice. The column of Çemberlitas, is situated in the old Forum of Constantine the Great. This column, which is 57 m. in height, was
Figure 78:071_Q uadriga2
Figure 81:072_H ippodrome_model
Figure 79 071_C emberlitas
brought from the Apollo Temple in Rome. It is believed that originally a statue of Apollo greeting the dawn surmounted it, which was replaced by Constantine the Great in 330 with a statue of himself. The column was made of eight porphyry drums which were wreathed with laurel. The statue of Constantine surmounting it was later replaced with a statue of Theodosius, which was dislodged by lightening in 1081. The column was restored by Alexius I Comnenus and an inscription engraved on the capital with a gilded cross in place of the statue. Later, during the reign of Mustafa II (1695-1704), after a severe fire damaged it, the sultan had a layer of stone added to the base and iron hoops fixed around it, giving it its present Turkish name of Çemberlitaº, the “hooped column”.
Figure 85:073_H ippodrome_high view
Figure 86:074_O belisk_T heo dosius_2
Figure 87:075_SerpentineC olumn
Figure 82:076_D elphi_ tripod_1
Figure 83:078_StSophia_1 Figure 84:077_D elphi_T ripod_2
Note the outline of the hippodrome in fig. 73_Hippodrome_highview. The obelisk in the foreground is the Column of Constantine VII Porphryogenitus erected in 940 CE. It was originally covered with bronze plates, but they were ripped off by the Crusaders leaving the pockmarks. The 3,500 year old obelisk in the background is the Obelisk of Pharaoh Thutmose III brought by Constantine from Karnak in Egypt; at the base are scenes of the emperor and his household. The bronze Serpentine Column, which is formed by three intertwined snakes, stood originally in the Temple of Apollo at Delphi; it was made of the bronze shields of Persian soldiers who were killed at the battle of Palatea in 479 BCE in order to celebrate the victory of the Hellens over the Persians. The pinnacle of Byzantine architecture was the construction of Hagia Sofia. It also produced fortresses, water archways and cisterns, bridges and palaces. The Byzantine era also witnessed great developments in sculpture, mosaic, gilding and ornaments. Constantinople is still the seat of the Orthodox Church and the Patriarch still resides in the district of Fener (Phanar).
Figure 90:081_BasilicaC istern Figure 89:080_StSophia_const&just
Page -35Seljuk Period The Seljuks were a group of nomadic Turanian warriors from Central Asia who established themselves in the Middle East during the 11th Century, having migrated from the western province of China. Some of their tribes adopted Islam but this did not prevent them from raiding their co-religious neighbors. When the Kalif of Baghdad invited them to serve as his protector, their leader, Toghrul Beð came in delight. The Turks designated themselves as guardians of the declining Abbassid caliphate. In 1055, they defeated the Buyids in Baghdad and restored the Sunnite caliphate. They helped to prevent the Fatimids of Egypt from making Shiite Islam dominant throughout the Middle East. Under Toghrul’s son, Arp Arslan and his son Malik, they invaded Anatolia, first defeating Christian Armenia and then a Byzantine army at Manzikert (1071) near the city and lake Va. It was a decisive blow Figure 91 Seljuk Tomb as it resulted in the removal of the Anatolian heartland and the subsequent destruction of the theme or provinces which maintained standing armies that had successfully protected the Empire until then. Internecine feuds among the heirs led to the collapse of the Seljuk domination, and independent emirs or sultans established governance in various areas. The Egyptians had actually driven the Seljuks out of Jerusalem shortly before the Crusaders appeared at the gates of the sacred city in 1099. Such conditions were, of course, one of the prime reasons why the First Crusade (1095-1099) met with such decided success. As the Moslem chronicle bitterly records, "the discord among the sultans enabled the Franks to establish themselves in the countries of Islam.” However, the Seljuks did block inland expansion by the crusader states on the Syrian Coast. As mentioned above, the Seljuk empire had fragmented into short-lived smaller sultanates (Nicaea, Hamadan and Merv) and into independent emirates. The last of their line died in battle against the Khwakizm-Shahs in 1194. A branch of the Seljuks established its own state in Anatolia (the sultanate of Konya or Rum), which survived until it was conquered by the Mongols led by Genghiz Khan in 1243. Ghenghis Khan led the huge Mongol cavalry force through the Islamic world from 1219 to 1223. He return to Mongolia in 1223, and his death in 1227 meant that the main Mongol army withdrew from the Islamic world. A Mongol force did return to Iran in 1250s, however, led by Ghenghis Khan's grandson Hûlâgû, who established the Mongols as a resident ruling power over the area that is today Iran and Iraq until 1335. They were defeated by an Egyptian force in 1260 in Syria. Together with internal dissensions, they withdrew and focused on invading Russia, never having invaded Anatolia. The Seljuk ‘sultanate of Rum disintegrated of its own accord into several emirates. One of its emirs or chiefs was Osman, the founder of the Turkish Osmali (Ottoman) dynasty.
Page -36Ottoman Period The origin of the Osmanli is best described by Willian Sterns Davis in his Short History of the Near East (1922): We are given to understand that around 1250 A. D. a sizable Turkish "horde," pushed on by Mongol attacks from the eastward, crossed the Euphrates, seeking new places for settlement. This horde of-women, children, old men, slaves, with many cattle, and headed by about 4000 (some say only 2000) warriors-was led by one Solyman Shah. The Seljuk Sultan of Asia Minor, however, refused to receive the wanderers. They turned back towards Central Asia, but at the refording of the Euphrates, Solyman was swept from his horse and drowned in the river. The omen struck terror into the hearts of those of the band who were still on the Western bank. They refused to proceed Eastward and turned again into Asia Minor. The original horde then seems to have dispersed, but a remnant thereof, led by Solyman's son, Ertoghrul (Turkish spelling: Ertuðrul), wandered westward. It is told that at last he and his 400 warriors suddenly found themselves on a battlefield where two strange armies were locked in deadly encounter. For these Turanian riders to stand as neutral witnesses while the combat was decided was impossible. They loved battle for battle's own sake. Ertoghrul charged with his men, saying, "The manly part is to aid the vanquished!" and flew to the relief of the army which seemed weakest. Ertoghrul's charge decided the day. Alreddin, Sultan of Seljuk Asia Minor, had been rescued from a great host of Mongols. Alreddin was of course intensely grateful to this friend in sorest need. He bestowed on Ertoghrul and his people the district around Eski Sheir (ancient Dorylreum) in Northern Phrygia. Probably the grant of this fief cost the Seljuk little. He had given his new vassal a district close against Bithynia, still held by the Greeks, a debatable frontier march in which civilized life, even for Turks, seemed nigh impossible. The principality was now known as Sultan-CEni: "The Sultan's Front." Here Ertoghrul and his weary band at last could encamp, and gradually forsake some of their nomad habits. The following description of the Empire is in two parts: its expansion and its decline. At its height in the 16th century, it included most of the Balkans, Mesopotamia, Egypt, North Africa, and the Arabian Peninsula. It consisted of thirty kingdoms. It spanned more than 600 years and came to an end only in 1922, when it was replaced by the Turkish Republic and various successor states in southeastern Europe and the Middle East. Expansion Warfare (E) The Ottoman Empire expanded its territory by conquest. For the West, the Clausewitzian dictum that war was politics carried on by other means was in contrast to the Ottoman’s view that war was a product of religion: it was the duty of every Muslim to extend the “Domain of Peace” (Dar ul Islam), the lands where Islam reigned supreme. War was the Empire’s raison d’être. The basic strategy of the Ottoman army was quite simple: large numbers and individual skill, courage, and obedience [159, p. 45] There were no ranks in the precise, hierarchical sense, and no real premium on the military Figure 94:082_O smanl1_1481-1683 experience of the commander. There was no school of military science but they were reminded only of the legends of their own brave heros. Once an objective was established, a commander would ‘unleash’ his eager troops. They did not manoeuver: they only charged, boldly, directly, at the enemy; or, in defense, they held ground to the death. [159, p. 48]
Page -37Sultans (E) The head of the Empire was the sultan. He was not only the political leader, but command-in-chief of the army, and would lead his troops into battle. With his conquest of the Byzantine Empire, the Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror established practices, protocols, and surroundings designed to exhibit power and grandeur in his status and person so as to instill fear and obedience in his subjects and foreign emissaries; and to establish a perfectly ordered world. The law codes (kanunname) dictated the procedures and ceremonials within the palace, defined the roles and duties of officials, and even laid down the dress11 and accouterments for every member of the ruling caste. [159, p. 38] It also specified the dress for nonFigure Muslims, e.g., Greeks wore black shoes, Armenians 95:085_EyeoftheSultan violet, and Jews blue. Ottoman men wore baggy pants, no doubt derived from their nomadic days of riding horses and living in tents. The sat on divans rather than chairs, again, derived from their days as nomads living in tents. Once established, this dress code was immutable: “the concept of fashion was completely alien.” [159, p. 71] Topkapi Palace was more than just the private residence of the Figure 97:084_T opkapi_fountain Sultan and his court. It was the seat of the supreme executive and judiciary council, the Divan and the training school, the Palace School. In the First Courtyard, there were a hospital, bakery, arsenal, a state mint, a part of the treasury and the Outer Service. Figure 96:083_T opkapi_throne It was open to public. The Second Courtyard was open to people who had business with the council. The Third Courtyard was reserved to the Sultan's household and palace children. The Fourth Courtyard was exclusively reserved for the Sultan's use. The palace was a series of enclosures, a ceremonial ordering of space. Visitors, told to wait hours in the second court, perceived that the walls were lined, not with sculptured caryatids, but with living men who never moved a muscle. It was an expression, not merely of wealth, but of will. [154, p. 52] When suppliants appeared before the him and his successors, they would approach to his side; he would not speak but only listen while his counselors would discuss issues with the visitor. Later and in privacy, the sultan would discuss the matter and state his decision. The head administrator and counselor was called the Grand Vizier – the word vizier means ‘the sultan’s footstool.’ Rather than meeting with his Divan Odasi or Chamber of State, which convened four days a week under the Grand Vizier, Mehmet instituted the ‘Eye of the Sultan’ so that he could hear without being seen. The government took the name of its entrance to it administrative building: the Sublime Porte, or ‘High Gate.’
