7 views

Uploaded by slv_prasaad

thermodynamics

- ejercicios motores.
- Heat Engines for Basic Mechanical Engineering
- MET401-Power Plant Engineering.pdf
- entropy notes.pdf
- Caustic Recovery with Hot water
- Lab 2 Report thermodynamics
- ME 201 Assignment
- Thermal Engineering MCQ.docx
- Air Standard Cycles Basics
- July 2010 Mechanical Engineering Thermodynamics II
- Chem 444 Web
- Pipe Expansion and Support
- Analisis Thermo Stu
- EN-Armstrong-Condensate-Guidelines-.pdf
- Problem Rankine Cycle (1)
- Karina Cycle Exergy Analysis.pdf
- AETD UNIT 4
- CT Data Sheet- Tank
- Appendix 2 Technical Description
- Chapter 10 Lecture

You are on page 1of 27

cycle (b) T-s diagram of an ideal Rankine cycle

Application of the First law of thermodynamics

to the control volume (pump, steam generator,

turbine and condenser), gives

Work done on pump, per kg of water, W

P

= h

2

-h

1

Energy added in steam generator, q

1

= h

3

-h

2

Work delivered by turbine, W

T

= h

3

-h

4

Energy rejected in the condenser, q

2

= h

4

-h

1

The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle is

given by,

2 3

1 2 4 3

2 3

1 4 2 3

1

2 1

) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

h h

h h h h

h h

h h h h

q

q q

= Net work done

----------------------

Energy absorbed

Practical Rankine cycle

Pump and Turbine do not operate isentropically

in practice.

The practical Rankine cycle is shown as 1-2-3-

4-1.

In the actual turbine, the work delivered is less

than the isentropic turbine. Similarly, the work

consumed by an actual pump is greater than the

work consumed by an isentropic pump.

That is,

h

3

-h

4

< h

3

-h

4

h

2

-h

1

> h

2

-h

1

Thermal efficiency of a practical Rankine cycle,

'

2 3

1

'

2

'

4 3

) ( ) (

h h

h h h h

The performance of an actual turbine or pump is

usually expressed in terms of isentropic

efficiency.

Isentropic efficiency of turbine (

T

) is defined as

the ratio of Work delivered by actual turbine to

Work delivered by an isentropic turbine.

4 3

'

4 3

h h

h h

T

Isentropic efficiency of pump (

P

) is defined as

the ratio of Work required by isentropic pump

to Work required by actual pump

1

'

2

1 2

h h

h h

P

Methods to increase the efficiency of the

Rankine cycle

Basic idea: Increase the average temperature at

which heat is transferred to the working fluid in

the boiler, or decrease the average temperature

at which heat is rejected from the working fluid

in the condenser.

1. Lowering the condenser Pressure:-

Lowering the operating pressure of the

condenser lowers the temperature at which heat

is rejected. The overall effect of lowering the

condenser pressure is an increase in the thermal

efficiency of the cycle.

2. Superheating the steam to high temperatures:-

The average temperature at which heat is added

to the steam can be increased without increasing

the boiler pressure by superheating the steam to

high temperatures.

Superheating the steam to higher temperatures

has another very desirable effect: It decreases

the moisture content of the steam at the turbine

exit.

3. Increasing the Boiler pressure:-

Increasing the operating pressure of the boiler,

automatically raises the temperature at which

boiling takes place.

This raises the average temperature at which

heat is added to the steam and thus raises the

thermal efficiency of the cycle..

