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STUDENT ID: SUBMITTIND DATE:
14TH APRIL 2009
Table of Contents
DECOLONIZATION.........................................................................................03 DECOLONIZATION as defined IN BROAD SENSE………….…...03 EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF DECOLONIZATION……….…04 PROCESS OF DECOLONIZATION…………………………………………………………05
1) REDISCOVERY AND RECOVERY………………………………..………………06 2) MOURNING ……………………………………………………………………...…..07 3) DREAMING………………………………………….………………………………..08 4) COMMITMENT……………………………………………………………………….09 5) ACTION……………………………………………………………………….……….10
METHODS AND STAGES OF DECOLONIZATION……………………………………….11
CAUSES OF DECOLONIZATION……….. ………………………………………………12
DECOLONIZATION OF OTTOMAN LANDS IN THE 19TH CENTURY…………………..13
EGYPT………………………………………………………………………………. .13 GREECE…………………………………………………………………………… …………13 BULGARIA………………………………………………………………………… ………..13 ROMNIA…………………………………………………………………………… ………..13 SERBIA……………………………………………………………………………… ……....13 MONTENEGRO…………………………………………………………………… …….….14
DECOLONIZATION AFTER 1918…………………………………………………..…. …...14 WESTERN EUROPEAN COLONIAL POWERS……………………………... ………...15 THE UNITED STATES ………………………………………………………………... …..15 THE SOVIET UNION AND ANTI-COLONIALISM …………... ………………………….16
BRITISH DECOLONIZATION………………………………………………………………….........16 FRENCH DECOLONIZATION.....................................…………………………………. …………………………………...17 DECOLONIZATION AND FRENCH SOCIETY………………………………………………......18 DECOLONIZATION OF THE OTHER IMPERIAL POWERS ..................................................................................…………………………………....21
DECOLONIZATION AFTER 1945 …………………………………………………………...23
END OF THE EUROPEAN COLONIAL EMPIRES………………………………………………26
THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH ………………………………………………………………………26 FRANCE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………26 PORTUGAL ………………………………………………………………………………………………..26 SPAIN ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
THE MOVEMENT ANTICOLONIALIST…………………………………………………………...27
A MOVEMENT ON THE LEFT……………………………………………………………………………27 INTERNAL WARS ……………………... ………………………………………………………………….27 NEOCOLONIALISM…………………………….. …………………………………………………………27
DECOLONIZATION OF AFRICA...........................................................................................................28
BACKGROUND...................................................................................................................... ............28 CAUSES................................................................................................................................. ............28 EFFECTS................................................................................................................................. ...........29
THE WAR OF ALGERIA (1954-1962) ……………………………………………………………...30
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WAR OF ALGERIA FRENCH SIDE……………………………………........30 ALGERIAN SIDE………………………………………………………………………………………….....30
A nationalist revival……………………………………………………………………………………………. …....30 A decreased confidence………………………………………………………………………………………….31
The war an International Dimension……………………………………………………………………...31 Involved Forces……………………………………………………………………………………………..32
French generals………………………………………………………………………………………………….…..32 The FLN……………………………………………………………………………………………………………....32
THE POLITICAL CONFRONTATION THE IV E REPUBLIC IN DIFFICULTY………………….. …….32
.......... AND THE COLD WAR. AND SELF- DETERMINATION IN COLD WAR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA.................49 INTER-WORLD PERIOD…………………………………………………………………......…………………… …...................... 1960-1994.42 MODERN APPROACHES TO DECOLONIZATION……………………………......................48 SETTLED POPULATIONS …………………………………......................................51 FROM WORLD WAR II TO THE PRESENT …………………………………….53 BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………...................39 CHALLENGES IN THE POST-COLD WAR PERIOD: "SECOND GENERATION" PEACEKEEPING AND HUMANITARIAN EFFORTS........ 19601964................. ………………………………........... ………33 A PUBLIC OPINION IN RUPTURE…………………………………………………………….........49 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES ……………………... ……………………………....................................36 AFRICAN DECOLONIZATION AND THE ERA OF DAG HAMMARSKJOLD..........46 DIFFERING PERSPECTIVES……………………………......49 CHARTS OF THE INDEPENDENCES....47 DECOLONIZATION AND POLITICAL INSTABILITY……...48 ECONOMIC EFFECTS…………………………………………..…................. ………………...............................................61 DECOLONIZATION Page 4 .....BIRTH OF THE O C REPUBLIC…………………………………………………………………...... ………………...3 7 THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE COLD WAR STRUGGLE FOR SELF-DETERMINATION IN SOUTHERN AFRICA........................35 UNITED NATIONS.…......... ……………………………..... ………………………………...................... …………33 THE ENGAGEMENT OF THE INTELLECTUALS………………………………………………………33 SELFDETERMINATION……………………………………………………………………………………34 CONSEQUENCES IN ALGERIA AND FRANCE…………………………………………..... DECOLONIZATION...45 POST-COLONIAL ORGANIZATIONS……………………………….......................35 THE UN'S FIRST TEST: DECOLONIZATION...... THE CONGO CRISIS......…………………............. …………………..............…………………………............
from the colonial settler minority to locally legitimized government. Latvia and Lithuania argue that they. Indeed. granting not external independence but internal equality as 'sovereign' constituent members of the federal Union. or the historical conqueror (such as Austria. It is basically a process which refers to form of regime shift. or establishing a "free association" status. It is a Process by which colonies become independent of the colonizing country. Decolonization was among the most significant phenomena of the 20th century. It may be intramural or it may involve the intervention of foreign powers or international bodies such as the League of Nations. hence. decolonization varied from place to place. it has been evaluated in many different ways. internal decolonization can occur within a sovereign state. Decolonization was gradual and peaceful for some British colonies largely settled by expatriates but violent for others. affected the lives of nearly everyone. In its shape and duration. it helped shape the history of the past century. its importance is beyond question. This conforms to an intellectual movement known as postcolonialism. Decolonization may involve peaceful negotiation and/or violent revolt and armed struggle by the native population. Even in a state which legally does not colonize any of its 'integral' parts. Decolonization can be achieved by attaining independence. DECOLONIZATION as defined IN BROAD SENSE Stretching the notion further. Furthermore. Thus. destined to colonize conquered lands bordering the existing states. Thus. the new and changed relation between the colonizing power and colony. the three Baltic republics Estonia. as a colonizer in all but name. all across the globe.. The United Nations has stated that in the process of decolonization there is no alternative to the principle of self-determination. To complicate matters even further. real inequality often causes the politically dominant component. Often the largest and/or most populous part (such as Russia within the formally federal USSR as earlier in the czar's empire). where native rebellions were energized by nationalism. the expansive United States created territories. at least subjectively.Decolonization is literally an antithesis of colonization/colonialism. the dismemberment of such a 'prison of peoples' is perceived as decolonization. and once their development proved successful (often involving new geographical splits) allowed them to petition statehood within the federation. and in one way or another. The term generally refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. the homelands of the ruling Habsburg dynasty. in DECOLONIZATION Page 5 . integrating with the administering power or another state. But in any case. this may coincide with another element. either directly or indirectly. within an empire of mainly Slavonic 'minorities' from Silesia to the shifting Ottoman border) to be perceived.
India won independence in 1947. New Zealand and Canada got Dominion status between the years 1800-1990. It was seen from long before that colonization was never happily accepted by any nation. Germany etc. For more then 4 centuries the colonies endured the command of the colonizers. DECOLONIZATION Page 6 . In the mid of fifteenth century. Spain. European nations had already created their colonies in the African. in 1922. In 1910 a union of South African States was formed. were involved in this process. Therefore Britain. France. the colonizing powers realized their incapacity to exert control over the colonies. political and economic activity. Colonialism has been associated mostly with European nations. Even in other post-Soviet states which had formally acceded. Also the colonies had started agitating for freedom. and thus had been illegally colonized. Their coffers were drained by the War. The colonial nation dictates terms to the residents of the colonized areas.contrast with other constituent SSRs. They exercise control over every field of socio-cultural. Hong Kong is one such British colony that will be returned to its mother nation China in a few months’ time. New Zealand was given a responsible government in 1856 and in 1907 it was granted full dominion. France. Burma and Sri Lanka became independent in 1948. European colonies in Australia. but were militarily annexed by Stalin. Great Britain. By this they controlled their own government and they remained part of the British Empire. Colonies of Australia were also granted responsible governments between the years 1853 to 1890. the spread of religion and imperialism led to the geographical discoveries in the 15th and the 16th decades. The British also divided it on the basis of religion. Egypt got independence from the U. Portugal etc. EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF DECOLONIZATION The desire for exploration. Portugal. most ethnic Russians were so much identified with the Soviet 'colonization' that they were made to feel so unwelcome that they migrated back to Russia. and they withdrew in 1952. American and Australian continents. transferred power to the colonies.K. The governments of colonial nations had always faced heavy opposition against the colonial policies. The reasons for decolonization were in a way mainly economic. By the 1980s only a few colonies were still to be given their freedom. Asian. could not have been granted independence at the dismemberment of the Soviet Union because they never joined. In the aftermath of the Second World War. They also exploit the natural resources of the colonized lands. South Africa became an independent republic. including massive deportations of their nationals and uninvited immigration of ethnic Russians and other soviet nationalities. Holland. It was only in the 20th century that the process of “decolonization” started. These geographical discoveries helped the process of colonization. Colonialism refers to a system of government of one particular nation that exercises control over peoples of other nations weaker than the governing nation.
After the Second World War Portugal was the only European colonial power to resist the trend of decolonization. Zimbabwe and Namibia also became independent in 1980 and 1990 respectively. integrating with the administering power or another state. of the Austrian and Ottoman Empires at around the time of World War I. They live in a colonial society which is a constant and overwhelming reminder of the superiority of the colonial society over that of the underlying indigenous one. but most did not achieve their aims until after it. REDISCOVERY AND RECOVERY This is the first phase of process of Decolonization which sets the foundation for the ultimate decolonization of the society. Decolonization can be achieved by attaining independence. A number of national liberation movements were established prior to the war. Tunisia and Morocco became free when the French gave them independence in 1954. Mozambique. People who have undergone colonization are inevitably suffering from concepts of inferiority in relation to their historical cultural/social background. Decolonization may involve peaceful negotiation and/or violent revolt and armed struggle by the native population. Ghana got independence in 1957. Although examples of decolonization can be found from ancient times forward. PROCESS OF DECOLONIZATION Professor Virgilio Enriques defined five distinct phases of decolonization for people. French. Many different causes may bring a person or a society to DECOLONIZATION Page 7 .In West Africa. German. Only when government changed in Portugal. These are the breakup of the Spanish Empire in the nineteenth century. or establishing a "free association" status. and of the Russian Soviet Empire following the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. of the British. 1. beginning with the independence of Pakistan and the Republic of India from Great Britain in 1947 and the First Indochina War. Nigeria in 1960 and Sierra Leone in 1961 became free. Angola and Guinea got independence in 1975. The United Nations has stated that in the process of decolonization there is no alternative to the principle of self-determination. in modern times there have been several particularly active periods of decolonization. These are: 1) Rediscovery and Recovery 2) Mourning 3) Dreaming 4) Commitment 5) Action. Each phase can be experienced at the same time or in various combinations. A particularly active period of decolonization occurred between 1945 to 1960. Italian and American Empires in the wake of World War II.
It may be curiosity. armed invasion and overthrow of the Hawaiian nation. identity. etc.S. This phase of rediscovery of one’s history and recovery of one’s culture. even the growing challenge to the righteousness of the U.S. troops and acting as the military support for a puppet governments overthrow of the Hawaiian nation.S. war in Viet Nam played a major part in bringing home to Hawaii since the 60's this recovery and rediscovery stage. The societies which come in this phase include: The Hawaiian society has been in this phase since the late 1960's as greater sensitivity for racial identity and pride as well as the growth of distrust for the government of the United States of America developed. The black struggle for equality in civil rights and the American Indian struggle for fundamental freedoms and recognition as the first people of the land. added substantially to this recovery. a non-profit entity designed to educate native Hawaiian students. and at the time.the theft of the Hawaiian nation. especially when they have been so long and completely separated from the practice or appreciation of their traditional culture that they now see and treat this culture from the perspective of the foreign one.S. accident. or fate.S. sitting as a judge in the State Circuit Court. not only in the historical and political awareness of the U. coincidence. New vigor in Hawaiian music and literature. of American military spying all the while pretending to have no interest in grabbing Hawaii. not knowing much of the details. This phase has continued. Information of agents of the United States in the latter 1800's conspiring with residents in Hawaii. began to appear in Hawaii. coming from the President of the United States. One of the dangers can occur in this phase is the elevation of form over substance. especially when these are words taken out of the Congressional record.enter the stage of rediscovery and recovery. It forms the basis for the further steps to follow. of the landing of U. yet he could not deny the events having happened. many of whom were American citizens. but generally acquiescing to the overall theme of a grand illegality having occurred in Hawaii 100 years ago . government and the operation of its society showed to us in Hawai`i that this great American society was not so great after all. desperation. Congress confessing to a litany of aggressive acts. This phase of rediscovery and recovery has not ended. Indigenous people themselves can abuse their own culture. served in the State legislature for many years. Congressional Record President Cleveland’s message to the U. escape. Social and political activities took on new momentum. Many people are still "getting up to speed".S. This danger may include those who have taken on the trappings of DECOLONIZATION Page 8 . is fundamental to the movement for decolonization. The disbelief and yet the complete inability to overcome the information stunned the general society. This is reflected in an interruption by Circuit Court Judge John Lanham in the first criminal case in modern time challenging the court’s jurisdiction over a Hawaiian citizen. having married a native Hawaiian woman. the judge said this was the most fantastic story he had ever heard. While the defense counsel read from the U. both traditional and modern. Lanham was no neophyte to Hawaii. of dealing with a traditional culture from the perspective of a foreign culture. with extensive assets of land throughout Hawaii. language. Those challenges to the U. Hawaiians were now willing to stand up against members of Hawaii Supreme Court in their appointment of trustees to the Bishop Estate Trust.
