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# INTRODUCTION HISTORY Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless number that gives a measure of the ratio of inertial forces to viscous

forces and consequently quantifies the relative importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions. The concept was introduced by George Gabriel Stokes in 1851, but the Reynolds number is named after Osborne Reynolds (18421912), who popularized its use in 1883. They are also used to characterize different flow regimes, such as laminar or turbulent flow that is laminar flow occurs at low Reynolds numbers, where viscous forces are dominant, and is characterized by smooth, constant fluid motion; turbulent flow occurs at high Reynolds numbers and is dominated by inertial forces, which tend to produce chaotic eddies, vortices and other flow instabilities. The Reynolds number was derived in 1883 by "the British physicist and engineer Osborne Reynolds," according to The Internet Encyclopedia of Science. The equation for determining a Reynolds number (Re = pVD/viscosity) means fluid or air density multiplied by velocity, multiplied by the diameter of a pipe, and then divided by viscosity. Reynolds number can be defined for a number of different situations where a fluid is in relative motion to a surface. These definitions generally include the fluid properties of density and viscosity, plus a velocity and a characteristic length or characteristic dimension. This dimension is a matter of convention for example a radius or diameter are equally valid for spheres or circles, but one is chosen by convention. USES OF REYNOLDS NUMBER For aircraft or ships, the length or width can be used. For flow in a pipe or a sphere moving in a fluid the internal diameter is generally used today. Other shapes such as rectangular pipes or non-spherical objects have an equivalent diameter defined. For fluids of variable density such as compressible gases or fluids of variable viscosity such non-Newtonian fluids, special rules apply.
School of Manufacturing EPT 228 Fluid Mechanics

PRINCIPLES

Bernoulli Theorem This ratio is called Reynolds number and is expressed for internal flow in a circular pipe. The Reynolds number (Re) is given by

Where: v = velocity, m/s D = diameter pipe, m = viscosity of water, kg/m2 = density of water, kg/m3 The water velocity, v is determined by:

Where: v = velocity, m/s Q = volume flow rate, m3/s A = cross sectional area pipe, m2

School of Manufacturing

## EPT 228 Fluid Mechanics

PIPE FRICTION The Moody diagram, which describes the DarcyWeisbach friction factor f as a function of the Reynolds number and relative pipe roughness. Pressure drops seen for fully developed flow of fluids through pipes can be predicted using the Moody diagram which plots the DarcyWeisbach friction factor against Reynolds number and relative roughness . The diagram clearly shows the laminar, transition, and turbulent flow regimes as Reynolds number increases. The nature of pipe flow is strongly dependent on whether the flow is laminar or turbulent

In this experiment you we using the Reynolds Number Apparatus. This Reynolds apparatus consists of a constant head supply tank supplied with water. This tank is provided with a bell mouth outlet to which a transparent tube is fitted. At outlet of the tube, a regulating valve is provided. A dye tank containing coloured dye is fitted above the supply tank. The water flows through pipe and dye is injected at the centre of the pipe.

School of Manufacturing

## EPT 228 Fluid Mechanics

When the velocity of flow is low, that is flow of laminar then dye remains in the form of straight filament. As the velocity of water is increased, a state is reached when the dye filament becomes irregular and wavers. With further increase of velocity of water through the tube, dye filament becomes more and more irregular and ultimately the dye diffuses over the entire cross section of the tube. The velocity at which the flow changes from laminar to turbulent for the case of a given fluid at given temperature and in a given pipe is known as critical velocity. The state of flow between these two types of flow is known as 'transition state' or flow in transition. There are in general three types of fluid flow in pipes : laminar turbulent transient

Laminar flow Laminar flow generally happens when dealing with small pipes and low flow velocities. Laminar flow can be regarded as a series of liquid cylinders in the pipe, where the innermost parts flow the fastest, and the cylinder touching the pipe isn't moving at all. Shear stress depends almost only on the viscosity - - and is independent of density - . Turbulent flow In turbulent flow vortices, eddies and wakes make the flow unpredictable. Turbulent flow happens in general at high flow rates and with larger pipes. Shear stress for turbulent flow is a function of the density - .

