DEPARTMENT

OF THE ARMY TECHNICAL MANUAL

PAINTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR FIELD USE
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HEADQUARTERS,

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY JULY 1962

TM 9-213 C1
CHANGE
No. 1

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ]
WASHINGTON, D.C., 1 February 1965

PAINTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR FIELD
TM 9-213, 24 July 1962, is changed as follows:
AU

LORARY

U.S. ARMY WAR COLLBOI
Y IJAR IYY L

Page 67. CHAPTER 4 MARKING PROCEDURES
(Superseded)

J9N 4

985

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Section I. LETTERING AND SIGN PAINTING
119. Purpose The directions as given in this section are designed merely to acquaint the novice with the basic principles of lettering and sign painting. Only practice will make him capable of executing such an assignment with passable proficiency. sified as single stroke lettering brushes and come in a variety of soft bristle combinations. For beginner's use, a flat oxhair-and-sable combination is suggested. This type lettering brush will hold a knifelike precision edge, and will hold a large load of paint which feeds evenly and accurately and is easy to control.

120. Lettering Alphabet
The lettering alphabet suitable for all military requirements is known as the vertical Gothic style as illustrated in figure 32. 120.1. Brushes (Added) The brushes that will be used will depend upon what kind of surface is to be lettered. a. Rough Surfaces. Brick, concrete, stucco, rough plaster, and boards that have been recoated many times will require a flat bristle brush. The size used depends upon what width of stroke the letter is. These brushes are classifled as fitches, angular fitches, and cutters. b. Smooth Surface. Metal, glass, trucks, boards, hardboard, and cardboard will require a softer flat bristle artist-type brush to obtain a finer degree of finish. These brushes are clasTAGO 7388A-Feb

121. Lettering Technique
a. Preparationof the Brush. Dip the brush into the paint until all the bristles are immersed. Raise the brush straight upward until all excess paint drips from it. Stroke the brush back and forth on a smooth flat surface in 4"razor strop" style until the paint is worked well up into the bristles and until the end of the bristles form a sharp chisel-like edge (figs. 32.1 and 32.2). This makes it possible to make asharp, uniform stroke. b. Basic Strokes. Three basic strokes form the basis of all vertical Gothic lettering. The three basic strokes are straight (vertical, horizontal, slant), left curve, and right curve. The basic principles of these strokes are demonstrated in figures 32.3 through 32.8. To differentiate still further, the basic strokes can be separated into nine subdivisions: vertical, horizontal, left slant, right slant, left curve,

APPROXIMATELY 1/6 TO 1/7 OF THE HEIGHT

ABC D E
FG H IJK

LMNOP QRST UVWXY Z
12345 6'7890
ORD A 2098 Figure 32. (Superseded) Lettering and stencil alphabet.

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RA PD 108388
Figure 3'.1. (Added) Working paint into lettering brush and obtaining chisel edge.

RA PD 77524
Figure 32.2. (Added) Chisel edge on lettering brush after paint has been worked in.

BRUSH
CENTER OF BALANCE

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RA PD 77510

Figure32.3. (Added) Lettering--methodof holding brush at start of vertical stroke.
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AP

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Figure 32.4. (Added) Lettering-position of brusk at end of vertical stroke.

right curve, top curve, bottom curve, and "S",
as shown in figure 32.9. c. Direction of Brush Strokes. The appearance of a hand-drawn letter depends, to a very considerable degree, upon the direction given to

e. Spacing and Balance. It is particularly
important for the less experienced sign painter to pencil in the letters upon the working surface, making sure they are accurately spaced and balanced, and of uniform size and rela-

each brush stroke. It is, therefore, important to closely follow standard directions shown in
figure 32.9. d. Right and Wrong Ways of Lettering. Avoid mistakes indicated in figures 32.10 and 32.11, and follow the right methods shown.

tionship. In active service it may be necessary to letter under difficult conditions with limited
materials. In this event the letters may be laid out with the use of chalk or any similar material. The layout can thus easily be checked for balance, and the sign completed.

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TIP OF INDEX FINGER ON BRUSH

EXTENDED OVER BRUSH 6

THUMB

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RA PD 7781 Figure 32.5. (Added) Lettering-method of holding brush at start of left curved stroke.

TIP OF THUMB

ON BRUSH

RA PD 78... Figure32.6. (Added) Lettering-positionof brush at end of left curved stroke.

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TIP OF THUMB
ON BRUSY
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RA PD 77820

Figure32.7. (Added) Lettering-method of holding brush at start of right curved stroke.

TIP OF INDEX FINGER ON BRUSH

RA PD

77821

Figure a2.8. (Added) Lettering-positionof brush at end of rightcurved stroke.

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RA PD 76500 Figure 32.9. (Added) Brush strokes for lettering the Gothic alphabet.
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RAPD 77816 Figure 32.10. (Added) Lettering-rightand wrong

way of making capitals B and S.

Figure 32.11. (Added) Lettering--method of making

capitals C, G, V, and W.

Section II. STENCIL AND PAINT MARKING
122. Purpose Stencils enable personnel untrained in hand lettering and design to apply lettering and designs to materiel quickly and efficiently. A stencil (para. 139) is a paper or metal pattern which has the letters or design cut out, so that when the stencil is held in position over a surface and paint applied to the cutout portions, the desired lettering or design will be accurately reproduced. When a large number of signs, identification marks, or designs are to be reproduced, time is saved by using a stencil. 123. Stenciling Techniques a. General. (1) This method of vehicle, launcher, and general marking requires the use of gummed-back i,(pressure-sensitive) paper stencils, and painting the proper marking color over the stencil, (2) Paper stencils are available as individual letters, numerals, and legends of various sizes, and may be located by Federal stock number under FSC 7520, in Federal Stock Catalog FSC C 7510/30-IL. (3) Surface to which the marking is to be applied must be clean and dry. All oil, dirt, and grease must be removed to prevent contamination of the stencil adhesive and the marking paint. b. PaperStencil Application Techniques. (1) Locate the prescribed location for the marking. Mark a straight guideline for proper positioning of the legend, or letter and/or numeral combination. (2) Remove the gum-protector paper from the paper stencil; avoid handling the stencil adhesive. stenciladhesive. (3) Apply the stencil in the proper location on the vehicle or equipment. Handie and apply the stencil with caution to avoid distortion of the characters. Insure that the stencil lies flat against the surface, without wrinkles. (4) After application, remove the webs from the letters and numerals, in order that the finished marking appears with unbroken lines. (5) Mask, with masking tape, paper, and/ or canvas, to prevent overspray. Mask between individual characters to prevent paint adhesion to surfaces other than the exact marking (fig. 33). (6) Apply the paint by spraying or by brushing. Spraying is preferred for a smooth surfaced ultimate marking. Spray paint if possible with the paint required for the surface; otherwise, use a brush and stencil paint or paste TT-P-98 (para. 67). If a brush paint isused, c should are taken to prebe is used, care should be taken to prevent forcing of the paint under the stencil edges, resulting in a ragged marking. (7) Remove the stencils. This must be done with care to avoid smudge damAGO 7388A

8

Figure 33. (Superseded) Papermarking stencils applied with overspray shield.

age to the marking or to adjacent surface area of the vehicle or equipment. (8) Do not handle the marking until the paint is thoroughly dry, time for which is dependent on temperature, method of paint application, and thickness of the paint film. Prevent dust or dirt contamination.

(9) Carefully clean all paint overspray and smudges, and residue from the masking tape and stencil adhesives. Use dry cleaning solvent or mineral spirits paint thinner and a cloth. This must be done with care; avoid contact of the solvent or thinner with the marking.

Section III. PRESSURE SENSITIVE ADHESIVE VINYL MARKERS (DECALS)
124. General a. The markers are available as die-cut letters, numerals, and legends in various sizes, and may be located by Federal stock number in SM 10-1-7600, FSC 7690. The method of vehicle marking concerns itself with the use of vinyl material conforming to Military Specification MIL-F-8799A, manufactured to conform to Military Specification MIL-D-8634B. b. The vinyl markers are applied directly to the surface without water or other solvent to activate the adhesive. They are received mounted on a protective paper lining that is
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removable without the use of a solvent. The marker face is covered by a translucent application tape which is removed after marker application. c. The markers are resistant to grease, oil, water, salt spray, gasoline, and aromatic fuels. Cleaning of the marking requires only water and soap or detergent.

(Added) a. Surface. The surface on which the marker is to be applied must be clean and dry. All oil,
9

grease, and dirt must be removed to prevent contamination of the adhesive. When applicable, wash the surface thoroughly with drycleaning solvent, or any approved cleaning solution. Allow sufficient time for the cleaning solvent to evaporate. Vinyl markers cannot be adequately applied to extremely irregular or rough surfaces. Complete contact of the marker to the surface is necessary for proper adhesion. Old markers must be removed completely prior to applying a new marker. New markers cannot be placed on existing markers without creating an increased vinyl film thickness. Old

precentered on the application tape and backed with a protective liner over the pressure sensitive adhesive. (2) Mark a straight horizontal guideline on the materiel surface in the appropriate location. This guideline will be used for properly positioning the legend. (3) Place the legend on a flat surface with the translucent application tape side down and carefully remove the protective liner. Avoid handling the adhesive on the legend marker (fig. 34). (4) Position the legend to the guideline on the materiel. Press one edge down while holding the rest of the legend taut and slightly away from the surface (fig. 34.1.) (5) Roll the legend down firmly with a

markers will be removed as follows:
(1) Pressure sensitive vinyl markers may be removed by soaking the markers with a rag or sponge dipped in technical methyl ethyl ketone or technical

xylene (see FSC 6800-IL) which acts on the adhesive to soften it. A mixon the adhesive to soften it. A mixture of 75 percent methyl ethyl ketone and 25 percent technical xylene is recommended. The marker may then

roller or applicator to remove any trapped air bubbles or wrinkles (fig. 34 2)
3 -

be removed with a putty knife or scraper without damaging the materiel surface. (2) Alternate and less effective methods for marker removal require using common paint removers or a sharp bladed instrument. Avoid materiel surface damage and self-inflicted personal injury. (3) The vinyl marker cannot satisfactorily be removed by power sanding or abrasion. These methods will damage the materiel surface necessitating refinishing. b. Temperature. Application of the vinyl marker should be made at moderate temperatures above 400 F., but may be made at lower temperatures if the surface is prewiped with technical isopropyl alcohol (see FSC 6800-IL). If the surface temperature is hot or very warm, insure that application is exact at first contact, since the adhesive will act very rapidly. c. Sealing. Sealing of the marker or its edges with varnish or other sealant is neither required nor recommended. (1) Each legend marker is prespaced and

(6) Starting at one corner of the marker remove the application tape by carefully peeling it back flat against itself (fig. 33) (7) Roll the legend again to insure firm and complete adhesion. e. Character (Letter or Numeral) Marker Application. (1) Each character (letter or numeral) is

,

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d. LegendMarkerApplication.d. Legend Application. 34. (Superseded) Remove protective liner from Marker Figure
adhesive side of vinyl marking legend.
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10

Figure 34.1. (Added) Aline legend to guideline.

Figure 84.2. (Added) Remove air bubbles and wrinkles.

Figure 34.3. (Added) Remove application tape.
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11

precentered on the application tape and backed with a protective liner over the pressure sensitive adhesive. (2) Mark a straight horizontal guideline on the materiel surface in the designated location. This guideline will be used for proper alinement of the characters. (3) Place the first character on a flat surface with the translucent application tape side down and carefully remove the protective liner. Avoid handling the adhesive on the character. (4) Position the character to the guideline on the materiel. Press one edge down

while holding the rest of the character taut and slightly away from the surface. (5) Roll the character down firmly with a roller or applicator to remove any trapped air bubbles or wrinkles. Do not remove application tape at this time. (6) Repeat (3), (4), and (5) above in order, for each remaining character in the desired marking. Butt the left edge of the application tape against the right edge of the preceding application tape (fig. 34.4). (7) When the entire marking is properly

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Figure 34.4. (Added) Charactersspaced properly.

Figure4.5. (AddeORD E51615

Figure .24.5. (Added) Remove each tape separately.
12 AGO 7388A

ORD E51616

Figure 34.6. (Added) A complete equipment marking.

positioned and applied, remove the application tape. Start at a corner and carefully peel each application tape back, flat against itself (fig. 34.5). (8) Roll the characters again to insure a firm adhesion. (9) A complete marking is illustrated in figure 34.6. 124.2. Vehicle National Symbol Markings (Added) a. This method of vehicle marking is concerned with the application of the National Symbol to vehicle surfaces. This method applies to National Symbols made of vinyl material conforming to Military Specification MILF-8799A, manufactured to conform to Military Specification MIL-D-8634B. b. The National Symbol markings are available in various sizes from 6 inches to 36 inches (between opposite points measurement) and may be located by Federal stock number in SM 10-1-7600, FSC 76901. c. The vinyl material National Symbol is applied directly to the equipment surface without the use of water or other solvent to activate the pressure sensitive adhesive. The symbol is received mounted on a protective liner, with the symbol face covered by a premask tape. d. The vehicle or equipment surface must be clean, dry, and free of dust, dirt, and grease.
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e. Application. (1) Place the symbol on a flat surface, face up. Cover one point of the symbol with a small piece of masking tape, rubbing the tape down firmly. (2) Hold the symbol by the tape, in one hand. Begin separation of the protective paper liner from the adhesive side of the symbol. (3) Place the symbol on a flat surface, face down. Carefully pull the paper liner from the point of the symbol past the horizontal base of the point. Fold the liner as it is freed from the symbol. (4) Position the symbol on the equipment surface. Apply the symbol tip to the surface while holding the rest of the symbol taut and slightly away from

tion of the adhesive side, rolling and pressing the material to remove wrinkles and air bubbles. (5) Continue removing the paper liner, rolling and pressing the unapplied portion of the symbol to the surface until the entire marking is applied. (6) Roll the entire marking again with particular attention to the edges, to insure firm and complete adhesion. (7) Remove the premask tape on the face of the symbol by pulling carefully on the masking tape piece, folded back
13

the surface. Apply the exposed por-

against itself. Carefully pull back to the opposite edge of the symbol. With this operation the protective premask tape will tear. The remaining pieces may be removed by pulling them, folded back, from the center of the

symbol to the remaining symbol points. Roll the marking again with particular attention to the edges. (8) Any remaining small air bubbles may be punctured with a pinpoint and the air worked out with a finger.

Section IV. POUNCING 124.3. Description and Purpose
(Added) a. When it is necessary to make a quantity of the same signs, identification marks, or designs, work can be speeded up by a process known as pouncing. Pouncing is the term applied to the use of a perforated pattern in transferring to the painting surface the outline of the letters, numerals, or design to be painted. b. Pouncing should also be used when'more accurate lettering and design are desired than can be attained by stenciling, and particularly when working over larger areas.

124.4. Equipment
(Added) The following equipment and materials are needed to prepare a pouncing pattern: a. Thin, durable paper (large enough to cover the lettering or design). b. Light cardboard. c. Pouncing wheel. d. Dry color, powdered chalk or other powder. e. Flint paper, grade 2/0. f. Masking tape. g. Thin cloth.

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POUNCING
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PATTERN

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SOFT PAPER PAD
Figure 34.7. (Added) Perforatinga pattern for pouncing.

RA PD 77499

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124.5. Procedure (Added) a. Pencil out the lettering, numerals, or design on a plain sheet of paper (fig. 34.7). b. Place the penciled-in paper on top of several thicknesses of other paper or upon cardboard or other material which can be cardboardor other material which can be easily perforated by a pouncing wheel. Then use a pouncing wheel to perforate the outline which has been penciled in (fig. 34.7). In emergencies, a large needle or other sharp, pointed object can be used to perforate the outline. c. Turn the pattern over and use flint paper, grade 2/0, to sand off all rough edges of the perforations (fig. 34.8).

d. Prepare a pounce bag by placing drycolor, powdered chalk or any other available powder in a thin cloth. Tie the cloth so it forms a bag with the powder inside (fig. 34.9). on the surface to be painted. Secure it in position with masking tape. Then gently tape all

e. Place the pattern in the desired position

perforations with the pouncing bag until the
powder is worked through the perforations and onto the painting surface (fig. 34.9). f. Remove the pattern (fig. 34.10), exercising care not to smudge perforation dots on the painting surface. g. Paint in the outline of the pattern, lettering, or numerals on the painting surface (fig. 34.11).

FLINT PAPERPOUNCING PATTERN

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PD 108392

Figure 34.8. (Added) Sanding the back of a pouncing pattern.

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POUNCING BAG

POUNCING PATTERN

so &>vs.

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,/MASKING TAPE
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Figure 34.9. (Added) Pouncing a lettering pattern.

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POUNCING BAG POUNCING PATTERN

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RA PD 77484

Figure 34.10. (Added) Removing the pattern. Pouncing pattern transferredto surface to be painted.

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LAYOUT -

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RA 78475 PD

Figure 34.11. (Added) Painting in a pounced sign pattern.

Section V. SILK SCREEN PRINTING PROCESS
124.6. General (Added) a. The silk screen process is a method of printing in one or more colors on almost any type of surface with mediums such as oil colors, water colors, lacquers, and enamels, having compositions for this type of application. This process is used when large quantities of the same design are desired, and because of the speed achieved and the faithful reproduction of the original design. b. The basic principles of this process are simple but require special equipment. Care and accuracy in performing preparatory work assure the success of the operation. 124.7. Equipment Required (Added) a. A baseboard, larger than the screen, absolutely level and free from ridges, is necesAGO 7388A

sary. This board may be a drawing board, plywood board, or table-top, the surface being covered with a piece of stiff cardboard. If warpingoccursthebaseboardisuseless, b. The frame on which the silk is attached may be a simple wooden frame or the standard grooved frames stocked by artist supply dealers in various sizes. This frame should be at least 11/2 times the size, in length and width, of the sketch to be printed. c. The silk should be special material made for screening which comes in different meshes. For all practical results, the medium or Nos. 14XX or 16XX will be found to be generally suitable. d. The squeegee consists of a bar of rubber embedded in a piece of wood shaped to conveniently fit the hands. It may be obtained in any length but must be not less than 2 inches greater than the width of the design being re17

g. Stencil knives, dividers, steel ruler, Tsquare, triangle, film, and adhesive tape are necessary accessories to have in the shop.

124.8. Specific Instructions
(Added) a. PreparatoryWork. (1) Thumb tack original sketch or layout sheet to either a drawing board or worktable. A drawing board will be found to have many advantages over a worktable as the operator can turn it at will and also sit in a more comfortable position during the cutting operation. (2) With pencil or pen draw a cross in each of the four corners of the original sketch to facilitate replacing the film in exact registration. (3) Cut one piece of film a little larger than the size of the original sketch for each color contained in the sketch. (4) With adhesive tape fasten the film
over the original sketch with the film

SANDPAPER

I _____ ORD A2099

Figure 34.12. (Added) Sharpening squeegee.

produced. The squeegee must be longer than the width of the design in order that one pull over the screen will complete the printing. Sharpen squeegee to assure perfect register. Draw rubber across sandpaper, holding squeegee in vertical position (fig. 34.12). e. The silk must be stretched drum-taut over the frames by tacking or by sewing with fiber cord, after which it is washed with water to remove the sizing. As the silk dries, it will become more taut. Failure to achieve the drumtautness will nullify subsequent preparatory work and result in unsatisfactory reproductions. f. The frame should have a pair of loose pin

hinges attached to one of the long sides of the
frame and then attached to the baseboard. The hinges are placed so that the side of the frame on which the silk is stretched comes in contact with the baseboard. Masking tape is then placed on the inside of the frame with half of its width on the frame and the other half on the silk, thus keeping the paint from creeping out onto the baseboard. The tacked or grooved side is also taped to keep from abraiding the silk.
18

side up and the translucent paper in contact with the sketch. Use enough tape so that the film is down tight and will not shift. Trace the cross appearing in each of the four corners of the sketch onto the film. The film is now ready for cutting. b. Cutting Film. (1) This specially prepared film is laminated to a sheet of translucent paper (the paper acting only as a temporary carrier of the film until such time as the transfer to the silk is made). The proper method is to cut through the film only and not through the backing paper (fig. 34.13). (2) The order in which the colors are to (2) The order in which the colors are to be processed must be determined before any cutting occurs and may not

thereafter be changed. The general practice is to process the lightest color

first and the darkest color makeup of the sketch occasionally requires a change for this procedure. For example, the Administrative and Technical Service (formerly Army Service Forces) sleeve patch (dated
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Figure 34.13. (Added) Cutting film.

1947) would be reproduced by applying first white, then blue, and finally red. (3) The cutting operation must be performed in a manner to allow the first color applied to extend under the edge of the succeeding colors. In the example of the sleeve patch the white film would be a circle having a radius of 3/32 inch less than the diameter of the red border. In a tracing manner, using a fine stencil knife, cut through the film to, but not through, the backing paper (an hour or so of practice in cutting should be sufficient to get in cutting sufficient to get be should the feel of it). When the cutting has been completed, strip out the film representing the portion of the design to be applied in the first color. Now remove this cut film from the sketch and place carefully to one side. Repeat the operations for each remaining color. Particular attention must be given to the exactitude of cutting along lines in the original sketch which appear in
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each color in the reproductions. Again referring to the sleeve patch example, the lines of the star in film No. 2 and the lines of the border in film No. 3 must be sharp, and an exact tracing of the sketch. To prevent blurring of corners the cuts should extend just past the intersection. c. Attaching Film to the Screen. (1) In all the larger open spaces from which the film has been stripped, cut a slit through the backing paper. The purpose of this is to allow the escape of air during the adhering operation. (2) Place screen in hinges on the painting table. Place layout sheet on table and apply pieces of cardboard of same thickness pieces of cardboard of same and apply to table along edges of sketch to form a register. Bring down screen so that the silk is in contact with the layout sheet and make certain that contact is good. If contact is poor, build up by using a piece of cardboard under the layout sheet. Fit back 19

the film for color No. 1 to exactly the original position in which it was cut and fasten with adhesive tape or secure it to the sketch with mucilage. (3) Examine the stencil to make sure that no small pieces of film have been left in the cut portions. (4) Take two pieces of cloth, one large and one small (preferably cotton cloths of the type of shirts or underwear). Do not use cheesecloth or similar cloths as difficulty will be encountered in judging the amount of liquid applied. Roll up the large one in a loose ball. Wet the small cloth with the adhering liquid. Hold the wet cloth in one hand and the dry one in the other. Dampen (do not soak) a small portion of the screen by taking a single stroke and dry it immediately with the dry cloth using a rubbing motion. When this has been done adhesion will be instantaneous. Continue in the same manner until the entire film has been adhered, wetting the

small cloth as often as is necessary. In adhering always start from one side of the screen and continue in the same direction to avoid wrinkles (fig. 34.14). (5) When the entire film has been adhered, take a thin straightedge or ruler, slip it under the film and carefully free the screen from the layout sheet by loosening the adhesive tape. Remove the screen from the hinges and lay it on the table, backing paper side up. Allow the film to dry about 10 minutes. d. Removing Backing Paper. (1) Start in any one of the four corners and slowly peel off backing paper (fig. 34.15). Peel backing paper so that one can at all times see the film in order to prevent tearing any portion of it that has not adhered. Should any portion of it not adhere properly, do not remove the backing paper, but turn screen over again and by wetting and drying that portion obtain proper adhesion.

ORD A2101
Pigure i4J4. (Added) Attaching film to the screeli.

20

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Figure 34.15. (Added) Removing backing paper.

(2) When the backing paper has been completely removed, if there still are some loose places, turn screen with the film side up, wet cloth with the adhering liquid and dampen the loose part from the under side of the screen. Pat down from the film side with the fingers, thus completing adhesion. (3) Fill in the open silk bordering the film with lacquer or mask out paper. e. Printingor Reproducing. (1) If the original sketch is the exact size of the copy to be processed, the original register applied when adhering the film to the silk should suffice. In the event that this is not true, new registers should be set. The old register should not be disturbed unless absolutely necessary. (2) Place one of the pieces to be printed on the table snugly against the register and drop the silk screen (fig. 34.16). (3) Place a small quantity of paint of the
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desired color and required quantity across the screen just above the design. Starting just above the paint, pull the squeegee across the screen making certain to apply firm and even pressure across the width of the squeegee (fig. 34.17). (4) Lift the screen, remove the printed piece (fig. 34.18), and place it on a drying rack (fig. 34.19); insert an unpainted piece; drop screen, and squeegee in opposite direction. (5) When the one color has been applied to the entire lot, the design must be removed from the silk and replaced with the film cut for the application of the next color. f. Removing Film from the Silk. (1) The simplicity is one of the outstanding features of this type of film. (2) Take a sheet of smooth wrapping paper or similar paper. Lay this paper on a flat table, placing screen on top of paper, making contact with the film.
21

Figure 34.16. (Added) Placing material in position.

ORDA2104
Figure 34.17. (Added) Squeegeeing paint.

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Figure 34.18. (Added) Removing the printed piece.

ORD A2106
Figure 34.19. (Added) Drying the printed piece.
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23

Take a good sized cloth and soak it well with film remover. Wash over the film portions of the screen, keeping the rag well saturated. After a few moments take hold of the paper and pull it away from the silk and it will take all the film with it. Take several clean cloths, wet them with remover and wash the silk well from both sides at the same time. Dry the silk with a dry

Page 87. 138. Stencil Key Set c. Gummed-Back Paper Stencils. Gummedback paper stencils *** the registration number. 139. Availability of Stencils, Marking Materials, and Decals (Superseded) a. Stencils and Marking Materials. The following stencils and marking materials may be located by Federal stock number, Class 7520, in FSC C 7510/30-IL. (1) Stencils, marking. (a) Paper. (b) Paper, gummed-back, pressure sensitive adhesive coated (fig. 33).

cloth.
g. Facts Pertinent to the Silk Screen Printing Process. (1) When a job is to be repeated at frequent intervals, the complete screens with cut film applied may be stored for

future use.
(2) The tenderness of the silk indicates the obvious need of exercising care in handling and storage of the frames. (3) Ordinarily, an average of 5,000 to 10,000 impressions may be made before the silk wears out. (4) Experience will indicate the proper consistency at which the paint should be applied. Because solvent continually evaporates, it is customary to have the replenishing paint slightly thinner than the first portion put into the screen. This procedure brings the consistency of the paint back to that desired immediately after replenishment. (5) The artist preparing the design can minimize screen preparation work if notified in advance that the work is to

(e) Zinc. (2) Marking materials. (a) Stylus, duplicating stencil. (b) Stencil board, writing. (c) Stencil paper. (d) Stencil duplicating print kit, hand a .

2. Brush, ink. 3. Cleaner, bottle. 4. Ink, bottle. 5. Pen, stylus. 6. Case.

be reproduced reproduced by silk screen process. be by silk screen process. (6) It is impossible to cover every even-

(3) Airbrush.
. Decals. The pressure sensitive adhesive vinyl markers, decals, may be located by Federal stock number, Class 7690, in SM 10-17600. Page 89. Figure 49, RA PD 252726A. Rescinded.

tual(6)impossiblbecause tonew problems arise It is tualityeach design to problems arise because new be reproduced. with The fascination inherent in silk screen work assures the application of ingenuity and imagination,

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By Order of the Secretary of the Army: HAROLD K. JOHNSON,

Official: J. C. LAMBERT, Major General, United States Army, The Adjutant General.

General, United States Army, Chief of Staff.

Distribution: Active Army: DCSLOG (1) Fort Hood (5) CNGB (1) Fort Knox (25) CofEngrs (5) Fort Sam Houston (5) TSG (5) Fort Sill (5) CC-E (5) Ord Comd (3) USAMC (9) USATAC (20) USACDCOA (1) USAWECOM (2) USCONARC (3) GENDEP (4) ARADCOM (2) Ord Sec, GENDEP (4) ARADCOM Rgn (2) Ord Dep (10) OS Maj Comd (2) except Svc Colleges (20) USAREUR (5) Br Svc Sch (20) USARCARIB (5) POE (2) USARJ (5) Ord PG (10) USARPAC (5) Ord Arsenals (5) except LOGCOMD (2) Frankford Arsenal (10) MDW (1) Ord Plants (2) Armies (3) except Springfield Army (3) Seventh US Army (8) Cen (2) EUSA (8) MIDA (3) Corps (2) Ord Dist (1) except Div (2) Cleveland Ord Dist (2) Regt/Gp/bg (2) New York Ord Dist (5) Bn (2) USA Corps (2) Co (2) except Mil Msn (2) Co (2) MAAG (1) TOE 9-17, 9-47, 9-377 (none) JBUSMC (2) Fort Belvoir (5) JUSMAGG (2) Fort Bliss (5) Units org under fol TOE: Fort Bragg (5) 29-55 (2) NG: State AG (3); units-same as active Army except allowance is one copy for each unit. USAR: None. For explanation of abbreviations used, see AR 320-50.
* U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 1968-750580

AGO 7888A

25

*TM 9-213
TECHNICAL MANUAL

HEADQUARTERS,

No. 9-213

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON

25, D.C., 24 July 1962

PAINTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR FIELD USE
Paragraphs Pages

CHAPTER

1.

INTRODUCTION

Section I. II. III. IV.