Reheat Rankine Cycle

(a) schematic representation of a reheat Rankine

cycle (b) T-s diagram of a reheat Rankine cycle

The energy added ( per unit mass of steam ) in

the steam generator is given by,

) ( ) (

4 5 2 3 1

h h h h q +

The energy rejected in the condenser,

1 6 2

h h q

The thermal efficiency,

) ( ) (

) ( ) ( ) (

4 5 2 3

1 6 4 5 2 3

h h h h

h h h h h h

+

+

Regenerative Cycle

(a) schematic diagram (b) T-s diagram

Consider the feed water heater as the control

volume and apply the first law of

thermodynamics to obtain,

3 8 2

m m m +

and

3 3 8 8 2 2

h m h m h m +

or

8 8 2 8 3 3 3

) ( h m h m m h m +

or

2

3

8

8

3

8

3

1 h

m

m

h

m

m

h

,

_

,

_

Let,

3

8

m

m

from the turbine for preheating

( )

2 8 3

1 h Y h Y h

+

working fluid,

4 7 1

h h q

Energy rejected in the condenser,

( ) ) ( ' 1

1 9 2

h h Y q

Thermal efficiency,

( )

) (

) ( ' 1 ) (

4 7

1 9 4 7

h h

h h Y h h

The work output of the turbines =

( ) ) ( ' 1 ) (

9 8 8 7

h h Y h h

Work spent on the pumps =

( ) ) ( ' 1 ) (

1 2 3 4

h h Y h h

Air standard Otto Cycle

Air standard Otto cycle on (a) P-v diagram (b)

T-s diagram

Processes: -

0-1: a fresh mixture of fuel-air is drawn into the

cylinder at constant pressure

1-2: isentropic compression

2-3: energy addition at constant volume

3-4: isentropic expansion

4-1: combustion products leave the cylinder

1-0: the piston pushes out the remaining

combustion products at constant pressure

Since the net work done in processes 0-1 and 1-0

is zero, for thermodynamic analysis, we consider

the 1-2-3-4 only.

The thermal efficiency of the cycle is given by

1

2 1

1

Q

Q Q

Q

W

net

where Q

1

and Q

2

denote the energy absorbed and

rejected as heat respectively.

For a constant volume process Q=U. If m is

the mass of the air which is undergoing the

cyclic process,

T mC U

v

Energy is absorbed during the process 2-3

Energy is rejected during the process 4-1

Hence,

( )

2 3

1 4

1 4 1 4 2

2 3 2 3 1

1

) (

T T

T T

T T mC U U Q

T T mC U U Q

v

v

process (process 1-2 and 3-4),

1

Tv

= constant

Hence,

1

1

2

2

1

,

_

v

v

T

T

and

1

4

3

3

4

,

_

v

v

T

T

But v

1

=v

4

and v

2

=v

3

. Hence we get,

3

4

2

1

T

T

T

T

or

3

2

4

1

T

T

T

T

3

2

4

1

1 1

T

T

T

T

or

3

2 3

4

1 4

T

T T

T

T T

2

1

3

4

2 3

1 4

T

T

T

T

T T

T T

Hence,

1

0

1

1

2

2

1

1

1 1 1

,

_

,

_

r v

v

T

T

Where the compression ratio r

0

is defined as

2

1

0

v

v

r

Sometimes it is convenient to express the

performance of an engine in terms of Mean

effective Pressure, P

m

, defined as the ratio of

Net work done to Displacement volume

2 1

v v

W

P

m

) (

2 1

v v P W

m

Thermal efficiency of the ideal Otto cycle as a

function of compression ratio (=1.4)

The thermal efficiency of the Otto cycle

increases with the specific heat ratio, of the

working fluid.

Air standard Diesel cycle

Diesel cycle on (a) P-v diagram (b) T-s diagram

Processes: -

0-1: fresh air is drawn into the cylinder

1-2: isentropic compression

2-3: constant pressure energy addition

3-4: isentropic expansion

4-1: combustion products leave the cylinder

1-0: remaining combustion products are

exhausted at constant pressure

Defining cutoff ratio, r

c

as,

2

3

v

v

r

c

For a constant pressure process (2-3),

Q=H.

Hence, the energy addition during process 2-3,

) ( ) (

2 3 2 3 2 3 1

T T mC h h m H H Q

p

where m is the mass of gas undergoing the

cyclic change.

