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Unit 8


Image 8.1 Louisiana Purchase


Manifest Destiny & the Lousiana Purchase

Manifest Destiny and the Louisiana Purchase Section Overview Throughout the 1820s and 1830s, the American population was rapidly increasing. European immigrants were coming along the eastern coastline and people began to push farther west beyond the Mississippi despite the fact that the Spanish and British still had territorial claims in North America. In 1845, John OSullivan, editor at the New York Morning Newswrote that it was Americas manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole continent. This term, manifest destiny, means obvious fate. Americans like OSullivan believed that it was Americas divine right to move westward. Between 1830-1850, Americans becameincreasingly aggressive in their westward expansion despite the land claims of other nations. Not surprisingly, manifest destiny would lead America into a war with Mexico and a possible war with Britain. However, this period of American history would forever change the physical map of our nation.


Assess the validity of the claim that America had a right to expand to the Pacic Ocean. Analyze why the Louisiana Purchase is seen as the most important land purchase in American history. Section Author: Mr. Welch


Manifest Destiny and the Louisiana Purchase Exploration of the Louisiana Territory Perhaps the most important event of the manifest destiny time period occurred many years before OSullivans quote. When he agreed to purchase the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon at a cost of $15 million in 1801, Thomas Jefferson recorded the single-most important Image 8.2 Captains Lewis & Clark holding a council with the Indians land purchase in American history. The purchase, as you might recall from Unit 6, doubled the size of the nation at a cost of three cents per acre of land, supplied the nation with the most fertile river system in the world, and paved the way for future westward expansion. After the purchase, Jefferson was interested in exploring the new territory. To accomplish this he appointed Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the region on an expeditionlasting from 1804 to 1806. Interestingly enough, Lewis started her journey in Pittsburgh in July of 1803. Lewis and Clark, along with their 45-member group, traveled from the banks of the Missouri River through the Rocky Mountains, along the Columbia River, and eventually would reach the Pacific Ocean. During this journey, Lewis

and Clark met a Shoshoni female named Sacajawea. The 16-year-old woman became a scout for the group and served as a translator for Lewis and Clark throughout the journey. During the trip, the explorers encountered several challenges. Their progress was slowed by the landscapes they encountered ranging from fast-moving waterways to mountains. The expedition also had to deal with wildlife raiding their camps and a lack of food along the way. By the time they had gone beyond the Rockies, several members of the group had died. Thankfully for Lewis and Clark, they encountered the Nez Perce, a tribe of the Pacific Northwest. The Nez Perce supplied the group with food, leading Lewis to write, they are the most hospitable, honest and sincere people that we have met on our voyage. On December 3, 1805, the expedition reached the Pa- Image 8.3 Lewis and Clark at the mouth of the Columbia cific Ocean. William Clark River, 1805 marked the event by carving his name into a tree along the coastline. The 8,000-mile journey allowed Lewis and Clark to map a route to the Pacific Ocean and establish somewhat positive relations with native tribes. The expedition bolstered Americas claim to land such as Oregon and further encouraged other groups to head west for trade and exploration.

For example, Zebulon Pike set out to explore the southern part of the Louisiana Purchase. In 1806 and 1807, he traveled through Colorado and into present-day New Mexico. In Colorado, Pike would see the mountain that is now known as Pikes Peak. Pikes explorations would catch the attention of the Spanish, as they had already laid claim to some of this land, foreshadowing a future conflict.

Review 8.1 Section 8.1 Review

Question 1 of 3

What term represented the belief that America should expand across the continent to the Pacific Ocean?