General ___________-______.--_---------------------------------------------Purpose of painting _. ________________----------------------------------------Discussion of terms ------- _________ __-----------------------------------Techniques of mixing and paint failures ______________________--__--__--__

1-4 5-8 9, 10 11-28

3 4 5 6

CHAPTER 2. UNDERCOATS, FINISH MATERIALS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Section I. General __--__ __-_--________________-------_____ ______._-_ __-_ . 29-32 15 II. Fillers . ... ______----__ _____________.__________________________ 33-36 17 III. Sealers ._____-_____-__________._ _ .. ___ ____ 37-40 17 IV. Primers _-..-____._____ ___________________________ ___________________ 41-48 18 V. Enamels ___-....-_ __ __...__... ________________________ . .._ 49-56 22 VI. Lacquers ___.. .-__ __--__--________________._ ________________ ------56-60 24 VII. Paints ____.-___-.-________.___.___________ _- ______________ 61-69 25 VIII. Varnishes ……... .... . . ........----------------------------------70-73 27 IX. Finish systems ______ _________________________-------. -74-88 28 X. Finish systems for fire-control materiel -______-- __--_____________…--…-. __-89-100 36 CHAPTER 3. APPLICATION TECHNIQUE Section I. Spray guns and pressure cans __-___________________________________________ II. Brush or roller application _______________________________________________ III. Dip application ________________________________________-_________________ III. Safety considerations ____________________…-______________________________ 101-107 1,08-112 113-116 117, 118 45 57 64 65 67 69 73 78 82 87 90 95 95
99 103

CHAPTER 4. SPECIAL TECHNIQUES Section I. Stenciling ________________________________… ______________________._______ 119-121 II. Decalcomania transfers ___________________________________--______________ 122--124 CHAPTER 5. SPRAY EQUIPMENT Section I. Compressors (gasoline and electric drive) _________________________________ 125-129 II. Tank (paint container) ________________________________________-_________ 130-133 III. Miscellaneous accessories __________________________________________________ 134-136 CHAPTER 6. MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT Section I. Painting tools and materials __-______________________________________ II. Shop equipment _____________________________-.____________________________ 137-142 143-147

CHAPTER 7. PAINTING DATA Section I. Opacity and covering data -_______________________________________________ 148, 149 II. Tips on painting __________________________________________________________ 1150-152
GLOSSARY
APPENDIX.

________________________________________-REFERENCES ________________________________________--.______-

_______
_______
-

INDEX

________________________________________-._

107

*This manual supersedes TM 9-2851, 30 December 1947, including C2, 7 April 1955, and C3, 5 April 1957.

TM 9-213

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Section I. GENERAL 1. Purposes This manual is published for the use of perf. Any comments or suggestions concerning

errors or omissions will be forwarded on DA Form 2028 direct
to the Commanding Officer,

sonnel whose duties require a knowledge

of

Raritan

Arsenal,

ATTN

ORDJR-OPRA,

the materials and methods used in the painting of Army Ordnance materiel. 2. Scope painting, paint terminology, techniques of mixing, paint failures, and preservative and corrective procedures. It contains information on paint systems, techniques for application as

Metuchen, New Jersey. 3. Forms, Records, and Reports a. General. Responsibility for the proper execution of forms, records, and reports rests execution of forms, records, and reports rests upon the officers of all units processing materiel. However, the value of accurate records must be fully appreciated by all persons re sponsibe for their compilation, maintenance, sponsible for their compilation, maintenance,

required, and painting equipment.
b. This manual differs from TM 9-2851 in changes necessitated for conformity to standards and specifications, and the elimination of reference to painting of buildings, which is covered infor 5-618.ationoncleaningOrdnn TM

and use.

Records, reports, and

authorized

c. For information on cleaning Ordnance ma-

forms are normally utilized to indicate the type quantity and condition of materiel to be inspected, to be repaired, or to be used in repair. Properly executed forms convey authorization and serve as records for repair or re-

placement of materiel in the hands of troops

teriel, refer to TM 9-208-1. d. For supply information on brushes, paints, sealers, and adhesives, FSC group 80, refer to SM 5-1-C5-1-SL, Vol. 2. e. Specifications and standards used by the Department of the Army are listed in the Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards, which consist of three separate parts: Part II-Straight Alphabetical Listing Part II-Numerical Listing, and Part III-Federal Supply Classification Listing Copies of specifications and standards may be requisitioned in accordance with the provisions of that index. As only basic specifications and standards are referred in this manual, use must be made of that index to determine the latest revision.

and for delivery of materiel requiring further repair to Ordnance shops in arsenals, depots, etc. The forms, records, and reports establish the work required, the progress to the work within the shops, and the status of the materiel upon completion of its repair. b. Authorized Forms. The forms generally applicable to units operating or maintaining this materiel are listed in the appendix. For a listing of blank forms, refer to DA Pam 310-2. c. Field Reports of Accidents. The reports necessary to comply with the requirements of the Army safety program are prescribed in detail in AR 385-40. These reports are required whenever accidents involving injury to personnel or damage to materiel occur. d. Report of Unsatisfactory Equipment Report or Material. Any deficiencies detected in

3

TM 9-213 the equipment covered herein which occur under the circumstances indicated in AR 700-38, should be immediately reported in accordance with the applicable instruction in that regulation. e. Marking for Shipment. Refer to AR 74680. 4. Safety Precautions Note. If solvents are used on insulation and insulated wires, particularly in the more critical electronic equipment, extreme care must be exercised. Even the vapors of solvents could be harmful in such instances, by causing dimensional changes in delicate equipment.
Avoid inhalation of solvent vapors.

a. Observe safe operating procedures at all times, particularly when handling cleaning materials. b. The use of gasoline and similar hydrocarbons for cleaning purposes is hazardous and they must not be used. Adequate cleaning ma-

terials described in TM 9-247 are available through regular supply channels. c. Avoid skin contact with cleaning solvents. Use synthetic rubber gloves. d. Observe fire regulations when using paint and lacquer thinners as they are highly flammable. e. Hydrocarbon solvents are destructive to natural rubber and must not be used on such parts. These solvents are petroleum products such as gasoline, benzene, kerosene, drycleaning (Stoddards) solvents, and drycleaning agents (naphthas). f. Fire protection equipment must be adequately distributed throughout work areas. g. Protective equipment must be worn during operations involving abrasive blasting, grinding, buffing, or where compressed air is being used. h. Do not use carbon tetrachloride as its vapor is dangerous to health.

Section II. PURPOSE OF PAINTING 5. Functions a. The primary function of painting is to protect metals, wood, and other material against corrosion and rot. Paint should not be applied to "green" or unseasoned wood, since paint under such conditions retards the seasoning process and fails to form a proper coating. Additional functions of painting are identification, camouflage, and visibility. b. Certain paints adhere to most surfaces better than others and thereby furnish better AR 746-2300-1. For information on ammunition color coding, refer to MIL-STD-709. 7. Camouflage Camouflage of Army Ordnance materiel is a function of paint. Camouflage may be applied when necessary directly on the finish coat. For information on camouflage materials and procedures, refer to FM 5-20, FM 5-21, and FM 5-22.

protective coating.

The first or base coat

Visibility White and light-tinted paint are frequently
used on interior surfaces to increase the visi-

should penetrate into the minute depressions

or pits in the material and adhere with sufficient tenacity to form a good bond for following coats. c. The success of painting depends partly on the selection of a suitable paint and also largely upon the care used in preparing the surface, which should be thoroughly clean, dry, and smooth. Other factors are method of application and weather conditions. 6. Identification For information pertaining to color and marking of vehicles and equipment, refer to 4

bility in spaces with limited access to outside
light. In this respect, paint can serve to increase visibility with existing natural, or artifiof natural or artificial light required in a given interior space. For safety, it is desirable where practicable to use paint that will make an article more readily visible. For example, AR 746-2300-1 requires that materials handling equipment such as lift trucks, industrial tractors, warehouse cranes, and trailers, used in warehouses be painted a high visibility yellow to make them more noticeable and thereby to reduce accidents.

cial light or it can serve to reduce the amount

TM 9-213

Section III. DISCUSSION OF TERMS 9. Definitions
a. Composition. Paint is composed of a pig-

d. Vehicles. (1) Binders. The binder portion of the
vehicle contributes to the characteris-

ment and a vehicle. The pigment, or solid component dispersed in the paint, is provided to color the paint and to enable it to form a film on the painted surface. The vehicle is the liquid portion of a paint, which in turn includes components which serve as binders, and volatile components known as thinners. The binder portion of the vehicle, like the pigment, is film forming. b. Classification. Organic finishes, generally referred to herein as "paint," are classified in four main groups-enamel, lacquer, varnish, and paint as defined in (1) through (4) below. (1) Enamel. A finish comprising an intimate dispersion of pigments in a varnish or resin vehicle, or in a combinadries tion of both. Enamel generally tion, bynoxidation and/or polymerization, (2) Lacquer. A clear or pigmented finish whose vehicle is cellulosic or phenolic with or without other resins or plasticizers. Lacquers generally dry by solvent evaporation. (3) Varnish. An unpigmented (clear) finish whose vehicle consists of resins and drying or nondrying oils. After evaporation of volatile content, drying generally is by oxidation and/or polymerization. (4) Paint. A finish comprising a dispersion of pigments in a vehicle consisting of drying oils with or without a solvent. After the evaporation of the volatile content, drying generally is by oxidation. c. Pigments. Besides that of coloration, pigments provide corrosion resistance, the ability to obscure base materials, the development of

tics of a paint and determines its use. Binders may be divided into three groups: drying oils, resins, and a miscellaneous group, which includes casein, chlorinated rubber, nitrocellulose and ethyl cellulose. (2) Thinners. The thinner makes the paint workable, adjusting the consistency for easy application, and producing a uniform film that will penetrate and adhere to the surface. The thinner, being volatile, evaporates, hence does not provide part of the dried surface film 10. Color a. Definition. A surface which reflects all visible light back to the eye is white, since white is a combination of all colors of the spectrum. This can be illustrated by passing sunlight through a prism which separates the visible light into all colors of the spectrum (fig. 1). The same thing happens when the sun shines on falling rain and creates a rainbow. Absence of visible light gives the sensation of black.
REFRACTION S AND DISPERSAL
SPECTRUM

RED
O RANGE
GREEN

YELLOW
PRISM
BLUE IND IGO VIOLET ORD A1387

Figure 1. How a prism separates visible light into its

component colors.

body for smoothness and satisfactory flow characteristics, strength, hardness, and increased durability.

b. Standard. For the selection of colors and color numbers for readymade paints, refer to Federal Standard 595.

5

TM 9-213

Section IV. TECHNIQUES OF MIXING AND PAINiT FAILURES
11. Scope a. General. (1) The best, quickest, and easiest method of painting is spraying. Paint rollers are used on large surfaces when spraying is impracticable. Paints are brushed on when other methods are impracticable or other equipment is not available. In general, the use of brushes is confined to touchup jobs. (2) Paints are issued ready mixed, hence
color blending is not required. All I

(2) Straining. When paint stands over a period of time, a skin may form over the surface and the pigment may form into chunks to the extent that stirring will not mix all ingredients properly. In such cases, strain paint as shown in figure 3.

Note. Do not "box" lacquer as this would cause loss of the vehicle by evaporation.

PAINT STRAINER

containers must be kept covered except when in use, to prevent contact with the air or foreign matter. b. Preparation.
(1) Stirring (fig. 2). Stir paints well be-

a

j
|PAIL

fore use. If the vehicle (liquid portion) has separated from the pigment, pour off most of the liquid portion into a clean container (B, fig. 2). Then stir the thickened settled portion (A, fig. 2) in the bottom until all chuncks are softened and dissolved. Restore the poured off por-

"

D
Figure 3. Straining paint.

tion, a little at a time, stirring constantly with a lifting and beating motion. "Box" the paint thoroughly, that is pour it from one container to another several times, mixing the paint for a few minutes between each transfer. If a can shaker is available, the paint should be thoroughly shaken before the container is opened.
P - IGMENT
VEHICLE

(3) Thinning. (a) When it is necessary to thin paint, use a small amount of prescribed thinner. Because of its volatility, thinner will evaporate from the paint film, leaving practically the same ratio of oil to pigment per square foot of surface as the paint would provide before thinning. Should linseed or other oils be
used, the ratio of pigment to oil

~
"A"

'~-~- / _~-~"B"

X

would be reduced, giving the paint less hiding power and greater penetrating power. On certain priming coats on wood or plaster, this is desirable. The warmer and drier the weather, the less thinner is needed, since the heat thins the oil more readily. More thinner is required in cold weather to hasten

ORD A1392

Figure 2. Stirring paint whose pigment has separated from the vehicle. 6

the drying and hardening of the film. However, thinner should be used with care, since the less used
the more durable the applied will be. coat

TM 9-213

(b) Paints which contain a slow-drying vehicle may require additional drier. (c) Varnish should not be thinned except when used as a primer coat, when it should be thinned with a small amount of recommended thinner. Turpentine should be used sparingly, since it tends to destroy the gloss. Caution: Do not shake varnish, This may entrap air which will be difficult to eliminate from the film. (d) Do not thin synthetic enamels with turpentine. Use synthetic enamel thinner, specification TT-T-306. c. Spraying. Instructions for spraying are given in paragraph 104. d. Brushing and Rolling. Instructions for brushing and rolling are given in paragraphs 108 through 112. e. Dipping. Instructions for dipping are given in paragraph 114. 12. Paint Failures, General a. There is a cause for every paint failure and, in most instances, the failure can be prevented by observing specific precautions and instructions. The weather, with humidity, heat, and cold, sudden rainstorms, and the like can damage a paint film. For this reason, the painter should take into consideration the weather and seasonal changes.

b. The most frequent paint failures are discussed in paragraphs 13 through 28. 13. Alligatoring and Checking a. Characteristics (fig. 4). When a rupturing of the top paint coat causes the surfaces to break up into irregular areas separated by wide cracks in "alligator hide" style, the condition is referred to as "alligatoring." It is checking in aggravated form. Checking on a painted surface can be detected by the appearance in the topcoat of small openings or ruptures which divide the surface into small irregular areas, leaving the undercoat visible through the breaks in the topcoat. b. Probable causes. Checking is usually caused by too soft an undercoat or by applying a coat over an underlying coat which has not thoroughly dried. c. Preventive measures. Do not apply paint over a soft undercoat or over paint which has not thoroughly dried. d. Corrective Measures. Remove the entire paint coat using scraper or paint remover. Mild cases should be thoroughly wirebrushed. Clean the surface thoroughly after paint has been removed before repainting. 14. Bleeding a. Characteristics. When the color of a previous coat is absorbed into the top coat, the condition is called "bleeding."

Figure 4. Alligatoring of paint.

7

TM 9-213

b. Probable Causes. Bleeding is usually caused by the partial solubility of the pigment in the vehicle of the new coat. Bleeding may also occur with asphalt and colored resins, as well as with pigments. c. Preventive Measures. Use only the paints prescribed for the particular application, as reflected in paragraphs 29 through 73. This practice will insure that successive coatings will be compatible. d. Corrective Measures. The corrective measures to be taken depend on the severity of the bleeding and the quality of appearance required. If bleeding is not severe and appearance is not important, apply another coat of paint after the previous coat (in which bleeding occurred) has dried thoroughly. If this method fails to provide an acceptable finish, remove all paint coatings, clean the bare surface thoroughly, and repaint. 15. Blistering a. Characteristics (fig. 5). Blistering is evidenced by blister-like irregularities on the film of a painted surface, with the paint coat detached and raised from the surface upon which it is applied. b. Probable Causes. Blistering is the result of gases or liquid (usually water) forming beneath the coating. The most common causes of blistering on wood surfaces is the applica-

tion of paint over damp or wet surfaces. Under the action of the sun's rays, the moisture is drawn out of the wood, taking the paint coating with it in the form of blisters. The breaking of the blisters may result in the peeling of the paint coat. Blistering is also caused by using a paint that is incompatible with that used in previous coatings. c. Preventive Measures. To avoid blistering, make sure too much drier is not used in the undercoat and that undercoat and topcoat are approximately the same composition. Avoid painting over a damp or wet surface. See that resinous surfaces are shellacked, that there are no greasy spots on the surface, and that lumber is not green when painted. d. Corrective Measures. Use a wire brush or scraper to remove all defective paint. Permit the surface to dry thoroughly; then repaint.

16. Blushing
a. Characteristics.A surface on which blushing has occurred is characterized by white discoloration in the coating and sometimes by separation of ingredients from the coating. Blushing most commonly occurs in nitrocellulose lacquers. b. Probable Causes. Blushing may be caused by condensation of moisture on the film or by improper composition of the vehicle or solvent.

4.4~~~P

7

5..1

8~~~~~~~~~~~~.r
Figure 5. Blistering of paint.

TM 9-213

c. Preventive Measures. Avoid painting under conditions which permit water vapor to condense on the applied film. d. Corrective Measures. Remove or sand down film where blushing has occurred. Repaint after insuring surfaces are dry, using paints prescribed in paragraphs 29 through 73. 17. Chalking a. Characteristics. Chalking can be detected by rubbing the painted surface, disclosing loose powder on the paint film. Rains tend to wash off this powder from exterior surfaces. b. Probable Causes. The degree of chalking of a painted surface is affected by the composition of the paint. Chalking and loss of luster is the result of deterioration of the surface film due to atmospheric conditions, thus exposing the pigment. Paints low in binder content or high in inert pigments have a tendency toward early and excessive chalking. c. Preventive Measures. Use paints prescribed in paragraphs 29 through 73. Apply paint only under dry conditions. d. Corrective Measures. A paint which chalks moderately affords a better repainting surface than one which does not chalk at all. remove all loose chalked substance from the surface with a wire brush, and repaint. 18. Cracking, Flaking, Scaling, and Peeling

in previous painting. Since flaking and scaling are usually preceded by cracking, its causes are the same as for cracking. Peeling may occur around knots, and where cracks in the paint permit water to get behind the paint film. Peeling and scaling frequently occurs when paint has been applied to unseasoned lumber. Previous coats may have lost their elasticity and become "lifeless." This results in scaling because of poor adhesion and the pulling loose by the stronger new coat of the oil film from the surface. Preventive Measures. Correct the construction defects in order to prevent water from seeping underneath a painted surface. Do not paint over a wet surface or over a previous coat which has not thoroughly dried. Do not paint over green wood. d. Corrective Measures. Use a wire brush remove the entire paint coat using scraper or remove the entire paint coat using scraper or paint remover. Clean the surface thoroughly with a duster before repainting. Be sure that first coat is thoroughly dry before applying a second coat. 19. Crawling or Creeping a. Characteristics (fig. 6). "Crawling" or "creeping" of paint is noted by little drops or islands which form on the paint film.

However,However, if excessive chalking has taken place, if excessive chalking has taken place,

b. Probable Causes. Crawling often occurs
when varnish or enamel is applied on an oily or greasy surface. Painting over a very smooth surface wil sometimes cause crawling c. Preventive Measures. Remove all grease and oil spots from surface before painting. If necessary to paint a glossy coat over a glossy surface, remove gloss from the applied coat by sanding with fine flint paper (sandpaper) or by washing with a mild solution of sodium carbonate (washing soda). d. Corrective Measures. Remove the little islands of paint which have formed on the film by sanding and wash off any grease or oil which may be underneath. If a glossy coat has been applied over another glossy coat, remove both coats, using paint and varnish remover. Then apply a prime coat without gloss before applying a high gloss coat.
9

a. Characteristics. Breaks which

extend

through the paint film to the bottom surface are called cracks. Cracking is usually followed by flaking, scaling, or peeling. Flaking is the dropping off of small pieces of the paint coat. Peeling is the curling and dropping off of relatively large pieces. Scaling is an aggravated form of flaking evidenced by the falling off of larger pieces. b. Probable Causes. Paints which dry hard and brittle, and can no longer contract or expand with moisture and temperature changes, lack elasticity and therefore crack. Low grade paints are usually inelastic, because they are deficient in oil and contain too much inert material for extended exposure. Cracking may also be caused by too many coats being applied

TM 9-213

a.

Dulling can be detected Charactersts.
Figure 6. Crawling or creeping of paint.

20. Dulling a. Ct. De a. . .....

d. Corrective Measures. To prevent the recurrence of mildew, the old coat of paint

by a loss of gloss, which develops in a high-moverw t o ad-ri p mover, and a new coat of hard-drying paint gloss varnish, paint, or enamel film after it has applied. The fungus growth can be partially dried out applied. The fungus growth can be partially o . Dulling removed by scrubbing the affected surface with

should be removed, with paint and varnish re-

b. Probable Causes. Dulling may be caused

a water solution of trisodium phosphate if

by the action of gases, inferior quality of product, use of very old stocks, or use of too much turpentine as a thinner. c. Preventive Measures. Avoid applying varnish, paint, or enamel where gas in the air can affect the coat. d. Corrective Measures. Remove the dulled coat or sand it down with fine sandpaper. Then apply varnish, paint, or enamel of known good quality.

available, rinsing the surface with clear wate and allowing it to dry. The use of less oil and more turpentine is advisable in environments where mildew is common. Caution: Extreme care should be observed in the handling of paints containing mercury or other fungicides, to prevent poisoning or irritation of the skin.

22. Streaking and Lumping
a. Characteristics. Crumbly streaks and lumps on painted wood surfaces are caused by resin exuding from knots and by pitch in unseasoned lumber exuding into the applied paint. b. Probable Causes. This condition is caused by painting over unseasoned lumber and by painting over knots or resinous streaks which have not been properly treated before painting. c. Preventive Measures. Do not paint over unseasoned lumber. Before painting over knots, coat them with shellac varnish or aluminum paint.

Mildewing 21.
a. Characteristics (fig. 7). Mildew, a form of plant life, is a fungus frequently found on exposed surfaces in damp, warm climates, particularly on soft paint films. b. Probable Causes. Paint films become sticky and windblown spores and decayed and dried vegetation adhere to the surface. The oil in the paint 'sometimes becomes infected and breeding of mildew spores takes place. c. Preventive Measures. Use a hard-drying paint which remains clean and unaffected. Apply paint under dry conditions. 10

TM 9-213

--

-

I

RA PD 78492

Figure 7. Mildew on painted surface.

d. Corrective Measures. Apply shellac varnish or aluminum paint to knots and repaint Do not paint wood until it is properly seasoned. 23. Running or Sagging a. Characteristics(fig. 8). An effect of ripples or irregularities produced by a film of paint, varnish, or lacquer on a vertical or sloping surface is known as "runs" or "sags." b. Probable Causes. Runs and sags are usually produced by the application of a paint, varnish, or lacquer which has been thinned excessively or by the application of too much material and is usually evidenced on a sloping or vertical surface. The most frequent causes are too much material, incomplete brushing, and the use of an inflexible brush. c. Preventive Measures. Apply a uniform coat of paint of correct consistency. When applying the material, do not apply too much and brush out to a uniform film with a flexible brush. d. Corrective Measures. Sand the surface until runs or sags have been removed and then coat with material of correct consistency. Do not apply an excessive amount. Use a flexible brush and brush out to a uniform film.

24. Slow Drying a. Characteristics. Although the time rea. Characteristics. Although the time required for drying is dependent upon the type of paint, enamel, varnish, or lacquer used, certain faulty conditions may prolong the drying period. Paints which under normal drying conditions are tacky or sticky for long periods (12 hours or longer) after application are likely to catch dust and dirt, promote mildew, or to fail by checking or alligatoring. b. Probable Causes. Paints to which a small amount of mineral oil has been added may never dry thoroughly. Do not pour linseed oil into a can which has contained lubricating oil until the can has been thoroughly cleaned. Cold weather retards drying of paint. Driers sometimes lose their effectiveness in prepared paint of dark color, such as dark green and dark brown. The use of old linseed oil that has become "fatty" by exposure, or the use of inferior driers and thinners are other factors frequently contributing to slow drying of paint coats. c. Preventive Measures. Do not paint when temperature is below 500 F. It is good policy to paint a test area and let it dry overnight before adding additional drier to paint to assure
11

TM 9-213

X: I

I

:

a

cor~~~~rec eteapywssosaesmtmscue ynied Incl drin

peiod

Figure 8. Runs and sags in paint.

a correct drying period. In cold weather, apply a thin uniform film on a dry surface. d. Corrective Measures. Once paint is applied and fails to dry properly, the condition should be corrected by removing the paint with paint and varnish remover or a scraper, and painting with the right type of paint under correct conditions (c above). 25. Spotting
2.Spotting

a. Characteristics (fig. 9). The appearance of discolored spots on a painted surface is known as spotting. b. Probable Causes. Color changes and loss of gloss in irregular patches may be caused by spots in the surface which absorb oil from the paint unevenly. This may be the result of too few coats or the lack of controlled penetration of the paint and may occur on new work which has been given only two coats or on old work painted with one coat. In white paints, this is accompanied by the loss of gloss. Colored paints usually appear to fade when the oil is absorbed unevenly. A chill of fresh varnish may separate its constituents, so that discolored spots appear on the varnished surface. Like-

wise, spots are sometimes caused by nail heads which rust, due either to moisture back of the boards or to improperly driven and covered nails. Splashes of liquid on a freshly varnished surface will also cause spotting. Rain and hail on a freshly painted surface will usually leave spots. c. Preventive Measures. Apply sufficient coats of paint and avoid painting when rain or storms are imminent. The use of a paint containing zinc oxide is effective in minimizing spotting on old work. d. Corrective Measures. Apply an additional coat of paint. Apply paint during dry weather. In cases of spotting due to rain or sandstorms, sand off rough spots before painting. 26. Sweating a. Characteristics. The reappearance of luster on a varnished surface which has been rubbed to a dull finish is known as "sweating." b. Probable Causes. Sweating of a varnished surface is usually caused by inadequate rubbing to attain a dull finish or to the applica-

12 1'2

TM 9-213

,~

.,,~

r

. .,~ ..

'

-

'

APD78465

Figure 9. Spotting of paint due to rain. tion of the finish coat before undercoats have thoroughly hardened. c. Preventive Measures. Rub the varnished surface thoroughly before applying finish coats if a dull finish is desired. Do not apply finish coats before undercoats have thoroughly hardened. d. Corrective Measures. After the surface is thoroughly hardened, rub down the finish thoroughly and then apply another finish coat. drier in the paint. Paints which have been excessively thinned with oil and applied too thick are subject to wrinkling. c. Preventive Measures. Do not apply thick coats. Brush out each coat thoroughly. Do not use an excessive amount of drier. Do not thin paint with oil because it changes the ratio of the original ingredients. d. Corrective Measures. Sand off wrinkles with rough sandpaper and paint with properly thinned paint which does not have an excessive

27. Wrinkling
a. Characteristics (fig. 10). Wrinkling of a paint coat is evidenced by the paint film gathering in small wrinkles. b. Probable Causes. Wrinkling may be caused by the application of an excessively thick coat or by failure to brush out the paint properly. It also may be caused by too much

amount of drier or oil in it. In cases of exces-

sive wrinkling, strip off the old coats and paint as instructed.

28. Failures in Spray Painting
Paint failures and difficulties which occur only with spray painting equipment are discussed in paragraph 105.

13

TM 9-213

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Figure 10. Wrinkling of paint.

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14

TM 9-213

CHAPTER 2 UNDERCOATS, FINISH MATERIALS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS
Section I. GENERAL
29. Applications applied when at a subnormal temperature. On

guide to the selection of suitable materials, ,
procedures, and systems for painting and otherwise finishing metal and wood surfaces. For colors and color numbers, see Federal Standard 595. If the correct finish system (par. 31)

This chapter is intended to serve as a general

the other hand, high temperatures may cause a soapy foamy condition or chemical change of the oils in a paint or varnish and make it unusuable. c. Arrange for up-ending of containers every

colors and color numbers, see Federal Standis used and properly applied, it will keep
maintenance to a minimum. Otherwise, moisture or other substances will penetrate the pro-

90 days when they are stored on end or for
rolling them half a turn when they are stored

tective coating and cause the metal to corrode
or the wood to rot. Usually, the finish coat

d. Do not store partially filled containers without tightly installing lids, covers, caps, or other sealing means.
e. Do not store paints, varnishes, or other

alone will not provide sufficient protection.
For example, lusterless olive-drab enamel, which is somewhat porous, offers relatively little protection; its main function is camouflage. The required protection is provided chiefly by primers that for metal contain rust-

inhibiting pigments and for wood have high inhibitingpigments high for wood have and
moisture resistant qualities.

flammable finishing materials near steam pipes, an open flame, or where there is any danger from flying sparks such as from welda ng . ing equipment. Post "NO SMOKING" signs in ent in prominent places in paint warehouses. f. Each drum should be labeled with complete instructions covering the type of material contained therein, the reduction ratio, the reducing material recommended, color, gloss,

30. Storage of Paint Materials
a. The materials covered in this paragraph include the primers, fillers, paints, varnishes, lacquers, and other liquid products that are required for the application of protective finishes. b. Store these materials where they will be protected from the elements and extreme temperature changes. While freezing temperatures may cause a separation of some ingredients which are difficult to mix in again with uniform consistency, the majority of the products described in this manual are not damaged by freezing. Low temperatures, however, tend to increase the viscosity of paints, varnishes, and like materials. This makes their application difficult and impairs their adhesion if they are

and application data.

g. Maintain a perpetual inventory of all materials where the volume is large enough to warrant the effort. Install a system of dating for each shipment received. Use oldest stock first, since aging causes certain types of enamels to lose their gloss and to body-up to such an extent that they are rendered useless. Black enamels, especially, have a tendency to lose their gloss and drying properties upon aging.