Even in individual tragedies where one is a victim of some crime. Caution must be taken in letting media select for the colonized people the leadership or the identification of their cultural root 2. The observations over the week-end of January 16 and 17. In Hawaii. MOURNING A natural outgrowth of the first phase is the mourning. This is an essential phase of healing. has experienced death of a close loved one. the mourning seems to be the only thing to do. wearing forests of leaves and flowers on their heads. This phase may also be expressed in great anger and a lashing out at all symbols of the colonizer. the hating and the division of people. 1993 in which people came from all parts of Hawaii and returned from parts of the world served as a focal point for mourning of most of those touched in one or another way by the overthrow. therefore. either in words or action. This abuse of the mourning phase can turn into an attempt to entrench the colonization in order to continue the mourning. Thus. societal mourning depends on the circumstances. consultation. The difference. A sense of justified violence. milking every advantage of the innocence of one's victimization. Some people are happy to go no further than the mourning. 3. the anger. considered through debate. must be carefully distinguished. Perhaps. both feeding upon one another. finding sufficient satisfaction in long term grumbling. It is a time when people are able to mourn their discrimination. Like individual responses to tragedies. Theatrics which make good media clips could eventually be mistaken for substance. DREAMING This phase is the most crucial for decolonization because here the full scene of possibilities are expressed.their "traditional" culture. can lull some into remaining in this phase. and otherwise playing the foreigner's concept of the indigenous person. an extended period of mourning may be experienced. televisions or newspapers as reports were made of the Palace events. The mourning stage can also accelerate the earlier stage of rediscovery and recovery. Many more remained at home but were tied to their radios. when there does not seem to be any alternative to the present condition. speaking the indigenous language which they learned at colonial colleges. People in mourning often immerse themselves totally in the rediscovery of their history making for an interesting interplay between these two phases. It is difficult to generalize how long a people remain in the mourning phase. the victim must be permitted a time of mourning.000 people. between the final stage of colonization exploitation. and the initial stage of decolonization rediscovery & recovery. and building DECOLONIZATION Page 9 . the symbolic mourning of the loss of the Hawaiian nation has taken place in the centennial observation of the overthrow at Iolani Palace in the gathering of over 10.
the dreaming is now vibrant.g: the constitutions of the newly emerged Pacific island nations as well as African nations. social. One on-going process is called the Native Hawaiian Convention. and the development. It is during this phase where people colonized are able to explore their own cultures. there is a matching hunger for solid background information and new visions upon which the dreaming can be built. considering their own structures of government and social order which encompass and expresses their hopes. Some have gone so far as to declare themselves the government pro tem pending success in achieving international recognition as an independent nation. if appropriate. the result can prove disastrous. So crucial is this phase that it must be allowed to run its full course. -International trade & business .Tourism. a nation within a nation approach. In Hawaii. -Population control . As the intensity in the debate of Hawaii's future gains greater momentum. There are many instances in which people who underwent "decolonization" merely underwent a change in position of the colonizer. where delegates elected only by native Hawaiians. Others are gathering and forming coalitions to promote continuing discussion on Hawaii’s future. Do they reflect more closely the social and legal culture of the immediate preceding colonizer or of the indigenous culture? Are those documents truly reflective of the hopes and aspirations of the people previously colonized? Or do they represent the colonial mentality which pervades the society at the time of foreign departure? Were they written or advised by colonial experts coming from a mindset of Western political structures or were they drafted by the people themselves? True decolonization is more than simply replacing indigenous or previously colonized people into the positions held by colonizers. An examination of the Pacific as well as the world's decolonization pattern may be helpful. economic and judicial structures themselves. their own aspirations for their future. Some of the areas now being explored include: 1) Ramifications of Hawaiian Sovereignty upon the following: . of new structures which can hold and house the values and aspirations of the colonized people. This convention will explore the full range of choices from remaining integrated within the United States of America to complete independence from the United States. If the dreaming is cut short by any action plan or program designed to create a remedy meeting the perception of the issue at a premature stage.dreams on further dreams which eventually becomes the flooring for the creation of a new social order. e. Still others are dedicated to remaining part of the United States but having the indigenous people given formal recognition and equivalent treatment as many American Indian tribes. Other organizations are also attempting to address the self-determination question as well.Diversified Agriculture -Control over ocean resources DECOLONIZATION Page 10 . are convening to review all aspects of self determination and will make recommendations to the native Hawaiian population. Decolonization includes the reevaluation of the political.Military presence.
Taxation -Land relationship 2) International legal principles which apply to the Hawaii case. and even the umbrella organization supporting Hawaiian sovereignty education. many are demanding immediate action. They will now be ready for commitment to a single direction in which the society must move. In Hawaii. Now that the topic of Hawaiian Sovereignty has "caught on" as one of the foremost political issues of the day. over time. They will be able to wade through the cult of personalities. 4) Identification and description of various models of nationhood. continues to face the threat of rushing the dreaming. Thus. in particular. 4. thus limiting the losses of those whose interests are threatened in the decolonization process. DECOLONIZATION Page 11 . environmental and political world arrangement perspectives. the commitment will become so clear that a formal process merely becomes a pro forma expression of the people's will. both as indigenous people's movements and as broader movements of decolonization. the people will have the opportunity to weigh the voices rather than becoming caught up with counting votes or bullets. we hear the call for a Hawaiian convention to create a founding document of the Hawaiian nation. family histories. Those expressing impatience and even ridicule over the dreaming process often call for very short-sighted goals. and ocean governance seen from new economic. the principles of decolonization. All such calls for a process must be carefully scrutinized and questioned as to whether these calls are consistent with the desire to allow the full process of decolonization to take place or to cut the dreaming short and force a premature resolution of historical injustices. There is no single "way" or process for a people's expression of the commitment. Long term planning for the future of Hawaii in relation to the Pacific and the world is not included in such plans for an immediate remedy. COMMITMENT In the process of dreaming. this call is being made by bodies that include the Hawaii legislature. there is an immediate call for lands.. semi-autonomous organizations such as the Office of Hawaiian Affairs. dollars and a "sovereign" nation whose jurisdiction and powers are fully within the United States Congress or Supreme Court. This phase will culminate in people combining their voices in a clear statement of their desired direction. and release themselves from shackles of colonial patriotism. measured generally by materialistic gains. 5) Methods and processes by which non-indigenous concerns and contributions can be incorporated into the overall study of Hawaiian sovereignty. In fact. It can be difficult to distinguish between an early termination of the dreaming phase from the start of the commitment phase. with a belief that reflection and introspection are not worth the time and effort in the development of a new social order. In several corners of the society. 3) Review of other cases in which people have exercised self-determination. Hawaii however. indigenous peoples' rights.
may still be necessary to defend those other media of expressions. the action taken can not truly be said to be the choice of the people colonized.129. the Hawaii legislature and the Office of Hawaiian Affairs put up funds to conduct a vote among Native Hawaiians on whether or not to elect delegates to a Native Hawaiian Convention to propose a form of Hawaiian governance. They have gone forward and formed their National organizational structure. irrespective of their residence. When a people are under physical attack. time consuming process of the four earlier phases. The responsive action is one for survival. Suspicion was raised over the fact that funding for this process came from the State of Hawaii and that the process was therefore tainted and not truly a self determining process contemplated in international law. were permitted to participate. Otherwise. Such elitists substitutes for a quick solutions for the decolonization process deprives the people a participatory role in the formation of their own social order. Those new weapons notwithstanding. Among native Hawaiians throughout the world. no. 5. But the decolonization environment has so drastically changed in the last 30 years that the action phase today must include consideration beyond what has been historically undertaken to achieve independence. action may be called for prior to the society completion of the dreaming phase. the rifle. 22. a 73% response in favor of electing delegates to a convention. The fax machine. Several organizations claim they individually represent the Hawaiian Nation. radio and newsprint are perhaps more effective in executing the long battle plan. put in place their national leaders. do call for governments to provide necessary resources to assist the people in their exercise of self-determination. regardless of whether incarcerated or under other civil disabilities. Under appropriate times and in the appropriate manner. Not only have the methods of executing upon these commitments changed. but the arenas of contests are now not as geographically defined as before. While the first thought for independence would have been to grab the rifle and march against the colonizer.In recent years. all of such actions are sanctioned by international law. it seems the new weapons are dictated by technological development. ACTION This phase can be properly taken only upon a consensus of commitment reached in the last phase. The action called for in the 5th phase of decolonization is not a reactive but a proactive step taken upon the consensus of the people. computer. To speak before a national congress or an appropriate body of the United Nations may be far DECOLONIZATION Page 12 . patient. it's been argued. But the reality of many situations does not allow for such a methodical. however.294 voted yes and 8. But that kind of responsive action to colonization onslaught is not the action spoken of here. when a people are finding their children torn from their homes for reeducation in colonial societies. They try to be a first in the action phase. and now proceed to speak for the nation. The international policies well established by the United Nations. television. when people are being removed from their traditional lands in droves. A second step was taken in January 1999 electing such delegates to a Native Hawaiian Convention. That convention is now proceeding. The vote was taken in which any person over the age of 18. The 5th phase action may incorporate the full spectrum from a call to reason on one end to a resort to arms on the other.
Under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. there is a war of independence. As world opinion became more pro-emancipation following World War I. For example. In rare cases. with a similar system of trust territories created to adjust control over both former colonies and mandated territories administered by the nations defeated in World War II. METHODS & STAGES of decolonization Decolonization is a political process. The process is only complete when the de facto government of the newly independent country is recognized as the de jure sovereign state by the community of nations. This reassignment work continued through the United Nations. the ex-colonies are generally not absorbed by other powers.more effective than to storm a mountain top within one=s homeland in an armed battle. in which the United States warned the European powers not to interfere in the affairs of the newly independent states of the Western Hemisphere. The motives for giving such aid are varied: nations of the same ethnic and/or religious stock may sympathize with oppressed groups. in several respects. examples of this include British support of the Haitian Revolution against France. the modern phenomenon of decolonization has produced different outcomes. frequently involving violence. and the violence comes as active suppression from the occupying forces or as political opposition from forces representing minority local communities who feel threatened by the prospect of independence. In extreme circumstances. a number of mandates was created. Independence is often difficult to achieve without the encouragement and practical support from one or more external parties. the actions of the native population are characterized by non violence. mainly Germany and the Ottoman Empire. or a strong nation may attempt to destabilize a colony as a tactical move to weaken a rival or enemy colonizing power or to create space for its own sphere of influence. Empires have expanded and contracted throughout history but. and the Monroe Doctrine of 1823. India being an example of this. the DECOLONIZATION Page 13 . Now. but the reality was merely a redistribution of control over the former colonies of the defeated powers. there was an institutionalized collective effort to advance the cause of emancipation through the League of Nations. sometimes following a revolution. when states surrender both the de facto rule of their colonies and their de jure claims to such rule. there was a war of independence in French Indochina. including Japan. minor disturbances ensue resulting in suppression by the police and military forces. there is a dynamic cycle where negotiations fail. More often. Further. while in some countries in French West Africa (excluding the Maghreb countries) decolonization resulted from a combination of insurrection and negotiation. The expressed intention was to prepare these countries for self-government. escalating into more violent revolts that lead to further negotiations until independence is granted.
Through these ties. minority or majority or even exclusive). proclaims the equality and the freedom of the people. mutual protection pacts. Canada and Latin America can be considered decolonized. Thus. There is some debate over whether or not the United States. UNO. the outcomes have satisfied the colonizers' self-interests. DECOLONIZATION OF OTTOMAN LANDS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY DECOLONIZATION Page 14 . the final phase of decolonization may in fact concern little more than handing over responsibility for foreign relations and security. They claim their independence. but have also maintained their status as Powers. as is usually the case. each of which can be offered or fought for: these can include the introduction of elected representatives (advisory or voting. Scholars such as Elizabeth Cook-Lynn (Dakota) and Devon Mihesuah (Choctaw) have argued that portions of the United States still are in need of decolonization. a degree of continuity can be maintained through bilateral treaties between now equal governments involving practicalities such as military training. But. Decolonization is rarely achieved through a single historical act. despite frequent resistance to demands for decolonization. formed in 1945. CAUSES OF DECOLONIZATION From 1945 engages the process of decolonization. even following the recognition of statehood. not only continued existing. and soliciting de jure recognition for the new sovereignty. or even a garrison and/or military bases. degrees of autonomy or self-rule. as it was the colonist and their descendants who revolted and declared their independence instead of the indigenous peoples. Several factors explain this phenomenon: • • • • • The Second World War showed that the colonizing countries were not invincible. former colonial powers have ironically maintained a significant proportion of the previous benefits of their empires. but rather progresses through one or more stages of emancipation. The colonized countries profit from the support of the United States and the USSR. in most cases. which will be completed only in 1975. but with smaller costs — thus.former colonial powers have. Nationalist movements are constituted among colonized people. retaining strong economic and cultural ties with their former colonies.
Montenegro The independence of the Principality of Montenegro from the Ottoman Empire was recognized at the congress of Berlin in 1878. Serbia Decades of armed and unarmed struggle ended with the recognition of Serbian independence form the Ottoman Empire at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. and the subsequent expulsion of the French in 1801 by Ottoman. the commander of the Albanian regiment. in which the Russian army together with a Romanian expeditionary force and volunteer Bulgarian troops defeated the Ottoman armies. Prince of Battenberg. Romania was recognized as an independent state by the Great Powers. DECOLONIZATION Page 15 . Greece The Greek War of Independence. Bulgaria At the end of the Russo-Turkish War. Although he was emerged acknowledged by the Sultan in Istanbul in 1805 as his pasha (viceroy). Mamluk. Romania Romania fought on the Russian side in the Russo-Turkish War and in the 1878 Treaty of Berlin.) was fought to liberate Greece from a centuries-long Ottoman occupation. Muhammad Ali (Kavalali Mehmed Ali Pasha) was able to gain control on Egypt. Independence was secured by the intervention of a combined British-French fleet at the Battle of Navarino. Muhammad Ali was in reality monarch of a sovereign state. and British forces.The people who were conquered by Ottoman Empire were able to get freedom in the 19th decade. (1821–1829. This is a process that peaked at the time of the Ottoman defeat in the Russia Turkish War of 1877-78. the Treaty of Berlin (1878) established a Bulgarian state in Moesia and the region of Sofia. Egypt In the wake of the French Invasion of Egypt led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798. Alexander. was created Prince of Bulgaria. 1877-1878. The countries who got freedom from Ottoman Empire are discussed below.
and made numerous reforms in the Raj. Economic growth created stakeholders with their own demands. marked the zenith of European colonization. These economies would not fit the colonial strait-jacket when efforts were made to renew the links. Further. disregarding the damage done to international trade flows. This was especially true in the British Empire. It also marked the acceleration of the trends that would end it. despite the concentration of its impact on the industrialized world. They dealt with the white Dominions. the colonies suffered. retained strategic resources at the cost of reducing direct control in Egypt. as a concept and practice. West Africa). While some areas returned to subsistence farming (British Malaya) others diversified (India. would fatally undermine the ideologies of imperialism. Agricultural prices fell much harder and faster than those of industrial goods. excluding only the complexities of the Union of South Africa (busily introducing racial segregation from 1924 and thus catalyzing the anti-colonial political growth of half the DECOLONIZATION Page 16 . was also exceptionally damaging in the rural colonies. The colonies. culminating in the Government of India Act (1935). direct management to drive economic change. which seemed less capable (or less ruthless) in controlling political nationalism. Driven by pragmatic demands of budgets and manpower the British made deals with the nationalist elites. The start of mass nationalism. From around 1925 until World War II. The efforts at colonial reform also hastened their end — notably the move from non-interventionist collaborative systems towards directed. and the associated social pressures of "war imperialism" created both peasant unrest and a burgeoning middle class. protectionism and tariffs. while racial issues meant these people clearly stood apart from the colonial middle-class and had to form their own group. The extraordinary material demands of the conflict had spread economic change across the world (notably inflation). The Great Depression.DECOLONIZATION AFTER 1918 Western European colonial powers The New Imperialism period. Africa was a very different case from Asia between the wars. The colonial powers concentrated on domestic issues. reducing the dominance of "white" farmers in colonial economies and making the European governments and investors of the 1930s co-opt indigenous elites — despite the implications for the future. The creation of genuine bureaucratic government boosted the formation of indigenous bourgeoisie. Tropical Africa was not fully drawn into the colonial system before the end of the 19th century. the European-owned and -run plantations proved more vulnerable to extended deflation than native capitalists. almost all primary "cash crop" producers. lost the majority of their export income and were forced away from the "open" complementary colonial economies to "closed" systems. and some began to industrialise. with the scramble for Africa and the Opium Wars. disruptive.
Japan was deprived of all its colonies.S. at the end of the 19th century. Puerto Rican voters rejected proposals to grant the territory statehood or independence. However. 1993 and 1998. Japan had gained several substantial colonial concessions in east Asia such as Taiwan and Korea. did not gain full independence. Puerto Rico achieved self-government in 1952 and became a commonwealth in association with the United States. sweeping into China and seizing the Western colonies of Vietnam. policy for the Philippines had changed toward the direction of eventual selfgovernment. were seen to be used. Following its surrender to the Allies in 1945. possessions. such as Puerto Rico. albeit only for the duration of the war.S. either by direct subversion of Western-leaning or -controlled DECOLONIZATION Page 17 . Japan settled significant populations of ethnic Japanese in its colonies while simultaneously suppressing indigenous ethnic populations by enforcing the learning and use of the Japanese language in schools. World War II gave Japan occasion to conquer vast swaths of Asia. the U. Japan As the only Asian nation to become a colonial power during the modern era. Colonial controls ranged between extremes. the United States of America held several colonial territories seized from Spain. Malaya and Indonesia among others. Burma. Puerto Ricans have held U. Japan further claims that the southern Kuril Islands are a small portion of its own national territory. and attempts to eradicate the use of Korean and Taiwanese among the indigenous peoples. colonized by the Soviet Union. Economic growth was often curtailed. the island's political status remains a hot topic of debate. among them the Philippines and Puerto Rico. There were no indigenous nationalist groups with widespread popular support before 1939. Other methods such as public interaction. Japan also set up the Imperial university in Korea (Keijo Imperial University) and Taiwan (Taihoku University) to compel education. THE SOVIET UNION AND ANTI-COLONIALISM The Soviet Union sought to effect the abolishment of colonial governance by Western countries. Puerto Rico was taken off the UN list of non-sovereign territories in 1953 through resolution 748. the Philippines. other U.continent) and the Empire of Ethiopia. Although the United States had initially embarked upon a policy of colonization of these territories (and had fought to suppress local "insurgencies" there. by the 1930s. Following the invasion and occupation of the Philippines by Japan during World War II. such as in the Philippine-American War). citizenship since 1917. In 1967. Hong Kong. but do not vote in federal elections or pay federal taxes. the Philippines gained independence peacefully from the United States in 1946. The United States At end of the Spanish-American War.S. Pursuing a colonial policy comparable to those of European powers. Nevertheless.