A. Expansionist Participation B. Manifest Destiny C. Destinys Child D. Sweet Caroline

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Image 8.4 Texas Annexation, 1845


Texas and War with Mexico

Texas and War with Mexico Section Overview It would not be long before the fervor of Manifest Destiny would spread to the Lone Star Republic, Texas. While some were motivated by gaining land that was suitable for cash-crop cotton farming, others saw southern expansion as a way to maintain an equal share of Senators in Congress. Texas and War with Mexico Americans Knocking on Texas Door In 1821, Mexico was finally able to achieve its independence from Spain. At the time, the Mexican government wanted to increase the population in Texas, and looked to American settlers to fill the void. The Mexican government accepted the request of Moses Austin, a banker and businessman, to settle in the eastern portion of Texas. However, Mexico stipulated that all settlers must convert to Roman Catholicism and all settlers obey the laws of Mexico, thus making slavery illegal in Texas.


Describe how conict originated between Texans and Tejanos Analyze how Texas gained its independence from Mexico Explain how the United States acquired the lands formerly controlled by Mexico Section Author: Mr. Welch

Despite the rules set forth by the Mexican government, Moses Austins son, Stephen, led more than 300 American families to Texas in 1822. Soon, this rapid population growth was sure to cause a problem. Texas and War with Mexico Tension Builds The Mexican government may have been happy, at first, with the idea of increased populations in Texas. However, by 1830, Americans drastically outnumbered Mexicans living in Texas, known as Tejanos, at a rate of 5 to 1. More precisely, there were 25,000 Americans in Texas in 1830 compared to only 4,000 Tejanos. As the population grew, problems began. Austin and his American colonists did not like the fact that Mexico stopped all American immigration to Texas. Second, the Mexican government began to crack down on the colonists who ignored its ban on slavery. Americans, accustomed to speaking English, began to resent that all government policies and documents were written in Spanish. Likewise, the Tejanos living in the area did not appreciate their American friends living in Texas. Tejanos believed that many Americans settled in Texas without the permission of the Mexican government. Tejanos were thrilled with the decision of the Mexican government to close Texas to American immigrants.

Americans in Texas began to hope for some sort of self-rule so that Texas could follow its own rules and settle its own problems without involving the Mexican government. Stephen Austin appealed to the new President of Mexico, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, for more control over Texas. However, Santa Anna wanted no parts of any discussion and Austin was jailed for incitingrebellion. Texas and War with Mexico Santa Anna Takes the Fight North Austin would be released from jail in 1835, and, soon after, the push by Americans for Texas independence from Mexico grew stronger. Santa Anna, Image 8.5 Gennow a dictatorin Mexico, took his eral Antonio De 6,000 troops north in order to shut Santa Anna down any rebellion efforts. In February of 1836, Santa Annas army reached the city of San Antonio, Texas. Soon, Santa Annas army surrounded an old mission known as the Alamo. With 180 Texan fighters trapped inside, Santa Anna demanded an unconditional surrender. He was met with a response of canons firing. Santa Anna unleashed a barrageof cannon balls upon the Alamo for 12 days before ordering his troops to attack the fort on March 6, 1836. This final assault resulted in the killing of all of the Americans at the fort. Those who had survived the fighting were granted no mercy and were executed.

Rather than crush the Texans wish for independence, the events at the Alamo only inspired it. The phrase Remember the Alamo was became a battle cry for the independence effort. Texas and War with Mexico Independence for Texas After his victory at the Battle of the Alamo, Santa Anna began chasing the Texas army throughout the eastern side of Texas. General Sam Houston, commander of the Texans, believed that he could weaken Santa Annas army by drawing them deeper into Texas. This would make it much Image 8.6 Sam Houston more difficult for Santa Anna to get supplies from Mexico. General Houstons plan worked. In April of 1836, the armies of Houston and Santa Anna met near the San Jacinto River. Houston led a surprise attack late in the afternoon with the battle cry of Remember the Alamo! Santa Annas army was overrun and he attempted to flee before being captured a day later. In exchange for his own freedom, he signed two treaties. First, he recognized Texas Independ108

ence and recognized the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas. Nonetheless, Mexico did not truly accept that Texas was an independent nation and looked forward to the day that it would reclaim the area.