Should we consider such a law ridiculous, we should be aware of the sumptuary laws (sump'chue're) enacted in Western civilization, regulations based on social, religious, or moral grounds directed against overindulgence of luxury in diet and drink and extravagance in dress and mode of living. Such laws existed in ancient Greece and Rome. In the 14th and 15th cent. several statutes were passed in England that regulated ornateness of dress and the people's diet. These regulations varied according to the rank of the person, peasants being subject to rules different from those of the gentry. The main purpose of the legislation was to mark class distinctions clearly and to prevent any person from assuming the appearance of a superior class.
Page -38To prevent young princes from becoming a focus for conspiracies, the practice, formalized by the Conqueror, was instituted whereby all the sultan’s brothers and cousins were murdered at the accession of a new sultan, usually by a silk cord or bow string. [159, p. 38] Primogeniture was unknown. The obedience demanded by the sultan may be illustrated with this one small incident: On finding one of his prized cucumbers missing, the Sultan Mehmed had the stomachs of his gardeners ripped open to discover which of them had eaten it. [159, p. 27] Harem (E) The idea that there are separate spheres of living is practiced in many countries over thousands of years. In most Muslim countries, the area of the house where men entertain is called the selamlýk while the part reserved for women is called the harem (“forbidden sanctuary”). Rather than just a brothel or prison for sex slaves, it was a place where women operated the household and were trained in the arts and crafts, household management, music and religion.
Figure 99:087_ Suleymaniye
The first Ottomans had eagerly adopted the Byzantine practice of using castrated men for guarding their women, and the white eunuchs rapidly extended their activities into administration.” [159, p. 33] During Suleiman’s reign (1520-66), he introduced black eunuchs to guard the Harem. The women were either captured in war, a few kidnaped, some bought, and others sent by their parents. The validé (mother) sultan formed an alliance of interest with the chief black eunuch, and when the sultan was young, or enfeebled, the real power within the palace rested with his mother and her entourage. The result was feuding between these two and the Grand Vizier.
Figure 98:086_H arem_entrance
In addition to the use of castrati, N.M. Penzer asserts that other Byzantine practices were adopted: “Bit by bit the traditions and culture of the Greeks were to be absorbed by their conquerors, until finally, when Constantinople became the capital in 1453, with the adoption of everything Byzantine—the secluded Palace, the veil, the harem, eunuchs, ceremonial clothes, the weekly visit to the mosque, leaden roofs, red ink for State documents, and a hundred other things—the transformation was complete.” [455,p. 228] Islam (E) Islam played a crucial role in the Empire, maintaining solidarity among its diverse Muslim elements and providing the ethical and legal structure for its subjects. The Ottoman sultans assumed the caliphate following the conquest of Egypt in the 16th century. Early Ottoman theologians were influenced by the views of AlGhazali, a Persian scholar of the 11th century who rejected the idea that scientific knowledge violated Islamic doctrine. As a result, many Muslims achieved fame in the fields of science, notably astronomy, mathematics and medicine. They used mathematics and astronomy to fix the prayer niche of mosques towards Mecca. The words “algebra” and “cipher” come from Arabic. However, most Muslims disdained the philosophical and cultural values of foreigners. Buildings (E) The sultans had mosques built in their honor as a means of projecting their might and majesty. Devsirme and the Janissaries (E) Various empires and nations have tried to solve the problem of maintaining an administration that is loyal to its king. The Romans and Persians used eunuchs, the kings of Europe used unmarried clergy, and the Chinese used their famous exam system to enrol humble but eager scholars into the ranks of the ruling class. Murad II introduced the boy tribute system in 1432. Boys were taken mainly from families in the Balkan countries. They left boys of widows, and did not trouble families with a single son. They avoided boys who already spoke Turkish, or had learned a trade, or had lived in the city; they refused orphans too, who were too wily, and had learned to fend for themselves.
Page -39The ‘recruits’ underwent training to be the future governors, soldiers and administrators of the empire. All became kul or slaves of the sultan; all were circumcised and converted to Islam. A kul was ‘one who blindly and unquestioningly obeys the will and command of the sultan’. [159, p. 32] They were selected and promoted strictly on merit in distinct contrast to the Western principle that rank and favor based upon heredity. Those chosen to be soldiers were enrolled in the Janissaries (new army) corp though ethnic Turks were the mainstay of the army. Those who had greater intelligence and social skills were given additional training and appointed to an administrative post and would be given a wife from among the harem women who were also slaves of the sultan. “‘By the 16th Century, we can say without any hesitation that the Turkish state was run by non-Turks.’” [92, p.59 quoted from a lecture by Paul Wittek, London School of Oriental and African Studies, 1953. Travel and Trade (E)
“The Pax Ottomanica, imposed by force and sustained by savage punishments, gave more peace and security to its citizens than many Christian states could provide. A French traveler in Turkish lands wrote, ‘the country is safe and there are no reports of brigands or highwayman....” [159, p. 24] Economy (E) The ‘noble endeavor’ to extend the Domain of Peace had lucrative rewards: the plunder that was taken in successful campaigns; so much so, that it became a predominant part of the economy. The Domain of Peace did have its benefits for those who traded and traveled. By the caravans threading their way across the Islamic world, carrying sacks of spices and bags of gold, bales of silk and bundles of furs, most of the luxuries of the known world were handled by Muslim merchants. [154, p. 6] The Ottomans did not engaged in much trade themselves, but they taxed it. There was a tax on households and farms, trade transactions and the capitation (head) tax on non-Muslims, though they were exempt from military service. In addition to taxes, persons wanting some governmental service or permission usually had to pay off (bahºiº) to an official. The Ottomans also gave the equivalent of most favored nation status, called capitulations, to any country that promised to supply the markets with regularity. A capitulation also gave a nationality or religious community (millet) living within Empire a right to govern themselves in aspects that did not involve relations with Muslims. Religious Toleration (E) The Ottomans demanded that every subject should belong to a group (millet, guild, regiment, religious fraternity, or just a village) that would impose social and political control, and for which they could hold their leader responsible. When the Greek Phanariots rebelled in Bucharest in 1821, the Patriarch Gregory was hung from the door of his church. As long as the millet did not come into conflict with Islamic organization and society, provided it paid its taxes and kept the peace, its leaders were left to run their own affairs. Many writers have asserted that the Ottoman Empire practiced a policy of religious tolerance. ‘They pay great respect to the customs of foreign nations,’ it seemed to Busbecq, [the ambassador from the Austrian emperor Phillip II in 1560] ‘even to the detriment of their own religious scruples.’ When the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 [The Inquisition], Sultan Bayezit II heard of their predicament and ordered his governors to receive them with kindness and assistance. “They say Ferdinand is a wise monarch,’ he told his courtiers. ‘How could he be, he who impoverishes his country to enrich mine.!” “The Spanish Jews after all knew everything, from how to card fine wool to how to manage funds at interest.” [154, p. 98] “Nearly all of them [the Jews in Salonika] are the descendants of exiles from Spain in the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, and they still speak Spanish (Ladino). [461, p. 298] There are, however, reports that non-Muslims were viewed as a lower social order (They were infidels!), and certain social customs were required such as not being able to ride a horse. One traveler reported that “The Greeks were, I am aware, oppressed by the different governors with heavier taxes, and were treated as a conquered people; but, on the other hand, they escaped the trouble and annoyance of personal service as citizens.” [275, p.259]
Page -40Relations with the West (E) Until the 18th century, the Ottomans were almost wholly ignorant of the West, and engaged them only in battle. The Ottoman empire expanded its contiguous territory into the Arabian peninsula, North Africa, and Europe, specifically, the Balkans. It also conquered ports and lands owned at that time by the Republic of Venice, i.e., Negroponte (1470), Ithaca, Cephalonia, Zante, Leucas (1479) in Greece, Otranto (1480) in Italy, Rhodes (1522), Nauplia, Malvasia, Skiros, Patmos, Aegina, Ios, Paros, Astipalaia (1537), Cyprus (1570) and Crete (1669). The West has always regarded the Turks with a mixture of horror and fascination. [159, p. 25] They were believed to be addicted to unnatural vice and sordid sexual perversions together with a morbid sense of cruelty. Articles, paintings, and even operas depicted Turks in this manner even though the authors never visited the Empire or observed the events or behavior There is a legend that a baker, working through the night at a time when the city was under siege, heard faint they described. Strangely enough, eighteenth underground rumbling sounds which, on investigation, Century Vienna was crazy about the Turks even proved to be caused by the Turks tunneling under the though the city had narrowly adverted capture in walls. The tunnel was blown up. The baker asked no 1683. There were Turkish dress styles, Turkish hairreward other than the exclusive right to bake dos, Turkish stories, and a great deal of Turkish crescent-shaped pastries commemorating the incident, music ¯or what the Viennese thought was Turkish the crescent being the symbol of Islam. He was duly music. Mozart’s The Abduction from the Seraglio is rewarded in this way, and the croissant was born. an example of this impression of Turks. Decline Warfare (D) The Ottoman expansion was stopped by two decisive battles: the defeat of the siege of Vienna in 1683 in which the Austrians used harquebusses; and their defeat at Peterwardin, Hungary in 1715 which lead to the loss of Belgrade in 1717. The West introduced new tactics (battlefield movement) and technology (firepower) while the Ottoman’s continued to base their strategy upon each individual’s skill and bravery though they also had canons.