The energy rejection during the process 4-1,

) ( ) (

1 4 1 4 1 4 2

T T mC u u m U U Q

v

The thermal efficiency, is given by

,

_

,

_

1

1

1

) (

1

) (

) ( ) (

2

3

2

1

4

1

2 3

1 4

2 3

1 4 2 3

1

2 1

T

T

T

T

T

T

T T

T T

T T mC

T T mC T T mC

Q

Q Q

p

v p

1

0

1

1

2

2

1

1

,

_

,

_

r v

v

T

T

Since the process 4-1 is a constant volume

process,

,

_

,

_

1

2

3

4

1

3

3

4

1

4

1

4

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

T

T

since P

2

=P

3

The processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic. Hence,

,

_

4

3

3

4

v

v

P

P

and

,

_

2

1

1

2

v

v

P

P

Hence we get,

c

r

v

v

v

v

v

v

T

T

,

_

,

_

,

_

2

3

2

1

4

3

1

4

For the constant pressure process,

c

r

v

v

T

T

2

3

2

3

Hence the efficiency becomes,

1

]

1

1

1 1

1

1

0 c

c

r

r

r

diesel cycle is given by,

( ) [ ]

) 1 )( 1 (

1 ( ) 1

0

0 0

1

r

r r r r

P P

c c

m

Thermal efficiency of the ideal diesel cycle as a

function of compression and cutoff ratios

(=1.4)

Air standard Dual cycle

Dual cycle on (a) P-v diagram (b) T-s diagram

Energy addition is in two stages: Part of energy

is added at constant volume and part of the

energy is added at constant pressure

Energy added, q

1

) ( ) (

3 4 2 3 1

T T C T T C q

p v

+

Energy rejected, q

2

) (

1 5 2

T T C q

v

Thermal efficiency,

) ( ) (

) (

1

) ( ) (

) (

1

1

3 4 2 3

1 5

3 4 2 3

1 5

1

2

T T T T

T T

T T C T T C

T T C

q

q

p v

v

+

Compression ratio, r

0

= V

1

/V

2

Cut-off ratio, r

c

= V

4

/V

3

Constant volume pressure ratio, r

vp

= P

3

/P

2

- ejercicios motores.Uploaded byDaniel Armas
- Heat Engines for Basic Mechanical EngineeringUploaded byJigar Mevada
- MET401-Power Plant Engineering.pdfUploaded byJames Izquierdo
- entropy notes.pdfUploaded byAsza Shahiza
- Caustic Recovery with Hot waterUploaded byNadeem Naseem
- Lab 2 Report thermodynamicsUploaded byOse Colix Jr.
- ME 201 AssignmentUploaded bymz_haq
- Thermal Engineering MCQ.docxUploaded bysanthisree
- Air Standard Cycles BasicsUploaded bySharad Kumar Agarwal
- July 2010 Mechanical Engineering Thermodynamics IIUploaded byFarrukhaka
- Chem 444 WebUploaded byRawlinson Tolentino
- Pipe Expansion and SupportUploaded byKagira Drawing Soltuion
- Analisis Thermo StuUploaded bywink_arsyah
- EN-Armstrong-Condensate-Guidelines-.pdfUploaded byarmagano59
- Problem Rankine Cycle (1)Uploaded byErwin Sutiono
- Karina Cycle Exergy Analysis.pdfUploaded byMiriam Diaz
- AETD UNIT 4Uploaded byDamo Daran G
- CT Data Sheet- TankUploaded bynicorrea23
- Appendix 2 Technical DescriptionUploaded byVijay Kumar
- Chapter 10 LectureUploaded byMistry Sunny
- ggUploaded bychand7777777
- 8 TAS Energy- Low Temperature Waste Energy Recovery in PetrochemUploaded byAshok Pradhan
- ech3101fall2013secondlawefficiencies-2Uploaded byWillRosero
- NIACpaperUploaded byHari650
- Brayton Gas Turbine Cycle(1)Uploaded byJamshid
- A10-A-PID-VA-718600-201.pdfUploaded byzhang
- NDUGIUploaded byWizzilla Doug Graeco- Roman
- Improvements in fermentation and cogeneration system in the ethanol production process: Hybrid membrane fermentation and heat integration of the overall process through Pinch AnalysisUploaded byWidya Sari
- Tema 3 Sustancia PuraUploaded byJuan Esteban Bedoya
- GRUNDIGfier de Calcat SIS_8250Uploaded byMitza Mihk