Image 8.7 The Alamo

Texas and War with Mexico Annexation of Texas In 1836, Texas, the Lone Star Republic, was considered an independent nation. It would remain so until the mid 1840s, when it became a major debate item in the 1844 Presidential Election. Although many Texans wished to join the United States, Americans were not united on the decision over whether or not to annexTexas. Texans had petitioned to become a state in 1837, only to be ignored by the American government for some time. Opponents of the annexation believed that this would only extend slavery into new territories while southerners obviously supported such an expansion. Additionally, Mexico still had claims to Texas and any attempt to annex it would be seen as an act of war against Mexico. The hesitation of the American government led Texas to begin to write its own treaties with England and France. In the Election of 1844, James K. Polk, a Democrat who campaigned on the annexation of Texas, was victorious over Henry Clay. Alarmed by the possibility of European involve-

ment in North America, President John Tyler, who was on the way out of office, saw Polks election as a message from the American people to act to annex Texas. In 1845, Texas joined the United States of America as the 28th state. Texas and War with Mexico War with Mexico After the annexation of Texas, Mexico cut all diplomatic ties with the United States. Soon after, the boundary between Mexico and Texas was disputed. Texas believed the boundary to be the Rio Grande, however, Mexico believed it was farther north at the Nueces River. Matters became more complicated when Polk presented a plan to purchase California from Mexico for $25 million. However, Mexico refused to entertain any offer from the nation Image 8.8 Rio Grande and Nueces Rivers that stole Texas from it. Expansionists in Congress pushed for war with Mexico. In January of 1846, Polk helped to provoke a war by sending General Zachary Taylor to march between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande. In April,

Polk got what he wanted by instigating the Mexican army as they came across the Rio Grande and attackedTaylors forces. Congress, at Polks request, declared war upon Mexico. Things unraveled quickly for Mexico as General Winfield Scott would eventually capture Mexico City by 1848, forcing Mexico into a peace negotiation. The United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgoas a peace agreement. The United States agreed to pay $15 million in damages to Image 8.9 Mexican Cession, Mexico. However, they 1848 & Gadsden Purchase would take control of Texas, and most of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado. This would later lead to the problem of what lands should be free and which would be slave.

Review 8.2 Section 8.2 Review

Question 1 of 3

Tejanos were upset when many ______ began moving into Texas.

A. Americans B. Canadians C. French D. Spanish

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Image 8.10 Oregon Territory, 1846


Oregon Section Overview As the time period of manifest destiny opened, there were many motives for expanding westward to new lands. Proslavery supporters saw it as a way to maintain a balance of power with anti-slavery states in the Senate. Cotton planters saw expansion as a way to increase profits. With increasing numbers of people moving west, it was only a matter of time before conflict would occur with other nations that had also made claims to western lands. Oregon was no different, as the vast area known as Oregon Country had been claimed by Spain, Russia, Britain, and the United States. Oregon A Furry Situation Following the Louisiana Purchase, John Jacob Astor created the American Fur Company in 1808. His goal was to set up a fur trade from the Great Lakes all the way west to Oregon. He,


Discuss the process of westward expansion into Oregon by American settlers. Predict what may have happened if President Polk did not compromise with the British over the disputed territories of Oregon Country. Section Author: Mr. Welch


along with other fur trappers, began to move west to benefit from the fur trade. As Americans moved west into Oregon Country, a conflict with Spain over the territory was averted. As part of the Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819, Image 8.11 Acquisition of Florida, Spain gave up any 1819 land claims to Oregon. However, things were not as easy with Russia. Russia had established Fort Ross in 1812. This outpost was just north of the city of San Francisco. President John Quincy Adams put pressure on Russia to leave the area. The Russians agreed to give up their land claims in 1825 as part of a series of treaties with America and Britain. Soon, the only two nations that laid claim to the land were American and Britain. Oregon The Oregon Trail In the 1840s, a flood of settlers spilled into Oregon along the Oregon Trail. The access points for the trail began in Independence, Missouri or Council Bluffs, Iowa. This 2,000-mile trail, initially traveled by Jebediah Smith, was not

an easy trek. On average, 17 people would die for each mile of trail due to causes such as disease and malnutrition. However, the fertile lands of Oregon Country motivated these pioneers to continue their journey westward. Oregon Conflict with the British

