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Human groups are continuously forming, developing, changing and dissolving. For managers, this dynamic flow of group behavior presents some thorny problems: How do I get this group off on the right foot? What stand should I take in relation to the group as we go along? What symptoms of healthy or unhealthy group development should I lookout for? What should I do if I see danger signs? How can I manage a group to work most effectively? This research paper presents the contributions of social psychology, in particular the impact of group dynamics, on the organisations. Group dynamics focuses on the development and operation of groups and is premised on the idea that the process of socialization is achieved through group members learning their respective roles. The assumption of roles by group members helps them to determine how to act in their groups, which often leads to an "us vs. them" mentality. Research focused on the minimal group paradigm (MPG) has shed light on the minimum conditions necessary for the group thinking to take place. This research has recently developed the belief that behaviors are rational, instrumental actions aimed at maximizing economic self-interest. As a result ,the MPG can be applied to all entrepreneurial organizations.
A group is constantly developing and changing when Interaction takes place. A group is connections linking the individual members two or more individuals.
We define "group" as more than two employees who have an ongoing relationship in which they interact and influence one mother's behaviour and performance. The behaviour of individuals in groups is something more than the sum total of each acting in his or her own way. In other words, when individuals are in groups, they act differently than they do when they are alone. A group refers to the association of two or more persons interacting among themselves for the achievement of common goal. A group can be identified by: 1. Studying the perception group and cognition of each of the group members to determine as to which other individuals exist for each of the members psychologically. 2. Analysis of the group itself and the itself and the behavior of each of its members to ascertain as to whether or not a particular individuals fits in a member.
Given the important role that groups play in organisations. 1. For example. the collection of individuals is called a group. Accordingly. the group can be formal group or informal group. Moreover. The interaction reflects regular discussions and communication which may influence the behaviour of the group members. The goals of formal work group are determined according to the needs of the organisation. and also do not share a common purpose. purchase committee. quality control group. TYPES OF WORK GROUPS Whatever may be the causes for which groups are formed. disciplinary action . will not be called as Group. so that one person‟s actions affect and are being affected by the action of another person. There exists different types of groups in organisations. • The behaviour of each member is interdependent on others. do not know one another.Here group interaction and common goal are very important elements of group. only gathering of individuals cannot be called a group. when: • The members of the group constantly interact with each other. the formation of groups has become inevitable phenomenon in every organisation. There are different ways through which we can classify the groups.V. Each group plays crucial role in achieving organisational effectiveness.1. the group members agree to achieve some common goal which is termed as group goal. Thus. eg:-a crowd in front of a shop in the market watching India vs Pakistan one day cricket match on T. • The member of the group is psychologically aware of each other. a group is a set of two or more people who continuously interact with each other to achieve certain goals or meet certain needs. • Each member of group identifies with other member of the group. One broad way to classify the group is on the basis their formation. These groups are formed in order to help the organisation to achieve its specific goals. The group goal binds the members together for making effort in the direction of realisation of the goal. Accordingly.1 Formal Work Groups Formal work groups are formed by the organisations. Mere collection of people cannot constitute a group. In true sense and for our purpose of studying group behaviour. Because people do not interact with one another. let us concentrate our focus upon the meaning of a work group.
People work in a group does not mean that they work in a team. safety. The Team: It is a formal work group. there is a high level of interaction among its members. There is coordinating efforts across group members. Leader of this team is identified by its members. In course of working together. The members of the team work together very intensely to achieve a common goal. These groups are established to accomplish certain organisational goals such as increasing product quality. Self-Managed Work Teams: Self-managed work teams are little different from normal teams . and even hiring and firing for and . marketing. Command groups help an organisation to accomplish variety of tasks. In case such committees are dealing with long term problems. in that case they may not be disbanded but the members in the committees can be changed or rotated on the basis of seniority and other criteria. the member of the team learn the abilities and experiences of their members to accomplish things that could not be achieved by individuals working separately or by any other kinds of work groups. teams. These kinds of committees are known as standing committees. The performance of leadership tasks is assigned to individual group members. The members of self-managed work team are responsible for ensuring that the team accomplishes its goals. etc. The leaders of the command group play an important role in determining the effectiveness of these groups. the committees. A team is formed by the organisation for some specific purpose. Command groups are based on the basic reporting relationship in organisations. Let us learn them in detail. and self-managed work teams. in an organisation. the organisation disbands the committees. personnel. Command Group: It is the collection of employees who report to the same supervisor. sales. The Committees: It is the collection of people who are brought together by the organisation to accomplish a specific goal. They have tremendous impact upon the extent to which an organisation is able to achieve its goals. Four important kinds of formal groups are command groups. or accounting). discipline. Once the goal is achieved. In a team. Types of Formal Work Groups There are different types of formal groups in an organisation. The existence of formal groups is represented on organisational charts as departments (such as finance.committees are the formal groups constituted by an organisation. The team is empowered to discipline its members who are not performing at an adequate level.