31. Finish System
a. Protective coatings are applied to metal and wood surfaces to protect these substances from the destructive action of moisture and other injurious agents. Coating colors enhance 15

TM 9-213

the appearance of the surfaces to which they are applied and also serve for camouflage, to denote service application of equipment, and for other specified purposes. Coatings must also resist weathering, abrasion by cleaning or usage, fumes, oil, the action of fungi and other causes that tend to impair their protective qualities. b. Because no single finish material can fulfill all the requirements mentioned above, the finishes, as applied to both metal and wood, are usually composed of two or more materials that have been applied separately, each of which serves a definite purpose in a combination coating known as "finish system." c. The information in this manual on finish systems is in accordance with MIL-STD-171 (ORD) (general), MIL-STD-173 (ORD) (artillery materiel), MIL-STD-709 (ammunition), MIL-STD-193 (tactical vehicles), and MILSTD-194 (ORD) (fire-control materiel). The thickness of dry paint films for metal and wood surfaces, unless otherwise specified, is given in table I, in accordance with MIL-STD171 (ORD), which lists the systems. For specific finish systems in formation, refer to paragraphs 74 through 88 and tables II and IV through X. 32. Finish Materials System a. Fillers. Fillers are heavy-body materials, usually in paste form, that are used to fill depressions and holes and to provide a smooth surface, after subsequent sanding, on rough castings and other uneven surfaces. b. Primers. Primers are used on metals to provide an adherent corrosion-resistant coating to which the subsequent finish coat will firmly adhere. c. Sealers. Sealers are used to fill or seal the pores of wood and to prevent "bleeding" of an underlying stain or colored filling medium into the final finish coat. Certain sealers contain fungicides. d. Topcoat Coat. This is the final or Finish coat in a finish system. It may be enamel, lacquer, paint, or varnish, depending on the service requirements desired. e. Thinners. (1) Alcohol, denatured (0-A-396). This is a water-white flammable liquid. It 16

is poisonous. This grade of alcohol is prescribed for thinning shellac varnish. It is a solvent for shellac resin. (2) Oil, linseed, ra? (TT-O-369). When used as a thinner in pigmented coating materials, it reduces the pigmentto-oil ratio, resulting in a thinner coat. Paints thinned with linseed oil are used for the sealing and priming coat on bare wood. (3) Solvent, dry-cleaning (P-S-661). This thinner is also known as "Stoddard Solvent." It is a water-white petroleum derivative used interchangeably with mineral spirits paint thinner as a thinner for oil paints, varnishes, enamels, and asphalt paints other than certain synthetic-resin-base finishing products. (4) Thinner, enamel, synthetic (TT-T306). This thinner is a mixture of volatile coal-tar and petroleum derivatives. It is used to thin synthetic-resin-base varnishes and enamels. Do not use to thin lacquer. (5) Thinner, lacquer, cellulose nitrate, dope and lacquer, blush retarding (TT-T-266). This thinner evaporates much less rapidly than the lacquer thinner (MS-35626). These thinners are intended for use during periods of high humidity, to prevent the condensation of moisture on the surface of the lacquer film. Such moisture seriously impairs the lacquer coating. (6) Thinner, paint, mineral spirits (TTT-291). This is a water-white petroleum derivative similar to and used vent. It is used as a thinner for asic-resin-base enamels and varnishes. It will curdle or decompose these latter materials. Do not use to thin lac(7) Turpentine, gum spirits (TT-T-801). This is a clear, volatile liquid obtained by distillation of the gum

phalt paints and oleoresinous enamels, paints, and varnishes, except synthet-

TM 9-213

(oleoresin) of living pine trees. It is a good solvent for many resins and is the preferred thinner for oil paints

and varnishes with a linseed oil vehicle. Its evaporation rate is relatively slow. Do not use to thin lacquer.

Section II. FILLERS
33. General Fillers, like primers and sealers, are undercoats used to prepare metal or wood surfaces for subsequent and final coats of enamel, lacquer, paint, or varnish. They are heavy-bodied pigment materials and, excepting the graduation fillers, are applied with a putty knife, spatula, or other suitable tool. They are always used in conjunction with finish coats. inert, thermoplastic, and noncuring. It is not affected by oil or temperatures between minus 0 65 ° F to180 F. b. Use. It is used for -static sealing of glassto-metal in optical instruments, also to cover visible headless screws, except adjusting screws, in fire-control instruments. 36. Filler, Graduation or Engraving

34. Sealing Compound, Curing (MIL-S(1S 51031) 8030-275-8 1A0) FSN (SM 5-1-8000A) a. Characteristics. This sealing compound is

(MIL-P-1201 1)

a. Characteristics. This is a paste-paint-type filler that adheres firmly to the surface to which it is applied. It is issued in black, deep red, white, and translucent white. It provides

a two-part material consisting of a black polysulfide-base compound and a catalyst, to be mixed according to manufacturer's instructions. This compound and the catalyst are contained in a two-compartment container. After curing, it forms a rubber-like material and provides satisfactory adhesion. b. Use. The compound is used for sealing and plugging exposed holes where required in fire-control instruments, such as holes for setscrews, adjusting screws, and plugs that are accessible from the outside of the instrument. c. Curing. (1) Temperature. Cure at room temperature, approximately 800 F. (2) Time required. 72 to 96 hours. Warning: The catalyst used contains lead compound. Avoid excessive contact with skin. Wash hands before curing. 35. Sealing Compound, Noncuring (MILS-11030 Type I, Class 1) (FSN 8030577-4815) (SM 5-1-8000A) a. Characteristics. This is a homogeneous stable noncorrosive, nontoxic compound. It is 37. General Sealers are usually unpigmented. They are used in most applications to seal the pores of wood and serve as an undercoat, over which one or more finish coats are applied. Sealers

maximum legibility on graduated scales.
b. Use. (1) For filling in the graduation scales of fire-control instruments. (2) For small-arms sight graduations where specifically prescribed. been removed by cleaning operations. c. Application. Fill the indentations with the paste by brushing; then wipe across the indentations with a cloth or small knife blade. This action will press the paste into the indentations and remove most of the excess paste. Wash the remainder from the surface before it sets with castile soap and water; rinse with clean water and allow to dry. d. Drying Time. (1) Dry-to-handle. Air-dry for 12 hours. (2) Dry hard. Air-dry for 24 hours. (3) Recoating. A finish coat may be applied over the graduated element after the filler has air-dried for 2 hours. are also used to prevent the bleeding of underlying substances, such as stains or the resin from knots, into the finish coat. In some applications where the decorative feature of the finish is of less importance than its sealing and 17

Section Ill. SEALERS

TM 9-213

protective qualities, a sealer is used for both prime and final finish. Some types contain fungicides.

d. Drying Time. (1) Dry-to-handle. Air-dry for 2 hours. (2) Full hardness. Air-dry for 24 hours. (3) Recoating. Recoat after 2 hours air-

Characteristics. yellowish transThis is a e. Thinners. If thinning is required, use ~~a.~~~~~~~ CrtssTisyl sdry-cleaning solvent or mineral spirits paint parent vegetable oil extracted from flax seeds. g s thinner, or gum spirits turpentine. toxic ingreWhen exposed to the atmosphere, this oil dries Warning his stain contins a Warning: This stain contains a toxic ingreor cures by to form a tough and oxidation dient that is a skin irritant. Contact with the flexible film: It is the most widely used oil

38. Oil, Linseed, Raw (TT-0-369)

drying.

for .a purposes. n general for general painting purposes.bare b. Use.

hands should be avoided.

40. Varnish, Shellac, Bleached, Type I,
Medium Body, and Orange, Type II, Medium Body (TT-V-91) a. Characteristics. Shellac varnish is a solution or "cut" of a resin made from the secretion of certain insects. It dries to a transparent film that is soluble in shellac thinner. It is not durable under exterior exposure conditions. b. Use. (1) As filling or sealing coat on wood as in finish systems 28.5 and 29.5 of MIL-STD-171 (ORD). (2) As an intermediate coat to prevent the bleeding of oil-soluble colors as in finish system 29.1. type sealer as in systems 29.2 29.3, and 29.4. (4) As a topcoat in finish system 28.5. c. Application. Shellac varnishes are usually applied as issued by brushing. They can be sprayed when thinned as required. d. Drying Time. (1) Set-to-touch. Air-dry for 15 minutes. (2) Dry-to-handle. Air-dry for 1 hour. (3) Full hardness. Air-dry for 24 hours. (4) Recoating. Recoat after 2 to 3 hours air-drying. e. Thinner. If thinning is required, use denatured alcohol, grade III.

(1) As a sealer on bare wood as in finish systems 29.2, 29.3, and 29.4. (2) As a vehicle for paints, a thinner for paints, and in the formulation of oleoresinous varnishes and enamels. c. Application. Apply by dipping or brushing. By dipping allow the wood, which must be completely dry, to soak in the oil for 24 hours, remove from the oil, wipe the excess with a squeegee or cloth, and allow to dry. d. Drying Time. Air-dry (cure) for about 16 hours. A second coat may then be applied. Caution: Wiping cloths, soaked with linseed oil, must either be destroyed or spread open and dried in well-ventilated area to prevent possible spontaneous combustion. 39. Stain, Wood, Olive-Drab (MIL-S13913 (ORD)) a. Characteristics. This is a penetrating, wipe-off type stain containing a fungicide. b. Use. The stain partly penetrates clean dry wood and is used on wooden items where camouflage and protection against fungi is desired. It is also used in finish system 29.1 (MIL-STD-171 (ORD)). c. Application. Apply the stain as issued by brushing, dipping, spraying, or wiping.

(3) As an intermediate coat over an29.3, type sealer as in systems 29.2 oil-

Section IV. PRIMERS
41. General Primers are applied to metal to provide an adherent coating to which a subsequently applied coating will firmly adhere. The pigment composition of primers, for ferrous-base metals 18 usually consists of iron oxide, titanium oxide, lead chromate, red lead, zinc chromate, zinc dust or zinc oxide, or a mixture of these. Zinc chromate is the principal pigment in primers used on aluminum, magnesium, and

TM 9-213

their alloys and on items for very wet and very damp operating conditions.

Air-dry

Bake

42. Enamel, Rust-Inhibiting, Olive-Drab
(TT-E--485) a. Characteristics. This is a combination airdrying and baking enamel that provides a smooth, semigloss, olive-drab (color No. 24087) film, possessing excellent corrosion-inhibiting properties. b. Use. (1) As a one-coat painting system over phosphate-treated or solvent cleaned steel surfaces, such as sheel metal surfaces, metal containers for ammunition, gasoline drums, etc., as in finish system 21.1. (2) For a two-coat system, as the primers and top coat alkyd finish for general use, as in systems 21.5 and 27.3. (3) As a baked primer in a two-coat semigloss baked finish on steel and wood as in systems 21.7 and 27.3. (4) As an undercoat for all metals except aluminum and magnesium as in systems 23.1 and 23.2. c. Application. (1) Brushing. Apply as issued or thin with not more than 5 percent by volume of thinner. (2) Spraying. Apply after thinning with not more than 15 percent by volume of thinner. (3) Roller coating. Thin to consistency recommended by manufacturer. d. Thickness of Coating. This depends on the purpose of the application. When used as a priming coat, a thin (04-0.6 mils thickness), uniformly applied coat is effective. When used as an intermediate or topcoat, a fairly heavy coating should be applied (0.9-1.1 mils). e. Drying Time.
Air-dry Bake

(2) Full hardness

72 hours

Bake as above

plus 24
hours air dry. (3) Recoating -_--After air-dry 6 hours or bake as in (1) above. f. Thinners. If thinning is required, use dry-cleaning solvent, mineral spirits paint thinner, or synthetic enamel thinner. Warning: This enamel contains toxic pigments. Care should be exercised to avoid breathing the mist from the enamel when spraying. Spray dust from this enamel is subject to spontaneous combustion if allowed to accumulate on surfaces of enclosures or booths. Spray dust accumulations must be removed by scraping at frequent intervals. 43. Primer-Surfacer, Synthetic (TT-P-659) a. Characteristics. This is a tinted or white primer that provides a smooth hard film, free from pebbling, and other surface imperfections. It has no rust-inhibiting properties and must not be used as a substitute for corrosion-resisting primer. This is an alkyd-resin-base product that serves both as a primer and as a surfacer. It is an undercoat in a finish system, over which synthetic enamel, gloss or other finish is applied as a top coat. As a first coat surfacer and filler on wood surfaces, it can be lightly sanded to provide a smoother finish over which the ton coat is applied. b. Use. (1) As a primer on metal for two-coat lusterless alkyd finish for interior use (light colors) as in system 20.7. (2) As a primer on metal for two-coat semigloss alykd finish for light colors not exposed to the weather as in systemrn 21.2 -and two-coat full gloss alkyd finish not exposed to the weather, as in system 22.1. (3) As a first coat surfacer and filler on wood surfaces and as a primer on metal and wood surfaces not exposed to the weather, as in systems 21.2, 28.2, and 22.1.
19

(1) Dry-to-handle: (a) Types I, 16 hours II, III (b) Types IV __ 8 hours

45 minutes at 2500 F. or 30 minutes at 300 ° F.

TM 9-213 (4) As a surfacing coat over old enamel in good condition. c. Application. (1) Brushing. Apply as issued. (Dilute with not more than 5 percent of thinner.) (2) Spraying. Apply after thinning in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. (3) Dipping. Apply after thinning in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. d. Drying Time. (1) Set-to-touch. Air-dry 10 minutes to 2 hours. (2) Dry through. Air-dry 18 hours or bake 45 minutes at 250 ° F. or equivalent. (3) Recoat. After air-dry 18 hours or bake 45 minutes at 2500 F. or equivalent. e. Thickness of Coating. 0.9 to 1.1 mils. f Thinners. Thin primer as required with dry-cleaning solvent or mineral spirits paint c. Application. (1) Brushing. Apply as issued or by thinning with not more than 5 percent by volume of thinner. Apply one coat of primer for a two-coat finish and two coats for a three-coat finish. (2) Spraying. For spraying, thin with 15 percent by volume of dry-cleaning solvent, mineral spirits paint thinner, or turpentine. d. Drying Time. (1) Set-to-touch. Air-dry 20 minutes-2 hours, (2) Dry through. Air-dry 18 hours or bake 45 minutes at 250 ° F. or equivalent. (3) Full hardness. Air-dry 18 hours or bake 45 minutes at 2500 F. or equivalent. Then air-dry 24 hours. (4) Recoat. After air-drying 10 hours. e. Thinner. Thin primer as required with dry-cleaning solvent, mineral spirits paint thinner, or turpentine.
Note 1. Use olive-drab rust-inhibiting enamel (TTE-485) when stocks of (TT-P-636) are exhausted. Note 2. Zinc yellow primer coating (TT-P-666) may be substituted for the corrosion-resisting primer only when protection against salt-water corrosion is
desired.

thinner (TT-T-291).
Note. This primer when dry may be wet- or drysanded if necessary.

44. Primer Coating, Synthetic, Wood, and Ferrous Metal (TT-P-636)
a. Characteristics. This is a red or brown iron oxide alkyd-resin-base primer that has good adhesion, durability, and flexibility and covers in one coat. It has good resistance to weathering, although its intended use is as an undercoat. b. Use. (1) As a priming coat on bare or phosphate-treated ferrous metal parts of motor vehicles, guns, gun mounts, tanks, and metal shipping containers, and other Ordnance materiel as in system 20.8, 21.3, 22.2, and 23.3. (2) As a sealing undercoat on the wooden parts of motor vehicles as in systems 26.1 and 27.3.
Note. This primer should not be used on the inside of steel drinking water tanks, for amphibious vehicles, on steel exposed to

45. Primer, Coating, Synthetic, Rust-Inhibiting, Lacquer-Resisting (TT-P-664) a. Characteristics. This is a fast-drying primer that provides a hard smooth satin finish on iron or steel and requires no sanding. b. Use. (1) As the first coat on bare iron or steel, with an enamel as topcoat as in systems 20.5 and 20.9. (2) As an intermediate coat over a synthetic enamel when nitrocellulose lacquer is applied ,as a topcoat. c. Application. Apply primer by dipping, brushing, or spraying when thinned as recommended by the manufacturer.

d. Drying Time.
(1)

strong acid fumes, to air containing excessive amounts of sulfuric acid or sulfur dioxide fumes, or on steel structures designed to stand many years of exposure
to weather.

(2) Dry hard. 15 minutes.

Set-to-touch. 3 to 6 minutes.

Dry-after-tack-free. 20 minutes. (4) Dry through. 25 minutes. e. Thinner. Use thinner specified by the manufacturer.

20

TM 9-213

46. Primer, Lacquer, Rust-Inhibiting
(MIL-P-11414) a. Characteristics. This is a quick-drying, rust-inhibiting cellulose nitrate primer. It is of one type and one grade, pigmented. The color is characteristic of red or brown iron oxide pigments. b. Use. (1) As a base for lusterless lacquer finishes for automotive and general use, systems 20.4 and 20.10. (2) As a base for semigloss lacquer finishes for automotive materials, systems 21.11, 21.12, and 21.13. (3) As a base for full gloss lacquer finishes for automotive use, systems 22.3 and 22.4. c. Application. Apply primer by dipping or spraying when thinned with one part by volume of lacquer thinner. d. Drying Time. (1) Set-to-touch. 1-1/2 to 3 minutes. (2) Dry through. 6 minutes.

c. Application.
(1) Brushing. If not in brushing consistency in package, thin with xylene to the following viscosity: 23-40 seconds on a No. 4 Zahn, or 75-150 seconds on a No. 4 Ford cup. (2) Spraying. Apply after thinning with 1 volume of thinner with 2 volumes of primers, or the following viscosity: 43-75 seconds in a No. 1 Zahn Cup. 15-25 seconds in a No. 4 Ford Cup.
d. Drying Time.
Air-dry

Bake

15 minutes (1) Dry-tohandle (2) Dry through__30 minutes 24 minutes 45 minutes (3) Full hardat 2500 F. ness (4) Recoating ____30 minutes e. Thinner. This primer with xylene (TTX-916), toluene (TT-T-548), or synthetic

(3) Full hardness. 48 hours.
e. Thinner. Thin lacquer with thinner as specified (TT-T-266). lacquer

enamel thinner (TT-T06).
48. Surfacer, Sanding, Lacquer Type

47. Primer Coating, Zinc Yellow, for
Aluminum and Magnesium Surfaces (TT-P-666) Cs c sion-inhibiting properties and is prescribed for

(MIL-1 0181)
a. Characteristics. This is a blue-gray surfacer (color No. 37038) that has a semigloss finish when either wet- or dry-sanded. b. Use. This surfacer is used as a surfacing

a. Characteristics. This primer has corro-

use. on. mat l use on materiel and equipment materil severe use. on.aswhere exposure to corrosive conditions exist such

coat over a primed automotive steel prior to the application of a gloss lacquer finish coat to obliate slight scratches and dents.
c. Application. Surfacer is applied preferably by spraying. Surfacer is thinned with approximately three parts of lacquer thinner to two parts of surfacer. An 0.9- to 1.1-mil (0.0009 - 0.0011 in.) coating is sprayed on the primed metal surface, allowed to air-dry for 1 hour, and then wet- or dry-sanded to a smooth and uniform finish 0.6 mils (0.0006 in.). d. Drying Time. (Dry- or wet-sand). 4 hours e. Thinner. Thin surfacer with lacquer thinner (MS-35626).

salt water or spray. A slight silking of the dried film is permissible. b. Use. (1) On iron and steel exposed to acid, and salt water spray, as in system 22.7. (2) On aluminum or magnesium, as in system 21.18. (3) As a substitute in systems 20.5, 20.7, 20.9, 21.5, 21.7, 21.8, and 21.9 for the priming of aluminum or magnesium alloys. (4) On all contact surfaces with other metals or wood.

21

TM 9-213

Section V. ENAMELS
b. Use. A heavy olive-drab coating is apEnamels materials are materials pigmented plied on surfaces that might become wet, to finishing Enamels are pigmented finishing provide a more secure footing. For painting that, in general, dry to a hard gloss, semigloss, tank turret floors, a heavy coating of white or lusterless finish. The nonvolatile vehicles in enamels may be oils, natural or synthetic resins, soluble cottons, or their combinations. c. Application. (1) Brushing. Apply as issued or by 50. Enamel, Lusterless, Quick-Drying thinning with not more than 5 per(for Ammunition) (MIL-E-10687) cent by volume of thinner. a. Characteristics. This is a quick-drying, (2) Spraying. Apply after thinning with synthetic resin-base enamel. It comes in several 15 percent by volume of thinner. colors. (3) Troweling. Apply as issued. b. Use. Use. enamel is used as a finish coat b. This enamel is used as a finish coat This (4) Thickness of coating. The thickness on projectiles, bombs, grenades, and pertinent of the coating should be 1/32 to 1/16 ammunition components and for finish system 20.1 of MIL-STD-171 (ORD). inch to insure retention of maximum 20.1 MIcaSTD-171 (ORD). of durability and nonskid properties. 49. General

c. Application.

(1) Brushing. Apply as issued. (2) Spraying. Thin with two parts of the specified thinner to five parts by volume of the issued enamel. (3) Dipping. Thin with one part of the specified thinner to three parts by volume of the issued enamel. d. Thickness of Coating. Apply coating at 0.8 to 1.1 mils thickness. e. Drying Time. (1) Set-to-touch. 3 to 6 minutes. (2) Dry hard. 10 minutes. (3) After tack-free. 15 minutes.

d. Drying Time. (1) Tack-free. 4 hours. (2) Full hardness. 24 hours. e. Thinner. When thinning is required, use synthetic enamel thinner. 52. Enamel, Synthetic, Gloss (TT-E-489) a. Characteristics. This is a high-gloss airdrying alkyd-resin-base enamel with excellent weather-resistant properties. It is flexible and has satisfactory gloss and color retention. b. Use.

(4) Dry through. 20 minutes. (1) It is used on exterior and interior (5) Full72hardness. hours. metal surfaces, particularly on smooth f. Thinner. When thinner is required, use exterior metal. Its main use is for rearomatic petroleum naphtha or a blend of 60finishing automobiles. For this latter finishing automobiles. For this latter percent aliphatic naphtha land 40 percent by volume xylene. (Where the naphtha or naphpurpose, it should be noted that, when alkyd enamels of this type are applied tha-xylene blend i's not available, dry-cleaning to steel surfaces, the bare or phossolvent or mineral spirits paint thinner may be phatized steel should first be given used, requiring a longer drying period.) sh Caution: Do not use this enamel where rea priming coat, such as an oxide, zincsistance to gasoline is a prime requisite, such chromate alkyd, or primer surfacer. as as on automotive equipment. on automotiveequipmeThe white is the appropriate paint for interiors of combat vehicles. 51. Enamel, Nonskid, Lusterless (2) It is also suitable for machinery.

(4) Dry through. 20 minutes.

(MIL-F-18176)
a. Characteristics. This enamel provides a very coarse, gritty coating, similar to coarse sandpaper. It is applied over a previously painted or primed surface.
22

c. Application. (1) Brushing. Apply as issued. (2) Spraying. Thin in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

TM 9-213 d. Drying Time. c. Application.
Air-dry Bake

(1) Dust free ____ 2 hours (2) Dry hard -___ 8 hours

(1) Brushing. Thin with not more than

(3) Full hard .... __48 hours

(4) Recoat _-----

24 hours

45 minutes at 250 ° F. or equivalent. 24 hours air-dry after bake. 45 minutes at 2500 F. or equivalent.

parts by volume of enamel.

parts by volume of

thnner to 95

(2) Spraying. Thin with not more than 15 parts by volume of thinner to 85 parts by volume of enamel. d. Thickness of coating. The thickness of the wet coating applied to obtain required hiding depends on the color of the enamel. For instance, black, gray, red, and olive-drab have satisfactory hiding-power and a relatively thin film will suffice. Orange and yellow require a film at least twice as heavy. White enamel requires a heavy film to obtain complete hiding.

e. Thinner. Thin enamel with synthetic enamel thinner, dry-cleaning solvent, or mineral

e. Drying Time.y (1) Set-to-touch __ 2 hours (2) Dry hard .... 8 hours hours

Bake

spirits paint thinner.
Note. This enamel is not intended for painting8 houses or exterior walls.

45 minutes 45 minutes

53. Enamel, Synthetic, Lusterless
(TT-E-527) a. Characteristics. This is a combination airdrying and baking enamel with a oil-modified alkyd-resin base. It has satisfactory weather characteristics 'insofar as chalking, fading, and color changes are concerned but, because of film porosity, the enamel is applied in a finish system requiring the use of a primer containing a zinc-chromate pigment. It will also, without a primer, adhere firmly to stainless steel and other high-alloy steel, and will withstand high temperatures without blistering or flaking from the metal surface to which applied. b. Use. (1) This enamel is applicable, when applied as in a above, over a primer where extreme weathering conditions are encountered. (2) In camouflage. (3) For two-coat lusterless alkyd finish for interior use, light colors, and for general use, and for interior surfaces of optical instruments as in systems 20.7 and 20.8. (4) To enamel (with black enamel) the gas cylinder of cal. .30 rifles, M1 and M1C.

F. or equivalent. (3) Full hard .... 72 hours 24 hours air-dry after bake. (4) Recoat _-----. after dry hard Thinner. Thin enamel with synthetic Warning: The dry spray dust of lusterless enamels is an extreme fire hazard. Remove dust daily. The danger can be materially reduced by the use of water-wash spray booths whenever possible. 54. Enamel, Synthetic, Semigloss (TT-E-529) a. Characteristics. This is an alkyd-resinbase enamel. It is issued in two types: class A, air drying, and class B, baking. Both have satisfactory weathering qualities. (1) For exterior application where extreme weathering conditions exist. (2) In camouflange. 23

TM 9-213 c. Application. (1) Brushing. Apply as issued or by thinning with not more than 5 parts by volume of thinner (TT-T-306) to 95 parts by volume of enamel. (2) Spraying. Thin with not more than 15 parts by volume of thinner (TTT-306) to 85 parts by volume of class A enamel or 15 parts by volume of xylene (TT-X-916) to 85 parts by volume of class B enamel. d. Thickness of Coating. A light coat of olive-drab. or black enamel will provide sufficient hiding. A considerably heavier coat is required when yellow or white enamel is applied.
e. Drying Time.

f. Thinner. Thin enamel with synthetic enamel thinner (TT-T-306), or xylene (TT-X916) as required. 55. Enamel, Baking, Phenol- or Urea-Formaldehyde (JAN-E-480) a. Characteristics. This specification covers the following types of semigloss baking enamel. (1) Type I-Phenol-formaldehyde resin base. resin (2) Type II-Urea-formaldehyde base. b. Use. For steel surfaces in oil housings. c. Application. By spraying. d. Thickness of Coating. Apply coating at 0.9- to 1.1-mil thickness.

e. Drying Time.
(1) Dry hard _ ._

Bake

(1) Dry-to-handle. Air-dry class A for 8
hours. Bake class B at 2500 F., for

.---------. .45 minutes
at 3750

45 minutes. (2) Full hardness. Air-dry class A for 72 hours. Air-dry class B for 24 hours after baking at 2500 F., for 45 minutes.

(2) Full hard ____---------.

F. 24 hours air-dry after, bake.

Section VI. LACQUERS
56. General Lacquers are finish materials that dry by evaporation of the volatile portion only and deposit a strong horn-like film that is, generally, thinner than the film provided by oleoresinous products. The lacquers described in this section are of this type. 57. Lacquer, Spraying, General Use (TT-L-58) a. Characteristics. This lacquer is a quickdrying, cellulose-base material. It is issued in two types: type I, clear, and type II, pigmented. After 24 hours of air-drying, the film is sufficiently hard to permit rubbing to a high gloss. b. Use. (1) On interior or exterior surfaces over sealed wood surfaces, where a gloss finish is prescribed as in finish 28.4. (2) Where quick drying is required and when specifically prescribed. 24 (3) Where finish 29.3 is prescribed. c. Drying Time. '(1) Tack-free. Air-dry for 10 minutes. (2) Full hardness. After 24 hours of air-drying, it can be rubbed to a high gloss. (3) Recoating. Air-dry for 1 hour. d. Thinner. Thin lacquer when required with clear lacquer thinner (TT-T-266) 58. Lacquer, Lusterless, Hot Spray (MIL-L-11195) a. Characteristics. This lacquer is a onetype and one-grade cellulose nitrate material which can be applied at either elevated or room temperature. Color is as specified. (1) As a one-coat lusterless finish for projectiles, grenades, etc., as in system 20.2.

TM 9-213

(2) As a two-coat lusterless lacquer ish for automotive and general as in system 20.4. (3) As a three-coat lusterless lacquer ish for automotive and general as in system 20.10. c. Applncatgon.

finuse, finuse,

d. Thinner. Use lacquer thinner conforming to TT-T-266. 60. Lacquer, Semigloss, Cellulose-Nitrate (MIL-L-52043(ORD)) a. Characteristics. This lacquer may be applied at either elevated or room temperature. It is a cellulose nitrate semigloss lacquer. It is pigmented to match the following colors and color numbers: olive-drab, 24087; light green, 24533; slate gray, 26132; accent gray, 26251; 'sand gray, 26306; and white, 27875. Refer to Federal Standard 595.

0.2 parts of thinner, (2) Hot spray. As issued. (3) Cold spray. When thinned with one part volume of thinner to two by parts by volume of packaged material. d. Drying Time.

(1) Set-to-touch. 4 to 8 minutes.
(2) Dry through. 10 minutes. (3) Full hardness. 48 hours. (3) Full hardness. 48 hours. e. Thinners. Use thinner conforming TT-T-266. to

b. Use.
(1) As a two-coat semigloss lacquer finish for automotive materials, system 21.11. (2) As a three-coat semigloss lacquer finish for automotive materials, systems

59. Lacquer, Automotive, Hot Spray
(MIL-L-12277(ORD)) a. Characteristics. This lacquer is a one-type and one-grade high gloss, cellulose nitrate material which can be applied at either elevated or room temperature. Color is olive-drab and shall match color No. 14087 of Federal Standard 595. b. Use. As a multiple coat full gloss lacquer finish for automotive use in systems 22.3 and *22.4. *(1) c. Application. (1) Hot spray. As issued. (2) Cold spray.. When thinned, one part thinner to two parts of packaged material.

21.12 and 21.13.
(3) As a three-coat semigloss lacquer finish for aluminum and magnesium, as ish for aluminum and magnesium, as in system 21.18. c. Application. (1) Hot spray. As issued. (2) Cold spray. When thinned with three parts by volume of thinner to five parts by volume of lacquer. d. Drying Time. Set-to-touch. 4-8 minutes. (2) Dry through. 10 minutes. (3) Full hardness. 48 hours. e. Thinner. Use lacquer thinner conforming to TT-T-266.