Image 8.12 Oregon Trail Marker

By 1846, more than 5,000 Americans lived the area south of the Columbia River. The British recognized this rapid migration of Americans and tried to encourage their own settlers to move to Oregon. However, by 1846, there were only around 700 British settlers in the area. Being outnumbered in the region, the British wanted to negotiate some sort of land settlement with America. Americans initially wanted to set the border at 54north, near the current border of Alaska. However, the British wanted the border to be much further south, along the Columbia River. The border dispute was a major point of debate during the Election of 1844. The Democratic candidate, James K. Polk, was an expansionistwho campaigned on a pledge to make the border at 54 north, 40 west. His slogan was 54- 40or fight. However, Polk would abandon this cam-

paign promise and agree to compromise with the British at 49 north. The British also accepted this offer and the Senate ratified the treaty thus averting a war. Polk and the Senate were eager to do this for two reasons. First, they did not want to add more land that may disrupt the balance of slave states and free states. Second, the nation was about to get involved in a war with Mexico.

Review 8.3 Section 8.3 Review

Question 1 of 3

In the 1800s, who did NOT have a land claim to the Oregon Territory?

A. Britain B. America C. Russia D. Germany

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Image 8.13 James Marshall discovers gold at Sutters Mill


California Section Overview Ever since our nations early days, Americans envisioned a nation established on the principlesof the Declaration of Independence. As Manifest Destiny became a reality, land possessions were added across the Great Plains, all the way to the Pacific Ocean. As these new territories became explored, more and more people travelled west. None of these new land acquisitions were more diversethan California. Many different people, from many different faiths and nationalities came to the Golden State for varying reasons. By 1850, California would quickly become the nations 31st state. Its admission to the Union solidified forever Americas Manifest Destiny. California Californios Prior to Mexican Independence, California was a possession of Spain. In the mid-1700s, a group of Spanish missionaries led a group north from spanish Mexico north to an area that


Explain the reasons that Californios, mountain men, missionaries, pioneer women, Mormons, forty-niners, and Chinese moved to the West. Identify the hardships that Californios, mountain men, missionaries, pioneer women, Mormons, forty-niners, and Chinese endured. Describe the legacy that Californios, mountain men, missionaries, pioneer women, Mormons, forty-niners, and Chinese left to the West. Section Author: Mr. Dorenkamp

is known today as California. Soldiers and catholic priests accompanied the missionaries on their journey. The purpose of this trip to the north was to convert the Native Americans in that area to Christianity. To accomplish this goal, the Spanish built a chain of missions. One of the first of which was named San Diego. From there other missions were created. These hubs of christianitystretched from San Diego to just north of present day San Francisco. Image 8.14 A San Diego Mission Each mission controlled a huge area of land, as well as the Indians who worked it. While the missionaries thought doing Gods work would help improve the lives of Native Americans, their arrival had the opposite effect, for a couple of reasons. One, the Native Americans were treated unkindly by the visitors from the south. Secondly, the Spanish newcomers brought with them deadly diseases that the Indians bodies were not immune to. Over time, settlers followed the missionaries to California. To encourage even more settlement, Spain issued large land grants for those willing to settle the territory. With Mexicos success in winning its independence in 1821, California was now under Mexican control. In 1833, the California missions were closed by the Mexican government. These

