1. Food can be classified into seven main classes. a. Carbohydrate b. Protien c. Fat d. Vitamin e. Mineral salts f. Fibre g. Water

a. Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. b.Supply most of the energy our body needs. c. Examples: sugar, starch, cellulose, glycogen.

a. Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. b. Needed for growth and repair of body tissues. c. Examples: fish, meat, egg

and oxygen. c.Examples: animal fats.Help to keep us warm and protect internal organs.Contain carbon. vegetable oils .a. b. hydrogen.

b. Organic compounds needed in small amounts by our body. Needed for health and growth.a. .

liver. meat.Vitamin A Source Carrot. milk. fish liver oil. yeast. and cereals  Function For night vision  Healthy skin  Deficiency disease Night blindness  Skin infections B Releases energy from carbohydrates  Healthy nervous system  Healthy skin  Formation of red blood cells  Beriberi  Anaemia  C Fresh fruits and  Healing of vegetables wounds  Resistance to diseases Scurvy (bleeding gums)  . and green vegetables Eggs.

wheatgerm Made in the human intestines. green vegetables  Function Strong bones and teeth  Deficiency disease Rickets (soft bones and dental decay) E May be needed for reproduction  Helps to fight against diseases    Sterility K Clotting of blood Prolonged bleeding  . fish liver oil Vegetable oil. also found in milk. nuts.Vitamin D Source Made by our body in sunlight. also found in egg yolk. whole grains. eggs.

Needed for healthy growth and development.a. .Inorganic compounds needed by our body. b.

iodised salt Needed to form haemoglobin in red blood cells   Anaemia Iodine Needed to make harmones of the thyroid gland  Goitre (swelling of the thyroid gland in the neck)  . green vegetables Seafood. eggs. cheese. milk. green vegetables Strong bones and  Rickets teeth  Osteoporosis  Blood clotting  Prolonged  Muscle and nerve bleeding activities  Muscular cramps Sodium Table salt.Mineral Source  Function Deficiency disease Calcium Cheese. meat Maintains body fluid  Proper functioning of nerves   Muscular cramps Iron Meat. eggs.

bananas Maintains body fluid  Proper functioning of nerves  Regulation of heartbeat  Weak muscles  Paralysis  . cheese.Mineral Phosphorus Source Function Deficiency disease Rickets  Weakness  Eggs. meat. bones and vegetables teeth  Muscle contraction  Stores energy Potassium Meat. nuts.  Strong milk.

Prevent constipation .Made up of cellulose b.a.

Regulate body temperature .a. Solvent for many substances in the body b.

2cm3 of glucose is poured into a test tube. The colour changes is observed. The mixture in a water bath as shown in figure 2. protien and fat : : A. . 3. B. glucose. 2cm3 of Benedict’s solution is added. 2 cm3 of starch solution is poured into a test tube.Date Day Tittle Aim Materials Apparatus : : : Food test : To test for starch. Benedict’s test for glucose 1. 2 drops of iodine solution are added .2 is heated. 2. 2. Any changes in mixture is observed. Iodine test for starch 1.

The distilled water is added into the same test tube until it half full and shake. the mixture is shaked in the test tube.C. D. 5 drops of ethanol are added into a test tube. 2 cm3 of albumen solution is poured into a test tube 2. 2 drops of cooking oil is added into the same test tube. 4. . The mixture is allowed to stand for about 2 minutes. 3. 3. 2. 2 drops of Millon’s reagent are added to the albumen solution.Millon’s test for protien 1. The mixture is heated in a water bath. Emulsion test for fat 1. Any changes in the mixture is observed.

Observation: Test Iodine test for starch Benedict’s test for glucose Millon’s test for protien Observation The solution becomes bluedark The red-orange precipitated is formed The red –orange precipitated is formed Inference Food contain starch Food contain glucose Food contain protien Emulsion test for fat The emulsion layer Food contain fat occurs on the solution .

Protien solution forms a red-orange when heated with millon’s reagent 4. Iodine solution turns the starch solution dark-blue 2.Discussion: 1. ethanol and water becomes cloudy because an emulsion has been formed . Glucose solution forms a red-orange precipitate when heated with Benedict’s solution 3. Water cannot mix with cooking oil Conclusion : 1. The mixture of fat.

A balanced diet contains the right amount of the seven classes of food to meet the daily requirements of the body. preventing deficiency diseases such as scurvy and rickets . balanced body growth c. 2. supplying the required energy b.1. maintaining the health of the body d. A balanced diet is necessary for: a.

Sex Men requiring more energy of the same age and body size Men are more active B. Age Babies.FACTOR THE GROUP REQUIRING MORE ENERGY REASON A. children and teenagers require more energy This group is more active and the life process are faster .

. Physical activity Heavy work require more energy to perform. An individual who does heavy work uses more energy compared to another who does light work Big sized individuals require more energy for their life process. d.FACTOR THE GROUP REQUIRING MORE ENERGY REASON c. Body size Big sized individuals require more energy size compared to small sized individuals.

. Weather Individuals living in places with cold weather require more energy compared to individuals living in places with warm weather More energy is required to maintain the body temperature in a cold place.FACTOR THE GROUP REQUIRING MORE ENERGY REASON e.