Figure 102:089_D olmabahcePalace
The Ottoman government in general, and its army in particular, lacked initiative. From 1600 to 1800, they did not vary their equipment nor their method of war. This lack of adaptability can be traced in part to a saying attributed to the Prophet: ‘the worst things are those that are novelties, every novelty is an innovation, every innovation an error, and every error leads to Hell Fire. [159, p. 70] Attempts to modernize by bringing in experts from the Figure West, mainly from France, failed because they were 103:091_Beylerbeyi_1 rejected because they were not based upon the strategy of individuals courage and skill. “The changes which they opposed most consistently were those which clashed with their self-image: that depended on the primacy of hand-to-hand conflict. Their sense of honor, as a warrior caste, was bound up with the use of swords, spears, daggers and maces.” [159, p. 98] Sultans (D) and Harem (D) With the accession of Ahmet I in 1603, the practice of fratricide was abandoned and primogeniture instituted. But in order to minimize the risk of a palace coup d'état, princes were confined to the inner sanctum of the harem, the so-called Gilded Cage. As a consequence, if a prince became sultan, he knew almost nothing of the world, was ill-prepared to rule, and was often manipulated if not intimidated by his counselors. If the sultans could not exhibit real power, they could project its image. By 1878, Mahmud II and his successors Abdul Meçid (1839-61) and Abdul Aziz (1861-76) had built or refurbished no less than ten additional residences strung out along the Bosporus. The cost was prodigious. In 1856, it amounted to 14.5% of state revenues.
Page -41[159, p. 155] The Ottoman state squandered its resources, and when its revenues were insufficient, obtained loans at high rates of interest. The inevitable consequence followed in 1875, when the empire was forced to admit bankruptcy, and the European governments imposed a settlement which guaranteed their own investments.” [159, p. 159] Attempts were made at reform (tanzimat) including the introduction of a constitution and general assembly in 1878. But the sultan, Abdul Hamit II quickly suspended both, giving rise to the formation of the ‘Young Turk’ movement. In 1909, Hamid was deposed and constitutional monarch instituted. Islam (D) As the Empire declined, the Turkish ulema became open to widespread corruption and closed to change and progress. The clergy isolated themselves from all intellectual and cultural developments, including those in science and technology. In 1850, Sultan Murat III shut down an observatory in Istanbul because the astronomers were “insolent enough to try to pry open the secrets of the universe” – the secrets known only to Allah. Devsirme and the Janissaries (D) The levy of Christian children in the Balkans as slaves of the sultan – the devºirme – was abandoned in the first half of the seventeenth century, when it was found to be unnecessary: more than enough volunteers could be found to staff the palace and the Janissary Corps. But eventually Muslims were able to bribe their way into these positions and a system of patronage developed so that selection and advancement were no longer based on merit but on bribery. The muster roles were greatly inflated, either by officers’ continuing to collect the pay of dead Janissaries, or by the dead Janissaries’ wives and children who lived on the weekly rations [159, p. 90] At first the regiments rotated to the field army but later they remained in the same region for many generations building family ties and flourishing businesses. [159, p. 90] Their unwillingness to fight forced the sultan to rely on mercenaries or irregulars to fill out his army. [159, p. 91.] The Janissaries extorted protection money for property and person; they became thugs who swaggered about the town intimidating and man-handling those who took offense. They sold meal-tickets and paybooks like stock certificates. Reform was tried as early as 1789 but the revolt of the Janissaries led to the dethronement of the sultan. By political maneuvering, the next sultan, Mahmud II, was able to break the historical connection between the Janissaies and the religious class, which had long given sanction to their misuse of power. He developed another new army called eskenjis composed of selected Janissaries. There was a revolt in June 1826, but it was quashed by the sultan and his eskenjis with the barracks of the Janissaries blown up by canon fire and many killed throughout the Empire. Travel and Trade (D) Ottomans did not, on the whole, engage in trade; they worked in administration. Their minorities, Greeks, Jews and Armenians, separated from them by a gulf of culture and sympathy, traditionally looked after the money side. Economy (D)
Cruelty: “The Viennese then discovered the charred corpses of captives who had been thrown into the flames, while the bodies of more than 1,000 women and children, killed because they were not worth carrying into slavery, were huddled in clusters with their throats cut.” (Siege of Vienna,1529) [159, p. 62] “The body of [Turkish] prisoners [2,000 of them] were marched out of Jaffa in the centre of a large square battalion. They foresaw their fate, but used neither complaints nor entreaties to avert it. They marched on silent and composed. They were escorted to the sand hills to the south-east of Jaffa, divided there into small bodies, and put to death by musketry. The execution lasted a considerable time, and the wounded were dispatched by the bayonet. The bodies were heaped together, and formed a pyramid, which is still visible, consisting now of human bones, as originally of bloody corpses.” Turks massacred by the French army of Napoleon in 1799 [159, p. 122]
“Its economic welfare had been a function of plunder and booty, not of internal development.” [92, p.32] With the boundaries of the Empire restricted, there was no booty to supplement the pay of the army nor finance resources for additional arms. Since they did not engaged extensively in trade nor in manufacturing, the income for the average Turk declined while the non-Muslim
Page -42communities, Jews, Armenians, and Greeks, prospered, thereby fostering resentment among the Turkish community. The tax system was fairly rudimentary, and nothing in Ottoman experience or training prepared them for the business of managing the enormous funds a modern state was obliged to raise, protect and disburse for war. Religious Toleration (D) The rise of nationalism among the ethnic communities/nations of the Empire led to wars of rebellion and independence in the Balkans: Greece in 1829; Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia in 1878; the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918 (its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929); Armenia in 1920. There were wars among the newly created nations over the boundaries and in order to acquire additional territory. Often there was no law enforcement, and brigand bands raided villages. Many Muslims were killed and were forced to relocate in Thrace and western Anatolia. They blamed the Christian ethnic groups for the loss of their kinsmen and their land. They did not forget! Relations with the West (D) The imposition of restrictions in expenditures, and the collection of taxes by the western governments together with the rebellion of Christian Balkan nations seeking independence from their Ottoman rulers led western governments and Russia to pressure and threaten the Sublime Port in its policies. In turn, many Ottoman’s resented Western interference. “The Turks were condemned as the enemies of humanity for their treatment of the Greeks during the Greek War of Independence (1821-9). But the 15,000 Turkish men, women and children slaughtered in southern Greece in 1821 were ignored: the Greek slogan ‘Not a Turk shall remain in the Morea’ was a prescription for genocide. During the ‘Bulgarian atrocities’ of 1875, the atrocities committed against the Christians were widely publicized in Europe and the United States, but the equally Figure 104:092_SelimiyeBarracks atrocious murders of Muslims were ignored. In the 1890s, when Armenians used violence to secure an independent Armenia, the killings of Turks were ignored by the Western states, while the Ottoman response was condemned as mindless racial murder.” [159, p. 165] The image of ‘the terrible Turk’ continues to this day, witness the recent move, Midnight Express. In 1853, Tsar Nicholas I made his now famous quote that the Ottoman Empire was ‘the sick man of Europe;’ and, he continued, “...it will...be a great misfortune if he escapes us one of these days, especially before all the arrangements are made.’” [159, p. 205]. From that time onward, Western Powers, both the Entente and the Triple Alliance were plotting to gather the spoils of the collapse.
When the Crimean War broke out in 1854, the British government requested that Florence Nightengale, along with 38 other nurses, aide the doctors in attending the sick and wounded in Scutari Hospital, located across the Bosphorus from Istanbul. She imposed strict sanitary and nursing standards. As a result of this and by her hard work the number of soldiers that died from their wounds or from illnesses such as typhus, cholera and dysentery was greatly reduced from 42% to just 2%. With compassion, she walked the hospital halls at night, carrying a light. Wounded soldiers called her the Lady of the Lamp-- her light has come to symbolize the care and concern for the sick and wounded. Almost all modern nursing systems and techniques we know today can be traced back to her.
Page -43Causes of decline: & Intrigue: With the end of the practice of executing possible contenders for the throne, these contenders were imprisoned in the hareem thereby contributing to intrigue in positioning a contender for the throne. This continuous intrigue within the harem that resulted in the deposing of sultan and/or Grand Vizier (definition: properly, a bearer of burdens, a porter) that diverted attention to matters of national concern. & Uneducated and Inexperienced Sultans: By imprisoning contenders for the throne, these persons were isolated and uneducated so that if and when they came to the thrown, they were incompetent at best and deranged at worst thereby subject to manipulation by their hareem and pashas. & Extravagance of the sultans: The sultans in the 19th century continued to build palaces with funds borrowed from European countries. The Treasury accounts made no distinction between the needs of state and the sultan with less than one-tenth of the loans being spent on measures to increase the Empire's economic well-being, [179, p.139] & Corruption: official governmental positions were sold to wealthy Moslems; nepotism and graft were routine. & Janissaries became uncontrollable “They continued to dethrone or murder sultans until 1826 when one had the wit to blow up the whole corps in their barracks.” [88, p. 309] during the period of their decline and corruption, the Empire not only could not expand but could not defend itself. & Failure to change from an economy based upon booty and tribute to one based upon production of goods and services & Lack of innovation and modernization: the ulema controlled education and permitted no change in subject or method; there was no free inquiry. & Inability of the military to modernize versus those of the Western powers which increased technology starting in the 17th century with the use of troop formations and maneuver and the introduction of the arquebus and canons. & Loss of centralized control. The governors (beryerbey, or later vali) ceased to provide men and resources for the army and forward their collected taxes. & Continuous wars and threat of wars from surrounding countries, particularly Russia. & Nationalism and the rise of ethnic groups within the Empire, primarily in the Balkans, so that the Empire had to devote attention and resources in suppressing insurrections rather than focusing on defense and production
Page -44From Empire to Republic The founding of the Turkish Republic began around the turn of the 20th century. It rose in reaction to the loss of Ottoman lands to nations, the failure of its own internal institutions, and its loss of sovereignty to foreign powers.