missioned-controlled lands now fell into the hands of mexican settler and soldiers. Since California was so far from Mexico City, the Mexican capital, the Mexican government often ignored the territory. Corruption was common. Soldiers that were to protect the people of California were not paid by the Mexican government. So, in turn, they took whatever they wanted from the people they were supposed to protect. Officials sent to govern California were often dishonest and didnt perform the duties for which they were responsible. In 1846, at the conclusion of the War with Mexico, the United States took control of Mexico. In a very short while, with the influx of Americans, the Californios, as the Mexicans came to be known, were a minority in California. Within less than five years, this land that few Mexicans ever gave a second thought to would be over-run by people from the eastern United States. The discovery of gold near San Francisco would change California forever. California 49ers In 1848, an American named James Marshall was building a sawmill on the American River near the city of San Francisco. Suddenly, something shiny in the water caught the attention of the the carpenter. It was gold. Once it was revealed what Marshall had found, people across the country left their lives behind and headed to California searching for riches.

By the end of the next year, thousands upon thousands of fortune seekers from around the globe had joined what has become known as the California gold rush. A strong majority of these gold miners were Americans, while the remaining diggers came from foreign lands, such as Mexico, South America, Europe, Australia, and even China. The forty-niners' faced many hurdles in their attempts to strike it rich. First, and foremost, was just getting to California. From the Far West, travelers had Image 8.15 Gold Miners in California to brave the turbulent crossing of the Pacific Ocean. From the east coast of the United States, many traveled by ship to Panama in Central America, crossed the dangerous isthmus jungles to the Pacific Ocean. Then, they sailed north to San Francisco. More adventurous Americans made the difficult journey across North America. Wherever a miner spotted gold, mining camps quickly popped up nearby. The streets of these camps, and eventual towns, were lined with saloons that allowedthe lucky prospectors to spend their new riches on gambling or drinking. However, the saloons did not really provide the miners with the supplies that they needed. Because mining and everyday

goods were in such a limited supply, merchants created their own fortunes by selling goods at extremely inflatedprices. A shovel alone might cost a miner $36 (over $1000 in todays currency). There wasnt any law enforcement in these camps. As a result, they were very rough and dangerous places. Often, miners fought over the boundaries of their claims. In addition, they frequently took the law into their own hands. Duelsbetween prospectors, murders, and hangings we not out of the ordinary. The process of finding gold was extremely difficult and tiresome work. While often times standing in frigid water, the miners spent their days digging up dirt, mud, and stones. It was a tedious enterprise. As quickly as the gold rush began, it rapidly came to an end. By 1852, the gold rush concluded. During that four year span, nearly a quarter of a million people moved to California. By 1850, California had enough people that it applied for statehood. On September 9th, 1850, it became the first state from west of the Rocky mountains. California The Chinese Arrive in California When gold was discovered in California, most of the people in China were living miserable lives. To poor and hungry Chinese peasants, California sounded like a place where they could start their lives anew. They were recruited to come to America by mine owners. The Chinese were mis-

led by the possibility of finding a job with great pay, housing, and unlimited food. In a four year span, from 1848-1852, nearly 20,000 Chinese had immigrated to California. By, 1852, nearly one in ten Californians were of Image 8.16 Chinese Miners in Chinese descent. California Initially, the Chinese were welcome by Americans. However, as mining became more competitive, these immigrants from the Far East started to feel the negative effects of racismand discrimination. Since their appearance was drastically different most all other miners, the Chinese came under attack. The Chinese immigrants suffered discrimination in a handful of ways: 1.They were forced to pay a monthly tax in order to mine for gold. 2.Those Chinese that paid the tax were harassed and intimidated. In an effort to force them to leave, white Americans hacked off the long braids often worn by the Chinese men.

3.Many were beaten and their homes burned to the ground.

Since mining seemed to be out of the question, the Chinese turned to other occupations. Some opened stores, restaurants, or other businesses in Californias rapidly growing towns and cities. Still others farmed on Californias fertile soil. The Chinese helped build and transform the West, while they came seeking riches of gold, they ended up contributing to Californias rapid growth, and rich and diverse culture.


Review 8.4 Section 8.4 Review

Question 1 of 3

What does not represent the impact of the Californios on modern day California?

A. Names of Cities in California B. Crops in Califonia C. Gold Mines in California

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