World War II. The natural tendency of many Conservatives to cling to the imperial status of earlier years was also muted in the immediate post-1945 period. the largest and most-prized British possession. Malcolm MacDonald. In 1946 serious communal violence erupted. have been characterized as such. to state in December 1938 that Britain’s ultimate aim was to bring its colonies to selfgovernment. The economic and political costs of continuing to govern India were too high for most Labour Party politicians to contemplate. the United States also supported several such independence movements in opposition to Soviet interests. This experience made it acceptable for the Colonial Secretary. among others. Congo. level to elected Indian bodies. The conflicts in Vietnam. Burma (now Myanmar) and Sri Lanka quickly followed suit in 1948. Australia.governments or indirectly by influence of political leadership and support. Nicaragua. With India independent (and partitioned) in 1947. that Soviet leadership would encourage independence movements in colonized territories. developmental and economic assistance. Notably among these were the support of armed rebel movements by Cuba in Angola. Most Soviet leaders expressed the Marxist-Leninist view that imperialism was the height of capitalism. never created the same kind of bitter divisions as occurred in France. despite the different nature of the political DECOLONIZATION Page 18 . The act transferred power at the provincial. It followed. led the wartime coalition government to promise India dominion status as soon as possible once the war ended. especially as the Cold War progressed. Communist countries supported anti-colonialist movements in various countries still under colonial administration through propaganda. and the Soviet Union (as well as the People's Republic of China) in Vietnam. That this was granted as early as August 1947 was due essentially to the situation in India and to the determined efforts of the British prime minister Clement Attlee to proceed rapidly with the transfer of power. and Sudan. had already moved significantly towards this with the Government of India Act of 1935. as opposed to the national. By then. and British decolonization. India. and generated a class-stratified society. which added to Britain’s problems. New Zealand. although sometimes arousing opposition at home. BRITISH DECOLONIZATION As World War II approached. and South Africa. In India. Britain had already granted independence to the white dominions of Canada. and in some cases military aid. and the need for Indian support against the Japanese in the face of groups like the Indian National Army which were actually prepared to fight with Japan against British rule. During the Vietnam War. then. not only was opposition to British rule significant. Many of the revolutions of this time period were inspired or influenced in this way. but the prospect of receiving political power heightened the divisions between the Hindu and Muslim communities in the subcontinent. Because so many of these wars of independence expanded into general Cold War conflicts.
the British expected that it would be several generations before their African colonies gained independence. and decolonization left them with many problems. collaborators were an essential part of decolonization. In the Central African Federation (formed in 1953 from Nyasaland and Northern and Southern Rhodesia. local assemblies in the colonies would only be advisory bodies. Kenya (1963). the first black African colony to attain independence. and The Gambia (1965). Nyasaland (now Malawi. but the transfer of power was much smoother in West Africa than in East and Central Africa. After World War II the new constitution of the Fourth Republic created the French Union. The transfer of power in British Africa occurred somewhat later than in Asia. and broken up in 1963) and Kenya. and Ghana. and citizens of the Union would receive greater representation in the French National Assembly in Paris. The French preferred to aim at the assimilation of individual colonial subjects into the French Republic by according them the same legal and political status as the citizens of metropolitan France. Fear of multiracial conflict. following in 1957. Fighting rebels in Kenya from 1952. In the 20th century the French had no tradition of preparing their dependencies for selfgovernment. Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia. Overseas territories would be part of a single indivisible republic. Uganda (1962). where Vietnamese nationalists led by the Communist Ho Chi Minh seized power in the north of Vietnam. 1963). As under colonial rule. In Malaya the fear of Communism was accompanied by the hope that more moderate political leaders could be encouraged to collaborate with Britain during and after the transfer of power. freely consented to. Zanzibar (1963). After a long and bloody war to incorporate the territories of Indochina into the French Union. seen to be as threatening as the Communist Chinese in Malaya who instigated the Malayan Emergency in 1948. Initially. which was completed in 1957. however. growing opposition to colonialism. the British nevertheless abandoned multiracialism and moved rapidly to transfer power in Africa in the early 1960s. FRENCH DECOLONIZATION The nature of French colonial rule influenced the process of transferring power. 1964). with Sudan leading the way in 1956. The first challenge to the French Union came in 1946 in Indochina. and closely involved throughout the empire in the establishment of elected legislative bodies that were intended to be precursors of Westminster-style parliaments. the radicalization of African politics. rather than straightforward African majority rule. however. 1961).groupings in those two countries that could claim to have popular support. Qualifications for French citizenship were. the presence of white settlers led the British to try in vain initially to establish a representative system of government based on the concept of multiracialism. Tanganyika (now Tanzania. subject to controls and the number of representatives from overseas France was strictly limited. the French were defeated in 1954. The more radical Burmese groupings who gained power from the British were not. and the economic and political importance of Europe (Britain applied to join the European Economic Community in 1961) contributed to an extremely rapid decolonization. in the aftermath of World War II. The newly independent African states were not prepared as originally envisaged. DECOLONIZATION Page 19 . Nigeria led the way in 1960. They were forced to move much quicker than anticipated in order to try to keep control of the process. followed by Sierra Leone (1961). In this they were not entirely successful.
After WWII. All black African territories were offered membership or independence. It took de Gaulle nearly four years to bring the fighting in Algeria to an end with the Evian Accords in 1962 that promised Algeria independence. though the Franc Zone maintained a measure of economic control. there was a wide spread belief in the value and legitimacy of the French Empire. As the conflict became more intense. the economic and political attractions of formal empire were no longer so strong. with the establishing of territorial assemblies with real power. and the process of decolonization in the French Empire was violent and brutal. They believed that France had a humanist colonial vocation and that empire was part of the nation's greatness.France was then immediately involved in another large-scale conflict. Decolonization and French Society On the eve of World War II. Only Guinea chose independence. was the French extraction from Algeria so difficult? France's actions were to a great extent the consequence of the imperialist ideas that persisted among the political elite and the public. The French. and it contained one and a half times as many inhabitants. France controlled a colonial empire second in size only to that of Britain. Clayton and Sorum all argue that the decline DECOLONIZATION Page 20 . These changes in black Africa led in 1958 to the creation of the French Community. The French had fought long and hard to prevent the loss of their colonies. with the use of torture on both sides. the first stage of French decolonization of black Africa took place in 1956. only scattered remnants were left. The French Community invested control of defence and foreign policy in France. but gave internal self-government to its other members. The establishment of the Fifth Republic followed a military coup d’état in Algeria which. who were determined to remain part of France. the Algerian War of Independence. By then the survival of an independent Guinea had led to demands from other black African states for independence outside the French Community. It was an empire over twenty times as large as the home country. The passing of the loi cadre. Algeria was an emotive issue for many of the French as it had been regarded as part of France in the same way as metropolitan departments. led to the constitutional transfer of power to General Charles de Gaulle. after all. With de Gaulle keen to strengthen France’s role in Europe and the modernization of French industry under way. Pressures for change from within Africa were accompanied by the growing belief in France that the French Union could not be maintained without arousing international opposition. led to the first moves towards selfgovernment. but any territory choosing the latter would forfeit French assistance. French society and politics had to readjust their ideologies according to France's new international role. It had a large settler population. This abandonment of the centralization entailed in the French Union stemmed from the growing African realization that real power could not be obtained in Paris but only in the territorial capitals. By 1962. especially in Algeria. The impact of decolonization of French politics and society was profound. the replacement for the French Union under the Fifth Republic. with the prospect of an army takeover in Paris. an enabling law to permit constitutional change. then. had strong ties with their colonies and saw many of them as a part of France. All French black African possessions became independent in 1960. After France was decolonized. Bets. Why.
Even though the public did value the French Empire. This was.. the white man's burden). of the French political elite in regard to colonial issues. expected that it would remain French.. even a radical one.a. and develop the untapped resources of the world for the benefit of mankind (a. the war seemed to threaten the nation with civil war. inflation. Perceptions of the costs of a thorough economic disengagement were weighed against a calculation of political benefits and liabilities. beginning in 1954.in France's stature in the world. therefore appears to have been the imperialist convictions of the small politically influential segment of the French public. of the colonial system. both the Catholics and the rationalist intellectuals argued that colonization was legitimized by the right of humanity to use for its well-being the material and moral riches of the whole world. after all. On more than one occasion." He argues that the public was more concerned with fuel and food shortages. In the words of one observer. All in all. most historians agree that the reason why it was so difficult for France to give independence to its overseas possessions was because of its faulty system of government. part of the Jacobean tradition of citizenship. It dictated that France has a mission to spread their civilization not only to Europe. Also the spread of the idea of social evolution indicated to them that the industrial civilization of the west was not only the most advanced stage of mankind but also a natural goal of all societies. Although the 4th Republic tried to make various reforms. a poll showed that 52% of the French people wanted integration. or even a faulty system of government. strikes and political instability than the empire as such.. while only 41% wanted Algerian independence." The French political elite believed that their empire was legitimate because they believed that the West must pacify and educate the "backward" natives. the French sense of global importance was rooted in their idea of Empire. in the aftermath of WWII. Business influenced the course of events indirectly by shaping political debates in Paris on the economic value of empire. and certainly psychological. strategic. France wanted to secure its position in the international arena and be respected as a legitimate global power. but mainly because of a "common perception ." Obviously. In other words. After WWI. The leaders of the 4th Republic did not have the kind of stability or autonomy that was needed to execute a coherent feasible colonial policy. For eight years." Smith also argues that it was so difficult for France to decolonize not because of French economic interest in Algeria. Smith argues that "the major stake the French had in Algeria was . Sorum argues that "Jacobean nationalism differed from other brands of nationalism in the intensity of its missionary zeal. culminating in its collapse in WWII and its impotence in the immediate postwar period. opinion polls reveal that when WWII ended.k. a fundamental vision of France that underlies the divisions and conflicts that have clouded French history." It therefore can be argued that the French stake in Algeria was at once economic.. economic factors also influenced metropolitan politics by both direct and indirect means. their sense of national identity. the French people who were used to possessing an empire. moral." Even as late as 1958. the Algerian War dominated French society and public life." it was "absolutely not disposed to allow the slightest attempt at secession. and wanted to keep it. added a non-rational force to the belief in the legitimacy and value of France's empire. He argues: "the underlying reason for the agony of decolonization. The French DECOLONIZATION Page 21 . Indeed. This zeal expressed. while public opinion was "ready to accept any transformation. The movement for colonial liberation was seen as another external threat to France. but also to the whole world. Sorum argues that "the elite were more imperialist than the mass of the public. as well as reinforced.
Some historians concluded that initially. "is there a Gestapo in Algeria?" At that time. Even President Eisenhower planned an official visit to France. The French population was upset at the torturer's violation of the humanist principles of the West and at his betrayal of their concept of France. The army officers. however. They abraded wounds that had not yet had time to heal and revived an all too recent past. means of fulfilling their mission. of silent complicity with these crimes. In the late 1950s. when Frenchmen had chosen sides against each other and sold each other out. Many French-Algerian supporters believed that de Gaulle was on their side when he came into office. Thus. and enjoyed only tepid support from the US and the UK. Intellectuals in the late 50s published numerous pamphlets that described graphically the various forms of torture the French soldiers were using against the Algerian rebels. editor of France Observateur asked. By June 1961. Claude Bourdet. It is beyond doubt that De Gaulle owed his return to power to the Algerian war. The political elite were divided and there differing opinions as to how to end the conflict -. and the Commonwealth countries had decided to abstain or vote against France. the UN was set to discuss Algeria. After all.the left and the right were decisively split. The international criticism France started to get in the late 50s did help to shorten the war. it sometimes is NOT in a nation's best DECOLONIZATION Page 22 . De Gaulle probably did not have a certain goal for Algeria in mind when he came into office. As de Gaulle wrote in his memoirs. and it divisions badly complicated the reaction to colonial nationalism. they wanted at least to prevent the French people from being guilty. De Gaulle came back to power and helped establish the 5th Republic. therefore. as the German people had been. Everyone waited for him to put an end to the conflict. but instead adjusted his policies according to public opinion. International opinion was moving steadily against war in Algeria. held in suspicion by the UN. it started to come to light that the French military was using torture against the Algerian rebels. it had to give Algeria its independence. This is. like the police." In the meantime. though. It led to a worsening of political disagreements and to the weakening of the image of the executive administration. De Gaulle saw that the situation in Algeria was doing damage to France's international position. Thus. Painfully aware that French troops were behaving like Nazis. The prolongation of the war deepened the tensions within France itself. France was criticized by the socialist and Arab states. the words "Gestapo" and "Nazi" were not to be used lightly. DeGaulle set the precedent for this kid of executive and helped to define the role of the president within the 5th Republic. but they were to be proved wrong in the long-term. De Gaulle realized that if France wanted to secure its position in the international arena and be respected as a legitimate global power. he skillfully blurred the issues and bewildered his opponents.political system was weak. He took the initiative and acted as a strong executive in control of foreign policy. and the commonwealth. De Gaulle granted Algeria its independence in order to secure his own political authority. the lasting and most important political impact of the war in Algeria: it is the idea of the president as a autonomous executive who is able to maneuver in the international arena without being bonded to fickle domestic politics. even when he came into office he felt that "there was in his opinion no other solution than that of Algerian selfdetermination. The French population was horrified. indeed essential. In the fall of 1959. had been resorting to torture as an effective. His seemingly incomprehensible zigzagging policy gratified and discouraged each side in turn.