Section VII. PAINTS
61. General sions of pigments in a nonvolatile liquid (vehicle) (par. 9). A volatile solvent or thinner is used to reduce the paint to the proper consistency for application. The pigmented liquid, after application to the surface by brushing, spraying, or dipping, dries to form a solid and opaque coating. An oil paint contains a drying oil or oil varnish as the basic ingredient. A paste paint is one that permits a substantial addition of the vehicle and/or thinner to obtain the consistency for application. As asphalt paint contains asphaltum or a similar substance also provides the coloration, black or brovn. 62. Paint, Acid-Proof, Black (MIL-C-450, Tye 11) a. Characteristics. This paint consists of a natural or petroleum asphalt (bitumen) or a combination of both, cut back with dry-cleaning solvent or mineral spirits paint thinner to the required nonvolatile content. It contains

mixtures Paints are mechanical or dser

as the principal nonvolatile ingredient; this

25

TM 9-213 no drying oils, resins, or pigments. This paint is highly resistant to acids. is b. Use. It is used on metal or wood battery boxes and supports and in the assembly of certain ammunition items as in system 24.2. c. Application. i1) Brushing. Apply as issued. (2) Spraying. Apply as issued or thin as required. d. Drying Time. (1) Dust-free. Air-dry for 10 minutes. (2) Tack-free. Air-dry for 30 minutes. (3) Recoating. Recoat after air-drying for
4 hours.

e. Thinner. Xylene (TT-X-916). 64. Coating, Underbody (for Motor Coting, nderbody (for Motor a. Characteristics. The compound is a mixture of asphalts, fillers, solvents, and additives processed to meet the requirements stated herein. b. Use. (1) As a protective underbody coating for automotive equipment. (2) As a sound deadener. c. Application. Spraying at a temperature of
650 F ± 50 F. with a tank pressure of 80

e. Thinner. Use dry-cleaning solvent mineral spirits paint thinner.

or

pounds per square inch (psi). and with no more than 80 psi on the gun nozzle. d. Drying Time (1/16-inch dry film).

63. Primer, Weld Through (MIL-P-13380
(ORD))
a. Characteristics. The pigment is aluminum

(1) Set-to-touch. 4 hours.
(2) Full hardness. 24 hours. Note. The coating shall be free from pinNote. The coating shall be free from pin65. Paint, Heat-Resisting (Silicone, Aluminum) (MIL-P-14276) a. Characteristics. This is a product of one type and one grade of aluminum heat-resistant paint, which will withstand heat, solvents, and normal weather exposure. It is an air drying, or, air drying and baking, product with an aluminum pigment, powder or paste, and a vehicle. b. Use. (1) For painting equipment, where operating temperatures preclude the use
of conventional paints. (2) For application to engraved, stamped,

paste conforming to TT-A-468, type II, class B. It is furnished in a separate compartment from the vehicle to be mixed with it in the ratio of 2 pounds to the gallon of vehicle. The vehicle shall be a para-phenyl phenol-formaldehyde resin alkali-refined linseed oil varnish of 12-1/2-gallon oil length thinned with xylene. b. Use. This primer is intended for application to ferrous metal surfaces that are not readily accessible for painting after spot welding such as interior surfaces on trailer assemblies.
Note. Care must be exercised in the application of this primer to avoid the use of coats heavier than 0.6 mils. Thick films act as an insulator and may
prevent welding.

c. Application. (1) Spraying. With three parts of the mixed primer reduced by two parts of thinner by volume. (2) Dipping. With four parts of the mixed primer reduced by 1-1/2 parts of thinner by volume.

or stenciled lettering or numerals on components exposed to temperatures up to 1,0000 F. c. Application. (1) Spray as issued. (2) Brush only as required. d. Film Thickness. 0.8 to 1 mils.

d. Drying Time.

Air-dry

Bake

e. Dryng-tme.ake

Air-dry

Hake

(1) Set to 6 minutes touch (2) Tack dry ----. 75 minutes (3) Full hard72 hours 30 minutes
ness at 275 °

(1) Dust-free -_. 15 minutes (2) Dry through _60 minutes (3) Full hardness _.-. 60 .. .__.minutes at 400 °
F ± 5°

F. 26

F.

TM 9-213 66. Red Fuming Nitric Acid-Resistant Coating (MIL-P-22636+MIL-P-14458) a. Characteristics. The coating consists of a primer conforming to MIL-P-22636 and a paint conforming to MIL-P-14458. b. Use. For the use of red fuming nitric acid-resistant coating, refer to the technical manuals on materiel, equipped for storing or transporting this acid. 67. Paint, Stencil, Flat (TT-P-98)
a. Characteristics. Stencil paint shall be of

68. Paint, Stencil: Black (MIL-P-15149) a. Characteristics. Black, nonvolatile contents 65 percent by weight. b. Use. For stenciling drums, crates, etc. c. Application. By means of brush and stencil board or mask to surfaces of varying textures and absorptive properties. d. Drying Time.
(1) Set-to-touch.

(2) Dry hard.
e. References: Federal Catalog C5-1-SL,

Department of the Army SM 5-1-C5-1-SL, one grade and two types. vol. 2; and List of Items -and Marking for Ship(1) Paint consistency (black, white, gray, ment and Storage (MIL-STD-129). primary, and secondary colors). (2) Paste form (black, white, red, (2) Paste 69. Paint, Water, Paste, Camouflage yellow). form (black, white, red, b. Use. For marking bales, crates, fiber-P-13340) a. Characteristics. This is a water paint in bound boxes, ammunition, etc. c. Application. By means of brush and paste form to be diluted to proper consistency. It comes in different colors, black, brown, stencil board or mask to surfaces for varying green, white, and yellow. textures and absorptive properties.
d. Drying Time. b. Use.

(1) Set-to-touch. 10 minutes. (2) Dry hard. 1 hour. e. References: Federal Catalog C5-1-SL, Department of the Army SM 5-1-C5-1-SL, vol. 2; and List of Items and Marking for Shipment and Storage (MIL-STD-129).

(1) Diluted in the ratio of one to one, it is suitable for application to wood and metal surfaces. (2) Diluted in the ratio of one part paste to three parts water, by volume, it is suitable for application to fabrics.

Section VIII. VARNISHES 70. General Varnishes are nonpigmented liquids that, when applied as a thin film, dry on exposure to the air and provide a protective coating. Most varnishes are clear or translucent but certain asphaltic-base materials, which are used for protection against moisture or acids and for technical purposes such as electrical insulation, are called "varnishes" although they are black. Colored varnishes contain dyes or similar transparent or semitransparent substances. 71. Varnish, Asphalt (TT-V-51) a. Characteristics. This varnish is composed of natural asphalts, such as gilsonite, which are run (fused by heat), blended with drying oils, and thinned with solvent, together with the necessary amount of driers. It dries to a smooth black lustrous finish similar to black enamel. b. Use. (1) As a two-coat acid resistant finish for battery racks, interior of high explosive projectiles and other surfaces requiring similar protection, as in painting system 22.6. (2) As a three-coat acid resistant finish as in painting system 22.7. c. Application. Apply varnish by brushing. d. Drying Time (2) Full hardness. Air-dry for 24 hours. (3) Recoating. After air-drying for 3 hours. e. Thinner. When thinning is required, use dry-cleaning solvent or mineral spirits paint thinner.
27

(1) Set-to-touch. Air-dry for 3 hours.

TM 9-213

72. Varnish, Moisture- and Fungus-

(4) Recoating. Recoat after air-drying for

Resistant for the Treatment of
Communications, Electronic, and Associated Electrical Equipment (MIL-V-1 73) a. Characteristics. This is a transparent phenolic-resin-base varnish. The presence of this varnish can be determined in the inspection of electrical equipment by a "black light," which activates a fluorescent dye, which can be added for this purpose in the original application of the varnish. This varnish has a high dielectric strength. b. Use. It is used as a surface or finish coat on electrical equipment and components such as coils, circuit wiring, and chassis of radar and radio assemblies as protection against moisture and fungi (TB ORD 350). c. Application. (1) Brushing. Apply as issued or after thinning with not more than 5 percent by volume of thinner. (2) Spraying. Apply after thinning with 15 percent by volume of thinner. (3) Dipping. Dipping consistency depends on the type and shape of components and construction of assemblies. Degree of thinning is determined by trial. (4) Minimum coating. Dry film should not be less than 1 mil (0.001 in.) in thickness. (1) Dust-free. Air-dry for 1 hour. (2) Dry-to-handle. Air-dry for 5 hours. (3) Full hardness. Air-dry for 24 hours.

2 hours minimum.
e. Thinner. Thin varnish with synthetic enamel thinner (MIL-T-306). Caution: This varnish contains a fungicidal ingredient and the manufacture's precautions should be observed in the handling of this material. 73. Varnish, Spar, Water-Resisting (TT-V-1 21) a. Characteristics. This is a durable waterproof varnish with satisfactory weathering qualities. It is composed lof high-grade resins and polymerizing drying oils. b. Use. (1) As issued, on exterior surfaces where durability is the prime requisite and a high gloss is not required. (2) As a vehicle, for exterior enamels where high resistance to the elements is required. (3) Where system 28.3, 29.1, 29.2, 29.5 or 29.6 is prescribed. c. Application. (1) Brushing. Apply as issued or after thinning with not more than 5 percent by volume of thinner. (2) Spraying. Apply after thinning with 15 percent by volume of thinner. d. Drying Time. (1) Dust-free. Air-dry for 2 hours. (2) Dry-to-handle. Air-dry for 8 hours. (3) Full hardness. Air-dry for 24 hours. (4) Recoating. Recoat after air-drying 4 hours. e. Thinner. Thin varnish with synthetic enamel thinner (par. 54f).

Section IX. FINISH SYSTEMS
74. General
This section describes specific finish systems. For general information on finish systems and materials, see paragraphs 31 and 32.
Table I. Paint Films on Metal and Wood Surfaces Thickness
Specifications

ms

a. Surface Preparation. Surface preparation is discussed in TM 9-208-1. b. Thickness of Paint Films. Unless otherwise specified, thickness of dry paint films as
per Military Standard MIL-STD-171(ORD) should be as shown in table I.

MIL-C-15328 -0.3-0.5 TT-P-666 __----------------------MIL-P-11414 _______________________ TT-E-485, TT-P-636, TT-P-664, other )

0.4-0.6 0.6-0.8

primers,
MIL--S-10103, TT-P-662, TT-P-659 __)
All top coats, clear or opaque ----__--

0.8-1.2
0.9-1.2

28

TM 9-213

75. For Artillery Materiel a. Metal Surfaces. Metal · urfaces ·are s painted with two coats of rust-inhibiting enamel according to TT-E-485, system 21.5. The color of the enamel top coat is specified as olive-drab No. 24078 semigloss of Federal Standard 595. b. For Wood. Wood that previously has received preservative treatment in accordance with MIL-STD-171 (ORD) (finish 25.1, 25.2, or 25.3) is painted a two-coat semigloss alkyd finish (system 27.3) of same standard, with either two coats of enamel (TT-E-485), or a primer coating (TT-P-636) and a synthetic enamel (TT-E-529) as a top coat. 76. For Rocket and Guided Missile Materiel When guided missile materiel is to be painted or prepared for painting, refer to the technical manuals on that particular equipment for specific instructions. The finishing requirements for guided missile materiel are diverse and often extremely critical. 77. For Ammunition For painting and marking of ammunition, refer to TM 9-1900 and MIL-STD-709.

paint. Table II covers paint systems for metal surfaces of tactical vehicles (tracked and wheels). For further information, refer to MILSTD-193. b. Metal Surfaces (1) Ferrous metals. Ferrous metals are painted according to (1) of table II. (2) Aluminum wrought (except castings). Aluminum castings as painted according to (2) of table II. (3) Aluminum castings. Aluminum castings are painted as in (2) above. In stripping to bare metal for better adherence of the priming coat, a wash primer (formula 117) conforming to MIL-C-15328 may be applied. (4) Magnesium alloy metals. (a) Cleaning. Magnesium metal surfaces shall be cleaned in accordance with method II of TT-C-49; in addition for magnesium alloy castings, acid pickling in accordance with method specified in MILM3171. (b) Pretreatment. The clean surfaces shall then be treated in accordance with the required surface coating specified in MIL-M-3171 or anodic coated in accordance with MIL-M4502.

78. For Tactical Vehicles (Tracked and
Wheeled) a. Exterior and Interior Surfaces. Exterior surfaces exposed to outside view, including underside of hatches, ramps which hinge outward, and fender storage boxes are painted olive-drab. All interior surfaces of combat vehides including engine compartments are painted white for better reflection of light. All exposed metallic surfaces of the vehicle are protected by both priming and finish coats of

(c) Priming and finishing. (c)1. Priming and finishing.Priming and Regular application.
finishing will be in accordance with table II (3)B. 2. Severe conditions application. Magnesium alloy parts subject to temperatures up to 5000 F. and severe exposure such as impact and abrasion will be prepared and finished to MIL-W-45347, dipping compound, as indicated in table II(3)A.

'29

TM 9-213

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TM 9-213 c. Reinforced Fiberglass Parts. Reinforced fiberglass parts to be painted, which have been stripped of paint and surfaces smoothed, are painted with synthetic enamel paint as in table III.

Table III. Reinforced FiberglassParts-Surfaces
(1) Olive-drab, semigloss Specs Thickmils System (2) White. gloss Specs Thickmils System

(a) (b)

Primer TT-P-636 or MIL-P-14553 Enamel TT-E-529

0.75-1.25 0.40-0.60 1.25-1.75

(b) 21.3 (b)

Primer Enamel

TT-P-659 TT-E-489

0.75-1.25 0.75-1.25 22.1

d. Interior Surfaces of Ammunition Boxes. The interior surfaces of reinforced fiberglass ammunition boxes remain unpainted. e. Wood. All solid wood and plywood parts or items shall be dried so as to contain no more than 16 percent, by weight, of moisture (dry basic prior to treatment), and then shall be surfaced to the correct cross-sectional dimensions before pressure treatment according to TT-W-571. The preservative solution shall consist of, not less than 5 percent, by weight, of pentachlorophenol conforming to TT-W570, dissolved in a light solvent which is completely volatile in air, or a solution conforming to type II, composition A of TT-W-572.

Antibloom and water-repellent agents may be added as needed to the preservative solution. After final impregnation of the wood with the preservative solution, a vacuum shall be applied where practicable to remove excess preservative solution from the wood. The treated wood is than freed of solvent by storage or mild heating. As an alternative, plywood shall be treated by sealing the surface with sufficient sealer conforming to MIL-S13518, and thoroughly dried. The treated wood shall be paintable. The finish shall be a specified number of coats of enamel conforming to TT-E-485, or TT-E-529 as indicated in table IV.

Table IV. Finish Systems - Wood - Tactical Vehicles (Tracked and Wheeled)
(1) Olive-drab, semigloss Specification Thick mils System (2) White Specification Thick mils System

(a) (b)

TT-P--636 or TT-E-485 Top coat TT-E-529 or TT-E-485

Primer

0.75-1.25 0.40-0.60 1.25-1.75 1.00-1.50

27.3

(a) (b) (c)

Primer TT-P-636 2d coat TT-E-529 Top coat TT-E-529

0.75-1.25 1.25-1.75 1.25-1.75

27.1

Note. Dry paint film thickness, refer to MIL-STD-193.

f. Ammunition Racks, Boxes, and Feedways. The interior and exterior surfaces of ferrous and aluminum racks, boxes, and feedways are painted as in (1) and (2) below, except that the top surfaces of any interior racks or boxes upon which operating personnel are expected to stand are painted in white non-skid enamel conforming to MIL-F-18176 with a film thickness of 1/32 to 1/16 inch.

(1) Ferroussurfaces. (a) Interior. Interior surfaces of ammunition racks, boxes, and feedways which are in direct contact with ammunition shall be cleaned and treated in accordance with TTC-490 or MIL-C-15328. Then finish with varnish conforming to type II of MIL-V-12276. 31

TM 9-213

(b) Exterior. Exterior surfaces of ammunition racks, boxes, and feedways which are not in, direct contact with ammunition, shall be primed and finished as shown in table II (1) A and B. The olive-drab synthetic enamel finish is to be preceded by cleaning and treatment according to type I of TT-C-490 or MIL-C-15328. Priming and finish shall conform to table II, (1), A, 1, system 21.3, except the choice of finish should be TT-E-529. The white synthetic enamel priming and finish after proper cleaning should be system 22.1, as shown in table II, (1), A, 2. Hot-spray lacquer is to be applied, if preferred, as olivedrab finish, system 21.11, table II, (1), B, 1 and as white finish, system 21.12 or 21.13, table 1 B, 2. (2) Aluminum surfaces. (a) Interior. Interior surfaces of ammunition racks, boxes, and feedways which are in direct contact with ammunition shall be treated with chemical film conforming to MIL-C-5541, or anodized in accordance with MIL-A-8625, and left unpainted. (b) Exterior. Exterior surfaces of ammunition racks, boxes, and feedways which are not in direct contact with ammunition shall be primed, and finished in synthetic enamel, system 21.3 and 22.2, table II, (2), A, 1, and 2. As an alternative prime, surface and finish in hotspray lacquer, system 21.12 or 21.13, table II, (2), B, 2, except that color shall be as specified. 79. Ferrous Fuel Tanks (Tracked Combat Vehicles) a. Interior Surface. Interior surface of ferrous fuel tanks shall be slushed with alkaline cleaner, rinsed with hot water, and checked for cleanliness, before the application of phosphate coating conforming to MIL-P-16232, type Z, class 1, followed by a rinse with cold water. 32

Then rinse with a chromic acid solution (1 pound of chromic acid to each 25 gallons of water) and dry thoroughly. Do not use rustinhibiting oil. As a finish coat, slush or spray with aromatic fuel resistant lacquers conforming to MIL-L-6047. The refinishing of interior surface will require removal of tank and the skill of a specialist at a 'field or depot maintenance unit. b. Exterior Surface. The exterior surface of ferrous metal tank shall be cleaned in accordance with method II of TT-C-490 and thoroughly dried. It should then be coated according to MIL-C-15328, or to type Z of MIL-P16232, or to type I of TT-C-490. All holes, threads, and machined or mating surfaces shall be masked, before painting. Apply primer and finish in synthetic enamel, system 22.1, table II, (1), A, 2. Use white or color as specified. 80. Fuel Servicing Tank Trucks, Semitrailers, and Trailers a. Ferrous Fuel Tanks. Ferrous fuel tanks of fuel servicing, tank trucks, semitrailers, and trailers, shall be prepared and finished as stated below. (1) Interiorsurface. Interior surface shall be cleaned according to method I of TT-C-490, before applying finish coating conforming to MIL-C-4556. (2) Exterior surface. Exterior surface shall be cleaned in accordance with MIL-M-10578. Primer pretreatment coating applied shall conform to MIL-C-15328 or type I of TT-C490. Primer and finish coat shall be in system 21.3, table II (1), A, 1, with primer coat conforming to TTP-636, and finish with enamel conforming to TT-E-529. Color shall be as specified. b. Refinish of Ferrous Fuel Tanks. The refinishing of interior surface will require the removal of the tank truck, semitrailer, or trailer to a field or depot maintenance unit. 81. Aluminum Fuel Tank Assemblies (Tracked Combat Vehicles) a. Interior Surface. Treat in accordance with MIL-M-10578, rinse with water and dry.

tem 21.12 or 21.13, table II, (1),

TM 9-213

b. Exterior Surface. Exterior surface of aluminum metal tanks shall be prepared and finished by either of the following systems: (1) Synthetic enamel. (a) Olive-drab. After the application of chemical film conforming to MIL-C-5541, apply primer and finish coat, system 21.3, table II, (2), A, 1. (b) White. After the application of chemical film conforming to MILC-5541 or a coating conforming to MIL-C-15328, apply primer and finish coat, system 22.2, table II, (2), A, 2. (2) Hot-spray lacquer (color as specified). After the application of chemical film conforming to MIL-C-5541, or a coating conforming to MIL-C-15328, apply primer, surfacer, and hot-spray lacquers, systems 21.12 or 21.13, table II, (2), B, 2. 82. Special Painted Surfaces a. Engine and Engine Accessories. Engine assemblies are to be painted only when so authorized. b. Interior of Van- and Panel-Type Bodies. The interior surfaces of van- and panel-type bodies of Ordnance wheeled transport vehicles equipped with interior lighting, and in which personnel are required to perform certain detailed operations, are painted in conformance with the following color chips of Federal Standard No. 595; walls, ceilings, doors, and mounted equipment semigloss light-green No. 24533, floors lusterless ocean-gray No. 36118. c. Surfaces Requiring Special Treatment. (1) Ferrous metal parts bolted or riveted. Contact surfaces of ferrous parts, bolted or riveted together shall be primed prior to assembly with a coat of primer conforming to TT-P-636. (2) Interior surfaces of ferrous castings. The interior surfaces of ferrous castings shall be cleaned and prepared in accordance with method I, II, and III of TT-C-490, and then finished with a primer lacquer conforming to MIL-P-11414.

(3) Dissimilar metals. Contact surfaces of dissimilar metals shall be coated with unreduced zinc-chromate primer conforming to TT-P-666, prior to assembly or shall be insulated, one from the other, with insulating material conforming to MIL-I-631, MIL-P2829, MIL-I-7798, or HHG-156. Compatibility of coupled metal in the vehicle shall be in accordance with MIL-F-14072. (4) Spot-weld priming. Ferrous sheet metal surfaces up to 1.25 inch thick, including mating surfaces (which cannot be primed after assembly) to be joined by resistant welding shall be cleaned in accordance with a specified method of TT-C-490, and then primed with a primer conforming to MIL-P-13380 on each contact surface, unless otherwise specified. Exceptions may be as follows: (a) Weld and clinch nuts. (b) Fuel tank and filler neck assemblies. (c) Seat spring assemblies. (d) Muffler, tail, and exhaust pipe assemblies. (e) Plated surfaces. 83. Miscellaneous Finish Systems These systems have been grouped in table X. a. Battery Boxes. Use black, acid-proof paint conforming to MIL-C-450, 1.50 mil thickness, after the necessary surface preparation. Refer to paragraph 62. b. Underbody Coating. This is a mixture of asphalt and asbestos that can be sprayed on the underbody parts of automotive equipment to form a protective coating and sound deadener. Refer to paragraph 64. c. Filler, Graduation. This material is applied over the base finish of a graduated part. Using a scriber or other painted instrument, clean out the graduations, indices, numerals, or lettering and proceed as indicated in paragraph 36. d. Nonskid Coating. Flight deck compound, nonslip, lightweight, abrasive filled, synthetic binder type, conforming to MIL-F-18176, is 33

TM 9-213 used to provide a very coarse and rough surface. It is applied to foot pedals and inside surfaces on which personnel have to walk as well as outside when a nonslip surface is required. This paint or the equivalent can be requisitioned in olive-drab, gray, red, and white. Refer to paragraph 51. and fungus-resistant varnish to circuit wiring and related elements of electrical equipment. Two coats of the same varnish are applied. b. Pretreatment. When specified, assembled equipment in hot and humid locations will be preheated before the protective coating is applied. Such preheating will be required only under one or more of the conditions indicated

84. Organic Oil-Resistant Finish System
for Oil Housings a. Finish for Metal Surfaces Except Aluminum and Magnesium. This is a two-coat, olivedrab baked finish that is applied as indicatede

in (1) through (4) below.
(1) Pretreat items when humidity condi-

tions are so severe that treated equip-

ment cannot meet the electrical performance requirements given in the e i
applicable specifications.

in (1) and (2) below.

(1)First coat. Use olive-drab rust-in(1) First coat. Use olive-drab rust-in-

(2) Preheat items whenever appearance of

.ibitin 42film (par. enamel

indicates that moisture has been
beneath it. This is evidenced

(hi)biptilng enamel (par. 42). spraytrapped (a) Application. Applyby spraying.

(b) Film thickness. Apply a thickness
Oc ( f 0.4 to (c) Drying. 0.6 Bake for45mmlinuteas. at for 45 minutes t(3) 2500 F. After this bake, the film will be sufficiently hard for recoat-

by a milky appearance of the film or dark spots beneath it. Preheating temperature should not' exceed 180 F. The drying time must
e be sufficiently long for expulsion of all moisture. all moisture.

(2) Finish coat. Enamel, baking, phenolor urea-formaldehyde, type I, JAN-E480. (a) Application. Apply by spraying. (a) Application. Apply by spraying. (b) Film thickness. Apply a thickness (b) Film thickness. Apply a thickness of 0.6 to 0.8 mils. (c) Drying. Bake for 45 minutes at
3750 F. After this bake, the film

ness in air 24 hours after baking. b. Finish for Aluminum and Magnesium. This is a two-coat olive-drab baked finish that is applied as indicated in (1) and (2) below. (1) First coat. Use zinc-yellow primer (par. 47). (a) Application. Apply by spraying. (b) Film thickness. Apply a coating of 0.3 to 0.4 mils in thickness. (c) Drying. Air-dry for 30 minutes prior to top coating. (2)Finish coat. Use phenol-formaldehyde baking enamel if obtainable.

will be sufficiently permit will be sufficiently hard to permit hard to handling. It will attain f.ull hardhandling. It will attain full hard-

c. Masking. The following elements must be masked or otherwise shielded when the protective coating is applied: (1) Movable electrical contact portions of jacks, keys, plugs, receptacles, relays, sockets, and switches. sockets, and switches. (2) Surfaces which rub together for electrical contact, such as bearings, contact fingers, contact rings, and varid. Varnish. Use moisture- and fungus-resstant varnsh (par. 72). e. Application. (1) By spraying. Preferable for overall application. (2) By brushing. To coat areas not covered in spraying process. (3) By dipping. Subassemblies may be dipped if moving or sliding elements are properly shielded.
Note. Preheated work must be cooled, to room temperature (about 70°F.), when varnish is applied.

85. Finish System for Protection Against Moisture and Fungi MIL-V-173
a. Description. This is a two-coat system (par. 72) for the application of a moisture34

f. Thinning Ration.
(1) First coat. Thin with one part of thinner to two parts of varnish.

TM 9-213

(2) Finish coat. Thin with one part of thinner to four parts of varnish. g. Drying Time. (1) First coat. Bake for 30 minutes at 160 ° to 180 ° F., or air-dry 5 hours. (2) Finish coat. Bake for 1 hour at 1600 F to 1800 F. h. Thinner. Use thinner recommended by manufacturer.

86. Touchup and Refinishing Procedure a. When touching up damaged areas, the cult. procedure should be as similar to the original b. Baking Temperature. method of finishing as possible. A very clean (1) Baking finishes mentioned in this secsurface is imperative. A spray gun will blend tion require an oven temperature of painted areas better than a brush. However, 250 F., and a bakig period of 45 touchup by brushing usually will be satisfactory on assemblies. (2) Somewhat lower or higher temperab. If the undercoat has been damaged, caretures, with required adjustments of baking time, may be used. although fully wipe the area to be refinished with drybaking time, may be used, although temperatures higher than 250° F., are cleaning solvent or mineral spirits paint thinnot normally recommended and films ner, apply primer, and allow to dry. not normally recommended and films nerapply *n primer, not cure properly at temperatures c. When an invisible lap toisdAy.will required, the substantially below 250° F. edges of the damaged area should be smooth c. (1) Wet of Oven.should not be baked imLoading films or "feathered in" with flint paper to remove (1) mediately after application. baked imWet films should not be Sufficient all ridges and carefully wiped with solvent or thinner before the primer and topcoat is apme should elapse between applicatime should elapse between applicaplied. tion and baking for leveling of the d. If the old finish is in generally good condition, carefully clean the surface with a cleanfilm and partial evaporation of the solvent or thinner. The time will vary ing solvent or thinner and apply the topcoat. with the material used and the circume. Where general disintegration of the surstances of the application. In most face is evident or the under surface is corroded, the film must be stripped clean from the part. cases, 10 to 15 minutes should suffice. _ase, oven should be loaded in a manThe 10(2) Corrosion must be removed or neutralized by uti.izner that will permit the unimpeded mechanical or chemical treatment or by utilizcirculation of air to all wet film suring both methods. If necessary, the surfaces must be pretreated (anodized or phosphatized) faces. (3) Wire hooks for suspending work are before the required finish is applied. advantageous where other means of Caution: Optical elements, bearings, rubber, support would mar films. or other components which might be damaged (4) Trays or racks should be of open conby stripping materials or procedures must be struction with narrow edges for supremoved from the instrument before stripping porting the work. the coatings. 87. Baking Ovens and Baking Procedures a. Baking Ovens. When the oven is heated by oil or gas, it should be of the indirect heating type in which the products of combustion do not pass through the baking chamber. (5) Where a quantity of small parts is arranged on a special rack or holder ranged on a the spraying, for spraying, the holderholder the with work intact should be placed in the oven. This procedure will reduce handling time and the possibility of smearing wet films. A sufficient
35

(1) The oven should be provided with air inlets and a dampered vent or vents, to insure a uniform distribution of circulating air and the elimination of cold spots within the baking chamber. (2) The rate of air replacement in the baking chamber should be sufficient to prevent undue fouling of the atmosphere in the baking chamber but not so rapid as to make the maintenance of a uniform temperature diffi-

TM 9--213

number of holders must be available

88. Unpainted Surfaces a. The interior surfaces of reinforced fiberglass ammunition boxes remain unfinished. b. Items having special surface treatment remain unpainted, and should be cleaned for c. Key slots, bearing surfaces, all machined or moving parts, faces of instruments, gages,

if continuous production is contemplated. (6) Do not overload the oven. (7) If work is placed in a cold oven, the time requiring to bring the oven up

to baking temperature should be considered. (8) When a change is made from one work to another, the thermal type of work to another, the thermal

controls should be reset if necessary

and vision devices, are to be left unpainted. They are masked for protection. Tapped holes
are to be plugged. d. Rubber surfaces are to be left unpainted and are masked, except as otherwise ordered. e. All areas of quick-disconnect fittings are to be kept free from paint and are masked. All cable or harness assemblies or other parts used with radio or electric equipment shall be protected from paint unless otherwise instructed by proper authority.

after the effect of shape, mass, and arrangement of new work on air circulation is determined, (9) The films should be sufficiently hard after baking and cooling to permit handling or recoating. (10) Work should be permitted to cool to room temperature before any subsequent coat is applied.