- Lecture 26aUploaded byslv_prasaad
- JNTUA Mechanical Engineering (R09) Syllabus BookUploaded byslv_prasaad
- 9A03504 Design of Machine Elements 21Uploaded byslv_prasaad
- 9A03504 Design of Machine ElementsUploaded byslv_prasaad
- 47_219_TS4 AUploaded byslv_prasaad
- ME1302-LP-AUploaded byCKDinakarraj
- Curved BeamsUploaded byAnonymous EKqkRJsJN
- 4_1Uploaded byslv_prasaad
- r7310305-Design of Machine Members-i2Uploaded byslv_prasaad
- r7310305-Design of Machine Members-iUploaded byslv_prasaad
- 9A03504 Design of Machine Elements I 1Uploaded byslv_prasaad
- 9A03504 Design of Machine Elements IUploaded byslv_prasaad
- ME2303Uploaded bybrbtvm
- r7320105-Estimating & CostingUploaded byslv_prasaad
- r7320102 Environmental EngineeringUploaded byslv_prasaad
- r7320101 Geotechnical Engineering iUploaded byslv_prasaad
- .. TenthClass BitBanks MathsEM 7GeomentryUploaded byslv_prasaad
- F2008-06-042Uploaded byslv_prasaad
- ajas53189-196Uploaded byslv_prasaad
- 10.1.1.106.8304Uploaded byslv_prasaad
- ch_9_1_2Uploaded byslv_prasaad
- ch_4_1Uploaded byslv_prasaad
- ch_1Uploaded byslv_prasaad
- jul_06Uploaded byslv_prasaad
- Toyota 1ZZ-FEUploaded byIsrael Pamintuan

- Acer Security Suite - EMBASSY TPM Solution Spec_v1.0Uploaded byShunki You
- EDSR ManualUploaded byDan Anton
- DF521i SpecificationUploaded byncthanhck
- MD50 - Sales Order Invoice for Another OUUploaded byVenkat Nkb
- Operators and OperandsUploaded bySanchit Garg
- Gantt Chart PDFUploaded byThasarathan Ravichandran
- Section5Exercise1_BuildNativeAppsUsingAppStudioForArcGISUploaded byalgassi
- Big Data Comes to School 2016Uploaded byjoanna
- HydroformingUploaded byHarpreet Matharoo
- 371 Wynstra Weele AxelssonUploaded byChristian Makande
- PR 427 Zowarka PublicationsUploaded byNikhil Singh
- Slides # 1 EadUploaded byTayyab Bhatti
- PrepUploaded byFahd Ali Shifa
- ProgrammingUploaded byRolando Venegas Venegas
- Best Practices - Change Management, Enterprise Security, Disaster Recovery & MoreUploaded byOSoccer
- AxeServerUploaded byedgarbass2000
- What Are the Three Main Purposes of an OperatingUploaded byAbhinish Swaroop
- HRM Project Slides on wateen by usman pirzadaUploaded byUsman
- VectaStar Radio Controller DatasheetUploaded byIeħor Biss
- abt-chiptuning-seat-leon-cupra-r.pdfUploaded byagvanpd
- 2490c3Uploaded byIBJSC.com
- A Sliding Mode Control for Robot ManipulatorUploaded byauralius
- Share Point ConfigurationUploaded byasahai101
- As 4192-2006 Illuminated Flashing Arrow SignsUploaded bySAI Global - APAC
- operations mainteanceUploaded byAbdel Nasser Adam
- Change ManagementUploaded byflo
- iomUploaded bySyed Khan
- exercicio_ingles_instrumental_5Uploaded bycristiny_castro
- IT_IS_Instructor Lab Manual_Even 17-18 SampleUploaded byjasvant282842953
- Samsung ElectronicsUploaded byZaw Lwin