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Research Question Hypothesis

: How Does Light Intensity Affect The Rate of Transpiration of Hibiscus Twig? : Rate of Transpiration Increases as Light Intensity Increases

Variables : (a) Independent : Light Intensity (b) Dependant : Rate of Transpiration (c) Constant : Size of twig, number of leaves, wind movement, humidity, and temperature Apparatus Material Methodology : Retort holder, connecting tube, capillary tube, ruler, stop watch, marker pen, and table lamp, basin, syringe, secateur. : Hibiscus twig, water, grease :

1. A leafy shoot off a plant (Hibiscus) is cut. As it is under tension, cutting the shoot will cause air to enter the xylem. So, the cut shoot is trim a few centimeters to remove the xylem containing the air. 2. Potometer is submerged and water is filled in using the syringe to help pump out any air bubbles. The leafy shoot is being fit to the rubber tube and a tight fit is ensured. 3. Apparatus is removed from the water and exercise water is drained off. Shoot is gently shaked to remove as much as possible. 4. Joins around the rubber tube is sealed with grease or vaseline to ensure a water tight apparatus. 5. Water is push almost to the end of the capillary tube by using a syringe in order to introduce an air bubble into the water column. A small air space is left. The open end of the capillary tube is placed in a vessel of water and water behind the air space is drawn up. 6. When the shoot is dry, the syringe is depressed when the tap is opened until the air bubble in the capillary tube is pushed back to the zero mark. The tap is closed to turn off the syringe. 7. A table lamp is placed 10cm from the photometer. 8. Immediately the stop watch is start when the table lamp is switch on. 9. In 15 minutes, the distance moved by the air bubble in the calibrated capillary tube is measured. 10. Step 6 to 9 is repeated but the distance of the table lamp and photometer is increased by 10cm in each repeated experiment. 11. Data is recorded and tabulated.

Data Collecting

Qualitative Data The bubble moves farther when the table lamp is nearer to the potometer and vice versa.

Quantitative Data Length of plant from light (cm) 0.05 10 20 30 40 50 Length of movement of air bubble (cm) 0.05 Initial Final Final-Initial 0.0 1.8 3.5 5.1 6.6 1.8 3.5 5.1 6.6 8.0 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4

Table 1: The Distance of Bubble Movements

Data Processing and Presentation: The rate of transpiration can be calculated using below equation which is; Rate of transpiration = where, x = the length of movement of air bubble 900s = time taken for the air bubble to move Rate of transpiration (cms-1) 0.00200 0.00189 0.00178 0.00167 0.00156

x 900s

Length of plant from light (cm) 0.05 10 20 30 40 50

0.0025 0.002 0.0015 0.001 0.0005 0 0

Rate of transpiration/cms-1 10

20

30

40

50

60

Length of plant from light/cm Rate of transpiration (cms-1)

Discussion: Transpiration is a process of losing water from leaves and stem in the form of water vapour. It occurs most rapidly at the leaves of a plant where the stoma is most abundant. Apart from the abiotic factors, the opening of the stoma will also dictates the rate of water loss from a plant. Plants living in area where water is hard to come by counter this by either having stoma which is covered by lignin or/and stoma specially designed to be embedded deeper into the leaves to prevent excessive water loss. Expectedly, rate of water loss is varying from one plant to another, from one species to another. Temperature and the humidity of the surroundings, the light intensity and the air movement make the abiotic factors that influence rate of transpiration of a plant. In this experiment, we put special emphasize on the light intensity factor on the rate of transpiration.

Analysis my graph was in the form of a straight line. This meant that the rate of photosynthesis increased as the light intensity increased. This was because photosynthesis is a reaction, which needs energy from light to work, so as the amount of energy available from light increased with the rise in light intensity, so did the amount of oxygen produced as a product of photosynthesis. From these results, I am able to say that an increase in light intensity does certainly increase the rate of photosynthesis. The gradual decrease in the rate of increase of the rate of photosynthesis can be attributed to the other factors limiting the rate of photosynthesis. As light intensity increases, the photosynthetic rate is being limited by certain factors, such as carbon dioxide and temperature. These factors do not immediately limit the rate of photosynthesis, but rather gradually. As light intensity increases further, so the rate of photosynthesis is increasing too.