Especially in this century. By the late 60s. Kahler argues that "decolonization seemed for the European states the last precipitous act in their decline from world preeminence. they needed to adjust their vision of France and the world to the fact of decolonization. A strong executive who is able to maneuver somewhat freely in the international arena is the best answer for today's world. Their attempts to do so while negotiating with Sukarno and the other Indonesian nationalists were accompanied by two resorts to the use of force that were opposed by the United States. France started to form new economic links with the rest of Europe and other nations." (9) This is especially true because the countries were acted upon and were not entirely in control of their situation. France had a new identity. The president is still an autonomous political executive. a decade after Algerian independence. imperialism. It wasn't until the early 1970s. In 1949. and socially. It prepared the public to accept de Gaulle's linking of aid to the former colonies with the reassertion of France's "grandeur. After decolonization. the intellectuals helped to minimize some of the potentially unpleasant consequences of this view. that the French were willing again to think seriously about the war and its meaning. The humanist intellectual's stress of France's continuing overseas mission hindered the spread of the view that the former subjects were ungrateful people who deserved no further aid from France. which was fulfilled in 1946 and held up to the Europeans as an example. The end of Belgian rule in the Belgian Congo (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) in 1960 was the most rapid transfer of power. leaving doubts about their place in an international world order. What had begun as a riot in a colonial capital had transformed into a change of political regime. But the impact of decolonization can still be seen in French society and French politics. nationalist resistance and fear of losing American economic assistance for post-war reconstruction led the Dutch to grant independence to Indonesia. It was a factor in the civil war which DECOLONIZATION Page 23 . economically. France therefore. The French still see themselves as an international upholder of human rights and peace. Even though the French viewed decolonization as defeat.interest to have a weak executive whose foreign policy is dictated solely by domestic forces. as the Dutch were unable to regain effective control of the Dutch East Indies." Sorum claims that ultimately the French population tried to forget about the war in Algeria as quickly as they could. After the French had failed to prevent the loss of their empire. The idea of Empire is not as important anymore to the French population as France now sees itself as an essential part of European Integration. the Gaullist.war. DECOLONIZATION POWERS OF THE OTHER IMPERIAL World War II was important for Dutch decolonization. and the lack of an effective state apparatus was more noticeable than elsewhere. has successfully been redefined politically. the political development of most societies has been deeply marked by international politics -. The United States had in the inter-war years made a commitment to grant the Philippines independence. The French Algerians who had fled to France brought to public attention the injustices done to them at the end of the war by the FLN. and the French people.
and Belgian empires. Decolonization has often helped make ethnic and regional conflicts more common. or interest groups before the needs of their new nation states. international trade patterns were also changing. Although the imperial powers tried to create viable and powerful states. Yet they did not have the economic or military influence to achieve these goals. To some extent. These ranged from civil wars between different ethnic groups. and its ending part of a broader shift in world politics. as their weak position within the international capitalist economy has worsened. to conflicts between successor states. French. or indeed the imposition of colonial rule. Many of the colonial boundaries divided people of the same ethnic group. Successors to the imperial rulers have often put the needs of kinsmen. they became independent as Equatorial Guinea in 1968. or cultural ties. linguistic. The end of the Portuguese Empire was more protracted and bloody. emigration to the overseas dependencies has DECOLONIZATION Page 24 . The territory of Portuguese Timor was seized by Indonesia in 1975. The impact of colonial rule was itself only a brief phenomenon for many African and Asian societies. Spanish decolonization in Latin America had been largely accomplished in the South American Wars of Independence in the first quarter of the 19th century and in the liberation of Cuba in the Spanish-American War of 1898. The ending of formal empire produced the mass return of settlers from the Portuguese.broke out within weeks of independence. In Africa. and in Mozambique from 1964. as in East Africa and South East Asia. The winning of independence by these territories in 1974 and 1975 followed a military coup d’état in Portugal in 1974 that destroyed the willingness of the Portuguese forces to continue fighting. Spanish Río Muni and Fernando Poo were united and granted autonomy in 1963. and the Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara) followed in 1976. The rise of the United States and the Soviet Union was significant. It frequently proved difficult to create a national identity and a civic consciousness based on loyalty to the state or nation. in Guinea-Bissau‚ and Cape Verde from 1962. with large-scale wars of liberation taking place in Angola from 1961. and brought together others who had no racial. internal conflicts can be attributed to the nature of decolonization and to the legacy of colonialism. Few former dependencies in Africa have prospered after decolonization. as in Zaïre and Nigeria. clients. and as the colonial world became the developing world. The failure of too rapid a modernization process has added to the difficulties created by market forces that tend to work against those who are reliant on the export of basic commodities. decolonization has often left a legacy of difficulties. was in the economic development of the developing world remains an unresolved question. The significance of the colonial legacy in the development of countries like Malaysia and Indonesia remains unclear. CONSEQUENCES The imperial powers believed decolonization would help them gain economic benefits outside their formal empires. Also. decolonization often failed to produce a sense of common. while retaining informal influence with their former dependencies. as with the federations in the West Indies and Central Africa. Even where apparently orderly and successful. national identity. Yet how significant decolonization.
Their Pacific islands are also legally part of France. Whereas the conservative government before them were unwilling to decolorize India the Labor government supported Decolonization in the right circumstances. DECOLONIZATION AFTER 1945 In 1945 the Second World War ended. Gibraltar. At the beginning of end of the Second World War Britain had the largest empire. Most of Britain’s former dependencies have become part of the Commonwealth of Nations. whereas France has tended to preserve links with its former overseas possessions through close military ties. When the partition was created making India a Hindu state and Pakistan a Muslim state many people found themselves in the wrong area and there was a lot of mass DECOLONIZATION Page 25 . Even without the problems of Hong Kong. The two religions could not agree on the federal system of government so it was decided that there should be a partition of India. Timor-Leste. The British method of partition was to set a date for British withdrawal 1947. The first country to seek independence from Britain at the end of the Second World War was India. which has had a cultural impact on a global scale. and then work up until this date to achieve a peaceful partition. India was seen as the “Jewel in the crown” of the British Empire and was of key significance to Britain. the next thirty years were to see rapid disintegration of the European empires and the creation of many new independent states.been replaced by the immigration of former subjects to the metropoles of the decolonizing powers. At the end of the Second World War a Labor government came to power in Britain. The Indian desire to decolorize had gather momentum at the end of the First World War and by the beginning of the Second World War Britain was forced to recognize Indian independence in return for her support in the Second World War. which spanned the whole of the globe. and the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). They had a different outlook upon the issue of Decolonization. But in the next thirty years this was dramatically reduced in size. The reasons for this policy were their disapproval of the exploitation of the Indians and also the fact that Britain could not afford to keep India. but as territoires d’outre mer (TOMS) they have more administrative autonomy. This would create a new independent state Pakistan. French attempts to make provision of educational aid in Cambodia and elsewhere conditional on use of the French language are typical of many former colonial powers’ efforts to maintain their colonial legacy. In addition the French have incorporated their Caribbean and Indian Ocean possessions into metropolitan France as départements d’outre mer (DOMS). However there were a number of problems with decolorizing India the major one of which was the religious hostilities that existed between the Hindus and the Muslims. decolonization remains incomplete.
This was the decisive point of the war with an armistice being signed soon after. which was to prepare the colony for self-rule by training people for the new positions within government and in other sectors which the British settlers had dominated in. which had been under French rule since the 19th Century. It also meant that the likely hood of a power vacuum would be reduced after the British left. This meant the new independent country would be able to support her. French Decolonization was bloody and bitter whereas Britain's was quite peaceful and quite painless. Unlike Britain France had been occupied during the Second World War and a number of her colonies had also they meant they had a different view on the colonies. The method with which Britain decolorized India met respects worldwide and was regarded as the best way to decolorize.000 men and their colony. During the Second World War with France occupied the French colonies were open to attack and Indo-China was invaded and occupied by the Japanese. France was another great imperial power who decolorized after the Second World War although her reasons and methods were quite different from Britons. this growth of political consciousness is a fact.” This speech showed that the Labor Government was perfectly aware that they could not keep their African colonies forever because of the increased political realization the part of the Africans. The characteristics of these independences were the methods with which they carried out by the British. Fighting broke out in 1946 and continued for eight years before the French suffered a massive defeat at Dien Bien Phu. By 1957 only two of Britain's colonies in Africa had gained their independence they were the Gold Coast and Sudan. The first of these was in Indo-China. Whereas the British realized the colonies were beginning to become a burden they French believed they had to re-assert their national prestige by keeping control of their colonies. With India’s declaration of independence it became apparent that it was only a matter of time before Britain's other colonies demanded their own independence. During this time a group called the Vietminh led by Ho Chi Minh fought a guerrilla war against the Japanese.movement of people between the two areas. DECOLONIZATION Page 26 . At the end of the Second World War the French intended to retake control of Indo-China but before they could the Vietminh declared independence. France had lost much in the war including 91. The rest were to quickly receive their independence between 1957 and1964. France fought two costly and bloody wars over her colonies. They followed the same plan in each colony. This may explain why the French experience of Decolonization was so different to Britain's. The British Prime Minister captured the mood of the age with his speech made whilst on a visit to South Africa in 1960 in which he commented “The wind of change is blowing through Africa and whether we like it or not.
All the French African colonies were granted their independence between 1956 and 1960 with the exception Algeria. As has been mention before India prospered from independence whereas Indo-China particularly Vietnam spent many years at war with the USA after the were granted independence.N. The outcomes for the former colonies were mixed many were unprepared for independence and suffered many changes in government from democracy to military dictatorship. leader signed a settlement in 1962. He begun talks for independence and he and the F. In conclusion it can be said that Decolonization occurred for a number of different reasons. Another reason for Decolonization was the people in the colonies. The British accepted that they could not keep control of their colonies indefinitely and therefore went about trying to give them independence. The outcome of the colony seems to have depended greatly on the way in which they were decolorized. Frustration at the lack of progress towards political reforms an armed rebellion led by the F. These people were demanding their own independence and this was the reason for giving it to them. The French speaking settlers and their descendants the Colons met this with opposition. At the end of the Second World War the Arab majority of Algeria who had experienced no political rights in the past were promised a full share of political rights. DECOLONIZATION Page 27 . France realized she could not hold her empire together anymore and begun decolorizing. This was realized by Britain soon after the war but wasn’t realized by France until De Gaulle came back into power in 1958. Initially French nationalists who believed he would not give Algeria independence greeted him. Algeria held a unique place within the French Empire as it had been formally integrated into France thus making it not a colony but a part of France itself.L. The French on the other hand refused to give their colonies independence easily and there had to be major bloodshed before they would consider it. In 1958 General de Gaulle was persuaded to come out of retirement to end the conflict in Algeria. The major differences between the British and French Decolonization was the method with which they were carried out. However there were some India is one example which prospered through independence. The war was bloody and a one point threatened to cause civil war in France as the right wing military officers threatened to stage a coup d’etat against the government if they agreed to Algerian independence. (Front d’Liberation National) begun in 1954. This was due to the sense on the armies part that they had a duty to maintain the French rule in Algeria after the humiliation of Dien Bien Phu and the Decolonization. But De Gaulle realized that France could not win the war and that it would be a major strain on the economy to continue it.France’s African Empire started to decolorize after the humiliating defeat at Dien Bien Phu as riots spread across the French African states.L. These reasons included they cost of maintaining colonial ties with countries out weighed the benefits of those ties.N.
the French Union becomes in 1958 the Community. Portugal yields in its turn. she recognizes the independence of India. In 1946. it must give up. Spain DECOLONIZATION Page 28 . its mandates on Syria and Lebanon. in 1949. promises a broad autonomy with the colonies but independence refuses to them. asserting the independence. involving the loss. there too. IVe République believes to find an answer by creating the French Union. is independent and takes the name of Ghana. The role of released Asia increases quickly in the international relations. Portugal In 1974. where the appearance on stage of communist China marks the deep change of the power struggles. in 1945. not without dramas. Gold Coast. Nearly ten years later. held on the initiative of the de Gaulle general. In Africa. the conference of Brazzaville of 1944. against the Republic of Viet-Nam (1945). in 1962. it engages. independence is proclaimed. leads to the provisional independence of the countries of ex-Indo-China and to the partition of Viet-Nam. Since 1957. of Indonesia for the Netherlanders (in August 1945. Great Britain draws the first the conclusions from the new international power struggle: since 1947. formed by the French Republic and the territories and States associated with overseas. obtained by Morocco and Tunisia in 1956. Deeply renovated by the law Removes iron of 1956. devotes the collapse of the French colonial empire. France France has much more problems than Great Britain. the conference of Geneva. Algerian independence. but Guinea refuses to join it and Algeria is in full war of liberation. in 1976. the example shakes the colonial building in Africa. Guinea and in Mozambique. the agreements of $the Hague recognize this independence). created in 1941 by Ho Chi Minh.END OF THE EUROPEAN COLONIAL EMPIRES The British Commonwealth Weakened exit of the Second world war. in its turn. in a war of reconquest of Indo-China after having missed the occasion by an agreement with the Face of the independence of Viet-Nam (Vietnamese soldierminh). more especially as the popularity of the Ghanaian leader Nkrumah is immense. after hard wars in Angola.
very active in France in particular. writers.The decolonized countries held. Neocolonialism One of the characteristics of the period after 1950 is that the former colonizers more or less “released ballast” on the political plan to preserve important economic advantages. cotton. three years later. charismatic leaders . The forms most durably persistent of the neocolonialism are of economic order and financier. gathered. An example especially striking is that of Iran. The release of Zimbabwe was not done without movement between acknowledged partisans of the United States or the USSR and white colonists eager to maintain the old state of the things.Spain gives up. Angola saw to clash (1975) in a long civil war three coalitions of interests and political options opposed. If the decolonization. Houphouët-Boigny in Coast-in Ivoire have. of a pure and simple abandonment of expensive colonies. where the nationalization of Anglo-Iranian Company in March 1951 caused. the coffee. Senghor in Senegal. trade unionists. In certain cases. Other examples can easily be given in connection with the control of the production of rubber. Internal Wars The dissensions less obvious at are not colonized fighting for the release. at least for a time. in the public opinion. main of three territories. dissimulated the gravity of the internal situations.about thirty years . to which it was a question of granting a statute of full equality. Kenyatta. the cocoa. in Indo-China. the fall of Mossadegh. assassinated in 1948. the tea. Much was in favor. THE MOVEMENT ANTICOLONIALIST A Movement on the Left The ant colonialists.it deeply marks the interior political life as well of the colonizing countries as of the colonized countries and will have introduced many contradictions there. Hardly independent. after the terrible sudden starts of the years 1950. religious or political realities led to spectacular secessions or internal conflicts. a conference with Bandung. Nyerere in Tanganyika. except for some something to lean on (Ceuta. In Zaire. It was not always thus. in Indonesia: the final act affirmed the equality of all the races and the DECOLONIZATION Page 29 . copper. in spite of strong internal tensions. then Nehru in India. in April 1955. politicians. large victorious of the elections of 1963 in Kenya. all more or less claimed left obstructed by gravity of the USSR and the ideology which it spread. intransigent leader. were fast . in Nigeria. by assent.such Gandhi. almost completed today. Melilla) the fragments of empire which remain to him.
If I could. but Germany. Causes World War II saw the colonies help their colonial masters fight against an unknown enemy. German wartime propaganda had a part in this defiance of British rule. and existing towns doubled in size. but with no mention of independence for African nations. one of the first diamond companies. which allowed for pro-independence newspapers. urbanization brought about increased literacy. DECOLONIZATION OF AFRICA The decolonization of Africa followed World War II as colonized peoples agitated for independence and colonial powers withdrew their administrators from Africa. As urban community and industry grew so did trade unions. cultural confusion. Britain and France had the largest holdings. and Portugal also had colonies. African soil was almost completely controlled by European governments. One is far today still to have seen being carried out the dream of Bandung. Background Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. DECOLONIZATION Page 30 . Local industries in turn caused the creation of new towns. geopolitical division. an obligation to "civilize" the peoples of Africa. and political subjugation. He wanted to "paint the map red.J. Future Prime Ministers Henrik Verwoerd and B. In addition to trade unions. By 1905. Europeans often justified this using the concept of the White Man's Burden. European powers divided Africa and its resources into political partitions at the Berlin Conference of 1884-85.equality of all the nations. these vast worlds that remain out of reach. which carved out Rhodesia for itself. Founder of the De Beers Mining Company." During the Scramble for Africa in the late nineteenth century." and once famously declared: "all of these stars. Another key problem the Europeans faced were the U-boats patrolling the Atlantic Ocean. such as the loss of important natural resources like gold and rubber. Africa was therefore forced to compensate for this shortage and greatly benefited from this change. Spain. As a result of colonialism and imperialism. with the only exceptions being Liberia (which had been settled by African-American former slaves) and Ethiopia (which had successfully resisted colonization by Italy). economic devastation. Belgium. Italy. Vorster of South Africa supported Adolf Hitler while most French colonial governors loyally supported the Vichy government until 1943. Imperial Japan's conquests in the Far East caused a shortage of raw materials such as rubber and various minerals. I would annex other planets. Africa suffered long term effects. Rhodes was also the owner of the British South Africa Company. This reduced the amount of raw materials being transported to Europe and prompted the creation of local industries in Africa. small or large.