2004 studied that citizens who identify with their nation are motivated to see their leadership in ways that reflect positively on their group. complicated dynamics may emerge naturally.within the team is done by the team itself. or social ties. . leading to erratic and path dependent time patterns for policy and interest group sizes. Turan G. Sonnemans Joep etal 2000 justified that economic behavior often takes place in groups of small numbers of people interacting with each other (like work teams. According to sociologists. In the recent years self-managed teams are gaining popularity and they have created a dramatic impact on organisations as well as on their members. Groups are formed or they coalesce naturally around some common purpose or objective. 2003 justified that inter-organizational unity does not assure coherent team behavior and negotiation goal achievement. In fact. Crump Larry. dynamic analysis of the model demonstrates that reliance on equilibrium results can be misleading as well since equilibria may not be stable. Pittinsky Todd and Welle Brian. 2004 justified that investment bankers focus on narrow. presented a dynamic model of endogenous interest group sizes and policymaking.). Bali et al. The model integrates „top-down‟ (policy) and „bottom-up‟ (individual and social-structural) influences on the development of interest groups. Clawson James 1997 justified that groups tend to develop over time in similar. social networks. both transformational and empowering leadership can enhance teamwork through the influence of job satisfaction. Dr. industry-based peer groups for individual stock valuation. the embeddedness of economic behavior in networks of social ties has a profound impact on economic performance. Yagil Dana et al. Comparative statics results show that the standard assumption of fixed-sized interest groups can be very misleading. which in turn would affect conflict management patterns. neighborhoods. Characteristic of such interaction is the development of (affective) interpersonal relationships. 2004 studied the perceived group climate and and self-efficacy that would effect emotional experience toward group members. Furthermore. Yun Seokhwa. Literature Review Vjollca Sadiraj. And some market-neutral equity hedge fund managers restrict their portfolios to be sector-neutral as well. Such a positive interpretation likely maintains the self-esteem such citizens derive from membership in their national identity group. relatively consistent patterns. etc. Jan Tuinstra and Frans van Winden in May 2003. while disunity does not preclude coherent action and negotiation success. 2002 justified in his research that transformational and empowering leadership are the most effective types for the guidance of teams .
A group is formed when the “Two or More individuals. esprit de corps. Conceptual Framework The group dynamics refers to changes which take place within groups and is concerned with the interaction and forces obtained between group members in social settings . The data is collected from the e libraries and various e journals..hence group dynamics refers to the study of forces operating within a group. interacting and interdependent. A group doesn‟t simply mean individuals possessing same identical features. who have come together to achieve particular objectives The social process by which people interact face-to-face in a group environment is called Group Dynamics. Suppose we say “one plus one equals eleven.” In the world of Mathematics that is a logical error. Research Methodology This is a descriptive research based on secondary data obtained from various research papers conducted by various researchers from all around the world. but in the world of Group Dynamics it is entirely rational to say “one plus one equals eleven”. To study the development of group norms in formal groups. team trust and recognition and rewards on employee performance. A collection of students or beggars doesn‟t form a group. For instance. 2006 justified that methodological individualists see a social norm as emerging not from a collective decision by an informal group. but rather from the purposive interactions of the groups individual members. Manzoor S R et al.It is a study of forces operating within a group. . Objectives To study the formation of a group and various factors affecting group formation. To study the group dynamics. To study the impact of cohesiveness on the efficiency of a formal group. 2011 studied the positive effects of teamwork. The word ”Dynamics” comes from the Greek word meaning ”force” . Ellickson Robert. These are class.
10. initially at each stage the group faces many difficulties. norming. the greater influence he would exercise on the theme. Tuckman has divided the developments of a group in to five stages. In order to increase group performance. they undergo important changes.grater the prestige of the group member in the eyes of the member in the eyes of the members. member participation is essential for effectiveness of a group.The pressures for change when strong can be established in the group by creating a shared perception by the members for the need for the change.The changes in one part of the groups may produce stress in the other parts. 6.The intergroup relations. 9. . the greater influence it would exercise on its The members. Similar is the case with work groups. from their inception to adjournment . are not formed over night. In fact.The groups arise and function owing to common motives. 3.PRINCIPLES OF THE GROUP DYNAMICS: 1. 7. they face lot of difficulty to form a group. How do groups change over time? It is very interesting and significant. For example when a new batch of employees joins an organisation. transfers and promotions of the employees in the organisation have impact upon the group status and may bring change in the existing group. which we find in organisations in our day-to-day life. 2. which can be reduced only by eliminating the change or by bringing about readjustments in the related parts. storming.Information relating to the need for change. As a result. 8.The members of the group must have a strong sense of belonging to the group . 5. group tasks and goals also change. performing and adjourning. 4. Let us learn them in detail.The more attraction a group is to its members.The successful efforts to change individuals sub parts of the group would result in making them confirm to the norms of the group.The groups survive by pacing the members into functional hierarchy and facilitating the action towards the goal. and starts forming group on the basis of various factors discussed earlier. it is very important to manage these changes effectively. plans for change and the consequence of the changes must be shared by the members of the group. new selection. group organization. They are forming.The barrier between the leaders and to be led must be broken down. Employee turnover. Group formation Groups.