Nationalism and the Great Game The notion of nation-states emerged in the 19th century, and one after another, the nationalities in the Balkans struggled for their independence. Their strategy employed terrorism against Ottoman institutions and the Muslim/Turkish population. In turn, the Ottoman gendarmerie would suppress and terrorize the Christian/nationalities (Bulgarians, Serbians, Macedonians, Greeks, etc.) These groups appealed to the great powers, principally Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, France and Russia, to intervene on their behalf by instituting economic sanctions and/or by military intervention. These Balkan countries were seen as assets to be won, or at least denied, to the other powers in the Great Game for strategic economic and military advantage that was being played among Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungry and Russia. The result for the Ottomans was a loss of wealth from these rich provinces, and masses of refugees flooding Istanbul and western Anatolia. There were reports of the mistreatment of millions of Muslims by the Russians as well as the newly independent Balkan states. Stories of persecution and savagery from the Crimea to Belgrade and Sarajevo were mingled with accounts of oppression from India to Algeria, and was contrasted to the belief of the toleration and good treatment provided for non-Muslims by the great Muslim empires, including that of the Ottomans. The lost of territorial integrity, religious persecution, and increasing interference resulted in an Ottoman public that felt besieged and maligned.
Seeds of Discontent As mentioned above, while brought about by the Empire’s own mismanagement of funds, the Capitulations to the Europeans were seen as destroying traditional Ottoman institutions such as its judicial system, its industries, and its financial resources due to the debilitating dependence on highinterest loans.
Figure 105:093_AbdulHamid_I I
There was also increasing discontent within Ottoman society. There was a lack of civil liberties and there was heavy censorship imposed by the sultan Abdulhamit II. It is reputed that he had 20,000 spies in his employ by which he controlled his ministries as well as the general population. Criticism of the sultan was forbidden; the writings of some ‘seditious’ authors, such as Racine, Rousseau, Voltaire, Hugo and Zola, were banned.
Page -45This discontentment increased with the growing awareness of western ideas which was the result of the reforms (Tanzimat) instituted by the sultans starting in 1839, primarily for the purpose of improving military capabilities. The educational system was secularized; the military academies sent their students to Europe to learn the latest tactics and weapons; and books and magazines flooded the Empire [The printing press, which had been used for 250 years in Europe, was only sanctioned by the Islamic clergy in 1727.] But the ideas could not be restricted to technology but extended to ideas of freedom and democracy and nationalism–an idea that could cut two ways. Though Ottomanism promoted the idea of the motherland, with all subjects, regardless of religion and race, equal before the law and loyal to the same dynasty, the success of national unity movements in Germany, Italy and the non-Turkish groups in the Empire led to an increased awareness of the Turkish identity and the germination of Turkish nationalism.
Young Turks and the CUP Several protest groups were formed under different names in and out of the Empire during the reign of Abdul Hamid II, then gradually formed a movement called the Young Turks which formed a political group called the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) which was finally able to force the sultan to restore the Parliament in 1908. Control of the government shifted from the sultans palace to the CUP’s representatives in Parliament, the army and the government ministries. There was a counter revolution staged by reactionary parties, the ulema, and the sultan, but it was suppressed by the army of Macedonia. Abdul Hamid II was forced to abdicate and his brother Mehmet V Reºat installed on the throne. Civil liberties were instituted. In 1910, Albania revolted, an act that convinced the Turks that it would be impossible to conciliate different national interests and attain a unified empire. This conviction was affirmed in the next four years. In 1912-13, the first Balkan War erupted in which various Balkan nations achieved their independence; accordingly the Ottomans lost all their remaining territories in Europe; Greece annexed Crete. In a subsequent, Second Balkan War (1913-14), the various Balkan countries tried to obtain territories from each other. With Bulgaria engaging the Macedonians, the Ottoman retook eastern Thrace. With a defeated army, millions of homeless refugees, and uneasiness about its two remaining Christian minorities, the Greeks and Armenians, the Ottomans faced the question of which side they would join at the outbreak of the Great War: the Triple Entente–initially Great Britain, France and Russia (which we in the United States call the Allies) or the Triple Alliance–Germany, Austro-Hungry, and Italy12 (which we call the Central Powers or Axis).
Figure 106:094_O smanl1_1914
Italy later sided with the Triple Entent.
Page -46Entering World War I The Ottoman government had contracted with Germany to modernize the army, and thus there were official and personal relations between the two countries. Still, most of the CUP members and the public felt closer to Britain and France. But German autocracy and militarism appealed to Enver Paºa, the minister of war. His argument for joining the Axis was straightforward: Russia would most certainly attempt to extend its gains in the Anatolia east where it continued to foment Armenian agitation and terrorism. With Russia on the Entente side, it would be difficult to secure protection from England and France. Germany seemed to have no territorial ambitions in the Middle East. Cemal (Djemal) Paºa, the minister for Finances and Public Works, approached Britain and France but was rejected. He had sought abolition of the capitulations and financial aid but was rejected by the Allies. Although the Allies encouraged the Ottomans to remain neutral whereas the Germans urged the Ottomans to regain territories in the east so as to occupy the Russian army and to engage the British in order to regain Egypt which had been lost to Britain in 1882. Rather than a deliberative decision, Enver and Cemal conspired in secret and ordered the Ottoman navy to bombard Russian ports and ships in the Black Sea. On November 2, 1914 Russia declared war and Britain and France followed three days later. Massacres in the East As described above, several nationalities in the Balkans had fought and gained their independence from the Ottoman Empire by appealing to the Great Powers for aid and protection. This same strategy was used by the Armenian community, but Armenia is located in the heart of Anatolia and not on the periphery of the Empire; thus it did not have the ‘protection’ from imminent invasion by a Great Power or the firepower of the British navy.
As the threat of world war increased, “the Armenian community let it be known generally that it would not support the Ottoman war effort, and, encouraged by [American] President Wilson’s principle of selfdetermination, moved to create an independent Armenian state. To the Ottoman authorities, these activities constituted wartime treason, and they reacted violently.” [92, p.14]
The Armenians suffered oppression and massacres under Abdul Hamid II, particularly in the years 1894-98. Often they were the victim of raids by Kurds and Circassians. On November 1, 1914, Russia invaded eastern Anatolia. Before the war, many Armenians had trained as guerilla bands; they committed acts of sabotage and terror. After the Russian invasion, Armenians provided intelligence, served as scouts, and local militias. Their goal was to earn an independent nation-state of Armenia, and in fact did so under Russian auspices when the army reached Van. The Ottoman government ordered Figure 108:096_Armenians_massacred the relocation of all Armenians in eastern Anatolia to the Mosul area of northern Iraq; and the relocation of Armenians residing in the countryside (villages but not the cities) of Cilicia and northern Syria to central Syria. The Armenians insist that the deportations and massacres were more widespread (see map).
Page -47In many reported instances, the Armenians of a town were required to surrender their arms (many of which they held when they were enrolled in the Ottoman army). Next the males between 15 and 70 were required to report to a central location. They were then marched out of town to a remote location and shot. Next, the rest of the Armenians were forced to walk to Syria. En route, they were robbed of their belongings and even their clothes, women were raped or kidnaped; many died of exhaustion, starvation, disease, and exposure; many were murdered by Kurds and the soldiers escorting them. The Armenians to this day declare that the Turks committed genocide. The dictionary defines genocide as “the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, political, or cultural group.” To date, no document has been discovered indicating such a governmental decision or directive. Armenians in other parts of the country were not relocated though there were some massacres. A few Ottoman commanders did make efforts to protect the Armenians being forced to relocate, but obviously many did not.13 After the 1915 incident, there were indictments, trials and convictions although Armenians insist that all the guilty were not prosecuted nor did they served sufficient sentences. While I conclude that there was no ‘Armenian Genocide,’ there certainly were massacres of Armenians for which the Ottoman government and the Turkish people were responsible. It is likely that these acts were one of retaliation and barbarism, the latter committed in part by Kurds and brigands, some of whom may have been retained by the government to serve as escorts as its police were sent to the eastern and western fronts. It is estimated that “6 million people – Turks, Greeks, Arabs, Armenians, Jews, and others – were killed by a combination of revolts, bandit attacks, massacres, counter massacres, famine and disease, compounded by destructive and brutal foreign invasions in which all the peoples of the Empire, Muslim and non-Muslim alike, had their victims and criminals.” [114, p. 316; 239, p. 316]
Gallipoli The Sea Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, decided to capture the Gallipoli peninsula and Istanbul in order to assure supplies to its ally, Russia. After unsuccessful efforts to reach the city through the Straits because of Turkish batteries and mines, a landing was made by Australians and New Zealanders, better known as ANZACs, who were unsuccessful and slaughtered by the thousands. After a year, the ANZACs withdrew. The result was little help for Russia although the October Revolution made the issue moot; Churchill’s reputation was in ruins; but the people and Australia gained a new sense of independence because of their sacrifice.
Ataturk delivered in 1934 to the first Australians, New Zealanders and British to visit the Gallipoli battlefields: Those heroes that shed their blood And lost their lives... You are now lying in the soil of a friendly Country. Therefore rest in peace. There is no difference between the Johnnies And the Mehmets to us where they lie side by side Here in this country of ours... You, the mothers, Who sent their sons front far away countries Wipe away your tears, Your sons are now lying in our bosom And are in peace After having lost their lives on this land They have become our sons as well
It is also asserted that the Allies, particularly the British and the Russians, urged the Greeks and the Armenians to sedition, mainly by sabotaging and providing intelligence. One observer stated: Local officials then retaliated with so-called ‘white murder’–starvation–and massacres. They acted on their own and some stayed human; there was never the planned persecution that Christian propaganda claimed,...” [239, p. 290]
Page -48Defeat of the Ottomans The Ottomans fought on four fronts as indicated on the map. In addition to the Allied forces, the Arab revolted, primarily because their leaders were opposed to the centralization of government imposed by the Ottomans and because they were offered bribes by the British, primarily cash and the promise of kingdoms as stipulated in the Sykes-Picot Agreement. T.E. Lawrence gained fame in supposedly leading an armed force through the desert to attack Ottoman forces at Aqaba.
Figure 109:097_O ttoman_fronts
When British forces opened a front in the Balkans to attack Germany, the connection between the Ottomans and its principal ally was severed. Britain gained control of Istanbul and the Straits. An armistice was soon signed on the island of Mondros in the Aegean on October 31, 1918.