Transitional flow Transitional flow is a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow, with turbulence in the center of the pipe, and laminar flow near the edges. Each of these flows behave in different manners in terms of their frictional energy loss while flowing, and have different equations that predict their behavior.

School of Manufacturing

## EPT 228 Fluid Mechanics

The Reynolds number is important in analyzing any type of flow when there is substantial velocity gradient in example shear. It indicates the relative significance of the viscous effect compared to the inertia effect. The Reynolds number is proportional to inertial force divided by viscous force. Theoretical flow rate is : laminar when Re < 2300 transient when 2300 < Re < 4000 turbulent when 4000 < Re

EQUIPMENT

## Reynolds Number Apparatus

School of Manufacturing

## EPT 228 Fluid Mechanics

DISCUSSION Based on the result experiment , the ranges of Reynolds number were at the right position as theoretical range stated . Table below shown the comparition between the theoretical and result value : Types of flow Laminar Transition Turbulent Transition Laminar Theoretical range Re < 2300 2300 < Re < 4000 4000 < Re 2300 < Re < 4000 Re < 2300 Result Experiment 722.79 < 2300 2300 < 2356.18 < 4000 4000 < 4596.15 2300 < 2721.55 < 4000 834.45 < 2300

Probability of Errors : Wall tap error The wall tap error was considered and the maximum error in the static pressure due to pressure taps was found to be less than 0:041 %. It is assumed that the measured differential pressure should be independent of the geometry and the hole size as long as the wall taps were uniform, because the same error then would occur at both wall taps. Burrs on the edge of the pressure taps would however influence both the absolute pressure and the pressure drop. Therefore, all wall taps were inspected before use, and eventual burrs were removed prior to flow experiments. Gap size effect The presence of the gap, however small, affects the measurements. These effects were mainly observed in drop of lift and change in zero lift angle of attack and change in stall angle for the airfoil. The size of the gap is not linearly related to these changes, which also depend on the camber of the airfoil. These changes occur due to the flow through the gap from the lower

School of Manufacturing

## EPT 228 Fluid Mechanics

surface to the upper surface of the model. The wing/end plate gap effect reduces along the span but is not fully restricted to the base of the model. Recommendations : During the experiment there are several precaution steps that need to be alert. The experiment should be done at suitable and unshaken place. To get appropriate laminar smooth stream flow, the clip and the valve which control the injection of red dye must be regulate slow and carefully. When removing the beaker from the exit valve, we notice that some water still enter the beaker because of the slow response between the person who guide the stop watch and collecting beaker. Lastly, do this experiment at steady place, control the clip and valve carefully to get long thin of laminar dye flow, and remove the beaker which uses to collect the amount of water at sharp when the time is up, to avoid error flow rate error. Conclusion : Laminar flow - highly ordered fluid motion with smooth streamlines. Transition flow - a flow that contains both laminar and turbulent regions. Turbulent flow- a highly disordered fluid motion characterized by velocity and fluctuations and eddies. According to the Reynolds`s experiment, laminar flow will occur when a thin filament of dye injected into laminar flow appears as a single line. There is no dispersion of dye throughout the flow, except the slow dispersion due to molecular motion. While for turbulent flow, if a dye filament injected into a turbulent flow, it disperse quickly throughout the flow field, the lines of dye breaks into myriad entangled threads of dye. In this experiment we have to firstly is to observe the characteristic of the flow of the fluid in the pipe, which may be laminar or turbulent flow by measuring the Reynolds number and the behaviour of the flow, secondly to calculate the range for the laminar and turbulent flow and lastly to prove the Reynolds number is dimensionless by using the Reynolds number formula.
School of Manufacturing EPT 228 Fluid Mechanics