GROUP COHESIVENESS Group cohesiveness is nothing but it is the attractiveness of a group to its members. similar is the case with a group. At this stage.Stages of group formation Forming : The first stage of group development is called forming. There are a large number of factors. than a small or medium size group in which there exists cohesiveness. group members agree on standards to guide the behaviour in the group. group members try to resist for being controlled by the group very often. This stage is completed when group members no longer resist the group‟s control and there is mutual understanding and agreement about who will lead the group. To arrive at this stage. They are : size of the group. groups should not take very long time. Those factors can be broadly categorized into five types. this stage is characterised by considerable amount of conflict. They develop a very close intimacy and relationship with one another. A highly cohesive group very much appeals to their members. and the exclusiveness of the group. The forming stage is completed once individuals within the group feel that they are truly the members of the group. Normally in a large group. its day to day functioning without giving opportunities for participation to the other members in the group. Norming : This is the third stage in the group development. and members find it difficult to form close ties with each other. only a few members of the group try to dominate every thing such as suggestion. They also have difference of opinion over how much power should the leader of their group have. members try to know each other and establish a common understanding among them. In case the size of the group is large. Performing : When this stage reaches. In this stage. At this stage. At this stage. Storming : As its name implies. the large groups are more prone to conflict. Let us learn them in detail. A feeling of friendship develops among them. A well-developed sense of common purpose of the group emerges among the members. They struggle to clarify group goals and determine appropriate behaviour within the group. group members really start feeling that they belong to the group. the group is ready to tackle all types of group tasks. homogeneous character of group members. Normally this stage is completed when group members consider that is it is better to work together for the achievement of the group goals. Therefore. the members disagree about who should lead the group. which influence the level of cohesiveness of a group. competition with other groups. success of the group. opinion. The cohesiveness of a group affects its performance and effectiveness. The members of the group work toward achievement of the group goals. Size of the Group : Just like small family is more cohesive. their members tend to be less satisfied and do not tend to be cohesive. . The real work of the group gets accomplished at this stage. etc.
which are common to each other. marital status etc. The exclusiveness of a group gives status in the organisation. etc. and other characteristics. the extent to which outsider look up to group members. minimization of wastages. When groups are successful in achieving their goals. It also provides special rights and privileges to its group members. Relationship between Group Cohesiveness and Productivity High High Productivity Moderate Productivity Performance Norms Low Productivity Low Moderate to Low Productivity Model Group Cohesiveness and Productivity . The most cohesive group is one where members are more homogeneous in terms of age. Competition with Other Groups : Competition between groups in an organisation increases group cohesiveness when it motivates members of each group to band together to achieve group goals. values. they become especially attractive to their members. and they share certain attitudes. education. experiences. better the chances that they will well get along with. Giving groups names and publicizing also encourage healthy competition. sex. Success of Group : It is the success of the group which can make it cohesive.Homogeneous Character of Group Members : More similarity the member feel with each other. and feel comfortable to communicate with each other. A realisation develops among its members to avoid differences for achieving group goals. and group cohesiveness enhances. zero defect production. which groups are doing extraordinarily well. and groups of maintenance workers may compete to have the best attendance record. Exclusiveness : A group‟s exclusiveness is indicated by how is it difficult to become a member of the group. organisations often promote group cohesiveness by having work groups competition in the organisation between /among groups over sales target. For this reason. A group of production workers may compete to see which group can maintain the highest quality standards.