Distributing the Spoils The Allies began implementation of the secret agreements made before the war; there were subsequent changes and independent actions by states and groups afterwards, most of which were embodied in the Treaty of Sèvres (August 20, 1920) made between the Allies and the sultan’s government. Allied Beneficiary Armenians
Ottoman Territory to be Ceded Six provinces in eastern Anatolia in addition to the districts of Kars, Ardahan and Batun in the Caucuses
Comments A transcaucus republic had been established during the war. The British favored expansion so as to provide a buffer state vis-a-vis Soviet Union; and envisioned the United States as holding the mandate, that is, protection of Armenia. Palestine and Iraq were to be under British mandates. A Jewish homeland was to be established in Palestine. The French had colonies in the Lebanon since the Crusades.
Palestine, Arabia, Syria and Iraq (Note the conflicting promises regarding Syria between Arabs and French) Cilicia, Lebanon and Syria Palestine Southwestern Anatolia centered at Antalya and the Dodecanese Islands Western Anatolia Istanbul and the Straits
French Jews Italians Greeks British
Originally promised to Russia, the claim was refused by the Soviet Union.
There were many provisions of the Treaty that cannot be described in this space. Suffice it to say that, in addition to awarding territories, it imposed severe sanctions and restrictions on the Ottoman state, e.g., restoration of the Capitulations, control of the budget, taxes, customs duties, currency and public loans.
The Rise of Nationalism The rise of nationalism, the notion that people of the same ethnic group should govern themselves, fragmented the Empire which was based on incorporating multiple ethnic groups. Ethnic groups--Greeks, Bulgarians, Serbians, Montenegrins, Arabs and Armenians--all tried, most successfully, to establish nation-states for themselves. Even the Turks themselves were infused with nationalistic fervor during World War I as these ethnic groups established independence. With the defeat of the Empire, the only land that the Turks controlled was Anatolia to which it then claimed as Türkiye -- the land of the Turks.
Ethnic Cleansing “In 1800, a vast Muslim land existed in Anatolia, the Balkans, and Southern Russia. It was not only a land in which Muslims ruled, but a land in which Muslims were the majority or, in much of the Balkans and part of the Caucasus, a sizeable minority. It included the Crimea and its hinterlands, most of the Caucasus region, eastern as well as western Anatolia, and southeastern Europe from Albania and Bosnia to the Black Sea, almost all of which was within the Ottoman Empire. Attached to it geographically were regions in Romania and southern Russia in which Muslims were a plurality among different peoples. By 1923, only Anatolia, eastern Thrace, and a section of the southeastern Caucasus remained to the Muslim land. The Balkan Muslims were largely gone, dead or forced to migrate, the remainder living in pockets of settlement in Greece, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia. The same fate had overcome the Muslims of the Crimea, the northern Caucasus, and Russian Armenia--they were simply gone. Millions of Muslims, most of them Turks, had died; millions more had fled to what is today Turkey. Between 1821 and 1922, more than five million Muslims were driven from their lands. Five and one-half million Muslims died, some of them killed in wars, others perishing as refugees from starvation and disease.” [248, p.1]
The means by which Muslims/Turks were eradicated from an area were murder (massacre), pillage, rape of women, excessive taxation, and destruction of property and sustenance leading to disease and starvation.
Page -50American Involvement As a side note, after the Great War ended, the victorious nations assembled at Severes to draw new maps of the conquered nations and their former territories. The United States under President Woodrow Wilson set forth a policy of self-determination. But unlike the American experience in which it was claimed that the country was a 'melting pot' that had become one people, Anatolia consisted of several ethnic groups that remained separate in terms of language, religion, and self-identity. Self-determination as a policy did not inherently answer the question of which ethnic group would control the state (government) and which ethnic group would get its own country. This question was particularly acute in the eastern region of Anatolia which was/is composed of six provinces (vilayets) that the Armenians wished to become a nation-state even though they were a minority compared to the Turkish population. [No doubt Armenians would claim that there numbers had been greatly reduced by the 'Armenian Genocide' or, in today's parlance, 'ethnic cleansing' while the Turks claim that they were still a minority prior to the relocation in 1915-16.] For America, the issue became moot as the United States Congress declined to ratify the treaty enrolling the U.S. in the League of Nations and it slated role of protecting the to-be-established nation-state of Armenia as a mandate by the League.
Turkish Resistance As early as 1919, a resistence movement formed, composed of roving guerrilla bands and regular volunteer militias. Officers of the defeated army assumed positions of leadership of an army corps in Ankara and in Erzurum. On the day the Greek army landed troops at Smyrna, Mustafa Kemal left for Samsun on the Black Sea. His orders were to restore order and to gather and secure arms and ammunition as directed by the Allies. The Greek invasion and general harassment and massacres of the Turkish population in western Anatolia gave increased impetus for a resistence movement and a new government. A national congress was held at Erzurum and at Sivas to establish the Grand National Assembly (parliament), a new constitution (The National Pact) and a new government with Kemal as president. It would require too great deal of space to describe the various factions and positions regarding the constitution, e.g., the continued existence of the sultanate. In addition to foreign armies surrounding the Turkish nationalist, there were a number of groups, politicalmilitary units with their own agenda for establishing rule. The nationalists led by Kemal spent most of 1920 subduing these groups and organizing an army. The newly established Armenian Republic in the Caucasus advanced forces into eastern Anatolia but were repulsed. The Armenians sued for peace and agreed to a peace treaty but the treaty was never signed as the Armenian Republic was taken over by the Bolsheviks, and thereby laying the basis for the Turko-Soviet Friendship Treaty.
The Defeat of the Greeks [See appendix ] The nationalist then turned their forces toward the Greeks who were advancing toward Ankara. The Greeks held. The French were having difficulty with Arab uprisings in Syria, and so recognized the Ankara government and withdrew its troops to Syria. Italy did the same. Nationalist troops in southeast and southwest were then transferred to the west to repulse the Greeks. In a small Turkish counterattack, the Greeks were forced to retreat. By September 13, 1922 they were in flight. The Greek army debarked from town of Çeºme on the Aegean coast. The Turks finding the burnt villages and slaughter of their countryman14 took their revenge in
About 1921, a Commission of Inquiry on the Occupation of Smyrna [by the Greeks armed forces in 1919] was established to determine the extent of the Greek advance toward the east, and whether or not, and to what extent, atrocities were committed by the Greek forces. A brief description of the testimony gathered is described by Robert Dunn: “‘The Turks reentered the city with rage in their hearts,’ Soeur Marie of the French Catholic mission in her flowing black, read from a diary. ‘They found
Page -51Smyrna. The Armenian and Greek sections were looted and then burned; men were shot; women and children were forced to swim to Allied ships in the harbor where some were rescued and some were not. The Turkish nationalists then confronted the British in the Straits. Some British cabinet members wanted to fight, but left the matters in the hands of the British Allied commander who withdrew with formal ceremonies at the Sirkeci boat station in Istanbul. An armistice was reached at Mudanya (an island in the Marmara) on October 11, 1922, and a the Treaty of Lusanne on July 24, 1923 that established the territory of the Republic of Türkiye–the land of the Turks. A separate agreement between Greece and Türkiye arranged for a compulsory exchange of population, involving about 1.3 million Greeks and a half-million Turks in all. [114, p. 368] Table 30. Mortality and Migration of Muslims Deaths Greek Revolution Caucasian Wars (182729) Crimean Expulsion Caucasian Expulsion Bulgaria, 1877-78 Eastern War, 1877-78) Balkan Wars Caucasus, 1905 East Anatolia, 1914-21 Caucasus, 1914-21 Western Anatolia, 191422 25,000 unknonw 75,000* 400,000* 260,000 unknown 1,450,000 unknown 1,190,000 410,000 1,250,000 Refugees 10,000* 26,000 300,000 1,200,000 515,000 70,000 410,000 -----900,000 270,000 480,000† 1,200,000 (internal refugees) (number setting out) (number setting out) (internal refugees) (number setting out) (number surviving) (number setting out) (number setting out) (number setting out) (number surviving) (number setting out)
everywhere the bodies of their citizens, the houses only a heap of ruins.’” [239, p.325] The first couple months of the occupation was described to American senate by James Harbord, whose mission was to determine the situation of Armenian Christians in the Ottoman Empire: The Greek troops and the local Greeks who had joined them in arms started a general massacre of the Mussulmen population in which the officials and Ottoman officers and soldiers as well as the peaceful inhabitants were indiscriminately put to death and subjected to forms of torture and savagery worthy of the Inquisition and constituting in any case a barbarous violation of the laws of humanity. Naturally the outcry was great among the Mussulmen population. The whole nation rose to oppose the barbarously hostile action of the Greeks. Meetings were organized in the towns and even in the villages and telegrams dispatched by the hundred to the Entente Powers and the whole civilized world, tearfully appealing for protection and help. [James Harbord, Conditions in the Near East: Report of the American Military Mission to Armenia; The report can be accessed at
Page -52Deaths 5,060,000 *Rough estimates. †Greco-Turkish Population Exchange Note: Most military mortality and some civilian mortality not included. Refugees 5,381,000
Empire to Republic On November 1, 1922 the newly founded parliament formally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of Ottoman rule. The last sultan, Mehmet VI Vahideddin, fled aboard a British destroyer to Malta on November 6, 1922. The Ottoman Empire went out of existence. The Treaty of Lausanne of July 24, 1923, led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923, in the new capital of Ankara. The National Assembly abolished the Caliphate on March 3, 1924. Abdul Mejid was sent into exile along with the remaining members of the Ottoman House, marking the official end of the "Ottoman Caliphate".