The calorific value of food is the total energy produced when one gram of food is completely burnt.2 kilojoules (kJ) . The quantity of energy in a food is measured in calorie (cal) or joule (j) 3.1. 1 calorie (cal) = 4.2 joule (j) 1 kilocalorie (kcal) = 4. 2.

Digestion 1. physical digestion – big pieces of food are broken down into smaller pieces by teeth b. Digestion is the process of breaking down complex food to simple molecules for absorption the blood circulatory system. chemical digestion – enzymes break up complex food molecules into smaller molecules . Digestion take place in two stages: a. 2.

3. specific enzymes act only on specific foods e. enzymes are not destroyed at the end of digestion c. specific enzymes act only in specific acidic or alkaline conditions d. enzymes function best at normal body temperature (370 C) Enzymes are destroyed at high temperature. enzymes are small quantities only b. Enzymes are proteins that speed up the process of digestion. 4. . Characteristic of enzymes a. Enzymes break up complex food molecules to smaller and simpler molecules.

oesophagus.1. The alimentary canal is made up of the mouth. . big intestine and anus (starts from the mouth and ends at the anus). small intestine. 2. stomach. The digestive system consists of all the organ in the body that help in the digestion of food.

Summary of the digestive system mouth intestine oesophagus big intestine stomach anus small 4. . Food is pushed along the alimentary canal by the muscular walls that contract and expand alternately through the process of peristalsis.3.

Mouth Oesophagus Stomach Duodenum Lower part of small intestine Appendix .

1. Food is chewed and broken up into small pieces by the teeth. 3. Small pieces of food have a wide surface area for the saliva to act upon. The salivary gland secretes saliva that is alkaline and contains salivary amylase enzymes. Salivary amylase digests starch into maltose (sugar) amylase starch maltose . 2. 4.

Food is pushed through the oesophagus into the stomach by the alternating r contraction and relaxation of the oesophagus. This process of alternating muscular contraction and relaxation is known as peristalsis.1. 2. .

2. Food is mixed with gastric juice in the stomach.1. enzymes (rennin and pepsin) 3. hydrochloric acid b. providing an acidic medium for enzymic action. neutralising the alkaline property of saliva . b. Gastric juice contains: a. killing bacteria found in food c. Gastric juice is secreted from the cells of the stomach wall. The function of hydrochloric acid include a.

rennin Liquid milk protiens solid milk protiens .4. Rennin coagulates milk in the stomach to help in the enzymic enzymes. Pepsin digest protien to peptones / polypeptides Protien pepsin peptones/ polypeptides 5.

lipase .1. The function of bile are: a. protease c. emulsification of fat b. The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine. 3. maltase b. 2. preparation of an alkaline medium for enzymic action 4. Pancreatic juice contains three types of enzymes: a. The duodenum received bile and pancreatic juice.

The maltase digests maltose into glucose maltose maltase glucose 6.5. The lipase digests fat into fatty acid and glycerol fat lipase fatty acids + glycerol . The protease digests peptones into amino acids peptones protease amino acids 7.

Fats .8.amino acids c. Digestion is completed in small intestine. Food digestion is completed in the small intestine.glucose b. Protien . 9. Carbohydrate . 11. The end products of digestion are a.fatty acids and glycerol . The digest food is then ready to be absorbed through the thin walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream. . 10.

Undigested food is expelled from the body through the anus as faeces.E. BIG INTESTINE 1. Water is reabsorbed in the big intestine 2. .

The inner surface of the small intestine has many villi. Absorption is the movement of digested food into the bloodstream . 3.1. The villi increase the surface area for the absorption of digested food. 2.

Villus Blood capillary .

Reabsorption of Water and Defecation Residue from the small intestine Reabsorption of water + minerals + vitamins Solid waste called faeces Stored in the last part of the large intestine Defecation through the anus .

• Hemorrhoids (piles) • Cancer of the large intestine Defecation is removal of faeces from the body through the anus . Prolonged and serious constipation can lead to …..Difficulty in defecation is called constipation.

Why causes constipation? Not eating enough roughage Not drinking enough water Cause Constipation .

Therefore. prevention is always better than curing . constipation can be cured by • taking laxatives • eating high fibre foods such as wholemeal cereals and grains. fruits and vegetables • taking more fluid Remember.1.

haemorroids . Unhealthy eating habits is the main cause of many diseases • Too much sugar  diabetes • Too much salt  high blood pressure • Too much fat  obesity.HEALTY EATING HABITS. high blood cholesterol level. bulimia • Too little roughage  constipation. cancers • Too much food  obesity • Too little food  anorexia nervosa.

Eat least Eat most . cultivate healthy eating habits to stay healthy • Eat a variety food according to the recommended amount shown in a food guide pyramid.So.

Balance food intake with exercise • Choose nutritious food Nutritious food • Fresh fruits • Fresh vegetables • Wholemeal cereal.• Eat in moderation. grains or bread • Unpolished rice Less nutritious food • Junk food • Highly processed food • Fast foods • Fizzy drinks .

• Read food labels • Do not be misled by food advertisements • Eat at regular time .

sources and functions Food tests Calorific value Balanced diet Digestion Absorption of digested food Absorption of water and dissolved minerals Defecation .Summary Chart Nutrition Food Healthy eating habits Classes.

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