Section X. FINISH SYSTEMS FOR FIRE-CONTROL MATERIEL
89. General This section covers the application of organic coatings on fire-control instruments and components in accordance with MIL-STD-194 (ORD), systems for painting and finishing fire-control materiel. Specific information on cleaning and surface preparation is given in paragraphs 92 and 93 for aluminum, magnesium, and wood. For other materials and general information, refer to TM 9-208-1. 90. Organic Coatings The organic coatings are covered in this manual according to the systems in MILSTD171. The dry thicknesses according to this 171. The dry thicknesses according to this same standard are given in table I. The finish systems have been grouped in tables V, VIII, and IX according to the surface to be coated and the purpose of the coating. 91. Finishes for Instrument Graduations and Dials Items such as sights, scales, lens cells, and other parts with adjusting scales are generally painted with lusterless, synthetic enamel. After the enamel is dry, the index lines are 36 opened up, and then filled with graduation films of desired color. Refer to paragraphs 36 and 83c. See table X.

92 Finish Systems for Aluminum and Magnesium
a. Cleaning. Prior to carrying out any finishing, clean all surfaces from dirt and corrosive products such as grease, oil, solder flux, sand, rust, scale, and all other foreign material that might interfere with the intimate application of the finish. Such cleaning must be done immediately before the finishing operation, or adequate precautions must be taken to insure

that the surfaces remain clean for the finishing operation. b. Pretreatment. (1) Aluminum and aluminum alloys. Surfaces will be cleaned by vapor degreasing (finish No. 4.3 of MILSTD-171 (ORD)). using solvent cleaning (TT-C-490, method II) or as otherwise specified. The surfaces will then be anodically treated in accordance with finish No. 7.2 of MILSTD-171(ORD) which consists of

TM 9-213
Table V. Finish Systems-Fire-Control Materied-Steel and Metal Surfaces other than Aluminum and Magnesium
Luster

or type

Color

Primer

Finish coat

Exposure or use

System

1o 00
M.

TT-E-485 Baked (a) TT-P-636
or

TT-E-485 Baked (a) TT-E-529
or

Exterior Severe exterior

21.3 21.3
or

(b) TT-E-485
White 27875 Baked TT-P-636 Baked
_________4~~~
Uo

(b) TT-E-485
Baked TT-E-529 Baked or TT-E-529 Baked (a) TT-E-529 or (b) TT-E-485 Baked

Marine atmosphere
Exterior

21.5
21.3

~Air-dried

.~
U2

o ee o i

o

TT-P-636 Baked or Air-dried QQ-Z-325 Type II, Class 3 (a) TT-P-636 c or (b) TT-E-485 Baked TT-E-485 Baked TT-P-636 Baked

Exterior

21.3

Severe extreme Marine atmosphere

Finish 1.9.3.3 plus21.3 or 21.5 21.7

m~

JAN-E-480 Baked 2 coats TT-E-527 Baked
One coat

Steel surfaces in oil housings Interior Metal Surface (Optical Instruments)
Fast drying on

20.8
20.1

X one

o
P C
- -

E

-_

- - _-

MIL-E-10687 Air-dried

interior metal surfaces

anodic film, sulfuric acid

(MIL-A-

pertains to the edges of magnesium

8625, type II (nondyed or dyed as required)) prior to being finished with organic coating. If the part to be treated is too large for available anodizing tanks and power equipment, a surface chemical treatment with chemical film (MIL-C-5541) may be applied if specifically approved. For treatment and finishes of aluminum surfaces, refer to table VI. (2) Magnesium and magnesium alloys. Surfaces will be cleaned as in a above. After the cleaning operation, the surfaces must be protected from fingermarks, dirt, dust, and other foreign matter. Neither primer coating, finishing coat, nor sealer will adhere to bare magnesium metal which has not been properly pretreated. This also

panels, that have been filed, sanded, or touched up in any manner. Immediately following the cleaning operation, rigid parts, including interior surfaces, where possible, will be treated in accordance with finish No. 8.1 of MIL-STD-171(ORD) which consists of anodic treatments (MILM-45202 (type I, light coatings, thin, or type II, heavy coatings, thick, as required)) or as otherwise specified. Parts subject to flexing will be cleaned and treated in accordance with finish No. 8.5 of MIL-STD-171 (ORD), which consists of galvanic anodizing (MILM3171, type IV). Other systems may be used on permission from the procuring agency. Treated surfaces which become
37

TM 9-213

scratched in handling will be touched seams, lap joints, spotwelds, or any means other up in accordance with finish No. 8.2 than soldering, brazing, welding, or die formwhich consists of chrome pickle ing, the finishing or passivating must be done (MIL-M-3171, type I). Finish 8.6 prior to fabrication unless the design is such of MIL-STD-171(ORD), Dow 19, that the solutions involved will drain from the chromic acid brush-on for touch-up part. For example, aluminum sheet to be lapapplication on smaller surfaces, may seamed or riveted must be anodized prior to be brushed on, using the following the joining operation. solution: d. Holes and Recesses. Alterations of holes Chromic acid (Cr 03) .____1-1/3 oz. and recesses may be made if practicable and apCalcium sulphate proved by the appropriate authority. (Ca S0 4 .2H 2 0) -_-_--1 oz. e. Threaded Parts. Prior to assembly, all Water to make __- ____-- 1 gal. externally threaded parts for use in parts made or finish 8.7 of same standard conof aluminum alloy or magnesium alloy must forming to MIL-C-15328 with 25 to be coated with antiseize compound or sealant. 50 percent of specified phosphoric For aluminum alloy, the antiseize compound acid for larger surfaces, may be apmust be in accordance with TT-A-580. For plied either by spraying or brushing. magnesium alloy, the antiseize compound must Care must be exercised to confine the consist of equal parts by weight of zinc dust treatment to bare surfaces only. The conforming to TT-P-460, type I, and petrolespecified paint coatings must be apum conforming to VV-P-236. Other sealing plied immediately after the treated compounds such as materials conforming to parts are thoroughly dry. When preMIL-S-11030 and MIL-S-7502 may be used if treatment according to MIL-C-15328 approved by the appropriate authority. as indicated by MIL-C-8507 is apf. Compatibility of Dissimilar Metal Couplied to magnesium alloy, the phosplings. phoric acid content of the pretreat(1) Permissible couple series. Permissible ment solution will be reduced by 50 couple series are shown in MIL-STDto 75 percent (finish 8.7 of MIL171(ORD) for use in the design funcSTD-171(0RD)). For treatment and tion. If bare metals intended for infinishes for magnesium surfaces, refer termetallic contact form couples not to table VII. allowed by that standard, they must (3) Impregnation. The process and imbe plated with metals which will repregnantfor all to duce the electric potential difference, pregnant for all coatings requiring coatings requiring to be gas or moisture-vapor tight will be or they must be insulated with vinyl in conformance with MILI-1-3857 tape, zinc chromatic primer, or other (ORD), type I. suitable means. Where magnesium is one of the metals of dissimilar met(a) Aluminum and aluminum alloy al fraying surfaces, it must be sepacoatings. These will be impregnated rated by vinyl barrier tape or sealing

after being anodically treated, with
the exception that they may be impregnated prior to anodic treatment if approved by appropriate au(b) Magnesium alloy coatings. These will be impregnated after cleaning and prior to application of a suitable surface treatment. c. Drainage of Processing Solutions from Parts. Where parts processed as indicated in tables VI and VII, are fabricated with lock 38

compound such as that prescribed in
MIpS-7502. (2) Faying surfaces. Painting of metallic faying surfaces is required because of galvanic action between metals in direct contact. Aluminum and magneslum faying surfaces, whether of same or different metals will be given at least two coats of primer (TT-P666). Wood in contact with metal requires paint so that absorbed moisture may be kept away from the metal.

TM 9-213
Table VI. Treatments and Finishes for Aluminum Surfaces of Fire-ConbrolMateriel
Table item No. How specified (Specify only when used alone and not inherent in a specific .system number.)

Finish No.

2

Use

1

Anodic coatings Corrosion protection under Basic finish No. 7.1 for chromic acid coatservere service conditions ings (MIL-A-8625, type I !(nondyed and or as a base for paint. dyed)). Basic finish No. 7.2 for sulfuric acid coatings (MIL-A-8625, type II) (nondyed and

Finish No. 7.1.2* of MILSTD-171(ORD)
*Specify appropriate number plus the word "dyed" and color where

dyed)).
Note. For dyed, specify color.

'Reference:
2Reference:

MIL-STD-194(ORD). MIL-STD-171(ORD).

Table VII. Treatments and Finishes for Magnesium. Surfaces of Fire-ControlMateriel
Table item No. ' How, specified (Specify only awhen used alone and not inherent in a specific system number.)

Finish No.

2

Use

1

2 3 4 5

HAE Process Basic finish No. 8.1 Refer to MIL-M-45202(ORD) Type I, light coatings, thin Type II, heavy coatings, thick, as required. Chrome pickle Basic finish No. 8.2 Sealed chrome pickle Basic finish No. 8.3 Dichromate (acid) treatment Basic finish No. 8.4 Galvanic anodizing Basic finish No. 8.5

Corrosive, abrasion, and thermal resistance. Do not use on parts subject to flexing.

Finish No. 8.1, Type I or Type II of MIL-STD-171(ORD) (Refer to MIL-M-45202 (ORD)). Type: MIL-M-3171, type I.

Provides increased corrosion resistance and a suitable base for painting. Use on parts subject to flexing.

Type: MIL-M-3171, type II. Type: MIL-M-3171, type III. Type: MIL-M-3171, type IV.

'Reference: MIL-STD-194(ORD.) 2 Reference: MIL-STD-171 (ORD).

g. Inner Surfaces. These will be unpainted unless otherwise specified. h. Color Code. For identification of lubricating points, water caps, plugs, and similar points, colors of enamel will closely match the designated colors of Federal Standard No. 595. Gloss enamel will conform to TT-E-489. Adjacent areas of plugs and caps will have a 1/4inch wide band of the required color painted

around the neck or hole to avoid loss of identification when replacing lost plugs or caps. i. Headless Screws. Visible headless screws, except adjusting screws, will be covered with sealing compound conforming to MIL-S11030, type I, class I, or MIL-S-11031(ORD), whichever is applicable. j. Phenolic Environment. Unpainted parts of zinc-base alloy or unpainted parts of other 39

TM 9-213

metals plated with cadmium or zinc will not be used in totally unventilated assemblies where phenolic vapors emanating from phenolic insulating varnishes, phenolic encapsulating compounds, or uncured phenolic material may reach these unpainted parts. k. Surfaces Not to be Painted. (1) Surfaces, the painting of which would interfere with their functioning. (2) Machined surfaces that move with respect to each other, such as, threads, slices, bearing contacts, and gear teeth. (3) Electrical parts such as contacts, relays, bearings, insulators, sockets, plugs, connectors, and terminals. (4) Plastic and rubber insulators, mounts, spacers, and similar items, used with electrical parts in (3) above. (5) Fittings, cups, holes, and similar devices or locations, used for lubrication.
Note. Surfaces not to be painted should

be marked or otherwise protected during
painting of adjacent parts.

1. Dressing. Filing, sanding, or other dressing operations must not be done on a part or assembly after it has been finished unless specifically permitted. If any of these operations are permitted, the affected area will be refinished in accordance with the finish specified for the part. m. Use of Steel Wool. Steel wool will not be used on aluminum or magnesium alloy except as follows: (1) To clean surfaces prior to spot welding provided all particles resulting from such use are completely removed. (2) To debur aluminum alloy parts, provided that both the steel wool and the parts to be deburred are free from wax, oil, grease, or other material that would retard removal of the steel wool particles with nitric acid, and provided that the parts after being deburred, are immersed for 3 minutes at room temperature in a solution consisting of equal volumes of nitric acid (sp. gr. 1.42) and water, followed by rinsing in clean water and drying. 40

n. Welding, Soldering, and Brazing. These operations will not be permitted on an assembly after it has been finished with an organic coating except as specifically authorized. This restriction does not apply if the finish is that prescribed in MIL-P-13380(ORD), 0.5 mil maximum dry film thickness, system No. 24.1 of MIL-STD-171(ORD) for ferrous metals. o. OrganicFinishes. (1) Cleaning. Painting will be done in clean, dry, well-ventilated locations with air temperatures between 600 F and 90 ° F, and relative humidity not over 65 percent. Prepainted surfaces will be thoroughly cleaned before adding additional coat(s). The best method of cleaning is with oil-free solvent. Remove old paint, if necessary, with solvent-type paint remover, or by mechanical or abrasive cleaning (TT-C-490, method I), but this method will be used only when contamination from the process will not harm the surface being cleaned or adjacent parts. Remove all harmful residue from the surface. (2) Priming. For priming aluminum and aluminum alloy, zinc yellow primer (TT-P-666) will be used. The primer specified in MIL-P-11414 may be substituted for TT-P-666 if approved by the appropriate authority. In priming magnesium and magnesium alloy, either of the following may be used: zinc yellow primer (TT-P-666), vinyl zinc chromated primer (MIL-P-15930), or epoxy primer (MIL-P-27316). (3) Selection of painting systems for aluminum and magnesium surfaces. Selection will be made from table VIII. Good painting practice will be followed. Apply paint by any method that will insure smooth, uniform, continuous film free from dried overspray, runs, sags, blisters, "orange peel," and the like. Baking of coats, where required, will be done at 2500 F. for 45 minutes. Bake finishes will not be selected for castings previously impregnated, as heating softens the impregnating material.

TM 9-213 (4) Painting schedules. The first, or priming, coat will be applied as soon as possible (in no case later than 24 hours) after the surface has been prepared for painting. This applies particularly to metal parts that have received a surface treatment. Allow each coat of paint to dry before applying a second coat. Examples of drying periods are: 24 hours for air-drying paint such as that conforming to TTE-485; 15 minutes for lusterless enamel (MIL-E-10687); and 10 minutes for lacquer (MIL-L-11195). In no case allow drying time to be less than that specified for the recoating or the self-lifting test (if required) in these specifications. (5) Unassembled parts. When practicable, primers and intermediate coats may be applied to unassembled parts and the final coat applied after assemand the final coat applied after assemy thoroughly cleaned, if necessary with a cleaner that will not change the intermediate coat of the primer. (6) Film thickness. Required thicknesses (in mils) of dry paint film with apCaution: Pentachlorophenol produced in accordance with TT-W-572 may be used having a flash point as low as (but not less than) 100 ° F., hence it should be used only in a relatively cool well-ventilated place and kept away from fire or sparks. c. Allow the treated wood to air-dry or kilndry before it is painted. 94. Requirement for Finish 29.1 (table IX) For this finish, stain-varnish wax, proceed as follows: Apply olive-drab stain (MIL-S13913) to bare wood. Let dry. Apply two coats of varnish (TT-V-121). Let each coat dry thoroughly. Apply wax (MIL-W-3688). Let dry. Polish with a clean, dry cloth. 95. Requirement for Finish 29.2 (table IX) For this finish, oil-shellac-varnish, proceed as follows: Apply linseed oil (TT-0-369) to bare wood. Let stand for 24 hours. Squeegee off excess. Let dry for at least 16 hours. Apply one coat of shellac varnish (TT--91) (TT-V-91), type II, grade A). Let dry. Apply two coats of varnish (TT-V-121). Let each coat dry

bly, making sure that the assembly is

thoroughly.
96. Requirement for Finish 29.3 (table IX) For this finish, oil-shellac-clear lacquer, proceed as follows: Apply linseed oil (TT-O369) to bare wood. Let stand for 24 hours. Squeegee off excess. Let dry for at least 16 hours. Apply three coats of shellac varnish (TT-V-91, type I, grade B). Let each coat dry thoroughly and rub each coat lightly with fine sandpaper. Apply two coats of clear lacquer (TT-L-58). Let dry between coats. 97. Requirements for Finish 29.4 (table IX) For this finish, oil-shellac lacquer, proceed as follows: Apply linseed oil (TT-0-369) to bare wood. Let stand for 24 hours. Squeegee off excess. Let dry for at least 16 hours. Apply three coats of shellac varnish (TT-V-91, type I, grade B). Let each coat dry thoroughly and rub each coat lightly with fine sandpaper. Apply white lacquer (MIL-L-11195) to a thickness of 2.5 to 3.0 mils: three coats if applied hot and six coats if applied cold.

plicable specifications in accordance

plicable specifications in accordanc be as*h In-STable (,Oexce when M be as o therwise specified. , except wen (7) Color. When a paint is available in more than one color, the color will be specified by appropriate authority. 93. Pretreatment of Wood Surfaces Unless otherwise specified, use finish No. 25.3 of MIL-STD-171(ORD) for pretreatment of wood, as follows: a. Dress the wood part, which must not have a moisture content of more than 20 percent of its oven-dry weight, to correct dimensions. b. Apply one liberal coat of pentachlorophenol solution (TT-W-572). If practicable, apply this solution by immersion for not less than 3 minutes; otherwise, brushing or lowpressure spraying (not atomization) is satisfactory.

41

TM 9-213

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TM 9-213

98. Selection of Painting System for Wood Surfaces
Selections will be made from table IX. Wood in contact with metal will be given a coat of filler (TT-F-336), if needed, and a coat of full gloss spar varnish (TT-V-121), or two coats of the latter.
99. Graduation and Dial Finishes

100. Telescopes and Fire-Control Equipment in Interior of Combat Tanks
Parts of telescopes that are inside of tanks and all other fire-control equipment in the interior of tanks will be painted white. The part of the telescope or other fire-control equipment that extends outside of the tanks will be painted olive-drab.
Table X. Miscellaneous Finish Systems
System Description or

Fill dial characters and graduations with graduation filler (table X) of the appropriate type and color thinned with turpentine to
proper consistency. Allow the filler to dry

finish Acid resistant paint for battery boxes, MIL-C-450 ______________.-__________ Coating, underbody, for motor vehicles, 1/16 in., TT-C-520 -------------------Filler, graduation-Frankford Arsenal Pura. Crayon type; color as specifiedb. Paste type; color as specified-

partially (from 5 to 30 minutes). Remove surplus filler from the surface with a clean cloth. If necessary, moisten the cloth with turpentine or kerosene. Air dry for 12 hours. Apply one coat of clear flat lacquer over the entire surface on which the markings appear; add

24.2 24.3 30.1
30.1.1

chase DescriptionFED-1633

one part of thinner to one part of lacquer to reduce the lacquer to spraying consistency. Air dry for 1 hour. If dials and graduations are
illuminated by argon lamps, fill the characters

see belowl ________________________ see below 1 __-_________---___---___
Nonskid coating, 1/32 to 1/16 in., Specification MIL-F-18176 -----------I Black, deep red, white, translucent white.

30.1.2 30.2

and graduations with translucent white, instead

of white, graduation filler.

44

TM 9-213

CHAPTER 3 APPLICATION TECHNIQUE Section I. SPRAY GUNS AND PRESSURE CANS
101. Spray Gun Application a. Use. Spray gun equipment can be used for any type of finish and on any surface. It does not supplant the brush for certain operations, yet there are definite types of work it can do more easily and better than the brush. The spray gun in obviously a tremendous timesaver and its use is recommended when a large volume of work is encountered. The spray gun is particularly adaptable to "touchup" and maintenance work when the ability to blend the gun. This prevents building up air pressure within the hose and air pressure within the hose and perm its use with small compress-

automatic pressure-controlling deautomatic pressure-controlling device. The trigger n a bleeder -type gun controls the flow of fluid -type gun controls the flow of fluid o

(b) A "nonbleeder" -type gun is one type of pressure-controlling device
must be used with it. (2) External and internal mis. passage of both air and fluid. Some passage of both air and fluid. Some

old and new surfaces is important.
b. Training. The proper operation of spray guns and auxiliary equipment is not difficult to learn, but the necessity for training operators should be pointed out. Only through such training (pars. 102-106) can the full flexibility of the gun be realized. 102. Selection of Spray Guns a. Definition. A paint spray gun (fig. 11) is a mechanical means of bringing compressed air and paint together, atomizing or breaking up the paint stream into a spray and ejecting it for the purpose of applying a coating. b. Types. Spray guns are of attached container or separate container types. These types can be further subdivided into bleeder and nonbleeder, external and internal mix, and suction and pressure feed. The commercially available pressure can belongs to the attached container type. It has a limited use for patching where compressed air is inaccessible to job. Airless spray equipment (portable), requiring electric connection, belongs also to this type. (1) "Bleeder" and "nonbleeder" guns. (a) A "bleeder"-type gun is characterized by an intentional continuous leakage of air from some part of

(a) An external-mix gun is one which
air cap. (b) An internal-mix gun mixes air and fluid within the air cap.
mix actually applies to the air cap alone.

Note. The term external or internal

(3) Suction and pressure feed. (a) A suction-feed gun is designed to feed the fluid into the air stream through a vacuum created by raising the fluid tip above the air cap. Generally, guns of this type are used with quartersize containers or smaller.
b

A pressure-type gun feeds fluid nto the air stream (air cap and fluid
tip flush) by means of air pressure applied to force fluid from con-

(4) Aerosol paints and airless spray equipment. (a) The "aerosol paints" are issued in pressure cans and extensively used in spite of the limitations of such
45

TM 9-213

ATTACHES HERE

HOSE OR CUP

CUP IS PART

OF GUNl

SEPARATE CONTAINER TYPE

ATTACHED CONTAINER TYPE

AIR BLEEDS OUT CONTINUALLY WHEN TRIGGER IS RELEASED BLEEDER TYPE

AIR

HORN HOLE

AIR

3FfI- I
FLUID MIX
AI

:
AIR AND

'/

FLUID

AIR EXTERNAL MIX AIR CAP

INTERNAL MIX AIR CAP

AIR CURRENTS CREATE A VACUUM FLUID TIP IS FLUSH FLUID TIP PROTRUDES BEYOND AIR CAP SUCTION FEED CAP WITH AIR CAPPRESSURE FEED CAP ORD A1393 46 Figure 11. Spray gun types.

TM 9-213 equipment. The pressure is produced by a vapor-producing compound such as (freon), and the spray is controlled by a manually operated nozzle attached to a tube originating at the bottom of the can. This type cannot be recharged with paint. (b) Airless spray equipment (portable) uses an electrically operated vibration element which forces the paint up through a tube from the bottom of the container to a nozzle in the cover. This type can be recharged
with paint. See manufacturer's in7

structions for type of current and

l

'
Figure 12. Spry painting respirator.

voltage.
103. Selection of Air Caps, Needles, and

Nozzles
(fig. 11) The performance of an air gun with any kind of material depends primarily on the selection of the proper air cap, fluid needle, and fluid tip (or nozzle). Manufacturers identify combinations of these parts intended to be stroke before pulling the trigger and releasing the trigger just before ending the stroke. Arcing the gun during the stroke results in uneven application and excessive overspray at the end of the stroke. . Spraying Corners (fig. 14). Spray within e. Spraying Corners (fig. 14). Spray within 1 or 2 inches of corner. Then, holding gun sideways, spray both sides of corner at once. Spraying in any other manner wastes material Spraying in any other manner wastes material and causes overspray on the adjacent side. -capable of a speed of operation beyond the operator's skill in application. Adjust gun to operate at maximum speed consistent with material, rate of flow, surface, and individual skill. e. Dusting. "Bleeder" -type guns act as dusters simply by allowing the continuously escaping air to clean the surface. "Nonbleeding" -type guns emit air alone through the first half of the trigger travel and so can be used as dusters. The point at which the trigger starts to release material can be readily felt. For large-scale or continuous dusting, special dusting guns handling air only are available. f. Masking. When spraying, it is necessary to cover or mask all parts such as windows, gages, lubrication fittings, instruments, and other parts which are not to be painted. 47

used together, and their

recommendations

should be followed in respect to the proper combination for a particular material. Occasionally, changing the type of feed will necessitate a different combination of air cap, fluid tip,and fluid needle. 104. Spray Gun Technique Warning: Personnel must use a respirator (fig. 12) at all times when operating a spray gun. All personnel in the paint shop or booth, when spray painting is being done, must be similarly equipped. a. Holding the Gun. The gun should be held perpendicular to the work at all timesfrom 6 to 10 inches from the surface (A, fig. 13). An easy method of estimating the correct distance is shown 'in B, figure 13. b. Making the Proper Stroke (figs. 13 and 14). The stroke is made with a free-arm motion, keeping the face of the air cap parallel with the surface at all points of the stroke. The ends of the strokes are feathered out by "triggering" the gun, that is, by beginning the

d. Speed of Gun Travel. Most guns are

TM 9-213

"A"-HOLD SPRAY GUN PERPENDICULAR TO SURFACE 6 TO 10 INCHES WRONG POSITION /

v

/

"B"-MEASURING DISTANCE TO HOLD GUN

6 TO 10 INCHES

CORRECT POSITION

ORD A1394 Figure 13. Spray gun painting technique.

(1) Small areas or irregular-shaped parts are covered with crepe-backed masking tape. On larger areas, a sheet of wrapping or other paper slightly smaller than the part to be masked is used, the paper being held in place by a strip of masking tape. The tape overlaps the edge of the paper, holds the paper to the surface being masked, and is a convenient material with which to work to irregular outlines. The method of applying the tape and cutting close to edges is shown in figure 15. (2) There are also on the market liquid or paste-like materials which may be put on areas where paint is not desired. After the paint is dry, these areas may be wiped clean. When spraying vehicle engines, the (3) (3) When spraying vehicle engines, the use of bandages and socks instead of masking tape to protect rubber hose, ignition wires, and flexible tubing saves much time and material. The bandages are pieces of cloth cut to fit the object to be covered, the length being determined by the 48

length of the object, allowing for hose clamps, and the width being determined by the circumference of the object, allowing the bandage to overlap about one-half the circumference. Drawstrings at each end and a string wrapped around the middle of the bandage and tucked under prevent overspray from striking the protected object. The sock is a cloth bag which fits over the ignition wires and distributor cap and has a drawstring which is drawn and tied below the distributor cap. 105. Leakage and Correction a. Material Leakage From Fluid Needle Packing Nut (figs. 16 and 17). This condition is caused by a loose packing nut or dry fluid needle packing. To remedy, remove and soften packing with a few drops of light oil. Install and tighten packing nut to prevent leakage, but not so tight as to grip fluid needle. b. Air Leakage From Front of Gun (fig. 16). This condition is caused by the air valve not seating properly due to:

TM 9-213 ARCING CAUSES UNEVEN APPLICATION

6 TO 10 INCHES

-2MOVE GUN IN STRAIGHT LINE

.1

N

DO NOT ARC STROKE

-1BEGIN STROKE THEN PULL TRIGGER

,,

IRELEASE
WRONG METHOD

/

-3-

TRIGGER BEFORE COMPLETING STROKE

CORRECT METHOD

SHOWING PROPER METHOD OF MAKING SPRAY GUN STROKE

SURFACE

CORRECT METHOD

WRONG METHOD
RA PD 77523

SPRAY PAINTING CORNERS Figure 14. Proper method of making spray gun strokes.

49

TM 9-213

STENCIL KNIFE

WRAPPING o 'A t MaraG n(c) Loose, , or damaged fluid inlet28

Figure 15. Paper ma.s construction and materials. (figure 15. Paper mask construction and inaby fterials.

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Foreign matter on valve or seat. nseat. Worn or damaged valve or Broken air valve spring. Sticking valve stem due to lack of lubrication. (5) Bent valve stem. (5) Bent valve stem.

(e) Loose fluid tip or damaged tip seat. (2) Conditions which apply to suction feedaonly are: (a) Material too heavy for suction feed. feed. (b) Clogged air vent in container lid. (c) Loosendirty or damaged fluid inlet connection (fig. 18). (d) Feed tube (fig. 18) resting on bottom of container. (1) Heavy top pattern is due to: to: (a) eavy holes (fig. is (2) H Horn bottom pattern 11) duepartially plugged. (b) Obstructions on top of fluide tip. (c) Dirt on air cap seat (fig. 18) or fluid tip seat. (2) Heavy bottom pattern is due to: (a) Horn holes (fig. 11) partially plugged. (b) Obstruction on bottom side of fluid tip. (c) Dirt on air cap seat or fluid tip seat.

g (6)d. or Flutterin Sprayht. Jerky pressage From Front f Gun c. Material LeaIn (fig. 17). This condition is caused by fluid (1) Worn or damaged fluid tip or needle. (2) Lumps of material or foreign matter (3) Packing nut too tight. (4)not Broken fluid needle dueto: needle seating properlyline spring. (5) Improper size needle (par. 10). d. JerkyTor FlutteringeSpray. (1) In pressure or suction-feed type guns, this condition is caused by air leakage into material line due to: (a) Lack of sufficient material in container. (b) Tipping container at acute angle. (c) Obstructed fluid passageway. (d) Loose or cracked fluid tip in cap. 50

TM 9-213

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TM 9-213

NORMAL SPRAY PATTERNS

HEAVY RIGHT SIDE PATTERN

HEAVY LEFT SIDE PATTERN

HEAVY TOP PATTERN

HEAVY BOTTOM PATTERN

SPLIT SPRAY PATTERN

HEAVY CENTER PATTERN RA PD 77526

Figure 19. Defective spray patterns. (3) Heavy right side pattern is due to: (a) Right side of horn holes (fig. 11) partially clogged. (b) Dirt on right side of fluid tip. (c) On twin-jet cap, right jet clogged. (4) Heavy left side pattern is due to: (a) Left side of horn holes (fig. 11) partially clogged. (b) Dirt on left side of fluid tip. (c) On twin-jet cap, left jet clogged. (5) Heavy center pattern is due to: (a) Too low a setting of spray width adjusting valve (fig. 16). (b) With twin-jet cap, atmoizing pressure too low, or material of too great viscosity. (c) With pressure feed, too high fluid pressure for cap's normal capacity. (d) Nozzle too large for material being used. (6) Split spray pattern is due to air and struction is on air cap; if not inverted, obstruction is on fluid tip. Clean air cap as instructed in paragraph 106. (8) To remedy conditions in (5) and (6) above readjust atomizing pressure, fluid pressure (par. 134), and spray width adjustment until desired spray is obtained. f. "Orange Peel" Finish (fig. 20). A common cause of this effect is the use of an improper or inferior thinner. With some thinners and paints, this condition may be noticed at certain times of the year due to atmospheric changes. Other causes are: (1) Insufficient atomization. (2) Gun held too far from surface. (3) Gun held too close to surface, allowing air to ripplesurface. (4) Material not thoroughly dissolved or agitated. agitated.

fluid pressure being out of balance.
(7) To remedy conditions described in (1) through' (4) above, determine if obstruction is on air cap or fluid tip. Rotate cap one-half turn and spray a test pattern. If defect is inverted, ob54

(5) With synthetics and lacquers-drafts
in finishing room. (6) With synthetics-too low humidity. (7) Improper viscosity-usually too high. Material should be reduced to specification requirements.