Page -53First Republic Nation Building Mustafa Kemal and his reformers wanted to model their new nation on the West, but all existing institution were unmistakably eastern and conservative. Among the many obstacles facing Kemal and his reformers were the following: - Identification as a Muslim and with a town or village as opposed to the state - Illiteracy - Debilitating disease - Religious dogma and Fatalism - Inferior position of women - Resentment of the West - Allegiance to the sultanate - Inadequate communication The following changes were instituted: Abolishment of the caliphate Development and installation of a secular state and civic code Establishment of legal equality of ethnic groups Establishment of compulsory school education Abolishment of the religious law (Shari’a) Replacement of Arabic script with the Latin alphabet Banning of fez and turban Establishment of legal equality for women, based on the civil code of Switzerland Introduction of intellectual and scientific freedom Self-identification of the people as Turk rather than Muslim
Türkiye tried capitalism with a private banking system, but the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression were disastrous for Türkiye’s crop exports, thereby discrediting capitalism. The government instituted a planned economy, modeled on the Soviet Union with five-year development plans and state capitalism. Subsequent administrations have tried to reduce this “state socialism” but haltingly. While Türkiye had a significant Communist Party, it’s relationship with the Soviet Union turned hostile due to the agitation of the domestic Communists and the Soviet’s demands for control of the Straits plus assertion of ownership by Armenia of territories in the six eastern vilayets. The United States and Great Britain have firmly backed Türkiye to check any Soviet moves. Throughout the late 1970s Türkiye’s government oscillated between of extremes, while the economy was in a dire condition. Left-right feuding, sectarian violence and separatists activities erupted, leaving some 5,000 dead by 1980, many more tortured or wounded, and the country on the verge of civil war. On September 12, 1980, the generals once again stepped in and took temporary control of the government. The army is steadfastly secular and has authority under the constitution to intervene in the even a political party implements non-secular laws. The political power of Türkiye seems to lie with the large landowners and the conservative rural population. As a consequence, much of the government budget and loans are devoted to agriculture as well as general public spending leading to massive trade deficits and national debt with the concomitant rampant inflation and currency devaluations.
Page -54Türkiye Today Demography Türkiye has a population of about 65 million with an annual growth rate of 1.57% in compared to .85% for the United States. Similar to the U.S., there is migration from rural areas to the cities. There is emigration to European countries, principally Germany, in order to obtain work. Economy Turkey’s GDP growth rate between 1980-90 was 5.3% compared to the U.S. rate of 3.0%; for 1990-95, both slowed to 3.2% and 2.6% respectively. In visiting the country, one sees booming cities, new highways, vast dams, and a spreading tourism infrastructure. However, much of this growth has been based on borrowed money, resulting in an inflation rate of 80-100% per year. A side effect is a constantly changing conversion rate; on November 20, 2002, the U.S. dollar was equal to 1,585,074 Turkish Liras. The government issued a new Turkish lira that knocked off the six lower digits; today (May 7, 2011) 1.00 USD = 1.54610 TRY. If an item is priced in Turkish lira, multiply it by .65 to get the price in US currency. Religion “Turkey is one of two truly secular countries in Europe; the other is France. The Turkish State is secular to the extent that official oaths, such as oaths at court, are taken not in the name of God, but in the name of ‘what the individual regards sacred.’” [240, p.32] “In Turkey, imams (Moslem religious professionals) are civil servants. This practice is contradictory to secularism, and yet it is a product of secularism. Ataturk placed imams on the government payroll in order to prevent them from developing an independent power base. Foundations set up for the upkeep of mosques during the Ottoman period were nationalized also for the same reason. Currently, the government employs 85,000 persons in jobs related to religion. (as a comparison, the number of elementary school teachers is 225,000.)” [240, p.32] Popular Culture Turks are exposed to the popular culture of the world, having access to the media of national and international newspapers, radio, and television. They come in contact with the tourists from all over the world (but especially Germans, Brits and Americans); and travel to Europe themselves. In the urban areas, they are developing their own fashions of music, clothes and cinema. Dissonance There are a number of aspects of Turkish society that strain the social and political fabric: • • • Wealth: As in most countries, there is great disparities between the rich and poor. Urban-rural: Urban residents tend to be more liberal on the social, religious, and political spectrum compared to rural residents who mostly live in small towns and villages. Religion: While there are minorities of different religions and are a source of conflict, the major dissonance is between moderate and conservative Muslims. The political ramification is that degree to which religious law and customs are incorporated in civil life, e.g., divorce, education. Education: As might be expected, wealthy, urban children obtain better education in comparison to poor, rural children. As in most European countries, a standard test at a certain grade level determines ones educational advancement.
Page -55• Women’s Rights/Customs: Again, there is a wide dichotomy between the rights (and the awareness of rights) and customs of women in urban areas versus those in rural areas. Women in urban areas work in many sectors of the modern economy, e.g., banks, advertising agencies, travel agencies; they can be seen shopping in the shops and bazaars and having a cocktail in a bar. Some of them look with disdain on their rural counterparts who slave in the kitchen after a day’s hard labor in the family field while their husbands return to yet another game of cards or backgammon at the local teahouse.
There are protections and women’s rights in the law: polygamy is outlawed as are religious marriages; woman have equality of testimony in a court of law; there is a minimum age of Figure 115 marriage and they are allowed to Dersim_woman_worker divorce and receive equal inheritance. But practice does not equal legal theory: men are still regarded as the head of the household, and alimony and inheritance is very difficult to claim. For these reasons, women often remain in abusive relationships.
Figure 113 Dersim_house
Identity “Happy is he who calls himself a Turk!” This famous quotation is taken from Atatürk’s speech of 1927 elaborating the future values of an independent republic. However, its meaning is not defined and accepted throughout the country, and the identity of the people of Türkiye has been changing.
Figure 114 City of Van
First, there are several ethnic-religious groups: Armenians, Kurds, Greeks, Jews, Laz, Circassian, Tatar, nomads, and Muslims, the latter having various sects, the major ones being Sunni, Alevis (which are Shi’ite) and Sufis (today the Mevlevi order whose whirling dervishes follow the mystical poet Melvana (lord) Celaleddin Rumi who lived in Konya in the 13th century. Under the Ottomans, there was no “national” feeling; Ottomans originally were members of the house of Osman; then expanded to include the aristocracy and finally all Muslim Turks. The ethnic-religious groups were separate communities (millets) within the Empire. With the independent movements in the Balkans, Sultan AbdulHamit II tried to establish an Ottoman identity for all peoples of the Empire; when this failed, he raised the banner of Islam. With Western encroachment and independent movements within Anatolia, the CUP used Turkism as a means of solidifying the population. Until about 1970, the word ‘Turk’ usually connoted a rustic–not an idealized symbol of a nation. The founders of the Republic looked further back in history for their national heroes and found the Selçuk Turks. Older people raised on this idea usually define themselves by a vague ethnic relationship to these tribes of Islamic Turkic nomads. Unfortunately, this label conjures the image of ‘the terrible Turk’ in the minds of many Westerners; and it does not include the many ethnic-religious communities that are indeed part of the nation. Thus the word, ‘Anatolian’, meaning “from the motherland”, is coming back into vogue. This word allows all ethnic-religious groups to retain their identity yet affirm their allegiance to the Republic which is very important to a country which is suspicious of any group that touts its identity above the nation as being traitorous.
Page -56Istanbul There is no certain origin of the name, but one possibility is that Greek signs saying, “This Way to the City,” was “Is tin poli” which became “Istanbul” in Turkish.15
Figure 120:102_G rand_Bazaar_2 Figure 122:107_G rand_Bazaar_1
Figure 116:104_G alata_T ower
According to a popular story that has existed for many years, the Byzantines did not refer to the city by its actual name, but, because of it size, simply as 'Polis' (the City), and when they wanted to say 'to the C ity', they said 'eist enpolin' (is-tin-polin), which was the (possible) origin of the name 'Istanbul'. R ecent research has shown that the name 'Istanbul' was used if not during the Byzantine period,
Page -57The name of the tower in the Marmara is based on the Greek myth of Hero and Leander. A young man of Abydus (now Çanakkale) falls in love with Hero, a priestess of Venus, in the town of Sestos on the opposite shore. He would swim the strait to have their tryst in the tower from which she raised a torch to guide him. But one night a tempest arose and the sea was too difficult, and he was drowned. In her despair, Hero cast herself down from the tower into the sea and perished. There are other myths associated with the tower. In actual fact, the Byzantine emperor Manuel Comnenos (1143-1180) had two towers built, one on the shore near where Topkapi Palace was later constructed, and the other where the Maiden's Tower stands today. Chains were drawn across the mouth of the strait between these two towers when Constantinople attracted enemy fleets. The original tower was rebuilt after Sultan Mehmed II conquered Istanbul in 1453. This structure underwent various changes over the centuries as a result of repairs and fires, and was extensively renovated during the reign of Mahmud II when it took the form we see today. The Galata tower was originally built around 528 CE. It was called "Great Bastion" by the Byzantine and "Jesus Tower" by the Genoese. The existing tower was built in 1348 by the Genoese merchants in order to see their ships approaching so as to prepare for off-loading their cargos. The Genoese had been granted free trade and a semi-independent status following the Latin occupation in 1204 gained by the fourth Crusade. The tower burned down and was repaired during the Ottoman empire. The tower was used as a prison in time of Sultan Suleyman and later became dormitories of the ottoman military band. Later on, it was used as a sort of light house. During the time of Sultan Murat IV, Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi, who is known to have made several attempts to fly to Okmeydani with wings attached at his arms, tried on one occasion to fly from Galata Tower. On the winds of Bosphorus, he flew all the way to Uskudar, so the story goes. Many palaces have been built on the site of the Çiraðan Palace. While only half finished, Sultan Abdulaziz acceded to the throne and demanded the palace be built in Arab style as a memorial to his reign. But he lived there for only a few months before pronouncing it to be too damp to stay in. It housed Sultan Murat V until his death in 1909. Parliament convened for two months before a fire left it a mere shell. It is now the Çiraðan Palace Hotel Kempinski Istanbul, a very expensive resort hotel with 315 rooms. Facing Hagia Sophia across Sultanahment Square, the Sultanahmet Camii (mosque) is one of the most beautiful mosques in the city. It was built from 1606 to 1616 by order of Sultan Ahmet and designed by architect Sedefkar Mehmet Agha. It is also called the Blue Mosque because of the Iznik tiles on the interior walls. The most important element in the interior of any mosque is the mihrab, a niche set into the center of the wall opposite the main entrance, that indicates the direction of the holy city Mecca, toward which the faithful must face when they perform their prayers. To the right of the mihrab we see the mimber, or pulpit, where the imam stands when he is delivering his sermon at the time of noon prayer on Fridays or on holy days. The mosque is flooded with light from its 260 windows. This mosque is unique in that it has six minarets.
at least during the 11th century and that the T urks knew the city by this name. Istanbul has had other names at various times but none of them was used widely or for any great length of time. D uring the T urkish period the names 'D ersaadet' and 'D eraliye' were used. Some official correspondence and coins had the transcription of 'Konstantinoupolis'or 'Konstantiniye', although the use of the name 'Konstantiniye' was prohibited at one time during the O ttoman period by Sultan Mustafa III, its use continued, to be abandoned during the republican period. T he name controversy was assumed to be settled when Atatürk officially renamed the city Istanbul in the 1920s. It took W esterners a few decades to accept the name, as C onstantinople continued to appear on maps well into the 1960s, when it began to appear in parentheses next to Istanbul. T he G reeks still do not use the T urkish name, and Konstantinopolis continues to be used on maps and road signs in G reece today.
