(Electrical) 7 Oct 02 13:02 from which side an over excitation relay should be fed?

the HV side CVT of the transformer or the LV side CVT thanx. Start your own Eng-Tips Group! Click Here! redtrumpet (Electrical) 7 Oct 02 13:19 HV. 7 Oct 02 13:35 jwerthman (Electrical) I disagree. Ideally, the overvoltage and overflux detection should be on the secondary side of the transformer because the transformer capabilities are defined by ANSI from the secondary side. ANSI permits 105% continuous full load V/Hz on the secondary side, which could be 110% or more on the primary side, depending on the impedance. Many times the voltage is not available at the secondary in a location that would always be energized whenever the transformer primary is energized. So it is quite common to connect the V/Hz detection to a primary VT. But the secondary voltage is still a better correlation to the defined capabilities. redtrumpet (Electrical) 7 Oct 02 13:55 I admit my response was hasty. However, if the intent is to identify overexcitation of the transformer, I would want to know what the primary voltage was. I have worked with transformers with +/-15% range on the secondary OLTC. In other words, primary voltage could be 115% of rated and the secondary voltage measurement (load side of OLTC) could indicate rated secondary voltage and no problem. redtrumpet (Electrical) 7 Oct 02 14:11 jwerthman - okay, that last post didn't really make sense. Obviously, the transformer should be built to withstand the excitation associated with operation at the tap extremes. However, considering that the transformer receives its excitation from the primary, that's where I would want to measure voltage - for the reason you gave, since the line voltage is more likely to rise with the load off (ie. transformer secondary breaker open), and the secondary VTs may or may not be located on the line side of the secondary breaker. However, your point is well-taken and measurement on the secondary probably is more in line with the transformer capability. You have given me food for thought. 144x (Electrical) 8 Oct 02 12:34 jwerthman I'll give you 2 stars .one for your good answer and the other for not giving one word answers. electricpete (Electrical) 8 Oct 02 13:06 It sounds like the question has been answered well.

but obviously no practical way to really measure the V/Hz at that point.just thinking out loud a little bit: Primary leakage reactance would represent flux linking primary coil but not secondary coils or core. Secondary leakage reactance would represent flux linking secondary coils but not primary coils or core. which is usually LV side of the transformer. in general it could also be the high voltage of the transformer. So by my way of thinking the per-unit voltage which will represent the core flux condition is somewhere between that on the primary and that on the secondary.. which would be a rare case. Does it sound reasonable? 9 Oct 02 20:54 jwerthman (Electrical) rt . Of course the standard is what's important. Under these conditions the ratio of the actual generator terminal voltage to the actual frequency shall not exceed 1. current flow thru the primary leakage reactance causes a drop in voltage from primary terminals to the voltage associated with core dPhi/dt. Current flow thru the seoncary leakage reactance causes a drop in voltage from the voltage associated with core dPhi/dt to the voltage at the secondary terminals.. ep . I would say that most of the V/Hz protection I have seen (and applied myself) have been on the primary side.I think your logic is correct. I'm just thinking out loud. jbartos (Electrical) 13 Oct 02 2:06 Suggestion: Reference: 1. I believe for core form construction geometry with lv coil inside of hv coil the lv leakage reactance would be very small and therefore secondary side more representative.1 times the ratio of transformer rated voltage to the rated frequency on a sustained basis: (generator terminal voltage)/(actual frequency) ≤ 1. however. IEEE Std 242-2001 Buff Book Section 11. .. SO.8 Overexcitation Protection indicates: Direct-connected generator transformers are subjected to a wide range of frequency during the acceleration and deceleration of the turbine.In the case of a OLTC transformer.1 x (transformer rated voltage)/ (transformer rated frequency) This implies that the overexcitation protection is on the generator side of transformer.7. In spite of the ANSI capability definition. I completely agree that measuring the V/Hz on the secondary side would be meaningless.

just voltage fluctuation so the overflux is used as overvoltage on the secondary (LV) side. in this case you should protect the transformer from overflux due to unwqanted voltage and frequency fluctuation from the generator so position the relay on the LV side (generator side).DISTRIBUTION NETWORK: no need to overflux protection since you dont expect any frequency fluctuation on distribution network .DISTRIBUTION NETWORK: no need to overflux protection since you dont expect any frequency fluctuation on distribution network . 2.TRANSMISSION NETWORK: position the overflux protection on the HV side sine the frequency fluctuation due to feroresonant is common on HV side . 3. arminalidoosti (Electrical) 19 Dec 03 9:29 well I faced to this problem and after discusion with experts finally I came to following conclusion: over flux relay positioning is depend on the voltage level and application of the tranformer (step up or step down ) 1. Inrush Current .TRANSMISSION NETWORK: position the overflux protection on the HV side sine the frequency fluctuation due to feroresonant is common on HV side .POWER PLANT SWITCHGEAR: in this case the transformer is directly fed by synchroneous genrator.POWER PLANT SWITCHGEAR: in this case the transformer is directly fed by synchroneous genrator.just voltage fluctuation so the overflux is used as overvoltage on the secondary (LV) side. 3. 2. in this case you should protect the transformer from overflux due to unwqanted voltage and frequency fluctuation from the generator so position the relay on the LV side (generator side).arminalidoosti (Electrical) 19 Dec 03 9:27 well I faced to this problem as a young engineer and after discusion with experts I came to this conclusion finally: 1.

Inrush Current Protection Inrush current protection can be provided by an active circuit that uses a combination of power resistors. input rectifier drop. Active circuits are generally expensive and difficult to design. If inrush current protection is not in place. the only limits on the amount of inrush current drawn is the line impedance. A Inrush Current Limiter is used in series with the line voltage. Another option for inrush current protection is an NTC thermistor. and triacs. relays and fuses must be used that are rated higher than any possible inrush current. High inrush current can affect electrical systems by tripping fuses and circuit breakers unnecessarily. Without protection. It is estimated that 90% of inrush current limiting applications use inrush current Limiters. Circuits using Inrush Current Limiters are easy to design and are inexpensive compared to active circuits. Ametherm manufactures a special type of NTC thermistor designed specifically for inrush current protection called Inrush Current. it presents a high resistance to inrush current and quickly removes itself from the circuit allowing the electrical system to behave normally. and lighting ballasts can develop extremely high peak inrush currents at turn on unless inrush current protection is used. thyristors.Switching power supplies. At turn on. AC motors. and capacitor equivalent series resistance. . Inrush current can also cause pitted contacts on switches and relays due to the arcing of the contacts. Inrush current can be as high as 100 times the normal steady state current and normally lasts for less than 1/2 a normal 60 hertz cycle.