and massive debt. Some settler colonies however were displeased with the introduction of democratic rule. African colonies were still considered "children" and "immature" therefore democratic government was only introduced at the local levels. Inciting civil war. The by products of decolonization. Political instability occurred with the introductions of Marxist and capitalist influence. Ethiopia and Eritrea. educate. The borrowed money. In an attempt to influence the Third World to adopt the ideology of either capitalism or Communism. and political stability have been ignored. The result was the Atlantic Charter. and debt dependence. One of the provisions in this document that was introduced by Roosevelt was the autonomy of imperial colonies. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met to discuss the postwar world. the lenders forced the African countries to devalue their currency and attempted to exert political influence within Africa. and Nigeria and Cameroon are nursed even today. To feed. trying to end "white minority rule" in the government. was never fully decolonized. Black Nationalist groups participated in violent attacks against white settlers. along with continuing friction from racial inequalities. the transition to independence was relatively peaceful. however. The majority of the territory is under Moroccan administration. When Winston Churchill introduced the Charter to Parliament.In 1941. continue to plague Africa to this present day. including political instability. did not rehabilitate the devastated economy. the rest is administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. United States President Franklin D. Therefore after World War II. border disputes such as those between Chad and Libya. Africa displayed political instability. social issues such as education. he purposely mistranslated the colonies to be recently captured countries by Germany in order to get it passed. In return. In the aftermath of decolonization. border disputes. Despite widespread acceptance of these partitions. DECOLONIZATION Page 31 . Further violence occurred with disagreements over the partitions made during the colonization. bankers and companies. Africa borrowed large sums of money from various nations. economic disaster. Due to on-going military occupation. the United States and the Soviet Union loaned food and money to Africa. economic ruin. After the war. In another result of colonialism followed by decolonization. there was pressure on Britain to abide by the terms of the Atlantic Charter. Suffering through famine and drought. Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara). Africa struggled to industrialize its poverty stricken work force without sufficient funds. and modernize its masses. Decolonized Africa has lost many of its social and economic institutions and to this day shows a high level of informal economic activity. Ethiopia and Somalia. health care. Effects In most British and French colonies. the African economy was drained of natural resources with no opportunity to diversify from its colonial export of cash crops. Since the massive loans were usually squandered by the mismanagement of corrupt dictators.
with its 25' 000 militants hardened by clandestinity. carried out by France of 1954 to 1962 against the Algerian freedom fighters. the Algerian nationalist movement. As for the independence of two Maghrebian protectorates. but it is the main victim of the policy of the general governor. the French and British empires. is partly reduced to misery by the agrarian crisis. already old. with a million “Europeans” in 1954 (of the French. raised the hopes of the Moslem middle-class. and with the revolts carried out by the Algerian Popular party . The Association of the oulémas (doctors of the Islamic law) guard an especially moral authority. until 1999. When the insurrection is started. is the spearhead of Algerian nationalism. Significance of the War of Algeria French Side For France of the years 1950. it to go to last eight years and to end up carrying the IV E Republic. It is essential thanks to its program . The democratic Union of proclamation of the Algerian people (UDMA). The contribution of the Algerian colony to the nation's economy. limited a long time to a dynamic commercial agriculture. of Koranic statute. Algerian Side A nationalist revival In 1954. it is being negotiated. symbolized since the end of the XIXe century. Morocco and Tunisia. Algeria.THE WAR OF ALGERIA (1954-1962) The war of Algeria. Spanishs and of the Malteses. by its colonial presence in the world. This one. founded in November 1946.the total independence -. on on November 1st 1954. founded in 1946 by Ferhat Abbas. is in full change. in particular takes seat in the movement of decolonization which affected the Western empires after the Second world war. who profit from the automatic naturalization). This war . in demographic strong growth.was going to traumatize the French company durably: the rising of the Algerian nationalists struck a hardly given country of the cold war. the French State was obstinated not to call officially that by the terms of “operations of maintenance of law and order” . and largest of them. the possible loss of Algeria would represent an attack with its row of great power. in DECOLONIZATION Page 32 . the independence of Vietnam has just been torn off the French forces were defeats at Diên Biên Phu. which constitutes an encouragement for all the colonized people. between Black Africa and the Middle East.to which the MTLD is the heir -. changed thanks to the gas and oil discoveries which multiply after 1951. The Algerian Communist party hesitates between autonomy and assimilation.that. in the middle of the Maghreb. The Movement for the triumph of democratic liberties (MTLD) of Messali Hadj. Algeria also constitutes the only French colony of settlement. but also of the Italians. is the showpiece of its device. whose advantages are to be opposed to the under-administration and the under-equipment of the Muslim population.
his successor. The non-aligned countries. where it is called upon the quota. 1958. he is entrusted to raftered officers. A decreased confidence For the Algerians. Mohammed Boudiaf. and gives the majority to the Moslem candidates of the administration. the international dimension of the conflict will not cease growing. the DECOLONIZATION Page 33 . a new organic statute is granted.found the Face of national release (FLN). of a Moroccan plane transporting of the historical leaders of the FLN. since 1948. but for contrary interests: the USSR sees in its support measured for the FLN the means of establishing its influence in the Maghreb. creating an Algerian Parliament of which the half of the representatives are elected by a college of 522' 000 French citizens. then again the following year. which causes American reprobation. then acting general of the government in May 1958. basic back and of training camp for the combatants. Arab help is decisive. commander-in-chief in November 1956. sits of the Arab League. The weight of the military command does not cease growing. the armed struggle expresses a real disillusion with regard to the French promises. are used as arsenal. with all the civil and military powers. In 1947. the repeated diplomatic offensives of the Afro-Asian countries will force France to initially justify its policy before the General meeting of UNO in 1956.Constantinois. as from 1956. Involved Forces French generals Military operations mobilize. while allowing the Algerian delegation to sit in their movement like member except for whole at the time of the conference of Bandung. Each attempt of the French Army to break the solidarity of these Sovereign states raises international protests. that it is during the interception. whose Hocine Has Ahmed and Ahmed Ben Bella. The two adjoining countries. the vote of the Moslem college is faked by the Naegelen general governor supported by the pied-noir opinion. equip it with an Army of national release (ALN). and fix the insurrection for All Saints' day 1954. However. Ben Bella. the authority of the leader of the MTLD is disputed by those. like the Salan general. 450' 000 French soldiers against 25' 000 Algerian combatants. nine personalities among which Ahmed Has. in 1956. the United States sees in the French intransigence the best means so that the USSR reaches that point. Morocco and Tunisia. The two Large ones indeed condemn the French policy in the name of the right of the people to lay out of themselves. In October 1954. which will benefit the FLN. Krim Belkacem. in 1945. or during the bombardment of the Tunisian village of Sakhiet Sidi Youssef on on February 8th. The Delegation external of the FLN gathers around Ferhat Abbas in Cairo. and other half by a college of 1' 20' 0000 Moslems not citizens. who recommend the immediate action to start again the movement. give an international dimension to the FLN. In 1937. who will cross all the war . As from September 1955. the Blum-Violet project extending the right to vote to a minority of Moslems was pushed back. but. The war an International Dimension In spite of the attempts of the French governments to present the war of Algeria like a problem of internal order.
with a number of victims perhaps higher than 10' 000 (the official figure being of 1273 deaths). The ALN lays out in each wilaya. 1955. initially in Kabylie and in Constantinois. by stages. under the direction of a colonel. France loses the war near the opinion. This drama cuts in an irreducible way the bonds between the two communities. posts some since February 1st. the governments hesitate between the negotiation despite everything and the war excessively. cause the rupture of the majority of republican DECOLONIZATION Page 34 . France ends up gaining the war without to restore the order. control is included in the big cities. and names in its place Robert Lacoste minister resident. but also of showing the capacity politico-soldier of the FLN. the armed struggle proceeds on all the territory. vis-a-vis the failure of the policy of integration carried out by Soustelle as from 1955. the Catroux general. to leave free hand to the army.April 1960). who expresses his strength at the time of the “battle of Algiers” in 1957. international and metropolitan. The carried out operations concern the guerilla: attacks. 1956. including 71 Europeans. which points out the general governor. but the principle of a collegial direction is acquired at the time of the congress of Soummam. Divisions tear the parties. until in Kabylie (1959-1960). are popular among the piednoir ones. chaired until 1961 by Ferhat Abbas. the exactions of the French Army and the terror maintained by the FLN make any cohabitation impossible. of tomatos are launched on the president of the Guy Mollet Council. and vis-a-vis the refusal of the French proposals (cease-fire. sabotages. of the riots burst in Morocco (on on August 20th is the date birthday of the deposition of the sultan Sidi Mohammed Ben Youssef) and in Algeria. On August 20th and 21st. bloody purgings and disappearances with the combat cause a replacement partial of the leaders (Houari Boumediene becomes chief of the general staff of the ALN in 1960). negotiations) by the FLN. on the borders (1957-1958). the “psychological action” failed: the forced regroupings. or military region. Indeed. of a double command. They leave more and more political initiative with the army and the street: on February 6th. and brings the Soustelle general governor. internal competitions. It is a question of proving the solidarity of the Algerian combatants with the other fights of the Maghreb. Near the Moslems. As from 1957. On the other hand. The Political Confrontation the IV E Republic in Difficulty The impotence of the IV E Republic to restore peace is exploited by the provisional coalition of the political clouts which are hostile for him and leads to the collapse of the mode. and the Massu general. As from 1956. in 1958 is created outside a Provisional government of the Algerian Republic (GPRA). elections. thanks to the practice of the “camps of regrouping”. Certain younger officers engage completely in the cause of “French Algeria”. then in the campaigns. The FLN On the side of the FLN. Tensions appear with the combatants of outside. soldier and politico-administrative. but the repression which follows is disproportionate. big cities understood.general Shawl (December 1958 . The assessment of the riots of 123 died. attacks of detachments. in August 1956.
Pierre Lagaillarde. On May 15th. emissary semi-official gaullists contact the factious ones. but without specifying more which policy it intends to implement in Algeria. more and more being wary with regard to the civil government. the others for Algerian independence (“Proclamation of the 121” in favor of insubordination.France-Observer. some isolated preach the bringing together of the communities. animated by the president of the students of Algiers. of the demonstrators. Christian Testimony. Repression does not weaken however. 1961. crossing a new step in the rupture with Paris. de Gaulle obtains the special powers for six months in order to solve the Algerian crisis. Rare are those which help. tries to preserve legality. Pflimlin resigns the 28. 1958. the FLN intensifies the attacks. slips towards the research of peace. clandestinely. and who assimilate negotiations and “treason” of the combatants. September 1960). On June 3rd. such Andre Mandouze or Albert Camus. the FLN. The following day. and the return to the ministerial instability of the preceding legislatures (falls of Guy Mollet on on May 21st. Some newspapers . denounce torture. among the colonists. the metropolis is not saved more. On June 1st. invest the seat of the general government and indicate a “Committee of Public Safety” directed by the Massu general. Lastly. On May 13th. Birth of the O C Republic This impotence is exploited in Algiers. facing the censure and the legal proceedings. in Algiers. Moreover. But as of the following day. The executive power is paralyzed by the threat at a stretch military State. In Algiers always. The arrival of Soustelle to Algiers the 17 gives a political leader to the movement born of May 13th. the ones for freedoms. Pierre Pflimlin. such the “carriers of bag” of the Jeanson network. the World -. Massu launches a call to the de Gaulle general. it launches its “I understood you! ” A Public Opinion in Rupture The French public opinion. They thus join the concerns of many officers. 1957). as at the time of the manifestation of the Algerians in Paris on on October 17th. de Gaulle says himself “ready to assume the powers of the Republic”. In Paris. which sees with concern the competitor countries being modernized and knowing a strong growth. by activists who seek to cause a putsch which would force Paris to continue the war.Face to the power January 1956. The studied trade unionism (UNEF) DECOLONIZATION Page 35 . The use for the war of Algeria of soldiers called of the quota installed the conflict in the middle of the families. with the agreement of the Salan general. initially favorable to the war. The Engagement of the Intellectuals The intellectuals mobilize themselves. In Algiers. President René Coty calls upon the de Gaulle general then. which makes more than 200 deaths according to the official sources revealed in 1997. the National Assembly invests it with all powers to work out a new Constitution. the moral cost of the war and the contempt for republican freedoms that the army and the government seem to have push various actors to enter in action. while worsening the disagreement with the metropolis. even at the cost of independence. the news of the rebellion of Algiers bursts as a bomb: the new president of the Council. the economic costs of the war shake part of the political community and the mediums of business.
Francization or association. as of the following year. the OAS multiplies the attacks (in Algeria and metropolis). 900' 000 French of Algeria decide to leave the country. between which the Algerians will have to choose: secession. on on September 16th 1959. the Sahara understood. The trial of strength bursts at the time of the “week of the barricades” (January 24th . signed on on March 18th. One counts 27' 500 killed French soldiers and a thousand of missings. The factious officers then join the secret armed Organization (OAS). in fact. Part of the trade unions and left-wing policy militants (Communist party as from 1956. to be made “repatriate” in France. The putsch of the generals (April 22nd. 1960). Part of the agreements will not be applied. Uncertainty comes less from deaths to the combat than of the semi-official victims of tortures of the French Army or the assassinations due to the FLN. then hydrocarbons in 1971). fault of rejoining the quota and the French public opinion. and at the killed European civilians 2800 and 800 missings. In a decisive speech. like the shooting of Bab-el-Wadi in March 1962. autonomous socialist party. Consequences in Algeria and France DECOLONIZATION Page 36 . commander-in-chief. give sovereignty at the Algerian State. the “plan of Constantine” suggests a policy of integration). The figure of 300' 000 to 400' 000 deaths on the Algerian side is most probable. The agreements of Evian. which will cause eight deaths with the subway Charonne in February 1962.passes from the refusal of the war to the support for independence. The cost of the war as men is still discussed. A demonstration against the OAS is violently repressed. It is the first time that independence can be. Remain however the problem of the pacification of Algeria. 1961) fails. 1962. mendesists. Zeller and Jouhaud in the rebellion. with the complicity of certain units of the army. The principle of a financial assistance (integration at the free zone). the advertisement of self-determination makes assemble in first line the partisans of French Algeria. However. the prospect for the result of the negotiations started with the autumn 1960 with the FLN and of the recognition of a sovereign Algerian State makes rock Challe as well as the generals Salan. Impotent to prevent independence. in consequence of the orientations taken by the Algerian government after independence (occupation of military bases. Self-determination The rupture of the French public opinion with the pied-noir ones and the army of Algeria are a time masked by the policy of the de Gaulle general (at the end of 1958. without which self-determination is improbable. the destruction systematic and the massacres. then unified socialist party) express against the continuation of the engagements. founded to be opposed to the negotiations of Evian. considered. then for the support for the negotiations. de Gaulle proposes three ways.February 1st. The independence of Algeria is solemnly proclaimed on on July 3rd. 1962. blocks the insurrection. 1962. In such a climate of hatred and fear. including among Moslems. The violences made by the OAS will cease only after agreement FLN-OAS of June 17th. cultural and technical (development of hydrocarbons) is adopted. But. but the Challe general. nationalization of the goods of the colonists.