Page -58I tried to determine the meaning of the symbols of the Turkish flag. One source that I found claims that the crescent and star are traditional symbols of the Islamic religion. Another source, while visiting ancient (Greek and Roman) Side commented upon viewing a “most strikign relief...was that of a star and crescent, the symbol of Islam, except that here , in ancient Side, it was an emblem of Cybele, and symbolized that she was a moon goddess.” But another source stated that: The Crescent Moon and Star (Sun during the Ottoman Empire) are ancient Turkish celestial symbols of power originating from the Turkish, ancestral lands of Siberia and Central Asia. Its origins are not Arabic or Persian and it can not be Islamic due to the strict, religious doctrines forbidding the usage of any symbols or the painting/drawing/sculpting of human faces... these very important religious facts are disregarded today by those trying to claim the Moon & Star as their own today. Needless to say, the origins of the Crescent & Sun/star are in fact Turkish from ancient times, pre-Islamic. The Turks believed in Shamanism and more importantly the one supreme Sky God (Tanri) along side others gods like that of the Moon & Sun, when they roamed nomadically on horseback in the steppes of Siberia & central Asia. In the 10th century, the Turks accepted Islam on their own will and conquered the Middle East. Within a few centuries, the Turks became extremely powerful and stretched an empire from the gates of Vienna, Austria, Russia all the way to Spain in the west. They brought into Islam their own free spirit, dynamism, Turkish culture, superstitions and serious beliefs as well. This is the origin of how the Crescent Moon & Star came into the Islamic world. The importance of the celestial bodies can be seen in many Turk epics, poems, songs, names etc. The Crescent Moon and Star are ancient Turkish celestial symbols of power. The founder of the Ottoman Turkish empire, Osman, had a dream of a crescent moon stretching over the earth for which he took as a sign and made it the symbol of his dynasty. When a Turkish army met a Euro-Christian one, the latter would assume that it was a symbol of Islam used by Muslim people.[252, p.326]
Figure 125:108_C iragan_Palace
Figure 130 Sublime Port Figure 127:110_Sultanahmet1
Page -60Bibliography Çatalhöyük http://en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalhoyuk From the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic [Excerpted from w, Helen Chapin Metz, ed. (Washington, D. C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 1995)] http://unx1.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/593Turk.html The Ottoman Empire Enters WWI on the Side of the Central Powers, http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/EastEurope/TurkeyCentral.html Maps of Islamic and Medieval Christian History, http://www.faculty.juniata.edu/tuten/islamic/maps.html http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~rs143/map.html The Empire from 1807 to 1920: Dissolution of the Empire, http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=120799&tocid=44421&query=kurds&ct=eb Dalrymple, William, From the Holy Mountain: A Journey Among the Christians of the Middle East, Henry Holt & Company, Incorporated, February 1999. Queller, Donald E., and Madden, Thomas F., The fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1997.  Dunn, Robert, World Alive: A Personal Story, Crown Publishers, Inc., New York, 1956. http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/State-organisation-of-the-Ottoman-Empire  Toynbee, Arnold, The Western Question of Greece and Turkey, (ISBN: 0865272093), Fertig Howard Inc., December 1970.  McCarthy, Justin, Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of the Ottoman Muslims, 1821 - 1922, The Darwin Press, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1995.  Constantelos, Demetrios, Byzantine and Ancient Greek Religiosity, http://www.myriobiblos.gr/texts/english/Constantelos_3.html
Page -61Addendum: The Ottoman Empire http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/State-organisation-of-the-Ottoman-Empire The Ottoman Empire developed a highly advanced organisation of state over the centuries. Even though it had a very centralized government with the Sultan as the supreme ruler, it had an effective control of it's provinces and citizens, as well as it's officials. The Ottoman society had a ruling class called the askeri, inluding the noblemen, court officials, military officers and the religious class called the ulema. Townspeople, villagers and farmers formed a lower class called the reaya. This class had nothing to do with what religion one belonged to but rather meant anyone who wasn't askeri. Nobles sometimes used the word turk for Muslim farmers and villagers, referring to them as ignorant. Wealth and rank wasn't necessarily something you inherited, rather it had to be earned. This was not in the case of the sultans, of course, but for most titles such as viziers and agas. Military service was a key to advancement in the hierarchy. The Sultan and the Imperial Law Often by foreign ambassadors called the "Grand Turk" or "Grand Signior," the sultan was the sole ruler of the Ottoman state, at least officially. The sultan was the government, and he had absolute power over just about everything in his realm. The sultan came to power through succession. Only males could become sultans. Unlike European monarchies, however, the oldest son did not automatically inherit the throne. Rather the throne went to the most powerful of the brothers--or, in some cases, to the sultan's favorite. It did not matter whether the prince's mother was a legitimate wife of the sultan or a slave concubine of the Harem. Once a sultan had assumed the throne, he had all his brothers executed as well as their sons. These executions guaranteed that there would be no future wars or struggles between claimants to the throne. One of the reasons for the decline of the Empire was that in the 17th century, the sultans began to revise this practice and simply imprisoned their brothers within a section of the harem called the Cage. By now, the crown could also pass into the hands of a brother; and, since the crown was falling to individuals who had been imprisoned much of their lives, the Ottoman state saw a succession of many ignorant and mad sultans. Sultanic justice In theory the sultan was to guarantee protection and justice (adala) for the people. In Islamic political theory, the model of the just ruler was the legendary king Solomon of Judea. In addition, according to old Turkish traditions, the ruler had to provide peace and wealth to his people, otherwise he had no right to rule. Thus, the reign of the Ottoman sultans, at least most of them, was somewhat dependent on public opinion, and therefore this opinion was often heard and heeded. The sultan protected his people from injustice, both on local and governmental level, such as illegal taxation and the corruption of officials. This justice could only be guaranteed by the ruler if he had absolute power. In order to maintain law, order and justice for the people, a number of institutions were set up in the Sultan's central government. An extensive bureaucracy grew up with its center in Istanbul, located in and around the Imperial Court at the Topkapi Palace. The reach of this bureaucracy was comprehensive, with had offices in the provincial capitals; these in turn controlled local governments. A competent sultan would kept an eye on his officials at all times, using a vast, complex and elaborate system of spies who would report back to the central bureaucracy. Servants and eunuchs served as the sultan's spies in the court, constantly informing him of the intrigues. Some say that the Ottoman intelligence agency was the best in the world until the 20th century. Sometimes the sultan himself would secretly observe Divan meetings and proceedings of the ulama courts. Some say that the decline of the Ottoman Empire was primarily because later sultans took less interest in maintaining justice in their Empire.