suspension.  The psychological definition emphasizes social norms' behavioral component. Security Factors : As an individual. and starts forming group on the basis of various factors discussed earlier. As a result. they face lot of difficulty to form a group. Especially in a new place. group tasks and goals also change. the security need could be one of the major factors for joining a group. termination. In order to increase group performance. recognizing smaller group units. which influence the formation of groups in organisations. are not formed over night. which control the behavior of its members through its norms and channelize their effort for the attainment of group as well as the organisational goals. personality. affection and care needs. Moreover. matching with other individuals within the department or the organisation. . develop high group loyalty and get united to perceive threat. transfers and promotions of the employees in the organisation have impact upon the group status and may bring change in the existing group. Psychological Factors : After joining the organisation. therefore. in a cohesive group information flows through the group very fast. Social Factors : Individuals also form or join the group based upon their social class. stating norms have two dimensions: how much behavior is exhibited and how much the group approves of that behavior.Thus. There are various factors. sometimes one can feel insecure over unexpected developments such as sudden health problem. They do it primarily for satisfying their love. which initially they feel deprived after leaving their families.. It is the acceptable standards of behavior of a group which is commonly shared by its members. it is very important to manage these changes effectively. group is formed. perception etc. while psychologists have adopted a more general definition. individual joins a particular group in which he/she finds him/her interest. As a result. in cohesive group members become more active participants in the group activities and the level of communication within the group increases. which govern the behavior and actions of its members. For example when a new batch of employees joins an organisation. which we find in organisations in our day-to-day life. caste. local problems etc. new selection. Analysis and Interpretation Groups. like a team or an office. Sociologists describe norms as informal understandings that govern society‟s behaviors. How do groups change over time? It is very interesting and significant. Norms are unwritten rules and regulations. everyone likes to be in a group to feel secured to work. and religion to satisfy their social needs. may also endorse norms separate or in addition to cultural or societal expectations. for a new employee. Group Norms Group norms are group-held beliefs bout how members should behave in a given context. attitude. We can only call a group effective groups. Employee turnover. They share a common goal.
Cultural Factors : Individuals come to work from different society and culture. eliminating the conflicts and solving the problems which its members have in common.Economic Factors : When an individual works in an organisation. Sometimes some critical incidents in the life of the organisation may also set the norm for the group. so that the group will be effective. Those factors can be broadly categorized into five types. Interaction. develops its role norms. The frequent changes indicate the capacity of the group to change and adapt. interest develops which ultimately influences each other to sit. Roles and rules are formal requirements to facilitate the smooth functioning of group. It may be due to the absence of cultural celebrations. tradition and speaking similar language usually form the group. he/she gets all types of economic incentives and benefits available within the rules and regulations. adjusting and readjusting members to one another for the purpose of reducing the tensions . Many norms develop because several members bring their past experiences from other groups and from other organisations. Some people have to work together. A highly cohesive group very much appeals to their members. Interest and Influence : This is one of the common and logical reason for which people form the group in the organisation. Proximity. homogeneous character of group members. Due to the similarity of nature of job. There are a large number of factors. perform at a high level. every group. In course of interaction. In case the place at which they work are far away from their place of origin . The cohesiveness of a group affects its performance and effectiveness. they feel like a fish out of water. which influence the level of cohesiveness of a group. Dynamic group always is in continuous process of restructuring. and the exclusiveness of the group. discuss and share besides working together Group cohesiveness is nothing but it is the attractiveness of a group to its members. competition with other groups. success of the group. When there are more than one individual in a group. Roles and rules help the group members as well as managers not only to control the member‟s behaviour in group but also specify what behaviours should group members engage in. house construction. This is one of the reasons for which people coming from same culture. they have to interact with each other for this purpose. monitor each other‟s behaviour in the group. . The changes may take within a group and it is interesting to study the way the change do occur. region and culture. there is every possibility of tension. and achieve its goals. medical care and other proposes. confusion and conflict over the rights. They are : size of the group. For the smooth functioning of the group. So he/she gets associated with those people who help him/her at the time of need. eat. Sometimes organisations cannot meet an individual‟s accidental or obligatory needs like money for marriage. Norms develop when members in a group share a common idea of acceptable behaviour. and rules irrespective of its type. duties and status of the group among its members. which.
These forces can be both harmful and fruitful to the organization and can even cast an strong impact on efficiency and effectiveness of the group. Group Cohesion. . Modern day managers ought to have the knowledge of group dynamics in order to eliminate the negative vibes from the group and work towards fulfillment of tasks and goals. In the world of group dynamics it is completely rational to state that one plus one equals eleven. because when two people interact in a group there exists between them several forces which decide the group behavior.The factors affecting group dynamics are : Backgrounds.Standards. Sub-Groups. please do not quote this research paper anywhere. It describes how individuals can come close and form informal groups as well and many organizations have found the way of using these informal groups for their benefits. Participation Patterns. Atmosphere. Limitations This research paper is a very naïve work and is still a very early draft. . Conclusion The present research paper successfully reveals the various factors affecting the formation of groups and group dynamics. Designated Leadership. Communication Patterns. The paper is based on a secondary research and is not hundred percent reliable as the derived results and interpretations are not universally applicable. Procedures. Member Behavior.
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