African representatives to the UN have comprised the largest bloc from any continent. The mode of the sole party. without being however forgotten. The UN's involvement with Africa grew parallel to the process of decolonization. OPEC) in favor of a new world economic order. Ghana. In sub-Saharan Africa. the United Nations sought to respond to a massive humanitarian crisis. the international community's DECOLONIZATION Page 37 . and since 1965. 1960-1994 The history of the United Nations since 1960 is very much a history of Africa's postcolonial struggles. and exploitation. increasing African representation enlarged the General Assembly. unprecedented. The spirit of the war of independence however remained a long time long-lived in the Algerian diplomacy. painful. Africa has engaged the UN more than any other region. remains the last vestige. in spite of a beginning of recognition by the French State. Southern Rhodesia. the UN played little role in sub-Saharan Africa (as separate from many General Assembly resolutions critical of the white-ruled state of South Africa). thanks to the men (2 million stays per annum in France. the links of Algeria with France remain close. so much so that by 1965 the United Nations had 29 members from sub-Saharan Africa. in the face of a violent. the UN faced the challenge of reconstituting societies shattered by the Cold War and. however caused an increasing hostility in the Algerian public opinion. In South Africa. In Rwanda. unforgiving. In Angola and Mozambique. in 2001. beginning in 1960 in the former Belgian Congo. but soon confronted the limitations of peacekeeping and nation-building in the face of a meltdown of local civil institutions. of the war of Algerian independence. AND SELFDETERMINATION IN COLD WAR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. DECOLONIZATION. After 1960. UNITED NATIONS. of these combatants who were tens of thousands to being massacred by the soldiers of the new Algerian Republic. secessionist crisis. inherited the war and the fights for the power. On the other hand. Ethiopia. undertaking of peacekeeping in the midst of heightened Cold War tensions. the case of the harkis. faithful to the non-alignment and which militated in international authorities (UNO. and a predatory former colonial overseer.Today. OAU. the trauma caused by the war of Algeria is exceeded by the pied-noir ones. underdevelopment. and South West Africa (now Namibia) the United Nations confronted the ongoing legacy of white colonial settlement and the struggle for selfdetermination during decades of white minority rule and Cold War geopolitics. and Guinea. and until 1960 it could count only four members from the subSaharan region: Liberia. 820' 000 immigrants). amidst weak state institutions. which ends up obtaining the introduction of the multi-party system in February 1989. where the United Nations embarked upon a massive. these back-up troops of the French Army. with the trade agreements (a third of Algerian gas exports at price guaranteed since 1982). In France. the United Nations would face some its greatest Cold War-era challenges and endure several stunning failures. It would struggle with the consequences of colonial maladministration. perhaps the UN's greatest failure to date. Prior to 1960. with technical collaboration and cultural. in post-Cold War Somalia.
presented the United Nations with a different set of challenges. his leadership increasingly under duress. Within days. the Congolese Prime Minister. The UN peacekeeping mission in the Congo soon grew into a large multinational force of 20. the first large-scale African regional war of the postcolonial and post-Cold War era. Whereas the secretary General. attributed to the "humanitarian fatigue" spawned by Somalia. and the international community's almost total neglect of the conflict. and certainly one of the largest. THE CONGO CRISIS.000 people. drawing in the forces of nine nation states and at least twelve rebel factions. in the Great Lakes region of Africa. 1960-1964 The Congo. saw Hammarskjold as too responsive to western economic DECOLONIZATION Page 38 . The UN's 1960-1964 intervention became a major test of so-called "first-generation" peacekeeping. challenges the UN faced over decolonization. has twice been a focal point of the United Nations. When fighting broke out between the new Congolese Army and its Belgian officers. to a financial crisis from which it has never fully recovered. an event. The Belgians repressed the emergence of an indigenous elite.000 Belgian paratroopers. little had been done to prepare the path to independence and the prospects for its postcolonial future remained bleak.one of the worst examples of human suffering since World War II. seeking to remain within the mission's mandate. The Congolese leader Patrice Lumumba appealed to the United Nations for assistance. ultimately. 1960. finally. secretary General Dag Hammarskjold arranged for the security Council to call upon Belgium to remove its troops and. damaging the UN's credibility in Africa and beyond. AND THE COLD WAR. Hammarskjold launched the United Nations Operation in the Congo to keep the peace and restore order.passive response. Brussels swiftly dispatched 10. more a collection of unintegrated ethnically diverse regions than anything even remotely resembling a nation state. resulted in the deaths of an estimated 800. When the Congo became independent on June 30. one of the earliest and most complex. And. but disagreement arose between Lumumba and Hammarskjold. declared the independence of the resource-rich Katanga province. during its short history as an independent state. many suspected had been planned well in advance as part of Belgium's neocolonial strategy.000. one leading to the death of its secretary General and. backed by Belgian mercenaries and supported by Belgian-owned mining companies. Colonialism utterly failed to prepare the Congo for eventual independence and self-rule. Coming only a few years after crises in Somalia and Rwanda. THE UN'S FIRST TEST: DECOLONIZATION. Somalia. the Congo remained at independence little more than a large conceptualized state. a secessionist movement. sought to focus on the maintenance of peace and avoid having the UN play an overtly partisan role. and Rwanda impeded an international response to a crisis involving multiple states and resulting in the deaths of perhaps as many as 2 million people . The second Congo crisis. similar to the Anglo-French intervention in Egypt in 1956. at the request of Lumumba. also known as the Great Lakes crisis of 1997-2001. the international community's timid response. underscored the sense of "humanitarian fatigue" that plagued discussions of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s. fearing it might challenge their rule. Beyond the obvious lack of economic or political development. the unhappy precedents of the Congo. The first Congo intervention confronted the UN with a monumental crisis.
and was placed under house arrest. the Congo intervention would be the last large UN peacekeeping operation during the remaining decades of the Cold War. leaving behind a fractured nation increasingly dominated by the brutal kleptocratic regime of General Mobutu. who maintained the Belgian model of exploitation and repression and provided the West for the next three decades with the Congo's resources and an important Cold War ally in strategic central Africa. Leopold's . resulting in the General Assembly holding an emergency session on the Congo and the Soviet Union subsequently withholding a portion of its UN dues and calling for the removal of the Secretary General and his replacement with a committee of three. who was subsequently overthrown in 1997 by a coalition of neighboring states utilizing forces led by the former Lumumba ally. after falling out with Kabila.model of extraction and exploitation. and the emergence of multiple factions laying claim to civil authority. reaching farther back. perhaps the greatest of his tenure. by Army Chief of Staff Joseph Mobutu. facing mounting criticism after Lumumba's murder. and the devastating consequences of the Cold War ensured that sub-Saharan Africa would become the United Nations' major area of involvement after 1960. who proceeded to follow Mobutu's and. increasingly absorbed in the crisis in the Congo. Lumumba's position became increasingly difficult after he split with his erstwhile counterpart. and others. The slave trade and the violent exploitation with which the European powers dominated Africa contributed to Africa's postcolonial crisis on a number of levels. The Congo debacle demonstrated the ease with which UN operations could be hijacked by the politics of the Cold War and called into question the very efficacy of peacekeeping. AFRICAN DECOLONIZATION AND THE ERA OF DAG HAMMARSKJOLD The long term problems stemming from colonial domination in Africa. The end of the Cold War removed the West's remaining rationales for supporting Mobutu. the complicated nature of decolonization. under UN protection. Hammarskj old's problems mounted when Lumumba was subsequently assassinated and Hammarskjold. In the midst of the Congo crisis the USSR became increasingly contentious on the Security Council. lost his life in September 1961 when his plane crashed en route to a meeting with the Katangan secessionists. responded by announcing that United Nations peacekeepers would seek to remove the Belgians by force. But several of the neighboring states who had aided in "liberating" the Congolese from the grip of Mobutu had their own designs on the resource-rich region and. It also demonstrated the complexity of the process of decolonization when multiple outside powers had interests in its outcome. In New York. or troika. The United Nations peacekeepers departed the Congo in 1964. the further disintegration of state institutions. Four decades later the United Nations returned to the Congo. The European presence in Africa was a brutal example of imperial DECOLONIZATION Page 39 . President Joseph Kasavubu. But the Secretary General. launched a coordinated attack on the Congo. For these reasons. Laurent Kabila.and Cold War objectives in the Congo and not sufficiently interested in the removal of the Belgians or stopping the secession of Katanga. Hammarskjold faced his own crisis.
African decolonization had a profound impact on the United Nations. or Taiwan. at times. came from western. the Cold War was already in the process of being thoroughly globalized. In sub-Saharan Africa. colonial contact often exacerbated African problems. Considering the violence with which the Europeans long pursued their colonial aims in Africa. social engineering. To maintain their hold on Africa. with only Liberia and Ethiopia still representing sub-Saharan Africa. their DECOLONIZATION Page 40 . This violence became integral to the process of human exploitation and resource extraction employed by the European powers. and. European. Roughly 42 of the 60 member states. In many areas the resulting postcolonial chaos occurred because the European powers did little to prepare the local populations for independence. as the end of colonial power came relatively late to most of the region. the colonial powers created exploitative hierarchical social systems and Europeans encouraged a rigid ethnic categorization among Africa's many peoples. Of the original 51 member states. and the relative lack of benefits Africans accrued from contact with Europeans. economic exploitation. During its first decade. or 70 percent. ethnic and racial divisions. by contrast. economic exploitation. Furthermore. Forced labor and the destruction of indigenous societies became commonplace in the quest for riches and arable land. That much of Africa became a focus of superpower competition shortly after independence further exacerbated an already difficult process of decolonization and state building. UN membership stood at 60. with its permanent membership consisting of four largely white states with European cultural ties and one Asian state. the Europeans departed after decades of repressing well-organized indigenous societies and political elites. In Asia and the Middle East. or Latin American backgrounds.1 Decolonization in sub-Saharan Africa confronted the United Nations with unique problems. Throughout Africa. European. the western powers. underdeveloped infrastructure. only two. Thus. the process of decolonization would have been difficult under even the best of circumstances. By the time the "winds of change" swept through Africa. By contrast. or Latin American cultural backgrounds. providing many postcolonial African regimes with institutionalized systems of repression and exploitation. The security Council reflected the views and interests of the western world. At the time of African decolonization. the European powers had already abandoned most of their colonial enterprises elsewhere. leaving behind legacies of arbitrary borders. Nationalist China.violence. and many postcolonial regimes merely maintained these exploitative legacies.3 At its tenth anniversary in 1955. These systems of control persisted well after decolonization. European colonial power often began to recede before the emergence of organized indigenous political movements. essentially a western-created client. further contributing to the already heavy burdens of the post-colonial development. 39 of the 51 member states. or 75 percent. genocide. came from sub-Saharan Africa (excepting white-ruled South Africa). despite the East-West Cold War divide. employing strategies of enslavement. came from western. and over-dependence on the production of raw materials. as the colonial powers often ruled Africa through the harshest of means. decolonization frequently became entangled with the East-West conflict. much of colonial Asia and the Middle East had already enjoyed at least a decade of independence when Africa began to emerge from colonialism. At the end of the UN's first year. Liberia and Ethiopia. the UN was largely western-dominated.
The arbitrary boundaries of many African colonies. The Bandung conclave resulted in the establishment of the nonaligned caucus. a sense of optimism grew that the international community would begin to address many of the problems of those societies held back by colonialism. the General Assembly was undergoing a transformation. and the South African-controlled territory of South West Africa (Namibia). sixteen of them from Africa. During the late 1950s and early 1960s. frequently contradicted historical relationships and economic realties. But. The West was losing control of the General Assembly and. In 1960 alone. many of the other institutions of the UN. the United States cast its first veto on the security Council. both the United States and the USSR missed opportunities to build relationships at the United Nations with African representatives necessary to muster support for their international objectives. In 1970.including 30 from Africa. Hammarskjold's whirlwind tour of Africa that year. where he visited 21 nations.5 By 1965. to 118. Indonesia.particularly of African members . decolonization brought with it a host of new problems the United Nations would have to contend with in the decades ahead. THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE COLD WAR STRUGGLE FOR SELF-DETERMINATION IN SOUTHERN AFRICA The persistence of white-dominated settlement colonies in southern Africa provoked a crisis over self-determination during the first four decades of the United Nations. with it. often bearing little relationship to underlying cultural. gathered to discuss matters of common interest and concern.allies and client states. seventeen newly independent states joined the UN. the United States remained uncertain about how to approach the decolonizing world. with a majority of 63 states from non-European backgrounds . including six from Africa. in 1955. as newly liberated peoples of Africa joined the United Nations. societal. White minority-ruled states such as Southern Rhodesia and South Africa. the beginning of the UN's third decade. From the emergence of the Nonaligned Movement (NAM) in the mid-1950s.occurred throughout the tenure of secretary General Dag Hammarskjold. seemed to further demonstrate the growing importance of that continent in a rapidly decolonizing world. The freeze on UN membership was lifted in 1955 and. seemed increasingly out of place in an Africa swept by the currents of independence. delegations from 29 nonaligned nations. rather than resolving these. In the preceding decade membership had nearly doubled. in the years after. self- DECOLONIZATION Page 41 . or linguistic patterns. a massive increase . as a sign of things to come. In part because of their pursuit of Cold War aims. the first of what would subsequently total more than 70 over the next two decades. Meeting for the first time at Bandung. making the prospects for postcolonial progress bleak. By the end of 1960 it had become clear that the decolonizing world would soon be ascendant in the General Assembly. which became the largest caucus at the UN and increased the pressure on the United Nations to expand its membership. could still depend upon healthy majorities in the General Assembly to promote their interests at the UN.
and black majority rule. dispatching economic and military assistance. or Boer. at the request of India. and branding as "terrorist organizations" those groups struggling against white oppression. Britain. modeled after the apartheid regime in neighboring South Africa. had given way to an equally violent struggle between blacks. argued that sanctions violated South African sovereignty. who comprised a small minority but ruled through the brutal system of apartheid. nationalism. Instead. at times cooperating with policies of coercion against the black population. ending white rule. ultimately signed the Lancaster House Agreement of 1979. pressure increased on Southern Rhodesia to end white rule prior to its own independence." The General Assembly grappled with the issue of white minority rule in southern Africa for more than four decades. and France who. After Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland achieved independence in 1964 as the black majority-ruled states of Zambia and Malawi. who constituted the vast majority of the population. such as Britain and the United States. In neighboring South Africa a bitter clash between British imperial aims in the region and Afrikaner. civil. Majority black populations in the region found themselves exploited and denied political. The matter devolved to the Assembly because the white-ruled regimes in southern Africa had powerful western allies on the security Council. The United Nations took the innovative step of imposing economic sanctions on Rhodesia in 1966. economic. Like elsewhere in Africa. and the urgency of its condemnations increased as the composition of the General Assembly changed in the wake of decolonization. as white minorities imposed institutionalized systems of segregation known by the Afrikaans word "apartheid. and whites. Of the more than 75 vetoes by the United States from 1970-today. skirting sanctions. the white regime broke with Britain in 1965 and declared an independent state. in 1946. and human rights. South Africa. and South West Africa became entangled in the Cold War struggle. increasingly isolated and under the pressure of international sanctions. Rhodesia. 20 were deployed to block resolutions critical of white- DECOLONIZATION Page 42 . concerned with South Africa's pivotal role in Cold War Africa. but granting protected status to whites and seeking a guarantee of continued white influence throughout the political and economic structure of the new state. The western powers backed white minority rule in southern Africa as a bastion of anticommunism in the region. where white settlers from all three components ruled over increasingly restive black majorities. Few issues received more attention from the United Nations during its first five decades. The brutality of the apartheid system led the General Assembly to address the controversy during more than 200 debates since first addressing the question. Zimbabwe. The South Africa controversy also exposed the disagreements between the West and the developing world at the United Nations. been part of a federation including Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. the first time the UN had taken such action. through a system of quotas designed to give whites privileges well beyond the proportion of the population.determination. The British colony of Southern Rhodesia had. since 1953. who threatened to veto action against them and did so on more than 20 occasions. the selfdetermination question in Southern Rhodesia. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s a majority of the General Assembly sought to impose stricter sanctions against South Africa but found that path frequently blocked by the United States.