TM 9-213

pressor and not necessarily pressure at which air is delivered. (6) Air intake clogged.

106. Care of Spray Equipment
a. General. A spray gun is an instrument has been very carefully designed and machined to very close tolerances. Obviously, ' '· ,, - care must be exercised in handling such a piece of equipment so that the balance between func'_ E' An:r's-'>', 'or tional parts is not destroyed. Spray guns and related equipment require cleaning immediate~?'~'~:" · d '' RA PD 78474 ly after use. Paint that has hardened in gun or hose is extremely difficult to remove, and in practically every instance, causes malfunction g. Streaks in Finish (fig. 21). Streaks are of equipment for a considerable length of time. caused by: Be sure that the solvent used to clean equip(1) Tipping the gun, thereby causing one ment is one in which the finishing material is side of' pattern to deposit more masoluble. Be sure to read the instruction that terial than the other. comes with the pressure can for the preserva(2) Improper spraying pattern. tion of the nozzle. h. Runs and Sags in Finish (fig. 21). Sags b. Suction Cup Type (fig. 22). Remove and runs are caused by: cup, keeping fluid stem inside cup, or con(1) Tipping the gun, resulting in uneven tainer as shown; then hold cloth over air cap deposit of material. and pull trigger. This diverts air into fluid (2) Too much material on surface due to passageways, thus blowing back into the contoo much pressure or too slow an optainer any paint that may be in gun. After erating speed. cleaning out cup, clean gun by spraying a (3) Improper viscosity (f(7) above). small amount of clean solvent or thinner. Rei. Mist or Fog (fig. 21). peat spraying two, three, or more times until (1) This condition is caused by overatomsolvent or thinner draining back through maization due to: terial feed tube (fig. 18) is clear. Remove air (a) Atomizing pressure too high. cap and fluid tip and wash off in solvent or (b) Wrong air cap for material used. thinner. Extreme care should be exercised in (c) Wrong fluid tip for material used. the removal of fluid tip so as not to split, (d) With pressure feed, fluid pressure mushroom, or otherwise injure tip or needle. too low. When loosening fluid tip, the trigger of gun (2) It is also caused by improper use of should'be compressed so that needle is not in gun: contact with tip, thus eliminating the possibility (a) Incorrect stroking. of splitting the tip due to friction or sticking (b) Gun held too far from surface. caused by dry paint. The entire spray gun j. "Starving." This condition is caused by should never be immersed in solvent or thinner, insufficient air reaching the spray gun due to: as this removes lubricants and dries out pack(1) Waste in air transformer packed too ing. Under no circumstances should air or tightly or clogged with rust or dirt. fluid ports of gun or nozzle be reamed with (2) Air cocks too small. any substance harder than soft wood, as de(3) Air lines clogged. formation of spray pattern may result and the (4) Air line of improper diameter. spray gun may be rendered useless. Working (5) Inadequate air supply. This refers parts of gun should be kept lubricated with to volume of air delivered by comlight machine oil. This is especially true of the
'. -that

55

TM 9-213

SAGS-TOO MUCH MATERIAL IF GUN IS TIPPED AT ANGLE,MORE MATERIAL IS APPLIED HERE

RUNS-TOO THIN MATERIAL

EXCESSIVE MIST AND FOG

'

(

STREAKS
OCCUR HERE /

)
A
(

LESS MATERIAL IS APPLIED HERE

)

RA PD 78452 Figure 21. Spray painting faults.

needle, to prevent wear. The needle packing should also be kept pliant with an occasional drop of light lubricating oil. c. Pressure Feed Type. Shut off air supply to pressure tank (fig. 42), release pressure in tank, and blow back fluid as in suction cup equipment (b above). Empty and clean pressure tank. Place a container of clean solvent or thinner inside pressure tank and install lid, making sure that fluid delivery tubes (fig. 42) is immersed in container of solvent or thinner. Apply pressure and operate spray gun to clean hose and spray equipment. Disconnect fluid hose from gun and from pressure tank and allow hose to dry thoroughly before reconnecting. Clean air cap and fluid tip as in suctioncup equipment (b above). 107. Touchup Painting a. General. When 'material has spots from which the protecting paint has disappeared and the rest of the paint surface is in a satisfactory condition, it is often advantageous to do a touchup rather than a complete painting job.
56

The bare spots may have been caused by natural wear or abrasion, mechanical injury, rust or corrosion of the surface under the original paint, or other causes. In such cases, it is necessary to clean the material beneath the spots and repaint, using a method as near as possible to that used on the original paint job. b. Cleaning. The spots to be painted must be thoroughly cleaned so that no decay, dirt, rust, corrosion, etc., remains. The remaining paint should also be worked down to a featheredge if it is desirable to hide the lap. c. Painting. While touchup painting may be done by the brush method, spraying is superior, because the edges of the new paint can be feathered out to blend with the old surface and, if the old and new colors match, the areas of new paint will not be noticeable. In touchup work, it is of course necessary to use such fillers, undercoats, finish coats, etc., as are required by the material being painted and that the composition of the paint coating be the same. General instructions for painting given in paragraphs 101 through 105 are also applica'ble to touchup work.

TM 9-213
CLOSE HOLES TO FORCE MATERIAL BACK INTO CONTAINER CLEAN OUT CUP THEN SPRAY SOLVENT THROUGH GUN

CLOTH

ORD A1395

Figure 22. Spray gun cleaning.

Section II. BRUSH OR ROLLER APPLICATION
108. When to Use Brush or Roller
Application

c. For Paints. Flat brushes with long soft

bristles or hair are required to apply paint. The width will vary with the area and nature Brush or roller application is used when: of the surface to be covered. a. Volume of work does not justify setting d. For Enamels. Brushes used for enamels up spray apparatus. is not available or is inshould be relatively large with a chisel point. bc Spras Skunk hair (fitch), rubber-set varnish brushes accessible ytoequipment is not ava.lable or is ijob. c ie t owith moderately soft and fine bristles are best. o. The operation es that of priming wood or This type of brush can be used to touch up a other porous surfaces. king-outpartstoremai surface by rebrushing the coat with the brush d. The task of masking-out parts to remain slightly wet, providing the brushing is done unpainted is extensive. very soon after the enamel film has been ap-

e. Mist from spray gun would damage sur-

plied

roundings or create fire hazard. 109. Selection of Brushes and Rollers (fig. 23) la. General. Factbuoras determciig the proper selection of a brush for a specific task are: (1) The material to be applied. (1)The matureri to be appliced on whic (2) The nature of the surface the atr te on which 3the material is to be eapplied (3) The area to be coveredushes withrathand e. Paint Rollers. Paint rollers are replacing brushes more and more. They are of two types: quench and fill. The quench roller requires a tray for quenching with paint. The fill roller does not require a tray, but a funnel is needed for filling. Both require buckets for is needed for filling. Both require buckets for easy handling. They are most practical on une broken large wall areas and floors, but are also used for ceilings. The material to be applied the nature of the surface to be treated

b. For Stains. Brushes with rather stiff

limit their usefulness

bristles, preferably rubber set, are used to apply stains on wood with open pores. The stiffness of the bristles is essential to work the ,stain into the pores of the wood. A softer brush is needed for close-grained wood.

a. General. Brushing is used where rolling is impractical. A right-handed operator should 57

TM 9-213

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TM 9-213

start at the right edge of the surface and proceed toward the left. By this procedure the full paint brush is applied to the uncoated surface by brushing back into the wet film. By decreasing the pressure at the end of the stroke in the wet paint, brush marking is minimized. b. Stain. Apply freely, rapidly, and evenly in the direction of the grain of the wood and brush well into the pores. (Certain types of stain must be wiped off with clean, lint-free cloths to produce uniform effect.) c. Paint (fig. 24). On exterior woodwork, use long sweeping strraghtstrokes 25) First make short strokes in one direction until a small area is covered. Then go back over the area with strokes at right angles to the first, in

f. Varnish (fig. 25). Use a well-charged brush and, depending upon the speed with which the varnish dries, quickly flow on. If possible, cross-brush to give a smooth film. g. Brushing Technique. See figures 26 through 28. 111. Cleaning of Brushes and Rollers a. General. In order to keep paint brushes soft and pliable, they should be cleaned imsoft and pliable, they should be cleaned immediately after use. Once material has been

allowed to harden in a brush overnight, no
amount of subsequent cleaning will restore the original pliability or remove the curd, granula-

tion, and skins from the heel of the brush.
Solvents of the paint material just used in the

order to obtain a smooth, even coat. (This oporder to obtain even coat. (This opa smooth,

brush are the best possible cleaners. Dry-cleaning solvent, mineral spirits paint thinner, kero-

eration is called "laying-off" the finish.) Follow with an adjacent area of similar size before the enamel in the first area sets. e. Lacquer, Quick-Drying Enamel, and Shellac. These materials must be applied rapidly. Each stroke of the brush must completely cover the area traversed, and the brush must be kept well charged with the material so that no retouching of spots is required, otherwise a rough finish will be obtained. This procedure is sometimes referred to as "flowing on" a coat.

sene, gasoline, alcohol, xylol, turpentine, and synthetic enamel thinner are the common solsynthetic enamel thinner are the common solvents and brush-cleaning fluids.
b. Steps in Cleaning (1) Save cleaning material by pressing rush firmly against rim or side of materialcontainer, squeezing out as (2) In the event paint has hardened in brush, it should be softened and worked out with a putty knife.

,I~~~~P-

,

RA PD 77828

Figure 24. Correct, long, sweeping strokes for outside painting.

59

TM 9-213

SECOND I
STROKESj -'-'

'

.'
I
SMALL AREA OF SURFACE FIRST STROKES
fr
_i

ffi

RA PD 77518

Figure 25. Brushing technique for varnish and enamel.

/
PATH OF CROSS STROKES "

1i)

I

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60

<

RA PD 77512

i

Figure 26. Technique for painting a ceiling.

TM 9-213
STROKE WITH GRAIN

I
CORRECT GRIP RA PD 78472

Figure 27. Brush technique for flat surfaces.

I

~

SECOND STROKES

,.i

iRA

'

PD 78626

Figure 28. Brush technique for painting in corners.

61

TM 9-213

(3) Pour small amount of solvent into a shallow, wide-mouthed container and work it thoroughly into the brush, making sure that solvent gets up to base of bristles or hair in the setting. (4) When this small amount of solvent is "loaded" with paint from the brush, discard the solvent. Take a somewhat larger amount of fresh solvent, and repeat operation as many times as necessary. Continue this procedure
until all traces of pigment and paint

RIGHT

WRONG

{.)

disappear from brush
are soft and pliable.

and bristles

RA PD 87235

(5) For rollers, proceed along similar lines. Use a pan instead of a pail and soften, following the instructions given 'by the roller manufacturer. 1 12. Care and Storage of Brushes or Rollers a. General. Proper care of paint brushes and rollers is simple, provided the following rules for their care are applied: (1) Never stand brushes, wet or dry, on their bristles. This will cause the bristles to "set" in a curve and ruin the brush. No amount of effort will restore it to its original condition. (2) In charging a brush with paint, do not rub bristles over edge of container to remove excess paint (fig. 29). This tends to wear off the bristles. Tap them lightly against the inside of the container above the paint level. This means that the painter cannot work from original paint container. (3) Break in new brushes on first coats. Their pliability and elasticity will increase if this rule is followed.
(4) Under no circumstances

Figure 29. Right and wrong method of charging a

brush be left overnight without putbe overnight without put-containing left ting it in a keeper.
(5) For care of rollers, follow the manufacturer's instructions.

should

a

brush. bristles will remain soft and pliable. Segregate brushes according to the type of paint material with which used and keep in separate keepers. Use linseed oil in the keeper for brushes used for paints and varnishes; dope and lacquer thinner for brushes used with lacquers; synthetic-resin enamel thinner for brushes used with enamels; and alcohol for brushes used with shellacs. Insure that cover of keeper fits tightly to prevent evaporation of solvents and thinners. New brushes coming to the shop should have their handle pierced to proper suspension in the keeper at the correct level. (2) Use sufficient oil, solvent, or thinner in the keeper to cover the bristles of all brushes. Brushes in the keeper should not touch each other or the bottom. Brushes kept in linseed oil should be cleaned before use by pressing out oil and by washing in thinner for paint or varnish to be used.
lacquer thinner, synthetic thinner, or alcohol, respectively. Traces of linseed oil will spoil such materials and the finish-

Note. Brushes used for lacquer, synthetics, or shellac should be placed in brush keepers

b. Storage Overnight. (1) All paint brushes in daily use should be kept overnight in a brush keeper (fig. 30). Immersion of the cleaned brush bristles in the proper oil, solvent, or thinner will assure that
62

(3) For rollers, follow the manufacturer's instructions. c. Indefinite Storage. When brushes are not to be used for some length of time, they may be prepared for storage as follows: (1) Clean thoroughly.

ing job performed with brushes so stored.

TM 9-213

0

~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~y
d

0~~~~~~~~~~

0~~~~~~~~ z Z
Ln~~

~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~C

y,
or

> \°

vZ

W
LU
4

\i:

L

~~~~~~~~~~L ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~s

Qu~~~~~~~~~a

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~L ~~

> ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.
h~~~~6

63

TM 9-213

(2) Immerse in raw linseed oil for a short time. This can be done in the brush keeper.

(3) Remove from keeper and press out most of the raw linseed oil.
(4) Wrap brush in oiled paper or brown wrapping paper as' indicated in figure 31. Brushes treated in this manner should be stored flat. They will not

set if no weight is put on the bristies. While such treatment will allow brushes to be stored for a reasonable length of time, it is advisable to open

package and retreat brush as above at package and retreat brush as above at least every 6 months. least every 6 months.

(5) A procedure similar to this should be followed for storage of rollers. Follow the instructions given by the manufacturer for these items.

BROWN WRAPPING PAPER DIPPED IN LINSEED OL

RA PD 77829
RA P 77

Figure 31. Brush storage for indefinite period.

Section III. DIP APPLICATION
113. When to Use Dip Application The dipping method of applying paint is generally utilized for relatively small articles and is especially suited to the coating of items of irregular design and possessing surfaces difficult to reach by brush or spray, for instance, the interior of a narrow tube. It is also more economical and timesaving compared to the other methods on articles of an open design such as wide-mesh screens. 114. Dipping Technique Care should be taken to insure that the paint has been properly reduced to dip64

The consistency suitable ing consistency. for .ip. varie. varies with,sth paint each aitaech and for dipping It must of necessity for each article. be arrived at by the "cut and try" method. The proper consistency will also vary with the type of reducer used. The optimum is that consistency which provides coverage at the highest point and yet allows the paint to drain off well from the lowest point of the article being coated. Suspend the article to be dipped with cord, wire, or any suitable means in a manner providng the shortest drain without developing pockets of paint. Immerse the article in the paint. Remove the article slowly and

TM 9-213

regularly, and allow to dry in a comparatively draft-free location over the dipping tank or a draining pan.

115. Dipping Limitations
Dipping is not economical except where a large number of items are to be painted in a production manner. 116. Equipment Required A receptacle to hold the paint is required. This can be a pail, pan, or specially constructed tank. In general, the receptacle should be just

large enough to conveniently permit the insertion of the article to be coated. Large receptacles or tanks with large areas exposed to the air result in wastage of paint, excessive evaporation of reducer, and rapid settling. The paint supply in the dipping receptacles may be replenished as often as required. Paddles are necessary in order to stir the paint at frequent intervals. If the receptacle is large, a drain-off ~valve should be provided in order tha.t the paint may be removed and placed in sealed containers when dipping operations are interrupted for several hours.

Section IV. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 117. Hazards a. Fumes. (1) Thinners used with paints and enamels may have harmful effects. Continued of f tinued breathing ofbreathns during and fumes after painting operations should be avoided, since the fumes may cause sickness, or complete disability, or in
extreme cases even death as a result Of suffocation. (2) Toxic fumes will persist, in some (2) Toxic fumes will persist, in some

through the skin, through inhalation, or through carelessness in handling food. c. Fire. c. Fre.

(1) Fire hazards due to flammability of paint and paint materials may be seri-

ous. The mist that comes from a
spray gun is highly flammable. A spark will cause it to flash. spark iill cause it to flash. (2) Smoking is prohibitited in paint

cases, for many days indoors after painting operations. Inhaling benzene fumes is extremely injurious to health. b. Contact with Paint Materials. (1) It must be kept in mind that very poisonous compounds are sometimes used in painting materials. Cuts and wounds on the hands are dangerous points from which poison may enter the blood circulating system. Unwashed hands may convey poisonous matter to food. (2) Many painting materials contain lead sulfide, lead carbonate, chromium compounds, and other poisonous materials. (3) Lead chromate is particularly dangerous, and like other lead paints, may enter the system during eating or handling. (4) Many of the thinners are also poisonous and can enter the human system

shops. It may cause an explosion. (3) Open cans containing paint removers, thinners, paints, and paint materials are a definite hazard. Empty drums or other containers in which solvents, thinners, and similar materials have been shipped are potential hazards, since they often contain enough vaporized material of a flammable nature to cause explosions. (4) Aside from the fact that illness or possible death can result from working in confined spaces filled with fumes from solvents, paint thinner, and other volatile materials, there is the serious danger of explosion due to the properties of such fumes when mixed with air. (5) Accumulated spray in booths and in cracks and corners of the paint shop is particularly dangerous, for it easily flares up in spontaneous combustion. and many fires have started in that way. Oily or solvent-soaked cloths, if 65

TM 9-213

not promptly disposed of, may cause fire by spontaneous combustion. (6) Fires which occur in spray booths result from six principal causes: broken electric lamps and other electrical defects; cleaning interior of booths, fans, and motors with highly flammable solvents; accumulation of deposits in the booths, tubes, and vent pipes; defective fans and motors used for ventilating the booths; poorly designed vent tubes; or static electricity. 118. Safety Precautions a. Safe Air. (1) If it is at all practicable, painting of materiel should be accomplished in the open air. Adequate forced draft ventilation for indoor work should be provided always to carry off fumes. (2) Respirators should be worn during all spray-painting operations. b. Safe Practices. (1) Preparations containing benzene should not be used for spraying. Never use flammable solvents to clean the walls of spray booths. (2) Only vaporproof lamps (fig. 53) should be used where spraying is being done. (3) The precautions outlined for the handling of gasoline in TM 743-200 must be followed also for paint thinners and paint removers, and solvents.

(4) If it is at all practicable, paints should be stored in a steel cabinet in a small building away from the work building. Once opened, cans containing paint removers, thinners, paints, and paint materials should be covered tightly before being stored or put away overnight. (5) Do not apply heat or flame such as in welding or soldering operations, to drums or cans or other containers that have contained solvents, thinners, and similar material unless they are first thoroughly steamed out, then filled with water, and inspected to make sure that all traces of the odor of solvent or thinner is removed. (6) Oily or solvent-soaked cloths should be promptly disposed of after use or proof container (fig. 55). (7) Keep the paint shop clean. Scrape all spray mist off walls, beams and trusses, and out of spray booths, corners, or any other place, in which it accumulates. Special nonsparking bronze scrapers are desirable for this purpose. Before throwing the scrapings away, wet them with water. Clean frequently. (8) Refrain from eating with paintcovered hands. Wash them before eating. Clean paint or paint material from wounds immediately. Protect your health.

66

TM 9-213

CHAPTER 4 SPECIAL TECHNIQUES Section I. STENCILING
119. Purpose
Stencils enable personnel untrained in hand lettering and design to apply lettering and designs to materiel quickly and efficiently. A stencil is a metal or paper pattern which has the letters or design cut out, so that when the stencil is held in position over a surface and paint applied to the cutout portions, the desired lettering or design will be accurately reproduced. When a large number of signs, identification marks, or designs are to be reproduced, time is saved by using a stencil. 120. Stenciling Methods a. Stencil Sets. Stencil sets ready-cut from sheet brass (par. 138) are sometimes used. These are applied with masking tape and used over again. The letters and numerals are removable and can be assembled to form any required identification marking (fig. 48). More satisfactory results are usually obtained, however, with ready-cut paper stencils (par. 138) which can be used once and thrown away. b. Stencil Alphabet. Typical stencil alphabet is shown in figure 32. 121f.Stencil Applicatpaint 33) a. Attach Stencil to Surface. After the surface is thoroughly dry (if it had recently been painted), make sure it is free of dust and dirt. Use masking tape to hold the stencil securely in position in the spot where the lettering or design is to be placed. Be sure the stencil lies perfectly flat and close to the surface, without wrinkles or buckling.

b. Apply Paint. Spray paint it possible with the paint required for the surface; otherwise,

use a brush and stencil paint or paste paint (TT-P-98). Apply white lusterless stenciling synthetic enamel over olive-drab finishes on combat and transport vehicles and upon artillery, unless otherwise specified. After the marking has thoroughly dried, any gum smudges can be removed with drycleaning solvent or mineral spirits paint thinner and a cloth. Avoid getting solvent or thinner on marking. c. Specific Materiel. For instructions pertaining to stenciling markings on specific materiel not discussed in this manual, refer to AR

746-10 and AR 746-2300-1 an marking of

clothing, equipment, vehicles, and property. d. Registration Markings on Vehicles. The markings will be located on the vehicle as prescribed in AR 746-2300-1. They are applied as follows: (1) Remove the crepe paper backing-protector from the gummed-back paper stencil as shown in A, figure 49. (2) Apply the gummed back paper stencils to vehicle as shown in B, figure 49. (3) Mask between and around stencils as shown in C, figure 49. Apply stencil by spraying (C, fig. 49) or brushing. Spraying is the preferred method. (4) After stencil paint has been applied, remove masking tape and gummedback stencils. (5) After stencil has been removed, the web portion must be painted in using a small brush as shown in D, figure 49. 67

TM 9-213

A 13 C I:
JIK

I' I G
5 ) P;

7 89 () !)
RA PD 112527

Figure 32. Stencil alphabet.

68

TM 9-213

STENCIL

WRAPPING PAPER

RA PD 108390

Figure 33. Applying a stencil.

Section II. DECALCOMANIA TRANSFERS 122. Description Decalcomanias (transfers) are designs or patterns prepared in paint films which are temporarily deposited on a paper background for storage, support, and convenience in handling. When needed, this paint film is removed from the paper backing and fixed on the item of materiel through the use of one of several types of adhesives. 123. Types There are three general types of decalcomanias: a. Varnish-applied (varnish adhesive). b. Water- (slide-off) applied (water-soluble 124. Application (fig. 34) a. Replacing Decalcomanias. Decalcomanias which need replacing must be installed in the same locations as placed originally. In painting areas upon which decalcomanias have been placed, the decalcomania should be masked, unless it has been obliterated, in which case, a new decalcomania should be applied. b. Surface Preparation. All dirt and grease must be removed from the surface to which the decalcomania is to be applied. Wash the surface thoroughly with drycleaning solvent, mineral spirits paint thinner, or any approved cleaning solution. Allow sufficient time for

the cleaning solvent to evaporate.
c.

~~~~~~adhesive).~c.

c. Solvent-applied (lacquer-type adhesive).

l . Direct Application. It is imperative that the specific instructions for application issued by the manufacturer of a specific decalcomania 69

TM 9-213 k ;07 CLEAN CLOTH

DRY-CLEANING SOLVENT PAPER

PAINTED METAL SURFACE DECALCOMANIA

WATER DECALCOMAN IA

DECALCOMANIA PAPER

PAINTED METAL SURFACE DECALCOMAN IA

CLEAN CLOTH

PAINTED METAL SURFACE

RA PD 77823

Figure 34. Application of decalcomania. 70

TM 9-213

be followed explicitly. The instructions are usually printed on the paper backing of each transfer. For this reason, no other instructions are given in this section. d. Coating of the Decalcomania. In some in-

stances, the manufacturer prescribes that a clear coating be applied over the decalcomania, in order to improve resistance to the elements. The clear coating is designated by the manufacturer.

71

TM 9-213

CHAPTER 5 SPRAY EQUIPMENT
Section I. COMPRESSORS (GASOLINE AND ELECTRIC DRIVE)
125. Description of Types a. General. An air compressor is a mechanism designed to supply compressed air continuously at a predetermined pressure and volume. Compressors for paint spray gun use are of two general types-single-stage and twostage. These can be further divided into many types, some of which are portable or stationary, unloader or pressure switch controlled, horizontally, or vertically mounted tanks, airor water-cooled compressor, and gasoline engine or electric motor drive. Technical manuals on air compressors are listed in DA Pam 310-4. Supply manuals on air compressors are listed in DA Pam 310-25. (1) Single-stage compressors (fig. 35). A single-stage compressor is one having one or two cylinders in which air is drawn from the atmosphere, compressed to its final pressure, and delivered through an aftercooler to the ,air receiver. Compressors of this type are intended for use where maximum pressures do not exceed 100 pounds per square inch. Their use is not limited to this maximum pressure, but beyond it, their efficiency and economy fall off rapidly. (2) Two-stage compressors (fig. 35). A two-stage compressor is one in which a relatively large cylinder first compresses the air to an intermediate pressure considerably lower than the final pressure. Air compressed to this point is delivered through an intercooler to a small cylinder where it is compressed to the final pressure. It is then delivered through an aftercooler to the air receiver. An outfit of this type is intended for use where pressure exceeds 100 pounds per square inch. Such pressure will be encountered infrequently in everyday painting. (3) Gasoline engine drive (fig. 36). Gasoline engines of small horsepower are used with compressors under the following conditions: (a) Where electric current is not available. (b) Where spray-painting outfits must be used in localities served with different types of current. (c) In localities where insufficient current is supplied. (d) For all other uses, electric motor drive is obviously much more desirable. (4) Electric motor drive (fig. 37). A majority of paint spray-gun compressors are powered by electric motors of 1/4 to 5 horsepower. Naturally, the use of an outfit of this type is confined to locations in which proper current is available. Electric motor-drive is generally chosen for more or less permanent installations while gasoline drive is to be preferred where portability is the prime consideration. (5) Unloader and pressure switch control. (a) Gasoline engine-driven compressors (fig. 38) have unloaders which automatically open the intake valve when a predetermined pressure has been reached and allow the compressor to run idle. Simultaneous to the opening of the intake valve, the unloader also partially closes the throttle and allows the engine
73

TM 9-213 SINGLE STAGE TWO STAGE LOW PRESSURE OR FIRST STAGE O AIR OA RECEIVER HIGH PRESSURE OR SECOND STAGE TO AIR RECEIVER

AFTER COOLER

INTERCOOLER

AFTER COOLER
RA PD 78621

Figure 35. Single- and two-stage compressors.

and compressor to operate at a reduced speed. When the pressure falls to a predetermined point, the unloader closes the intake valve, opens the engine throttle, and causes the pressure to be built up again. (b) Electric motor-driven compressors have a pressure switch (fig. 37) which shuts off the motor when a predetermined pressure has been established and restarts it when the pressure has fallen to a predetermined point, mally, compressor tanks are mounted in a horizontal position, serving as a base for the compressing unit. Where space must be held to a minimum or

exterior surfaces of cylinders, aftercoolers, and intercoolers are greatly increased in area by the use of fins. Increased surface area allows heat to be radiated more rapidly. Larger compressors, when used continuously, cannot be adequately cooled by air. Such outfits make use of a water cooling system consisting of radiator, pump, fan, and water jackets built around the cylinders-similar to that of an automobile engine. b. Truck Outfits (figs. 36 and 38). Air compressors (usually with gasoline engines for power) are available mounted on light, easily moved trucks. These units are ideal where portability is a factor with painting to be done at varied locations. 126. Inspection and Lubrication

where ground

clearance or

corner

a. Gasoline Engine (figs. 36 and 38). (1) Gasoline-driven air compressors are mounted a vertical position. in furnished with engines manufactured (7) Air-or water-cooled compressor (fig. by many industrial concerns. Gener39). The physical process of compresally speaking, they are of low horsesion produces heat and for that reapower and of simple construction. son it is particularly important that For instructions with respect to their air compressors be adequately cooled. proper inspection, lubrication, and adMost compressors intended for use justment, refer to pertinent technical with paint spray-gun equipment are manuals or other appropriate instrucair-cooled. To accomplish this, the tions. 74

installation is important, tanks can be

TM 9-213

CRANK_

HOSE CONNECTIONS

AIR CLEANER

_

FUEL TANK Jj _AIR CLEANER

__

iM

AIR TANK

TRUCK

_

RA PD 77517 Figure 36. Gasoline powered air compressor. 75

TM 9-213
INTERCOOLER

AR
AIR STRAINER COMPRESSOR

7

AFTERCOOLER SN
PRESSURE SWITCH ELECTRIC

,(~¥",,~ j

CHECK VALVE

SAFETY VALVE '

OUTLETi°
VALVE

I

PRESSURE GAGE.

STORAGE TANK RA PD 108395

Figure 37. Air compressor-electric drive.

GASOLINE ENGINE

FUEL TANK FAN

UNLOADER VALVES FINS

\rAIR

AIR CLEANER AIR TANK

CLEANER

TRUCK

RA PD 108396

Figure 38. Heavy-duty air compressing truck outfit.

76

TM 9-213 burn out and break down. The use of fuses and circuit breakers is intended to prevent this, and the operator should familiarize himself with them. In, no event should fuzes be shorted or circuit breakers tied down. c. Compressor. For care and preservation of compressors, refer to pertinent technical manuals or other appropriate instructions. 127. Operation a. Installation. Proper operation of a compressor outfit depends to a great extent on correct initial installation of the equipment. The -following points are important to proper in-

aL *

m_

_

r

w

· ,

stallations: (1) Electrical wiring, whether for a permanent or portable installation, should be installed and inspected by a competent electrician. Electrical

RA PD 78636

wiring presents a fire hazard at all trol. (2) Overload protection should be furnished for the electrical circuit. times. Fire in a paint shop is devastating and almost impossible to con-

Figure 39. Air-cooled air compressor for use as separate unit.