Page -62This system of anti-corruption laws was called the siyasa. The punishment administered to corrupt officials in the siyasa laws was dismissal and dishonourment of one's family for lesser crimes such as accepting smaller bribes. If the crime was of a more severe nature (such as the mustering of private armies or forcing peasants to labour or pay illegal taxes) the official was to be formally executed. There was no pardon; no fines could be paid as compensation and there were seldom any people put into prison. The commandments of the sultan were called the firman. In order to prevent abuse of the peasantry by officials and governors, firmans and taxes were always posted in public. Another important matter to locals was the accessibility to the centralized government. The highest positions of power were available to each and every citizen of the Empire, independent of religion and social status. Of course, it was often easier for noblemen to advance through the ranks than for peasants with no education. Official petitions (called the ard-i mahdar) could be brought before the Imperial Council by any citizen, even by women (at least sometimes, according to the current trend). The imperial government Though the sultan was the sublime monarch he had a number of advisors and ministers. The most powerful of these were the viziers of the Divan, led by the Grand Vizier. The Divan was a council were the viziers met and debated the politics of the empire. It was the Grand Vizier's duty to inform the sultan of the opinion of the divan. The sultan often took his vizier's advices in consideration, but he by no means had to obey the divan. Sometimes the sultan called a divan meeting himself if he had something important to inform his viziers of, such as coming war. The viziers then carried out his orders. The divan consisted of three viziers in the 14th century and eleven in the 17th century, four of them served as Viziers of the Dome, the most important ministers next to the Grand Vizier. Sometimes the commander (aga) of the Janissaries attended at the divan meetings as well. The ministers (Nazir) had not as much influence over the sultans as the viziers, but controlled the ministries (Nezareti). The ministries and departments were important parts of the Ottoman bureaucracy. The ministries also supplied the viziers with whatever information they required. In addition, the viziers had their own advisors called the kahya. The most important minister was the minister of justice, the Adliye Naziri, whose ministry included the civil judges (kadis) and the military judges (kadiaskers or kaziaskers) who were the highest judicial authority of the Empire after the seyhulislam, the supreme religious leader of the ulema. For each military corps there was a Nazir who had the administrative power. Under him was the Aga who had the ceremonial command of the corps. Other officials within a ministry included the Kethüdar, a representative of the ministry and assistant to the minister with several clerks (kalfas) under him. The kalfas did all the paper-work in the Ottoman bureaucracy. The servants The sultan, his viziers and his harem was served by an army of pages who were the sultan's slaves. Twenty-five of these served in the kitchen and in the larder. Others served in the Treasury and the Armoury, maintaining the sultan's treasures and weapons. There were also a branch of servants that were said to serve the Chamber of Campaign, i.e. they accompanied the sultan and his court while on campaign. The best of the pages was chosen to serve the sultan in person. One was responsible for the sultan's clothing, one served him with drinks, one carried his weaponry, one helped him mount his horse, one was responsible for making his turban and a barber shaved the sultan every day. At the palace served also a great number of stewards who carried food, water and wood throughout the palace and lit the fireplaces and braziers. The corps of doorkeepers (Kapici) numbered several hundreds and were responsible for opening the doors throughout the entire palace and also for execution. The chief doorkeeper was resonsible for escorting important guests to the sultan. A number of lackeys ('ikadar) served as messengers in the palace and the city and from one of these were the Imperial Herald (Divan avisi', literally "sergeant of the divan") who was a man by entrusted by the sultan to various tasks, among others to inform people who would take part in meetings of the Divan. There were also a corps of palace guards (Zuluflu Baltaci) under the command of the Swordmaster and palace
Page -63gardeners (Bostanci) who also were responsible for the Sultan's luxury boat. Those taught in European etiquette and language (mainly French) served as ''Yasaki, guards for foreign ambassadors. Also stationed near the palace was the Six Divisions of Cavalry (Alti Bk'') and, of course, the Janissaries. The nobles The viziers was the core of the nobles, though they were really slaves of the sultan. Other noble families inhabited Istanbul and often visited the court during parties or ceremonies. The clergy was another prominent part of the court. The muftis and imams were always present at religious ceremonies, which were plentiful. The ''m teferrika'' was a sort of young noblemen's club, where the sons of effendis, pasas and other notables got together. They often accompanied the sultan when he went out hunting. The Harem The Harem was one of the most important powers of the Ottoman court. It was ruled by the Valide Sultana (or Bas Kadin, 'chief lady'), the mother of the Sultan, and she enjoyed supreme power over the Harem and an exquisite status in the court. Sometimes she got involved in state politics could diminish the power and position of the Sultan in what was called a Sultanate of Women (Kadinlar Sultanati). Under the Sultan's mother in the hierarchy came the Hasseki Sultana, the queen and mother of the Sultan's firstborn son. The Sultan also had four other official wives, the Hasseki Kadin. Below the Sultan's wives came his favorite concubines (ikbaliks or hassodaliks, litteraly 'fortunate girl') and then the other concubines in favor of the Sultan (''g zde or gedik). Next in rank was the concubines of officials who were ranked below the sultan's concubines. Pupils (acemi) and novices (cariye or sahgird'') were younger women who either was waiting to be married off to someone or who had not yet been graduated from the Harem School. The Harem was under the administration of the eunuchs, of which there were two categories, Black and White Eunuchs. Black Eunuchs were Africans taken as slaves who served the concubines and officials in the Harem and together with chambermaidens of low rank. The White Eunuchs were Europeans from the Balkans. They served the recruits at the Palace School (see below) and were from 1582 prohibited from entering the Harem. An important figure in the Ottoman court was the Chief Black Eunuch (Kizlar Agasi or Harem Agasi). In control of the Harem and a perfect net of spies in the Black Eunuchs, the Chief Eunuch was involved in almost every palace intrigue and could thereby gain power over either the sultan or one of his viziers, ministers or other court officials. The Palace School The palace school was the place where the devsirme boys where trained. There were palace schools in the old palace in Edirme, one in the Galata Palace north of the Golden Horn in Istanbul and one in the Ibrahim Pasha Palace at the Hippodrome in central Istanbul. Graduating after seven years, the boys were ready to become servants for the sultan or other notables, to serve in the Six Divisions of Cavalry or as a Janissary. Some of the most talented devsirme boys came to the Topkapi Palace where they were trained for high positions within the Ottoman court or military. Provinces The Ottoman Empire was divided into provinces (vilayets or beylerbeyliks eyalets). See provinces of the Ottoman Empire for a list of the provinces. The provinces of Rumili (Rumelia) and Anadolu (Anatolia) were under the direct rule of the sultan in Istanbul. Otherwise, the provinces were ruled by governor-generals (beylerbeylis). The provinces were divided into smaller divisions known as sanjaks (sancaks). Sanjaks were ruled by sancakbeys and were divided into timars (fiefs held by timariots) and zeamets (also ziam; larger timars). Some, such as the Sanjak of Jerusalem, were not part of a province.
Page -64Jews and Samaritans
One other consequence of the Assyrian invasion of Israel involved the settling of Israel by Assyrians. This group settled in the capital of Israel, Samaria, and they took with them Assyrian gods and cultic practices. But the people of the Middle East were above everything else highly superstitious. Even the Hebrews didn't necessarily deny the existence or power of other peoples' gods—just in case. Conquering peoples constantly feared that the local gods would wreak vengeance on them. Therefore, they would adopt the local god or gods into their religion and cultic practices. Within a short time, the Assyrians in Samaria were worshipping Yahweh as well as their own gods; within a couple centuries, they would be worshipping Yahweh exclusively. Thus was formed the only major schism in the Yahweh religion: the schism between the Jews and the Samaritans. The Samaritans, who were Assyrian and therefore non-Hebrew, adopted almost all of the Hebrew Torah and cultic practices; unlike the Jews, however, they believed that they could sacrifice to God outside of the temple in Jerusalem. The Jews frowned on the Samaritans, denying that a non-Hebrew had any right to be included among the chosen people and angered that the Samaritans would dare to sacrifice to Yahweh outside of Jerusalem. The Samaritan schism played a major role in the rhetoric of Jesus of Nazareth; and there are still Samaritans alive today around the city of Samaria
Page -65Addendum: Invasions of Asia Minor “Western Anatolia has sometimes been conquered, or partially conquered, successfully overland. The Phrygians and Mysians achieved this about the twelfth century, and the Galatians in the third century B.C., from the north-west, coming across the Straits out of the Balkan Peninsula. It has also been conquered from the north-east by Powers already in possession of the east and the centre of the country--in the sixth century B.C, for instance, by the Persians and in the thirteenth century after Christ by the Turks. All these conquests except the Persian, however, were tribal migrations, not annexations by a foreign state situated beyond the boundaries of the country. There are even fewer instances of conquest from the west coast by a foreign state situated overseas. The Ancient Greek colonies of the twelfth century B.C. (on which Modern Greece largely founds her claim to ‘Ionia’) are not a case in point, for they too were planted by emigrants who retained no political connection with the country from which they came. There were not colonial possessions of any Greek state or states on the other side of the Aegean, and in the seventh and sixth centuries B.C. they were annexed without difficulty by the Kingdom of Lydia, the first considerable land-power that arose in the interior of Western Anatolia after the their foundation. Soon after the middle of the sixth century, there were taken over, with Lydia, by the Persian Empire. About 499 B.C. they revolted and received some naval and military assistance from the independent Greeks overseas. But though Athens was not three days’ sail away, while the capital of Persia was three months’ journey overland, the insurgents were reconquered. In 479 B.C., however, they slipped out of Persia’s hands again, in a moment of demoralisation due to the disastrous failure of Xerxes’ invasion of European Greece, and an interesting controversy immediately arose between the two leading states in the victorious Greek alliance. ‘The Allies held a conference to discuss the evacuation of the civil population of Ionia, and debated where to settle them in the parts of Greece at their disposal, supposing that they abandoned Ionia to the Orientals. It seemed to them out of the question that they should remain under arms for ever protecting the Ionians and without their protection they had no hope of the Ionians successfully measuring themselves against the Persians. The Peloponnesian Governments accordingly proposed to evict the inhabitants of ports belonging to nations in Greece which had sided with the Persians [emphasis added], and to hand the districts over to the Ionians to settle in. The Athenians, however, would not hear of any evacuation of Ionia or accept proposals from the Peloponnesians in regard to a population of Athenian origin. They raised such violent opposition that the Peloponnesians gave way.’
The result was that a war which had already lasted, off and on, for twenty-one years (499-479 B.C.) was prolonged to fifty-one (499-449 B.C.) and terminated by a mutually unsatisfactory peace. The terms of it are obscure, because the Athenians referred to them as little as possible and the Persians never wrote their own history. Apparently, the Ionian cities on the mainland remained members of the Athenian Confederacy but were ‘demilitarised’--their fortifications being dismantled and their territories declared neutral ground. No doubt they paid double tribute to the sea and the land power which had made peace at their expense. Afterwards, the fratricidal conflict into which Greece fell in 431 B.C. gave Persia an opportunity of reasserting her claim to sovereignty; and then, when Athens had at length succumbed to Sparta, the Ionians appealed to King Agesilaos to carry on the Anatolian policy of Pericles. Agesilaos landed troops at Ephesus and delivered a series of offensives against the Persians (399-5 B.C.), over much the same ground and with much the same results as the operations conducted from the adjacent base of Smyrna in 1919-21. Victories were gained and territory was occupied, but with no effect upon the enemy’s will to continue the war. Finally, the campaign was broken off by a diversion in the Balkans. Sparta was attacked by her neighbours, and Agesilaos evacuated Anatolia on an urgent summons from his government. For eight or nine years, the countries round the Aegean relapsed into general warfare. Then, in 386 B.C. peace was negotiated in European Greece by Persian mediation, and the broker’s fee was a formal recognition, by all states ‘consenting to the peace,’ of Persia’s sovereignty over the Anatolian mainland. [244, p.219-22]
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