The UN's role in South Africa expanded in 1992 with the dispatching of an observer mission to oversee the ongoing process of peace and reconciliation and to aid in the transition leading to the first open elections in South Africa in 1994. reducing the local population . Independence came late to the former Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique. Its future became a hostage to the broader regional crisis during the Cold War.who had long been proscribed as a terrorist in the West after almost three decades of confinement. By the late 1980s intense international focus on the controversy had made South Africa an isolated pariah and in 1990 President F. opening the way for the establishment of the United Nations Transitional Assistance Group (UNTAG) in Namibia. The UN General Assembly responded by accusing South Africa of maladministration. calling for an end to South African rule.of peacekeeping operations. In 1971 the International Court of Justice declared South Africa's occupation of South West Africa illegal. UNTAG became an early example of the new era . which resulted in a sweeping victory for Mandela and his party. the consequences of which are still felt today. precipitating a civil war which became a theater DECOLONIZATION Page 43 . and repatriating 40. After the World War I the region became a class "C" League of Nations mandate administered by neighboring South Africa which.W. so much so that Portugal refused to ever report to the UN on the status of its colonies. Africa the crisis of decolonization became inseparable from the Cold War as nowhere else. The crisis in neighboring South West Africa was linked to the question of South Africa. the Portuguese colonial experience was particularly harsh and backward. where both emerging postcolonial states immediately became entangled in the geopolitical struggle of the Cold War.000 exiles. Britain has cast 32 vetoes. Germans began colonizing the region as German South West Africa in 1884. de Klerk allowed the release of African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela . After the shattering defeat of South African forces at Cuito Cuanavale in Angola (a victory for Cuban forces introduced to the region by Fidel Castro) in May 1988. Having accomplished this mission. Europeans subjected Angola to one of the most disruptive of slave experiences.or "second generation" . introduced its repressive apartheid measures and sought to formally incorporate South West Africa into its territory. Angola's experience of European contact and colonialism helped set the stage for its postcolonial crisis. spawning civil wars in both nations with profound humanitarian consequences and challenging the United Nations on numerous levels. Even by the standards in Africa. for example. aiding refugee populations. Pretoria relented. and declaring Namibia to be the direct responsibility of the UN. as its mission expanded well beyond traditional peacekeeping to monitoring the 1989 elections. Portugal left behind a colony in economic and political turmoil when independence was achieved in 1975. or Lusophone. In Portuguese.ruled South Africa or Rhodesia (1973-88) (several of these vetoes sought to block sanctions on the grounds that sanctions violated South African sovereignty).by an estimated seventy-five percent. The Cold War confrontation impacted other parts of Africa with ruinous effects which persist to this day and had profound implications for the role of the United Nations in Africa. UNTAG departed Namibia in March 1990. with strife in the territory exacerbated by South Africa and neighboring Angola. after many decades of rule. of those 25 were to block resolutions critical of white-ruled regimes in South Africa or Rhodesia between 1963 to 1988.made up mostly of the Herero and Nama peoples .
and a reprioritization of the many missions of the UN in Africa. and promote reconciliation. The United Nations would indeed face new opportunities. the UN would confront new challenges and a resurgence of nationalism. as the end of the Cold War provoked unanticipated crises. post-Cold War. which would demand innovative responses.000 military and civilian personnel as part of an effort to implement a peace agreement. and ethnic conflict. CHALLENGES IN THE POST-COLD WAR PERIOD: "SECOND GENERATION" PEACEKEEPING AND HUMANITARIAN EFFORTS The end of the Cold War fundamentally changed international politics. monitor the implementation of peace accords. after 2001. leaving behind only a rudimentary UN presence to liaise with the various combatants. by 1999. There would be new challenges thrown up by globalization and. The divisions of tribal society in Angola were intensified by the politics of the Cold War. South Africa. In Mozambique. NorthSouth tensions over trade and economic development continued as before and in some ways were exacerbated by globalization and the breakdown of the Cold War international order. separatism. But. DECOLONIZATION Page 44 . Central America. particularly in the area of conflict prevention. this initial optimism was not completely justified. an increasing trend in the United States in favor of unilateralism and intervention would threaten once again to marginalize the United Nation's role in the world. when a postcolonial Marxist government faced a growing resistance movement backed by the white regimes in neighboring Rhodesia and South Africa. Africa would not top the post-Cold War agenda. the Caribbean. oversee the withdrawal of all foreign forces. but also offered the possibility of a new role for the United Nations in Africa. and nation building. new demands. The paralysis which had plagued the Security Council seemingly disappeared overnight. and establish and observe the fragile electoral process. The United Nations mounted four missions to Angola in the 1990s to verify the departure of foreign troops.of the ideological objectives of the superpowers. with the three largest tribal groups allying with various factions backed by either the Soviet Union. Although the East-West conflict had receded. and the former Soviet republics. The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet empire and the revolutions in Russia. including parts of the world where the UN had been largely excluded previously. much progress toward peace had been achieved when the security Council authorized the deployment of more than 7. inspiring much optimism for the UN to play a greater role in a new. but also a host of new challenges. But. Africa. or the United States. by 1992. Angola asked the United Nations to depart. With the end of the Cold War there would be new regions of UN concern. one removed from the zero-sum framework of the East-West conflict. and much of Latin America. Angola remains one of the most tragic legacies of Cold War Africa. such as the Balkans. monitor a ceasefire among the factions. central Europe. peacekeeping. with the UN's work only partly accomplished. Cuba. Furthermore. The war raged for more than a decade but. civil war erupted only a few years after independence in 1977.
One factor in the Somali crisis of the 1990s lay in the legacies of the geopolitics of the Cold War on the horn of Africa. Central America. most notably in Somalia. Sierra Leone. The colonial-era effort to create a modern nation state proved disruptive to traditional society. an increasing trend in the United States in favor of unilateralism and intervention would threaten once again to marginalize the United Nation's role in the world. The UN found itself overwhelmed by the anarchic conditions in Somalia. Mozambique. and much of Latin America. he has articulated an "Annan Doctrine" positing that states cannot commit atrocities while hiding behind a veil of "sovereignty" and that outside powers should reconsider humanitarian intervention in Africa. and the dispute between Ethiopia and Eritrea. including parts of the world where the UN had been largely excluded previously. But the opportunity to utilize the UN to address African problems subsequently passed. In this. as both Washington and Moscow sought control of the region with its strategic location on the Horn. such as the Balkans. But the opportunity to utilize the UN to address African problems subsequently passed. That the United States began to evolve different priorities and aims once in Somalia further complicated the UN's mission. The crisis in post-Cold War Somalia. where as many as 15 armed factions vied for power. and the former Soviet republics.ushered in a new era in the relations among states. achieving successes in places such as Namibia and. UN peacekeeping operations have become most active in Africa. Kofi Annan of Ghana. the HIV/AIDS crisis. There would be new challenges thrown up by globalization and. Africa would not top the post-Cold War agenda. Western Sahara. With the dissolution of the USSR no other power remained but the United States to lead the way. With the end of the Cold War there would be new regions of UN concern. to a lesser extent. UN peacekeeping has nonetheless expanded into areas such as Liberia. ushered in a new era in the relations among states. and the first secretary General from sub-Saharan Africa. The postcolonial state became entangled in the politics of the Cold War. central Europe. the UN confronted the challenges of providing humanitarian relief on a massive scale compounded by the widespread collapse of the institutions of state. after 2001. humanitarian relief. the first large-scale African crisis of the post-Cold War era. and child combatants in Africa. With the dissolution of the DECOLONIZATION Page 45 . The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet empire and the revolutions in Russia. for example. not a centralized state. engaged the United Nations like nothing before. sought to focus the world's attention on poverty. where most Somalis looked to their clans for political identity. and by the difficulty of coordinating a multinational peacekeeping force of nearly 40. but also suffering several well-publicized failures. and conflict prevention. The UN's seventh Secretary General. Both superpowers contributed to making Somalia's army the largest in Africa. Throughout the post-Cold War era. which had a profound impact on thinking about the capabilities of UN peacekeeping operations and contributed to the UN's more muted response to both the Rwandan genocide and the subsequent Great Lakes crisis. including peacekeeping. and Washington met the challenge with remarkable shortsightedness.000 from more than 20 nations. As the former head of UN peacekeeping. the Caribbean. The 1990s nevertheless witnessed an explosion of United Nations activity throughout Africa. the largest and most expensive UN operation to date.
One factor in the Somali crisis of the 1990s lay in the legacies of the geopolitics of the Cold War on the horn of Africa. for example. forces being used in areas not considered vital to American interests. not a centralized state. The crisis in post-Cold War Somalia. Both superpowers contributed to making Somalia's army the largest in Africa. The postcolonial state became entangled in the politics of the Cold War. Kofi Annan of Ghana. Sierra Leone. achieving successes in places such as Namibia and. Western Sahara. and conflict prevention. he has articulated an "Annan Doctrine" positing that states cannot commit atrocities while hiding behind a veil of "sovereignty" and that outside powers should reconsider humanitarian intervention in Africa.S.USSR no other power remained but the United States to lead the way. the UN confronted the challenges of providing humanitarian relief on a massive scale compounded by the widespread collapse of the institutions of state. Throughout the post-Cold War era. the largest and most expensive UN operation to date. That the United States began to evolve different priorities and aims once in Somalia further complicated the UN's mission. Somalia also undermined U. UN peacekeeping has nonetheless expanded into areas such as Liberia. as both Washington and Moscow sought control of the region with its strategic location on the Horn. the United Nations had little success establishing even the most basic of Somali state institutions. most notably in Somalia. and the first secretary General from sub-Saharan Africa. UN peacekeeping operations have become most active in Africa. DECOLONIZATION Page 46 . humanitarian relief. The consequences of the Somalia operation were immense. where most Somalis looked to their clans for political identity. and the dispute between Ethiopia and Eritrea.S. and child combatants in Africa. The UN's seventh Secretary General. including peacekeeping. began to question the necessity of U. sought to focus the world's attention on poverty. provoking a debate over the UN's role in nation building beyond rudimentary peacekeeping. and Washington met the challenge with remarkable shortsightedness. While the UN had scored a number of successes on the humanitarian front. but also suffering several well-publicized failures. In this. and by the difficulty of coordinating a multinational peacekeeping force of nearly 40. the loss of more than 140 peacekeepers received most of the attention and had debilitating aftereffects. support for UN operations. The UN found itself overwhelmed by the anarchic conditions in Somalia. in the face of a hysterical firestorm of media coverage critical of the operation. As the former head of UN peacekeeping. The 1990s nevertheless witnessed an explosion of United Nations activity throughout Africa. as American public opinion. leading to a reassessment of peacekeeping and particularly nation building. which had a profound impact on thinking about the capabilities of UN peacekeeping operations and contributed to the UN's more muted response to both the Rwandan genocide and the subsequent Great Lakes crisis. Among other unhappy consequences. where as many as 15 armed factions vied for power. engaged the United Nations like nothing before. the first large-scale African crisis of the post-Cold War era. The colonial-era effort to create a modern nation state proved disruptive to traditional society. Mozambique. Somalia delivered a blow to those who had advocated that the United Nations should increasingly take an interest in humanitarian interventions. to a lesser extent. the HIV/AIDS crisis.000 from more than 20 nations.
blocked further action. a holdover of military control exercised by a DECOLONIZATION Page 47 . Parliament were at most for show. In Rwanda. governance and human rights" by international donors and to promote "institution building" and a "human rights based approach" to development is really to achieve decolonization. the consequences of Somalia contributed to paralysis and the phenomenon of "humanitarian fatigue" which resulted in the UN standing aside as 800. NATO. a number of potentially destabilizing African hotspots remain where UN peacekeepers have been excluded and. not only for Africa. which resulted in the accession to power of Laurent Kabila. foreign Governor Generals and foreign civil servants) held local power. fearful of another Somalia. the Organization of African Unity. Recent collaborative peacekeeping endeavors between the United Nations and the Organization of American States. In many independent. provoked the 1997 crisis in that neighboring country. but for much of the world. MODERN APPROACHES TO DECOLONIZATION Though the term "decolonization" is not well received among donors in international development today. the Organization for security and Cooperation in Europe. and the Security Council avoided the use of the word "genocide" which. but today. and their aftermath continue to challenge the institutions of the United Nations. post-colonial nations. The inquiry concluded that a lack of will. Weak Parliaments and Ministerial governments (where Ministries issue their own edicts and write laws rather than the Parliament) are holdovers of colonialism since political decisions were made outside the country. The Cold War struggle suspended the vision of an international effort on behalf of Africa for almost half a century.The debacle in Somalia was felt beyond the horn of Africa.000 Rwandans were slaughtered in one of the worst acts of genocide since World War II. compounded by diminished resources and ignorance about the ferocity of the violence. but the United States. the Secretary General established an independent inquiry to investigate why the UN remained paralyzed as the Rwandan genocide unfolded. The commander of the previously established UN Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR) repeatedly called for international support. the Cold War. have demonstrated the renewed potential of regional approaches to peacekeeping and nation building. and the executive branch (then. resulted in the UN's passive response. under the provisions of the Genocide Treaty. will continue to be excluded into the foreseeable future. Although the initial era of decolonization has passed. with the potential for a greater degree of cooperation among the permanent five. the consequences of the colonial period. However. in all likelihood. In an unprecedented move. The flood of Rwandan refugees into the area around Goma. Similarly. multilateral approaches to peacekeeping and cooperative approaches to nation-building are more likely. militaries are strong and civil control over them is weak. the systems and cultures of colonialism continue. the root of the emerging emphasis on projects to promote "democracy. and Rwanda has been a major participant in the ghastly Great Lakes crisis which has claimed the lives of millions of Africans. as well. might have automatically committed the Security Council to take action. Zaire. and the Economic Community of West African States.
foreign military. In some cases, the governing systems in post-colonial countries could be viewed as ruling elites who succeeded in coup d'etats against the foreign colonial regime but never gave up the system of control. In many countries, the human rights challenges are to empower women and reverse the legacy of proselytism that promoted patriarchy and to empower individuals and civil society through changes in education systems that were set up by colonial governments to train obedient servants of colonial regimes. Often the impact of colonialism is more subtle, with preferences for clothes (such as "blue" shirts of French officials and pith helmets), drugs (alcohol and tobacco that colonial governments introduced, often as a way to tax locals) and other cultural attributes remain. Some experts in development, such as David Lempert, have suggested an opening of dialogues from the colonial powers on the systems they introduced and the harms that continue as a way of decolonizing in rights policy documents for the UN system and for Europe. First World countries often seem reluctant to engage in this form of decolonization, however, since they may benefit from the legacies of colonialism that they created, in contemporary trade and political relations.
Five international organizations whose membership largely follows the pattern of previous colonial empires. Due to a common history and culture, former colonial powers created institutions which more loosely associated their former colonies. Membership is voluntary, and in some cases can be revoked if a member state loses some objective criteria (usually a requirement for democratic governance). The organizations serve cultural, economic, and political purposes between the associated countries, although no such organization has become politically prominent as an entity in its own right.
Former Colonial Power Britain
Organization Commonwealth of Nations Commonwealth Realms Associated states
Founded 1931 1931 1967 1946
French Community Francophonie Spain & Portugal Latin Union Organization of Ibero-American States Community of Portuguese Language Countries Russia United States Commonwealth of Independent States Commonwealths Freely Associated States European Union The Netherlands ACP countries De Nederlandse Taalunie
1958 1970 1954 1991 1996 1991 1934 1982 1975 1980
There is quite a bit of controversy over decolonization. The end goal tends to be universally regarded as good, but there has been much debate over the best way to grant full independence.
DECOLONIZATION AND POLITICAL INSTABILITY
Some say the post–World War II decolonization movement was too rushed, especially in Africa, and resulted in the creation of unstable regimes in the newly independent countries. Thus causing war between and within the new independent nation-states.
Others argue that this instability is largely the result of problems from the colonial period, including arbitrary nation-state borders, lack of training of local populations and disproportional economy. However by the 20th century most colonial powers were slowly being forced by the moral beliefs of population to consider the welfare of their colonial subjects. Henning Melber argues that the ways in which liberation movements use the same repressive methods as their colonial predecessors, may also reflect the "rough surivival strategies" they adopted during the armed struggle for independence. Examples of this development can be seen in the Mugabe regime in Zimbabwe and to a lesser extent in the inner-party rivalries of South Africa's ruling party, the African National Congress (ANC).
Effects on the colonizers
John Kenneth Galbraith argues that the post-World War II decolonization was brought about for economic reasons. In A Journey Through Economic Time, he writes, "The engine of economic well-being was now within and between the advanced industrial countries. Domestic economic growth — as now measured and much discussed — came to be seen as far more important than the erstwhile colonial trade... The economic effect in the United States from the granting of independence to the Philippines was unnoticeable, partly due to the Bell Trade Act, which allowed American monopoly in the economy of the Philippines. The departure of India and Pakistan made small economic difference in Britain. Dutch economists calculated that the economic effect from the loss of the great Dutch empire in Indonesia was compensated for by a couple of years or so of domestic post-war economic growth. The end of the colonial era is celebrated in the history books as a triumph of national aspiration in the former colonies and of benign good sense on the part of the colonial powers. Lurking beneath, as so often happens, was a strong current of economic interest — or in this case, disinterest." Part of the reason for the lack of economic impact felt by the colonizer upon the release of the colonized was that costs and benefits were not eliminated, but shifted. The colonizer no longer had the burden of obligation, financial or otherwise, to their colony. The colonizer continued to be able to obtain cheap goods and labor as well as economic benefits (see Suez Canal Crisis) from the former colonies. Financial, political and military pressure could still be used to achieve goals desired by the colonizer. The most obvious difference is the ability of the colonizer to disclaim responsibility for the colonized.