(2) Adjustments of carburetor, gasoline
lines, and ignition systems should not

be made in or near the paint shop. While the maintenance and repair of gasoline engines is not the responsibility of the painter, he should be sufficiently familiar with them to correct minor stoppages caused by improper adjustment. Gasoline engines used on compressors are adjusted at the factory to run at a constant speed and no throttle adjustments should be necessary. (3) Do not attempt to make adjustments or repairs unless qualified to do so. b. Electric Motor (fig. 37). For lubrication of electrical motors, refer to pertinent technical manuals or other -appropriate instructions.
The adjustment of electric motors, even of

(3) Compressors should preferably be located in a room adjacent to the paint shop. This reduces the fire hazard considerably, improves the performance of the compressor, and reduces operator fatigue caused by noise. (4) Permanent installations should be at least 1 foot from adjacent walls, to allow free air circulation over the cooling fins. (5) Air intakes should be piped to the outside of the building, where they can pick up clean, cool air. (6) Air pipe lines should be of sufficient size. The following should be used as a guide:
For' Pipe size (min.)

a minor nature, is not the responsibility of the
painter and should be undertaken only by quali-

1-1/2- and 2-horsepower outfits.
3- and 5-horsepower

1/2 in., up to 50 ft; over 50 ft, 3/4 in.
3/4 in., up to 200 ft; over

fied personnel. It is, however, the responsibility
of the operator to see .that the electric motor

outfits.

200 ft, 1 in.

on his compressor is not damaged through improper use. All electric motors when overloaded heat up, usually very rapidly. If this condition is allowed to persist even for a brief interval, the insulation on the windings may

(7) An air compressor should be mounted on a solid foundation, with all four feet resting firmly on the floor or foundation. Unless the weight is equally distributed on all four feet,
77

TM 9-213

excessive vibrations are set up, which may break one of the feet loose from the tank or contribute to noisy operation. It should be installed so that it is both level and plumb. This is important to assure the proper function of the compressor oiling system. b. Replacement. Like all mechanical devices, air compressors eventually wear out and should be replaced or rebuilt when:

(1) Operational efficiency has decreased through wear and mechanical adjustments fail to restore it. (2) Insufficient air output is supplied. (3) The time interval from cut in to cutout is prolonged to'the point of wasting power. The following will serve as a guide for normal cut in and cutout interval (50-percent deviation should be reason for replacing or rebuilding outfit):
Tank dimensions dia. x length (in.) Cut-in pressure (psi) Cutout Time interval pressure pump cutin to (psi) cutout (min.)

Outfit

HP

Single-stage ---------------------------------------1/2 Single-stage ________________________________________ 1 Single-stage ________________________________________ 3 Single-stage ______________________.---- ------------5 Two-stage ________________________________________-3/4 Two-stage _____________.___________________________ 1 Two-stage ________________________________________--3 Two-stage _________________________________-_______ 5

16 16 20 20 20 20 20 20

x x x x x x x x

40 40 48 48 48 48 48 60

120 120 120 120 160 160 160 160

150 150 150 150 200 200 200 200

5.76 3.27 1.92 1.17 9.66 6.57 2.42 1.74

128. Precautions-Draining
The operation of compressing air (which always contains some moisture) induces condensation. Water condensed in this manner collects in the air receiver of the compressing outfit be removed each day by drainandit must fit and it must be removed each day by draining through the air receiver petcock. Proper location of the air intake will cut down the amount of water condensed in this manner. 130. Description of Types Material containers for paint spray guns are metal or glass vessels connected to the spray gun which serve as supply reservoirs for the material to be sprayed. They are of two general types, cup and tank. Tank types have an insert container. a. Cup Containers (fig. 40). Containers of this type are generally used where a variety of colors in rather small quantities are to be sprayed. They are available for suction or pressure feed. Pressure-feed cups are recommended for small quantities of enamels, plastics, and other materials too heavy for suction feed and where fine adjustment and speed of application are desired. The commercial preloaded and precharged pressure spray cans (par. 102b(4)(a)) are unrechargeable.

129. Servicing
Mechanical servicing of air compressors by personnel using air compressors should be confined to the instructions given in paragraph

126. For further servicing by maintenance personnel, reference should be made to technical manuals on specific compressors or other appropriate instructions. b. Tanks (figs. 40 and 41). Paint spray gun tanks are material containers for pressure feed that provide a constant flow of material at uniform pressure. They range in size from 2to 55-gallon capacity. Essentially, they consist of a shell, clamp-on lid, fluid tube, outlet valves, fluid header, and safety valve (fig. 42). They are furnished with either top or bottom outlet and various accessories. They are of two distinct types: (1) Regulator type (fig. 43). Regulatortype tanks offer the advantage of supplying large quantities of material to the gun under accurate control of fluid pressure. Regulator-type tanks are frequently further subdivided into single and double regulator types, depending on whether the control is

Section II. TANK (PAINT CONTAINER)

78

TM 9-213

INSERT CONTAINER FOR PRESSURE TANK I-QT METAL CUP CONTAINER CLAMP TYPE ATTACHMENT

j r 0_
PRESSURE TANK applied to the material pressure alone or to both the material and gun presare tanks sures. Regulator-type equipped with a pressure regulator, safety valve, release valve, etc., and are operated with different pressures on the air line and material. (2) Equalized-pressure type. Equalizingpressure tanks, on the other hand, are equipped only with a safety and release valve and operate with the same pressure on the air line and material. c. Insert Containers (fig. 40). Insert containers are pail-like metal vessels, designed to set inside the tank. This eliminates cleaning out the tank and is convenient in changing from one color or one material to another. Their use permits several batches of material to be mixed ahead of time. This construction also permits feeding directly from small cans of paint instead of from the full-sized container inside of the tank. 131. Agitators (fig. 42) Certain materials require constant or frequent agitation while in the tank, and to meet this requirement, tanks are frequently supplied with mechanical agitators which can be activated by an air motor or by electric drive.

1-PT GLASS CUP CONTAINER SCREW TYPE ATTACHMENT RA PD 112529

)

t

Jftl

Figure 40. Spray gun material containers.

Some tanks are provided with handles for manual operation of agitators. 132. Operation Material containers of all types are rugged, substantially built, and should present few, if any, operating difficulties. Provided regulatortype tanks are properly adjusted, air vents kept free, and agitators used when needed, little thought need be given to their proper operation beyond thorough and adequate cleaning. The use of a dolly (fig. 41) greatly extends the working area of a tank when used for multiple-gun operation. Tanks are available which provide for two-gun operation at one time (fig. 43). 133. Precautions Observation of the following will insure the proper operation of material containers at all times: a. Clean thoroughly after use. Many spray gun malfunctions (par. 105) can be traced to improper cleaning of the material container. b. Never attempt to remove a cover from a material container of the pressure-feed type unless it is certain that pressure in the container has been released. c. Be sure fluid and air valve connections on container are proper size for hoze being used. 79

TM 9-213

-iTANKS

O; ADO
RA PD 78630

Figure 41. Dollies for material container tanks.

SAFETY VALVE COVER LUGS -'tA _

-

AGITATOR DRIVE SHAFT AIR INTAKE VALVE TANK PRESSURE REGULATOR

PRESSURE

GAGE

MAUAL

i

o
HL FROM 2 TO 60

AL
AGITATOR HANDLE

MATER OUTLET VALVE

TUBE

AGITATOR PROPELLER
UTER SHELL

AIR MOTOR
AGITATOR

INSERT PAIL

Figure 42. Pressure feed paint tank.

RA PD 78637

80

TM 9-213

|VAPOR-PROOF LAM_s

E

SPRAY GUN.

|

r

TANK

RA PD 78631

Figure 43. Two-man operation from portable tank.

TM 9-213 d. Test tank safety valve regularly. e. Keep material containers full. They do not function efficiently when nearly empty. f. Use agitator regularly. Where paint is being applied very rapidly, agitators are seldom needed, yet failure to agitate certain materials promptly, results in the formation of surface "skin" which rapidly clogs filters and hose.

Section III. MISCELLANEOUS ACCESSORIES 134. Hose a. Construction. Two types of hose are used with paint spray guns-air and fluid. Air with paint spray guns--air and fluid. Air hose has a red rubber or orange braid cover while fluid hose is black. The inner tube of fluid hose is constructed of a solvent-resisting material practically impervious to the action of any of the common solvents used in paint. b. Size. Hose of adequate inside diameter must be used with all paint spray gun outfits. Too often a spray gun is blamed for functioning improperly, or a material is considered of inferior quality when the real cause of the trouble is an inadequate supply of compressed air at the gun. Usually, this condition is caused by improper size hose. As will be seen from table XI, there is a natural pressure drop wherever compressed air is transmitted, and the amount of this pressure drop increases in inverse ratio to the inside diameter of the hose. c. Pressure Drop. Table XI shows the air pressure drop expected from various lengths of 1/4- and 5/16-inch air hose when used with spray gun equipped with air cap consuming approximately 12 cubic feet of air per minute at 60 pounds per square inch. For example, with 70 pounds air pressure at the transformer only 47-1/2 pounds pressure 1/4-inch hose the s spray w gun hen 25 feet of will exist at used to wnterconnect the two units. used to interconnect the two units d. Cleaning. The fluid hose should be cleaned immediately after using. Delay in cleaning will make the operation much more difficult. In no event should fluid hose be left uncleaned overnight. Clean hose as instructed in paragraph 107c. e. Storage (fig. 44). When not in use, all hose must be coiled and hung up where it will be out of the way and free from possible damage.

Valves and gages used on paint spray gun equipment are of rugged construction and normally will need little attention to insure their correct operation. The following suggestions, however, may be helpful in maintaining this equipment in good condition: a. Keep valves free from paint. Paint impairs their operation and can be removed quickly by a cloth dipped in solvent or

Table XI. Drop In Air Pressure
Air pressure Air pressure

at

Air pressure drop at spray gun (psi) 5-foot length 10-foot length 15-foot length 20-foot length 25-foot length 50-foot length

transformer (psi)

40a 50a 60a 70a 80a 90a 40b 50b 60b 70b -Bob 90b

6 7-1/2 9 10-3/4 12-1/4 14 2-1/4 3 3-3/4 4-1/2 5-1/2 6-1/2

8 10 12-1/2 14-1/2 16-1/2 18-3/4 2-3/4 3-1/2 4-1/2 5-1/4 6-1/4 7-1/2

9-1/2 12 14-1/2 17 19-1/2 22 3-1/4 4 5 6 7 8-1/2

11 14 16-3/4 19-1/2 22-1/2 25-1/4 3-1/2 4-1/2 5-1/2 6-3/4 8 9-1/2

12-3/4 16 19 22-1/2 25-1/2 29 4 5 6 7-1/4 8-3/4 9-1/2

24 28 3.1 34 37 39-1/2 8-1/2 10 11-1/2 13 14-1/2 16

'Air hose. 1/4-inch. b Air hose, 5/16-inch.

82

TM 9-213

d. Air line gages record pressures only at the point at which they are installed. Do not assume that the air gages on the air transformer in any way indicate the pressure at the fluid tip of the gun.

136. Air Transformer

l.PRESSURE former
t1'j
l

IknAIRHOSE

a. General. (figs. 45 and 46). An air trans(or separator) is a device which conl\ ); oil and moisture; regulates, filters, and fdenses strains the air; indicates, by gages, main line and regulated pressures; and provides outlets through which spray guns and dusters, can be
connected. b. Operation (fig. 47).

7-l'
RAPD

(1) Oil and moisture are collected by the baffles and filter pack, allowing only

'1\\llllclean, ,

dry air to reach the spray gun.

I!

~~E~1 IraYICQ/ Rlill~l~l/~W \\\ hthe
·

IIIMtfW i <M

Further drying may be accomplished by the use of cartridges filled with silica gel installed in the outlets. (2) Moisture collecting at the bottom of air separator or transformer should be removed daily. RES c. Installation (fig. 45). Proper installation of the air transformer is essential to maintain correct operation. The following points will be observed: (1) Install transformer at least 15 feet from the compressor. (2) Air takeoff from the compressor line
should be from the top of the line.

7,7522

(3) Compressor air line to which
Figure 44. Hose coiled and hung up when not in rise.

air

thinner. Do not immerse valves in solvent or thinner, as this will dry out the packing. b. Be sure that valve nipples are of the correct size for the inside diameter of the hose being used. Incorrect mating of hose and nipple. is a common cause of spray gun malfunction and is often overlooked. c. No attempt should be made to repair air gages in the field. Their mechanisms, while not delicate, require special tools and skills for proper adjustment.

drained daily. In localities where regulated air is available and only cleaning and filtering are needed, an air condenser (fig. 46) can be used to supplant the air transformer. Size of air lines necessary is given in paragraph 127a(6) and figure 45. d. Filter replacement. The filter pack in an air transformer should be removed and replaced whenever it shows signs of becoming clogged by dirt or oil.

transformer takeoff is attached should slant toward a permanently installed drain leg, which should be

83

TM 9-213

PIPE RECOMMENDATIONSEREO SLOPE TOWARDS

TK-F

1.1/2 AND 2 H. P. OUTFITS MIN. 1/2 -IN. UP TO 50-FT. OVER 50-FT. 3/4-IN. 3 AND 5 H.P. OUTFITS MIN. 3/4-iN. UP TO 200-FT. OVER 200-FT. 1-IN. -MAIN AIR LfNE

DRAIN LEG

FRO OF

TRANSFORMER

TAKE-OFF

DRAIN LEG

AIR TRANSFORMER

AIR COMPRESSO

I

DRAIN HERE DAILY

DRAIN HERE DAILY

DRAIN HERE DAILY Figure 45. Air transformerinstallationwith other equipment.

RA PD 78493

CONDENSER AIR TRANSFORMER ORD A774

Figure 46. Air transformer (separator) and condenser.

84

TM 9-213
GAGE PRESSURE PRESSURE INDICATES AIR ENTERS HERE VALVEASSEMBLY AIR INLET ADJUSTING SCREW REGULATES PRESSURE

CAP REGULATOR DIAPHRAGM REGULATOR t

AIRREGULATED HERE
AIR IS FILTERED CLEANED AND THROUGH FILTER AS IT PASSES

l

THROUGH BAFFLESAIR PASSES

DROP TO BOTTOM OIL AND MOISTURE

RA PD 78487

Figure 47. Operation of air transformer (or separator).

85

TM 9-213

CHAPTER 6 MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT
Section I. PAINTING TOOLS AND MATERIALS
guidelines can be made by snapping chalked string against the surface. Scrapers made of bronze, which do not prob. Hydraulic b. Hydraulic Jack. A good hydraulic jack is Jack. A good hydraulic jack is duce sparks when rubbed on metal or concrete duce when onmetal concrete wheels of a vehicle are ususparks rubbed or required, since the surface, are used for cleaning paint residue out of spray booths and off the floor. Metal iron horses are also needed to support the vescrapers in various sizes are used to scrape hice for painting while the wheels are off. paint from metal and wood surfaces. Flexible c. Supplies for Preparing Surfaces. Paintcarbon scrapers should be used on aluminum removing, cleaning, and rust-removing soluand magnesium, since metal scrapers may leave t an tions and sanding materials are required for deposits of metal, thereby promoting galvanic preparing surfaces. corrosion and in some instances, metal particles d. Masking Tape. Masking tape is recould cause the shortening of electrical circuits. quired to cover all body parts that are to be protected from the spray. Tape alone is used 138. Stencil Key Set to mask small areas. For larger areas such as Note. Refer to paragraph 119 through 121. windows, the tape is used to fasten paper over a. Brass Stencils (fig. 48). Brass stencils in the area to be protected. 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-inch sizes are sometimes used e. Sanding Disks. Sanding disks are availfor stenciling. able for the motor sander, as well as polishb. PaperStencils. ing pads and solutions for the electric buffer. (1)Star A different solution -is used for hand polishing. are insignia ardboard stenils available in various diameters. f. Other Tools. Other tools required in the paint shop are paint brushes, wire brushes for (2) Paper stencil sets of all numbers, 0 to 9, are avail . vi . cleaning off loose paint and rust, and putty knives and scrapers for removing old paint. c. Gummed-Back Paper Stencils. GummedRazor blade scrapers are useful for removing back paper stencils are available to aid in appaint from glass. A 16-ounce graduated glass plying the registration number (fig. 49). is needed for mixing paint and thinners in the required proportions. 139. Availability of stencil key sets g. Cloths. An abundance of wiping cloths Stencil key sets indicated in paragraph 138 is required at all times for wiping off paint may be requisitioned under stock numbers spilled or applied by mistake, for cleaning listed in Department of the Army Supply Manspray guns, and related equipment. ual 10-1-7500 (Class 7510) (Office Supplies). 141. Electric Sander 140. Miscellaneous Tools and Supplies a. Layout Tools. Straightedges, a yardstick, steel square, and dividers are used for laying out lines to guide the location of letters and insignia when they are stenciled. Otherwise, Portable, motor-driven, flexible disk sanders are occasionally required for smoothing the body or fender metal before it is painted, although this is not usually the work of the paint shop. This should not be used within the spray-painting area. 87 137. Scrapers

TM 9-213

Figure 48. Stencil key set.

142. Electric Buffer
Ordinarily, the same tool is not used both forsanding and buffing, beca use t sander he rotates much faster than the buffer. Combina-

tion sand-buffers, however, which operate at two speeds controlled by gearshift are available.

88

TM 9-213

A-REMOVAL OF PROTECTOR B-GUMMED-BACK PAPER STENCILS APPLIED TO VEHICLE

.

'1 zj

0

NOTE: IN CASE OF SPACES BETWEEN NUMERALS, MASK WITH NARROW STRIPS OF TAPE.

C-APPLYING STENCIL PAINT BY MEANS OF SPRAYING

WEB

D-PAINTING IN STENCIL WEBS RA PD 252726A Figure 49. Application of registration markings.

89

TM 9-213

Section II. SHOP EQUIPMENT 143. Booths and Hoods
a. Description Description and 51). A paint a. (figs. 50 and 51). A paint (figs. 50 spray booth is designed to collect and exhaust the fumes arising from use of the spray gun indoors. The nearly perfect atomization of

of the booth with wrapping paper and masking tape before painting is begun. When it is necessary to clean, nonmetallic scrapers can be used to remove the masking tape and wrapping
used to remove the masking tape and wrapping

material and air provided by the spray gun increases the volume of flammable and toxic

paper very quickly. It is particularly important that all electrical wiring and equipment used
in or near a paint spray booth be installed, inspected, and repaired, keeping in mind the very

fumes over the amount produced by any other type of painting. These must be removed from the atmosphere continuously. A permanent spray-painting shop requires well-ventilated and well-illuminated booths or hoods. The booth is simply a room or compartment open at one end to accommodate the materiel to be painted. The items to be painted are brought in through the open end. The hood is a large sheet-metal structure hung over the location of painting. Both the booth and the hood are provided with exhaust fans and ducts to carry off the fumes. They are usually made of sections of sheet metal, so any desired length or capacity can be obtained. b. Cleaning. The floor and walls of spray booths accumulate excess material very rapidly and should be cleaned at least once a week. Cleaning is facilitated by covering the interior

great fire hazard. 144. Exhaust Fans a. General. The purpose of exhaust fans used in connection with paint spray booths or shops is to continuously remove the flammable and toxic fumes generated within the booth. b. Installation (fig. 52). Where fans are installed in homemade booths or shops, the following will be a guide to their suitability: (1) With fan operating, very little atomized material should be visible in the booth while gun is operating. (2) Such material as is visible should disappear almost at once when gun is shut off. (3) Baffle boards (fig. 50) should be installed in booths to assure absence of "dead spots" in air circulation. Such boards break up the air stream gotaking air only at its point of installation. (4) Exhaust piping used with fans should meet the following requirements: (a) It should be the same diameter as
the fan. (b) Pipe sections should be joined

l
:~~ i .

ii \
BAFFLE BOARDS

!bsent i,

a

smoothly and in a manner to prea minimum obstruction to the
passage of air. (c) The smallest possible number of

elbows should be used. ( . d) Clean-out doors should be installed at least every 10 feet. 145. Portable Floodlights Portable floodlights provide good illumination directly on the area to be painted. Their use will avoid many places being skipped or slighted. All lights used should be of the vaporproof type.

RA PD 78469

Figure 50. Small paint spray booth.

90

TM 9-213

LAMP

1/ I

,I

.7'

DEFLECTOR PLATE COVERING EXHAUST

\.
,
RA PD 78624

OPENING

Figure 51. Auto spray booth. 146. Vaporproof Lamps When a special room is used as a paint shop instead of a paint booth, it should be equipped with vaporproof lamps (fig. 53) which are not affected by flammable vapor circulating in the air when spray painting is done. Likewise, when portable floodlights (par. 145) are not used, the paint booth or hood should equipped with vaporproof lamps. 147 C Shaker be

A motor-driven can shaker is a valuable piece of paint shop equipment. It save considerable time in mixing paint which would otherwise have to be stirred by hand with a paddle.

91

TM 9-213

E~~~~~~~~~~~~~

SWITCH Bo

OX .,

:

a_;.

1-'- I keins x
wi

b ·

Ado~~~~~~~~~~~~" 1;;· \^
X R :

rows _l.I

-- FAN

n

HIV~~~~~~~~~~ENT'SOTO .~

~'