Decolonization is not an easy matter in colonies where a large population of settlers lives, particularly if they have been there for several generations. This population, in general, may have to be repatriated, often losing considerable property. For instance, the decolonisation of Algeria by France was particularly uneasy due to the large European and Sephardic Jewish population (see also pied noir), which
First declaration of an autonomous government within the Spanish Crown. achieves a greater degree of authonomy after the exiled king of Portugal establishes residence there. United Provinces of the River Plate and Chile. starting in the 1990s. though there may be years of autonomy before. the Chinese population of Singapore as well as the immigrant communities of USA and Canada. independence. 18th and 19th centuries Year Colonizer Event The 13 original colonies of the United States declare independence a year after their insurrection begins. note that some cases have been included that were not strictly colonized but rather protectorate. Brazil. CHARTS OF THE INDEPENDENCES In this chronological overview. Haiti declares independence.g.largely evacuated to France when Algeria became independent. not every date is indisputably the decisive moment. the last French territories in mainland North America are handed over to the United States. decolonisation is hardly possible or impossible because of the importance of the settler population or where the indigenous population is now in the minority. In Zimbabwe. co-dominium. the largest Portuguese colony. targeted white farmers and forcibly seized their property. such is the case of the British population of the Cayman Islands. The British Crown recognizes the independence of the United States. Full independence would be finally achieved in 1816. as an Associated State under the British crown. lease. e. Often. (see below) 1776 Great Britain 1783 Great Britain 1803 France 1804 France 1808 Portugal 1810 Spain DECOLONIZATION Page 51 . is mentioned here. Furthermore. former Rhodesia. the final phase. the first non-white nation to emancipate itself from European rule. nor are the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Changes subsequent to decolonization are usually not included. After he returns home in 1821. Via the Louisiana purchase. president Robert Mugabe has. his son and regent declares an independent "Empire" in 1822. the Russian population of Kazakhstan. In some cases.
Honduras. Venezuela and Mexico both achieve independence. Guatemala. Peru and Bolivia attain independence. The Dominican Republic (then Santo Domingo). Greece declares independence. El Salvador and Costa Rica all declare independence. Panama and Venezuela). Cuba declares independence and is reconquered. Chile and the United Provinces of the River Plate (former Argentina and Uruguay) declare independence. taken by the United States in 1898. Texas attains independence. 1818 Spain 1819 Spain 1821 Spain 1821 Ottoman Empire 1822 Spain 1824 Spain 1836 Mexico 1847 United States 1865 Spain The Dominican Republic gains its final independence after four years as a restored colony. military 1868 Spain DECOLONIZATION Page 52 . After a long struggle independence is finally granted by the Treaty of Constantinople in July 1832.S. Texas would be annexed by the United States in 1845 Liberia becomes a free and independent African state. Ecuador attains independence from Spain (and independence from Colombia 1830). The latter would then secede and gain independence in 1828 after periods of Brazilian occupation and of federation with Argentina) Second and final declaration of independence of Chile New Granada attains independence as Gran Colombia (later to become the independent states of Colombia.1813 Spain 1816 Spain Paraguay becomes independent. governed under U. Nicaragua. Ecuador.
progressively sinified. Albania declares independence. Recognized in Treaty of London. and their independence is recognized by the Soviet Union on September 6. Bulgaria and Serbia achieve independence. 1991. Yugoslavia and Poland become independent. governed under U. The Philippines declares independence but is taken by the United States in 1899. The three Baltic nations re-declare their independence between 1990 and 1991. DECOLONIZATION Page 53 . military and then civilian administration until 1934. 1918 AustriaHungary 1919 United Kingdom 1921 China End of the protectorate over Afghanistan. The China loses all control over Outer Mongolia but retains the larger. as of 1924. 1944-1991). when Britain accepts the presence of a Soviet ambassador in Kabul. Recognition of Mongolia is recognized in 1945. Inner Mongolia). Czechoslovakia. 1912 Ottoman Empire Inter-War Period Year Colonizer Event Finland declares its independence. 1917 Russian Empire 1918 Russian Empire Estonia.administration until 1902. The three Baltic states are subsequently occupied by the Soviet Union (1940-1941. Its independence is finally recognised in July 1878. a de facto "satellite" of the USSR. which has been granted autonomy in 1912 (as well as Tibet).S. Latvia and Lithuania declare independence in 1918. 1877 Ottoman Empire 1878 Ottoman Empire 1898 Spain Romania declares independence. and now becomes a popular republic and.
Makes the Philippine Islands a Commonwealth. following insurgency by the IRA. The United Kingdom returns the leased port territory at Weihaiwei to China. Eritrea & Tigray (appended to it). End of the de facto protectorate over Nepal which was never truly colonized. the Commonwealth of Australia. The Statute of Westminster grants virtually full independence to Canada. the Irish Free State. Britain continues to station troops in the country and influence the Iraqi government until 1958. reversing 800 years of British presence. most of Ireland separates from the United Kingdom as the Irish Free State.it is recognized in 1943.1922 United Kingdom In Ireland. which gave it direct authority to intervene in Cuba. when it declares the British parliament incapable of passing law over these former colonies without their own consent. New Zealand. 1944. and the Union of South Africa. Lebanon declares independence. the Ogaden desert (disputed by Somalia) remains under British military control until 1948. remains within the United Kingdom. Ethiopia. Abrogates Platt Amendment. effectively ending the French mandate (previously together with Syria) . and no longer joined as one colonial federal state. the northeast area of the island. Following a plebiscite. Ends League of Nations Mandate over Iraq. 1923 United Kingdom 1930 United Kingdom 1931 United Kingdom 1932 United Kingdom 1934 United States 1941 France 1941 Italy 1944 Denmark From World War II to the present Year Colonizer Event DECOLONIZATION Page 54 . Iceland formally becomes an independent republic on June 17. Northern Ireland. the first episode of decolonisation in East Asia. and the Italian part of Somalia are liberated by the Allies after an uneasy occupation of Ethiopia since 1935-36. Newfoundland.
Following the Philippine Independence Act. In the Middle East. North Korea is occupied by the Soviet Union and South Korea is occupied by the United States. Vietnam declares independence. The former emirate of Transjordan (present-day Jordan) becomes an independent Hashemite kingdom when Britain relinquishes UN trusteeship. Republic of Korea is established in the southern part of the Korean peninsula. Laos becomes independent.1945 Japan After surrender of Japan. Japan France Netherlands 1946 United States United Kingdom 1947 United Kingdom 1948 United Kingdom United States Soviet Union 1949 France DECOLONIZATION Page 55 . Israel becomes independent less than a year after the British government withdraws from the Palestine Mandate. Democratic People's Republic of Korea is established in the northern part of the peninsula. the remainder of Palestine becomes part of the Arab states of Egypt and Transjordan. The government of Republic of China flees to Taiwan and becomes the de facto government of that island. impeded by the occupation of the islands by Japan. Burma and Ceylon (Sri Lanka) become independent. In the Far East. The British government leaves British India. Indonesia declares independence. which Netherlands does not recognize until December 1949. the Commonwealth of the Philippines was granted independence as provided by the aforementioned act. but France does not recognize it until 1954. which is partitioned into the Hindu-majority Republic of India and the Muslim-majority Pakistan (the eastern half of which will later become independent as Bangladesh).
The Netherlands The Netherlands recognises the sovereignty of Indonesia following an armed and diplomatic struggle since 1945. Ghana becomes independent. initiating the decolonisation of sub-Saharan Africa. The Federation of Malaya becomes independent. Guinea on the coast of West-Africa is granted independence. Spain-controlled areas in Morroco become independent. Beginning of the Algerian War of Independence The United Kingdom withdraws from the last part of Egypt it controls: the Suez Canal zone. Eisenhower. granting Alaska the possibility of the equal rights of statehood 1953 France 1954 France United Kingdom 1956 United Kingdom France Spain 1957 United Kingdom United Kingdom 1958 France United States DECOLONIZATION Page 56 . France recognizes Cambodia's independence. Puerto Rico in the Antilles becomes a self governing Commonwealth associated to the US. Anglo-Egyptian Sudan becomes independent. Vietnam's independence recognized. 1951 Italy 1952 United States Libya becomes an independent kingdom. though the nation is partitioned. The Pondichery enclave is incorporated into India. Signing the Alaska Statehood Act by Dwight D. Tunisia and the sherifian kingdom of Morocco in the Maghreb achieve independence.
End of Algerian War. Nigeria. Togo and the Central African Republic (the Oubangui Chari) and Madagascar all become independent. later renamed Zaire and presently the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Chad. South Africa declares independence. becomes independent. Algeria becomes independent. Kuwait and British Cameroon become independent. the Mali Federation (split the same year into present-day Mali and Senegal). Uganda in Africa. Niger. Upper Volta (present-day Burkina Faso). The former coastal enclave colonies of Goa. Mauritania. The South Sea UN trusteeship over the Polynesian kingdom of Western Samoa (formerly German Samoa and nowadays called just Samoa) is relinquished. though the UK retains sovereign control over Akrotiri and Dhekelia. British Somaliland (present-day Somalia). Gabon. Congo-Brazzaville. Tanganyika (formerly a German colony under UK trusteeship. Cameroon. which becomes an independent Hashemite Kingdom (like Jordan. Daman and Diu are taken over by India. and most of Cyprus become independent. 1960 United Kingdom France Belgium 1961 United Kingdom Portugal 1962 United Kingdom France Belgium New Zealand DECOLONIZATION Page 57 . formerly a proper British colony wrested from the Omani sultanate). merged to federal Tanzania in 1964 with the island of Zanzibar. Sierra Leone. Rwanda and Burundi (then Urundi) attain independence through the ending of the Belgian trusteeship.United Kingdom UN trustee Britain withdraws from Iraq. achieve independence. The Belgian Congo (also known as Congo-Kinshasa. but soon to become a republic through the first of several coups d'état). Côte d'Ivoire. Benin (then Dahomey). and Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean.
Fiji and Tonga are given independence. The British protectorate over the Maldives archipelago in the Indian Ocean is ended. 1964 United Kingdom 1965 United Kingdom 1966 United Kingdom 1967 United Kingdom 1968 United Kingdom Portugal Spain Australia 1971 United Kingdom DECOLONIZATION Page 58 . After nine years of organized guerrilla resistance. but is not recognized. Northern Rhodesia declares independence as Zambia and Malawi. Relinquishes UN trusteeship (nominally shared by the United Kingdom and New Zealand) of Nauru in the South Sea. to be united with formerly Ottoman North Yemen in 1990-1991. Southern Rhodesia (the present Zimbabwe) declares independence as Rhodesia. Bangladesh achieves independence from Pakistan with the military help of India. Singapore. On the Arabian peninsula. The Mediterranean island of Malta becomes independent. Singapore was evicted from Malaysia by Kuala Lumpur two years later. formerly Nyasaland does the same. Botswana (then Bechuanaland) and Lesotho become independent. Gambia is recognized as independent. and in Africa. Equatorial Guinea (then Rio Muni) is made independent. In the Caribbean. both from the United Kingdom.1963 United Kingdom United Kingdom Kenya becomes independent. form Malaysia with the pensinsular Federation of Malaya. Aden colony becomes independent as South Yemen. most of Guinea-Bissau comes under native control. together with Sarawak and Sabah on North Borneo. Mauritius and Swaziland achieve independence. Barbados and Guyana.
Guinea-Bissau on the coast of West-Africa is recognized as independent by Portugal. rendering the declared independence of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic ineffective to the present day. 1973 United Kingdom Portugal 1974 United Kingdom Portugal 1975 France Portugal The Netherlands Suriname (then Dutch Guiana) becomes independent. Since Spain did not have the right to give away Western Sahara. all four in Africa. Australia Released from trusteeship. six federated together as United Arab Emirates and the seventh.United Kingdom Bahrain. achieve independence. The Bahamas are granted independence. Mozambique and the island groups of Cape Verde and São Tomé and Príncipe. Ras al-Kaimah. joined soon after) become independent Arab monarchies in the Persian Gulf as the British protectorates are lifted. Guerrillas unilaterally declare independence in the Southeastern regions of Guinea-Bissau. Oman and seven Trucial States (the same year. when the territory was passed on to and partitioned between Mauritania and Morocco (which annexes the entire territory in 1979). Papua New Guinea gains independence. but is subsequently occupied and annexed by Indonesia nine days later. The Spanish colonial rule de facto terminated over the Western Sahara (then Rio de Oro). Qatar. Angola. 1976 United Kingdom Spain DECOLONIZATION Page 59 . The Comoros archipelago in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa is granted independence. East Timor declares independence. Grenada in the Caribbean becomes independent. Seychelles archipelago in the Indian Ocean off the African coast becomes independent (one year after granting of selfrule).
Saint Kitts and Nevis (an associated state since 1963) becomes independent. 1977 France French Somaliland.S. already independent de facto. Brunei sultanate on Borneo becomes independent. the present Djibouti. finalizing the independence of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia. Dominica in the Caribbean and the Solomon Islands. The UN Security Council gives final approval to end the U. also known as Afar & Issa-land (after its main tribal groups). become independent. The de facto administrator is however Morocco. is granted independence. Returns the Panama Canal Zone (held under a regime sui generis since 1903) to the republic of Panama. 1978 United Kingdom 1979 United States United Kingdom 1980 United Kingdom 1981 United Kingdom 1983 United Kingdom 1984 United Kingdom 1990 South Africa United States DECOLONIZATION Page 60 . all in the South Sea. Namibia becomes independent from South Africa. becomes formally independent. having been a colonial possession of the empire of Japan before UN trusteeship. Belize (then British Honduras) and Antigua & Barbuda become independent. Zimbabwe (then [Southern] Rhodesia). as well as Tuvalu (then the Ellice Islands).under international law the territory is still under Spanish administration. Trust Territory of the Pacific (dissolved already in 1986). The Gilbert Islands (present-day Kiribati) in the South Sea as well as Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Saint Lucia in the Caribbean become independent. The joint AngloFrench colony of the New Hebrides becomes the independent island republic of Vanuatu.
1991 United States 1994 United States 1997 United Kingdom 1999 Portugal 2002 Indonesia 2006 United Kingdom DECOLONIZATION Page 61 . having been a mandate of the Japanese Empire before UN trusteeship. Tajikistan.A. Macau is given back to China. Macau. is not organized into the existing provincial structure applied to other provinces of the People's Republic of China.S. Azerbaijan. Kazakhstan. Gibraltar achieves decolonisation following acceptance in an act of self determination (referendum) of a new Constitution.R. while still fully under British sovereignty. and before part of the U. which lasted for almost a century. but is guaranteed an autonomous system of government within the People's Republic of China as a "Special Administrative Region" or S. forces withdraw from Subic Bay and Clark Air Base in the Philippines ending major U. Moldavia. Lithuania. Georgia. Kyrgyzstan. like Hong Kong.1991 Soviet Union Estonia. military presence. Uzbekistan. Trust territory of the Pacific) becomes independent from its former trustee. East Timor formally achieves independence after a transitional UN administration. It is the last in a series of coastal enclaves that militarily stronger powers had obtained through treaties from the Qing or Manchu Empire which ruled China. which removed all trappings and vestiges of colonialism. U. Russia and Turkmenistan become independent from the Soviet Union. The colony of Hong Kong is given back to China. Latvia. Ukraine.S. and accepted by the UK & Gibraltar as starting a new non-colonial relationship between them. Armenia. Palau (after a transitional period as a Republic since 1981. three years after Indonesia ended its violent quarter-century military occupation of the former Portuguese colony.S.
BIBLOGRAPHY Defined by richard gunde for decolonization: a postcolonial perspective Encyclopedia britannica articles DECOLONIZATION Page 62 .
a native son of the philippines. http://www.pinkmonkey.com Sources from anwers. on the process of decolonization Sources from wikipeadia Sources from about.htm Professor of psychology and advocate for the integrity of native wisdoms. virgilio enriques.com/studyguides/subjects/euro_his/c hap6/e0606301.com DECOLONIZATION Page 63 .
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