~

ADE ,.

~~~~~~~Fi.ur
9

5 . Insa.l ezars . -w

-F2<fBy<A..

Figure 52. Installed exhaust fan.

92

TM 9-213

REFLECTOR
2=6•~ <

LAMP GLOBE \ LAMP

IN

I

1~1-

Figure 53. Vaporproof lamps for paint shop.

93

TM 9-213

CHAPTER 7 PAINTING DATA Section I. OPACITY AND COVERING DATA 148. Oil Paints
Table XII indicates the approximate area (in
Material

Table XII. Oil Paint Coverage
Prime coat Second coat Third coat

square feet) which normally can be covered per
gallon of oil paint. This information can be used as a guide in estimating the amount of paint required for a specific job.

Steel Sheet --------.
Heavy construction.

400-600 .500-600

600-700

400-550

450-600 450-550 400-550
a
a

550-650 500-600 450-550
b b

149. Enamels, Varnishes, Stains, and
Bituminous Paints In general, the approximate area (in square feet) which can be covered per gallon depending on surface and consistency of paint is as follows: a. Enamels, 400-600. b. Varnishes, 500-700.
c. Stains, 500-600.

Medium ------- 350-500 Light ___--__-- 300-500

Wood:

New __________. 500-600 Weathered ___ 300-400 Repainted_____ 400-500 Concrete and brick - 1!50-300 Plaster, etc. -------. 250-350

500-600

500-600

400-500

400-500
500-600

a

500-600 b

c
b

300-400 d 350-450
300-400 d 400-500

, To each gallon of paint is added approximately 2 quarts of raw linseed oil and 1 pint of thinner. raw To each gallon of paint is added approximately 1 pint of

raw linseed oil and 1/2 pint of thinner. c Special primer or reducer added.

d. Bituminous paints, 75-200.

paint.

d Approximately

1 pint of reducer is added to each gallon of

Section II. TIPS ON PAINTING
150. Painting "Don'ts" Certain basic precautions in the application of paint, varnish, enamel, and lacquer are generally applicable. The following should be observed at all times: a. Don't paint over an unclean surface. Be sure all dirt, rust, scale, etc., are removed. b. Don't fail to stir paint thoroughly. c. Don't mix one paint with another unless instructed to do so. d. Don't fail to follow instructions which may appear on containers, particularly with respect to the addition of thinner and application instructions. e. Don't apply paint or varnish unless the drying conditions are satisfactory. f. Don't paint in wet or extremely cold weather (below 500 F.). g. Don't apply abnormally heavy coats. h. Don't add too much thinner. i. Don't use paint buckets, cans, paint rollers, spray guns, or brushes which are not clean. j. Don't apply cold paints on varnishes. k. Don't leave old paint- and old-soaked clothes lying around in the paint shop. They are a fire hazard (figs. 54 and 55). 1. Don't fail to clean brushes, paint rollers, and spray guns immediately after using. n. Don't release the tops of pressure-feed material containers before releasing the air pressure. o. Don't use electrical connections that show any inclination to become loose or to arc. 95

TM 9-213 152. Engines, Engine Accessories and Engine Compartments
a. General Instructions. (1) Engines and engine accessories should be painted in accordance with manufacturer's standard practice, except the finish coat should be an olive
?~i-~ "bl~OLD
DIRTY

drab conforming to Specification TT-

:METAL
WITH COVER

I P t>.

i'A:
:i

i'

~> P

~

-;

SS==--'RA

PO 108399

Figure 54. Proper method of old cloth, disposal.

E-485. Engines :received in -an unpainted condition should remain in that condition. Paint will frequently impair the heat conductivity of metal and should not be applied to engines, unless it is the manufacturer's policy to do so. (2) Engines should ordinarily be painted or repainted only when removed from vehicles for remanufacture or rebuild,

p. Don't pour paint out of a container in a

manner that obscures the label.
q. Don't fail to strain paint before using. r. Don't fail to remove all traces of wax from surfaces where paint or varnish is to be used. s. Don't paint without proper ventilation. t. Don't waste paint by spraying beyond the item being coated. u. Don't paint over a moist or wet surface. v. Make sure paint does not come between

and not when they are in the vehicle. (3) Engine assemblies should be painted
only after all operations concerning manufacture or rebuild have been completed, and cylinder head or heads and crankcase or oil pan are assembled to cylinder block, and only when so authorized. so authorized. b. Removal of Old Paint. Proceed as indicated in TM 9-208-1. Do not use alkali-type remover on aluminum.

c. Cleaning and Rust Removal. Follow procedure indicated in TM 9-208-1. ground strap and hull of tanks. groundstrap and hull of tanks. Caution: Mask intake and exhaust ports, w. Avoid paint on operator-instruction breathers, etc.,carefully,to prevent dust, soluplates. tion, water, or metal conditioner from entering engine. 151. Target Materiel d. Combat Vehicle Air-Cooled Engines. On Target materiel generally is governed by the combat vehicle air-cooled engines, ferrous metpolicy that wooden parts usually destroyed by al parts are painted with olive-drab, semigloss, bullets will not be painted. Timber frame suprust-inhibiting enamel conforming to TT-Eports of siding targets are, however, given one 485. Aluminum portions, including the cylincoat of commercial red paint. The pulleys, sash der fins are left unpainted. The base of the cord and sash cord clamps, roller brackets, cylinders is coated with varnish, waterproofing, rollers, slide racks, slide irons, and hook bolts electrical, ignition, conforming to MIL-Vof sliding targets are not painted. All parts 13811. of the car and track of rolling targets for mae. Engine Compartments. All exterior surchineguns and all parts of sled targets, except faces of combat vehicles not exposed to outside snatch blocks, ropes, staves, and pasteboard view are painted white for better reflection of targets, receive one coat of commercial red light in accordance with paragraph 79, except paint. as otherwise required.
96

TM 9-213

ON*

OLD DIRTY CLOTHS ARE A FIRE HAZARD

RA PD 108400

Figure 55. Dirty cloths should never be left in the open.

97

TM 9-213

GLOSSARY
The following terms, many of which are used in this manual, are defined as they are used with respect to painting and related operations. Become familiar with them and refer to this list whenever in doubt about a definition. Abrasive resistance-Thisproperty is comparable to toughness rather than hardness. It is that property exhibited by the surface of a paint, enamel, or varnish which will resist being worn away by rubbing or friction. Adhesion-As usually used in reference to paint films, adhesion is the tendency of the film when dry to adhere to the surface upon which it has been applied. Alligatoring (fig. 4)-Rupturing of the top paint coat which causes the surface to break up into irregular areas separated by wide cracks in an "alligator hide" fashion is known as alligatoring. It is checking in an aggravated form. Binder-The nonvolatile portion of a paint vehide is known as the binder. Bleeding-When the color of a pigment in a previous coat comes through the topcoat, the condition is called bleeding. This usually occurs when a pigment already applied is soluble in the medium of the newly applied topcoat. Asphalt and colored resins may also bleed. Blistering (fig. 5)-Blistering refers to a condition in which the paint coat is detached and raised from the surface upon which it is applied, as the result of gases or liquid (usually water) forming beneath the coating. Blushing-The precipitation of ingredients of a paint film when it dries, which may be caused by condensation of moisture on the film or by improper composition of the paint, is described as "blushing." Body (oil)-An oil is said to have "body" or to be "bodied" when it is thickened above its normal condition. Thus the "body" of an oil is its relative thickness, the degree of "body" being in proportion to its viscosity. Boxing-Boxing is the process of mixing paint by pouring it back and forth from one container to another. Brightness-The brightness of a paint film is measured by the percentage of incident light reflected from the film. Brushing property-The brushing property of a paint is the quality it displays when it is brushed onto a surface, as affected by its viscosity, mobility, consistency, composition, etc. Catalyst-A substance used in the manufacture of paint. Chalking-When loose powder, which can be removed by gentle rubbing appears on the paint film or just beneath the surface, the condition is described as chalking. A good quality paint applied correctly should chalk very slowly. Chalking should be a gradual process over a period of years, so that when repainting becomes necessary, the surface is in good condition to receive the new coat, with little if any preparatory work required. Checking-A paint film condition with slight breaks in the film surface, causing the underneath coats, but not the unpainted surface, to be visible, is referred to as checking. Coat Coating-A protective film of paint, varnish, primer, lacquer, etc., is known as a coat or coating. Cracking-Crackingdescribes breaks in a paint film which extend through the film to underlying material. Crawling-Creeping (fig. 6)-Collection of paint into little drops or islands on the applied surface is referred to as crawling or creeping. Drying oil-An oil which, when exposed in a thin film to the air, possesses to a marked
99

TM 9-213

degree the property of readily absorbing oxygen from the air and changing to a relatively hard, tough, and elastic substance. Dulling.-The loss of gloss which develops in a varnish film after drying out is described as dulling. Enamel-A paint which has the ability to form an especially smooth film is known as an examel. An examel always contains pigment and has moderate hiding power and color. Some enamels dry to a flat or eggshell finish instead of a gloss finish. Feather-This is to thin coating between a bare and a painted surface by sanding to a fine edge when preparing "touchup" spots for painting and an invisible lap is required (par. 93c). Filler-A special paint used for filling pores or other breaks in a surface to, make it smooth for further painting. When applied and exposed to the air, 'a filler should dry to a relatively hard, permanent solid, capable of supporting subsequent coats. Flaking-When small pieces of the paint coat fall away, the condition is described as flaking. Gloss-The degree of mirror-like reflection of a painted surface is known as gloss. Hiding power-The power of a paint or paint material to cover up a surface painted with it so the surface cannot be seen is termed hiding power. Leveling-The ability of a paint to flow, leaving a smooth film when brushed onto a surface. Mildew-Mildew is a fungus frequently noted on surfaces exposed in damp, warm climates. This is usually found on surfaces covered with paint of a soft nature. Such paints act like flypaper and afford lodging for windblown matter from decayed and dried vegetation. Sometimes the oil with which the paint is made or mixed is infected and offers Opacity-The degree of obstruction to the transmission of visible light offered by a paint film is known as opacity. Oxidation-The combination of a drying oil with oxygen from the air to form a 'solid film is known as oxidation. 100

Peeling-A more aggravated form of scaling, usually due to the presence of moisture when the paint was applied or to faulty application of the priming coat, is known as peeling. Pigment-The fine solid particles used in the preparation of paint, substancially insoluble in the vehicle, are known as the pigment. Polymerization-The reaction, usually at elevated temperatures, in which two or more components of the substance combine to form a more complex molecular structure, which has the property of curing or solidifying with or without the absorption of oxygen. Primer-A paint which is intended for use as the initial covering for a surface and usually to be followed by other coats, often of a different type of paint, is known as a primer. Runs-Sags (fig. 8)-Runs or sags are irregularities of the paint film due to uneven flow of the paint. Scaling-Flakingof the paint film in an aggravated form, in which the paint coating falls off in larged sections, is known as scaling. Solvent-A solvent is usually a volatile thinner, particularly for varnishes and lacquers. Spotting-The appearance of discolored spots on a painted or varnished surface is known asspotting. Stripper-Any solution used for paint removal is known as a stripper. Stripping-The process of removing paint from a painted surface by means of a stripper is known as stripping. Sweating-Sweating is a term used to describe the reappearance of luster on a varnished surface which has been rubbed to a dull finish. Thinner-volatile-The liquid portion of a paint, which evaporates, is known as volatile thinner. toxic when it has poisonous qualities. While some paints and related materials have toxic qualities with respect to the using personnel, products which are named "toxic paints" are developed for their poisonous qualities against fungi, teredo, barnacles, and the like.

a breeding place for mildew spores.a breeding Toxic-Aspores. or other product is said to 'be for place mildewpaint

TM 9-213

Vehicle-The liquid portion of a paint-that portion which carries the pigments. Anything that is dissolved in the liquid portion of a paint becomes a part of the vehicle. Washing-Paint films sometimes allow the pigment to "wash" out under action of the elements, and when rubbed, a wet, soapy

emulsion will be formed. This is termed "washing." Wrinkling-Wrinkling, sometimes referred to as "crinkling," "puckering," or "crimping," describes a condition in which the paint describes a condition in*which the paint film gathers in wrinkles. It frequently occurs when paint or varnish is applied at low temperatures.

101

TM 9-213

APPENDIX REFERENCES
Publication Indexes The following indexes should be consulted frequently for latest changes or revisions or references given in this appendix and for new publications relating to material covered in this technical manual. Index of Army Motion Pictures, Film Strips, Slides, and Phono-Record- DA Pam 108-1 ings. Military Publications: Index of Administrative Publications ------------------------------ DA Pam 310-1 DA Pam 310-2 Index of Blank Forms -------------------------------------Index of Graphic Training Aids and Devices ---------------------- DA Pam 310-5 Index of Supply Manuals, Engineer ------------------------------ DA Pam310-25 Index of Supply Manuals; Ordnance Corps -----------.------------ DA Pam 310-29 Index of Tables of Organization and Equipment, Tables of Organiza- DA Pam 310-7 tion, Type Tables of Distribution, and Tables of Allowances. Index of Technical Manuals, Technical Bulletins, Supply Bulletins, DA Pam 310-4 Lubrication Orders, and Modification Work Orders. Index of Training Publications ---------------------------------- DA Pam 310-3 Ordnance Major Items and Major Combinations and Pertinent Publica- SB 9-1 tions. 2. Supply Manuals
The following Department of the Army supply manuals pertain to this a. General. --------------------------------Introduction -----------------------------------Office Supplies b. Maintenance and Repair. Brushes, Paints, Sealers and Adhesives, FSC group 80 ---------------material: ORD 1 SM 10-1-7500 SM 5-1-C5-1-SL, Vol 2

3. Other Publications
The following explanatory publications pertain to this material: a. Camouflage. Camouflage, Basic Principles and Field Camouflage -----------------Camouflage of Fixed Installations ---------------------------------Camouflage Materials -------------------------------------b. General. Ammunition, General ----------------------------------------

FM 5-20 FM 5-21 FM 5-22

TM 9-1900/ TO 11A-1-20 Logistics (General): Unsatisfactory Equipment Report ---------------- AR 750-5

103

TM 9-213 Military Symbols __-__-_____--__.____ -__ _ -____ FM 21-30 ._____ Military Terms, Abbreviations, and Symbols: Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes __- _ ---__ _____ AR 320-50 ..... Dictionary of United States Army Terms -__- -- ___-__-__-____ -__ AR 320-5 Military Training __-___ -_ ____ -- -____ ____ --_______. FM 21-5 Safty: Accident Reporting and Records __- ____ ___ -___-___-- -_____ AR 385-40 Techniques of Military Instruction ___----......... ._.___ _ _____ FM ... 21-6 c. Maintenance and Repair. 7 Cubic-Feet-Per-Minute Hand-Operated Nonbleeder-Type Paint Spray TB ORD 597-47 Gun (Master Mfg. Co. Model "Ace" Size 31-50) (4940-261-8413) and 4-1/2 Cubic-Feet-Per-Minute Hand-Operated Nonbleeder-Type Paint Spray Gun (Master Mfg. Co. Model "Ace" Size 43-65) (4940-261-8414) and 7-8 Cubic-Feet-Per-Minute Hand-Operated Nonbleeder-Type Paint Spray Gun (Master Mfg. Co. Model "Ace" Size 31-30) (4940-261-8415). Ammunition Color Coding ___- ____ .____ __.......________ MIL-STD-709 ._____ Chassis Coating Compound (Underbody Coating Compound); Description, TB ORD 401 Method of Application, and Equipment Used. Cleaning of Ordnance Material ______-_-__.______ __-___-__-__--__ TM 9-208-1 Colors: (for) (Ready Mixed Paints) _-_-____--____ -____----_______ FED-STD 595 Enamel, Semi-Gloss, Rust-Inhibiting __- __--___-___ - -_______ _ ---TT-E-485 Finishing of Metal and Wood Surfaces __-__-____-___......____ _ MIL-STD-171(ORD) ._ Heavy-Duty Air-Operated Undercoating Spray Gun Outfit (Gray Model TB ORD 597-49 250-459) (40-G-535); Rebuild Standards. Materials Used for Cleaning, Preserving, Abrading, and Cementing Ord- 'TM 9-247 nance Materiel, and Related Materials Including Chemicals. Paint, Primer, Zinc, Yellow for Aluminum and Magnesium Surfaces. TT-P-666 Paint Spray Gun (The Binks Mfg. Co. Model 18) (4940-261-8413, 4940- TB ORD 597-39 261-8414, and 4940-261-8415); Rebuild Standards. Paint Spray Guns (The Black Mfg. Co. Model B-8800-AR-1) (4940-261- TB ORD 597-26 8413); (Model B-5500-AR-1) (4940-261-8414); (Models B-8900-AR1 and B1900) (4940-261-8415); Rebuild Standards. Paint Spray Guns (The DeVilbiss Co. Model PMBC-510 No. 58-FX) TB ORD 597-30 (4940-261-8413); (Model PMBC-510 No. 45-E) (4940-261-8414); (Model PMBC-510 No. 58-E) (4940-261-8415); Rebuild Standards. Paint Spray Gun (The Electric Sprayit Co. Model GG-501) (4940-261- TB ORD 597-27 8414); and (GG-593) (4940-261-8415); Rebuild Standards. Painting and Finishing Systems for Artillery Materiel _ ____ __ .---- _ MIL-STD 173(ORD) Painting and Finishing Systems for Fire Control Instruments. _____-_ MIL-STD 194(ORD) Painting Instructions for Field Use ___-________-____.__________- ___ TM 9-2851 Painting Procedures, Tactical Vehicles (Tracked and Wheeled) _-_----_ MIL-STD-193(ORD) Primer, Coating, Synthetic, Rust Inhibiting, Lacquer-Resisting. ____-___ TT-P-664 Rigging ___.-----_________--____--____ ___--____ TM 5-725 Thinner; Dope and Lacquer (Celluose-Nitrole) _-__-____ ------__ __ TT-T-266 Thinner; Synthetic-Enamel _.----------_____ _ _ -_-___ _ __ -- ___ TT-T-306 Toluol (For Use in Organic Coatings) _.-....__...___. __.._ TT-T-548 Xylene (For Use in Organic Coatings) _.---______ --- ________-----_ TT-X-916 d. Storage and Shipment. Marking and Packing of Supplies and Equipment: Color Marking of Vehicles and Equipment ___-_-_-- ____.__ ____ ... 746-2300-1 AR Marking of Personal Clothing and Orgnizational Clothing and Equip- AR 746-10 ment. 104

TM 9-213

Marking of Supplies for Shipment -----_____-__-_-_______________ Marking for Shipment and Storage -___---_---_--_-- __--___----Moisture and Fungus Proofing Treatment of Antiaircraft Artillery "OnCarriage" Fire Control Equipment and Associated Cable Systems. Storage of Supplies and Equipment: Storage and Materials Handling.

AR 725-50 MIL-STD-129 TB ORD 350 TM 743-200
TM 743-200-1

105

TM 9-213

INDEX
Paragraph Page

Accessories, compressor ____…_-_______---___________________-------------------134 Accessories, miscellaneous: Air transformer ______-_________-__________---_-_____------_ 136 Engine __________________________________--_____________ _ ---152 Hose _______________--_ .. ________________________ . .............134 Valves and gages __________________________--_-_-____________________-----135 Accidents, field report of -____________________-----_______--_______ _____.__ _3c Air, safe _____ _________________________-___________________________________-li118a Air caps ______…----- -________--______________________________________________ 103 Air leakage from front of gun ____…___________________________________ _________ 105b Air transformers -__________________-______________…_-____________ 136 Alcohol, denatured -________-_______--______________________________________----32e(1) Alligatoring and checking ________________________________________-____________ 13 Aluminum, finish systems for -________---____-_________________ _________________ 92 Aluminum fuel tank assemblies (tracked combat vehicles) __--______________-----81 Ammunition ______________-_______________________-______________________-----_ 77 Application (See also specific item) ----_---------_--------------------------____ 29 Apply paint to stencil -_-----___--_______--- --___-_____ ____ 121 Artillery materiel ____________.-----------------__________ 75 Authorized forms -_____________________________________________ 3a Baking ovens ____-_---_-----______ _____________.....__ ... ___________________ .. 87 Baking temperatures _____________________-___________________________________-_ 87 Binders __________________________-------------------------------------------9d(1) Bituminous paints, coverage _________________________________________________ 149 Bleeding -_--_ ___ __----______--_____________________________ --_____________ 14 Blushing -_--_____________--___________________________________________________ 16 Booths and- hoods ______________________________________________________ 143 Brass stencils ________________-__________________ ____________ 120a, 138a Brush and roller: Care and storage ____-_____________________________________________________ 112 Cleaning _____.._____..__________________________________ …................. 111 Methods of brushing various materials ________-_____________________________ 110 Selection of ________________________________________-_____ 109 When to use, application _____-____--________________________________________ 108 Brushing and rolling paint ________i______.__________________________________ 11d, 108-112 Buffer, electric _____…______…__________ __________-_____________________…--142

82 83 96 82 82 3 66 47 48 83 16 7 36 32 29 15 67 29 3 35 35 5 95 7 8 90 67, 87 62 59 57 57 '57 7, 57 S8

Camouflage -____ _______--____--____________________________________________ -7 4 Can shaker __________________________________________________ 147 91 Care and storage of brushes or rollers ___________…__ __________________________ 112 62 Care of spray equipment --___________________________________________________ 106 55 Chalking __.-------------------------______-----17 9 Cleaning brushes and rollers -_____________________…___________________________ _111 59 Cloths -... ___________.__________._-_-_______________ ..................... 140g 87 Coating, underbody (for motor vehicles) ____________________________________- _ 64 26 Coating, of decalcomania _______________________-_____________ _______________ 124d 71 Coatings, organic ________________________________________-___________________ 90 36 Color ___________----------------------------10 5 Composition, paint ________________________________________-___________________ 9 5

107

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Compressors: Description of types -----------------------------------------------------Inspection and lubrication -------------------------------------------------Installation ---------------------------------------Operation --------- ______________---------------------------------------__ Precautions - draining -____- ___---------------_________________________ Replacement ---------------------------__-_----------______ Servicing ____…___________________…_______________ Contact with paint materials ______________-___________________________________ Container, insert ----------------_-_-____-------------------------------__ Corners, spraying --_._------______ ______-----__---______--______________-___ Corrective measures (See specific item) Cranking ________________________________________-_______________ Crawling ________________________________________-_____________________________ Creeping ________________________________________-_____________________________ Cup containers ____________________________________________________________ -Data, opacity and covering -___-_______________________________________________ Decalcomania transfers: Application _----_________---_______________________ Description ______--________________________________________________________ Types ______________________-----------------Defective spray patterns -____________-_______________________________________ Definitions: Color ---------------------------------------Paint ______-__-----------------------------------------------------Spray gun ----------- -- - - -- - - -- - - -- - - -- - - -- - - -- - - Denatured alcohol ---------------------------------------------------------Dip application: Equipment required ________________________________________-_____________ Limitations ____________________________…_________________________________ Techniques ________________________________________-_____________ When to use ____________________________________________________ ------Dipping ________________________________________-___________________________ Disks, sanding ________________________________________-___________________ Draining precautions, compressors ________________________________________-___ Drying, slow ________________________________________-______________________ Dulling ________________________________________-_____________________________ Dusting, spray gun ________________________________________-___________________

125 126 127a 127 128 127b 129 117a 130l 1 4 0 c 18 19 19 130a 148, 149 124 122 123 105e 10a 9 102a 32e(1) 116 115 114 113 lie, 114 140e 128 24 20 104e

73 74 77 77 78 78 78 65 79 47 9 9 9 78 95 69 69 69 50 5 5 45 16 65 65 64 64 7, 64 87 78 11 10 47 88 73 74 87 24 95 5,22 22 59 59 22 19 22 23 23

Electric buffer ________________________________________ 142 Electric-motor drive: Description __________-_--------------------------------------------------125 Inspection and lubrication ________________________________________-_________ 126 Electric sander _______________________________________________________ --141 Enamel: Baking, phenol- or urea-formaldehyde __________________________-___________-_ 55 Coverage ________________________________________-_________________________ 149 General ________________________________________-_________________________ 9b(1),49 Lusterless, quick-drying (for ammo) -______________________________-------__ 50 Method of brushing (quick-drying) ________________________________________ 110e Method of brushing (slow-drying) ________________________________________ 110d Nonskid, lusterless _______.------------ ________________________________ ----51 Rust-inhibiting, olive-drab ______________________________________…__ -42 ___ Synthetic: Gloss _______________________________________ 52 Lusterless ________________________________________ 53 Semigloss ________________________________________…54

108

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Paragraph Page

Engine compartments ----- ___--- ___-----___----------------------------------_ 78a Engines, engine accessories, and engine compartments --- -----------------------_ 152 Engraving filler -_____--…--_________________-_________________________________ 36 Equipment, miscellaneous: Electric buffer ___-________________________________________________ _______ 142 Electric sander ------------__---_-----------…..... 141 Scrapers ----______--___________________ _________________________________ 137 Stencil key sets ---___________ _____--_______________________ _________----1138, 139 Tools and supplies ---_______________________ ___-___________________________ 141 Equipment, shop (See Shop equipment) Exhaust fans __-______________________________________________________________ 144

29 96 17 88 87 87 87 87 90

Failures in spray painting ____-________------- __________------28 13 Fans, exhaust --____---- ____-____--_________---_ ____________________________-144 90 Ferrous fuel tanks (tracked combat vehicles) __---____-___---____--__---_-----80 32 Field report of accidents --__----___---__-----__----------------------------3c 3 Fire making ----_-------____--_----_________________________________________ 117c 65 Fillers: General ____----___---_--------______ _________________________________ -33 17 Graduation or engraving -_-___--_____-----_----______---_----__________ _ 36 17 Sealing compound: Curing --- __--- ___.________________ _ ______________---__ ._________----_ 34 17 Noncuring ___----------------_________________________-----_____ 35 17 Finish systems: 29.1, requirement for -_----__---_____. ___--__----____--__________________ _ 94 41 29.2, requirement for -----------. ------__-----------------_ --------------_ 95 41 29.3, requirement for ________________________________________ 96 41 29.4, requirement for -___---___--___---___---_______________________________ 97 41 Ammunition -____--_______________________________________________________ 77 29 Artillery materiel -______________________________________________________ 75 29 General ________________________________________ 74 28 Graduation and dial ---- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -99 44 Instrument graduations and dials -___---_-- ______---___-_____---_-----_-----_ 91 36 "Orange peel" -_________________________ ......... ….. 105f 54 Rocket and guided missile materiel ________--_________________________._____ 76 29 System for protection against moisture and fungi ---------------------------85 34 Systems ______________________--_ ... ...................................... 31-32 15 Tactical vehicles (tracked and wheeled) -___---___--_____________________--__ 78 29 Fire-control materiel: Aluminum and magnesium ___________________________-__-----------------92 36 Finish 29.1, requirement for ------------------_-______--------____ _______ -94 41 Finish 29.2, requirement for ----------------------------- _-----------95 41 Finish 29.3, requirement for ----- __________________________________________ _ 96 41 Finish 29.4, requirement for ---------___________________ ____--_---__--_---97 41 General __-_____________________________________ 89 36 Graduation and dial finishes ---_________________________---------------------99 44 Instrument graduations and dials _________________----------------------91 36 Organic coatings __-________________________________________________________ 90 36 Selection of painting system for wood surfaces __--_______________________-- 98 44 Telescopes and fire-control equipment in interior of combat tanks ___---__---- __ 100 44 Wood surfaces, pretreatment of ---________________________--------____----93 41 Flaking _______________________.--_________________ ________________________ --18 9 Floodlights, portable ---________________________________________________________ 145 90 Forms, authorized __-_________________________________________________________ 3b 3 Forms, records, and reports _______________________________-_-----____-_-------3 3 Fumes __________________________ 117a 65 Fungi and moisture, finish system for protection against ___--__---__---- ___--- __ _ 85 34 Gasoline engine: Description _______________________________________________________________ Inspection and lubrication ________________________________________-_____---125 126 73 74

109

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Paragraph Page

Graduation and dial finishes ---------------------------------------Graduation filler --- ----------------------_-----------------------------------_

---------

99 36

44 17 47 90 82 67 87 4 4 5 62 79 77 7, 57 36 87 50 59 24 5,24 24 25 24 91 87 48 50 16, 18 10 36 47 47 87 48 50 96 10 33 55 34 47 36 16, 18 95 95 54 36 34 25 26 5,25

Handling, method of tSee specific item) Holding spray gun -_-________---__-______________________--------------------104a Hoods and booths --- --__-----_-------------------------_ 143 Hose, cleaning -_______________________---______________________________------134d Hose. compressor --__--__--___------________________________------------------ 121 Hydraulic jacks ---------------------------------------------------------------140b Identification __…_-_____________________________________________________-------6 Illumination and visibility -----_-____-----__________________-----------------8 Importance in painting, color --_______-----_---_ _________--------------------10 Indefinite storage, brushes, or rollers __--__________--------------_ -_-_ -______ _ 112 Insert containers __________…______________________________________________ 130c Installation of compressors -_____________________________________--------------127a Instructions, brushing --- ---------__--------_-----------------_ -----------___ - ld, 108-112 Instrument graduations and dials, finishes for -----------------------------------91 Jacks, hydraulic -__________-____________________________________________________ Jerky or fluttering spray _______--___--------- _________-----________________---140b 105d

Lacquer, method of brushing -_----____---________________________________----_ 110e Lacquers: Automotive, hot spray -------- ----- _______ _ ---------_____ 59 General __.. _____________________________________. . ........... 9b(2),56 Lusterless, hot spray -____________________________________________________ 58 Semigloss, cellulose-nitrate -_____------_____---__________________________ 60 Spraying, general use ---------____________ ------_-_-_----__________ _ --__ 57 Lamps, vaporpoof ---_-_._---___ ___________________--…____-______________ 146 Layout tools ____--____________________________________________________________ 140a Leakage: Material from fluid needle packing nut -----------------_----------_______ _ lO5a Material from.front of spray gun ---------...------___________-___________ 105c Linseed oil ________________________________________-______________-___------32e(2), 38 Lumping ________________________________________-____________________________ 22 Magnesium, finish systems for ----______________---_________ …__________________ Making proper stroke, spray gun _____-----________________________-___________ Masking, spray gun -_______________________________________ Masking tape __--______________________________________________________________ Material leakage from fluid needle packing nut -___--____________________________ Material leakage from front of gun ------------- ____ _____---_--------_-____-----Materiel, target ----______________________________________________________ Mildew ________________________________________ Miscellaneous paint systems -___-_______________________________________________ Mist or fog __-----_ -_______________________________________________________Moisture and fungi, finish system for protection against __________________________ Nozzles _______________________________________________________________________ Nut, packing, fluid needle -----_____ ________________________________ ___ Oil, linseed, raw -----------------------___________________ …-------------------Oil paints ________________________________________-________________________ Opacity and covering data -_-----____________________________________ "Orange peel" finish __________________________________________________ Organic coatings -________________________________________ -_ Organic oil-resistant finish system for oil housings ______________________________ Paint: Acid-proof, black ________________________________________ Coating, underbody (for motor vehicles) ____________________________________ General ____________________________________________…_-____ 110 92 104a 104f 140d 105a 105c 151 21 83 105i 85 103 92a 32e(2),38 148 148-152 105f 90 84 62 64 9b(4), 61

TM 9-213
Paragraph Page

Paint-Continued Heat-resisting (silicone, aluminum) -------…------------------------------65 26 Method of brushing -------- _--------------_------------------------------_ 110c 59 Oil -_---_------__-- __--------__ __-- __________________________----------148 95 Primer, weld through ------------------------------------------------------63 26 Red fuming nitric acid-resistant coating __--- __--_--- _-----------------__-66 27 Stencil, block _----_---_--- ________--__--____________________-----------68 27 Stencil, flat _--------______________________-----------------------------67 27 Straining -------------_______._--___--------------------------------------11b(2) 6 Water, paste, camouflage __-------------------------------------------------69 27 Painting: Data --- ---_---_------------_------_ ------------------------_--------148-152 95 Discussion of terms: Color ----------------------------------------------------------------10 5 Definition --_--------_---_---_---------------_-----------------------9 5 Purpose of: Camouflage -- __---_--_-----------_-----------------------------------7 4 Functions --_--_______---_------------------------------------------_ '5 4 Identification ______-____----________________________----------------6 4 Visibility --_---_----------____----_______________-------------8 4 Techniques of mixing __-____________------------------------------------_ 11 6 Tips on _______-__.__________________________-____________ 150-152 95 Tools and equipment: Electric buffer --__--------___-_ _-_-_______.______________-----------142 88 Electric sander --__-----------_--------_------------------------------141 87 Miscellaneous tools and supplies --- ---------------------.-----------_-_ 140 87 Scrapers --- ---_---____-----_----_ _____--_----_-------------------137 87 Stencil key sets -_---_--------------_ __-_.__--------------- - ---- __ 138, 139 87 Peeling __--___--_-__________________________________ ________________________ 18 9 Pigments --_------____--_____________ _______________________________________ -9c 5 Portable floodlights -_________________-_____________________________-145 90 Practice, safe -_-------------…--…-------------.----- -118b 66 Precautions, safety --__------__--------_______--_______________-_- ___-------4 4 Pressure-feed-type spray gun ------------------------------------_---------___ _ __ 106c 56 Primer, weld through __--__--______________-____________ ____-__________________ 63 26 Primers: Coating, synthetic, rust-inhibiting, lacquer-resisting -- __--__--__-___--____ ___ 45 20 Coating, synthetic, wood, and ferrous metal -------------- _____------------_-44 20 Coating, zinc yellow, for aluminum and magnesium surfaces -----------------47 21 Enamel, rust-inhibiting, olive-drab -_--_---_ ______---__--______________---__ _ 42 19 General __…______ .----____________________________________ ------ - --32b, 41 16, 18 Lacquer, rust-inhibiting -__--______________________________________________ 46 21 Surfaces, sanding, lacquer type _______________-______________________________ 47 21 Surfaces, synthetic ---____________________ ... ........................... 43 19 Purpose of manual -----_---__------____-______________--____________________ 1 3 Red fuming nitric acid-resistant coating --_---__________--__--________________ Resistration markings --- ---___ _ ___-- ___________________--______________ ______ Replacing decalcomania -__---__-- __-____________________ ______.__ ____________ Replacement, compressors ________________________________________-_____ Rocket and guided missile materiel --- ___--__---_--- __________--__-________ ______ Roller and brush (See Brush and roller) Running, paint ____--__-_________________ ---________________ ________________ Runs and sags in finish -_----__-______________________________________________ Safe air _-______________________________________ Safe practice ---- ____--- _______________________________________________________ Safety: Hazards ________________…_____________________ Precautions _____________:____ _______________________________________ Sagging ________-_______----------------------66 122d 12 5a 127b 77 23 105h 118a 118b 117 4,118 23 27 69 73 78 29 11 55 66 66 65 4,66 11 111

TM 9-213
Paragraph Page

141 87 Sander, electric -------___________________________-----------------------------Sanding disks ____--___-----------------------------------------------------140e 87 18 9 Scaling _________________________--_______________________________________----__ Scope of manual -___-- ___-_-----_--------------------------------------------2 3 87 137 -_____-_______----_______________________________-------------------Scrapers Sealers: General __--_____-_______-----__----____________________________---------32c,17 16,17 38 18 Oil, linseed, raw __-______--__-----__________________----------------------39 18 Stain, wood, olive-drab -----------------------------------------------------Varnish, shellac, bleached, type I, medium body, and orange, type II, 40 18 medium body ---------------------------------------34 17 Sealing compound, curing __--__--__------------------------------------------35 17 Sealing compound, noncuring -_-----------------------------------------------Servicing, compressors _________________-------------------------------------129 78 Shellac, method of brushing -___---------_-------------------------110e 59 Shaker, can _______-_____.___---------_________________________-------------147 91 Shop equipment: Booths and hoods ----------------------------------. _-------------------143 90 Can shaker ---- __------________________________-------------------------147 91 Exhaust fans __---__---_ ____---_--___--______________________------------- 144 91 Portable floodlights …--------------------------------------146 91 Vaporproof lamps --- -----------------------------------------------------_ 146 91 Slow drying __------------------______________________________________ 24 11 Solvent, dry-cleaning ------__ __--_-----_---------------_--------- -----------32e(3) 16 Special painted surfaces -_____-_--_________---___--__-______-------82 .33 Speed of gun travel __---_----__---_---_ _____--_____ --. _ 104d 47 Spotting -________________________________---_________________________-25 12 Spray equipment, compressors: Description of types -----------------------------------------------------125 73 Inspection and lubrication --- __------_---------__--------------_ ---------_ 126 74 Installation -__-----------------________-_________________________________ 127 77 Operation ______________________________________________________________ -127 77 Precautions-draining ______________________________________________________ 128 78 Replacement ____-__________________________________________ 127b 78 Servicing _________________________________________________________________ 128 78 Spray guns: Air leakage from front of gun -…_-___________----------____-____--________ __ 105 48 Application ________________________________________-______________________ 101 45 Care of -_--______________________________________________________________ 106 55 Defective spray patterns ---__----_--_______________________________________ 105e 50 Dusting __________________…_______________________________________________ 104e 47 Holding -__--______________________________________________________________ 104a 47 Jerky or fluttering spray --_----_---- ______________________________________ 105d 50 Leakage and correction -___________________________________________________ 105 48 Making proper stroke -----------.---------------__________________________ 104b 47 Masking ________________________________________-_________________________ 104f 47 Material leakage from front of gun __ ._--l____O_____________________________ 105c 50 Mist or fog ________________________________________-____________________ 105i 54 "Orange peel" finish _______________________________________________________ 105f 54 Pressure feed type --_---___--___________________________ __________ _ 106c 56 Runs and sags in finish ____________________-l---_______________________ _ 105h 55 Selection of: Air caps, needles, and nozzles -------------_______________----------------------103 47 Definitions _____ _____________________________________________ ____..__ 102a 45 Types: Aerosol paints and airless equipment spray _--_______________________ 102b(4) 45 "Bleeder" and "nonbleeder" guns -_________________________________ 102b(1) 45 External and internal mix ------l_______________________________ 102b(2) 45 Suction and pressure feed _______________________________________ 102b(3) 45

112

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Paragraph Page

Spray guns-Continued Types-Continued Speed of travel -------_________________-______ -_________________________104d Spraying corners --_---__________________ ________________ 104c "Starving" ________________________________________ 105j Streaks in finish __---_______.____________________________________________ 1059 Suction cup type --------------_-------------------_______-__-__________ __ 106b Technique -________________________________________________________________ 104 Touchup painting ------- __-- ____________________-------------------------107 Spray painting, failures in --------__________________________--__--__---.____ __ 28 Spraying corners --_--________________________________________________________ 104c Spraying paint __---_______________________________________________________ llc, 104 Stain: Coverage ________________________________________-_________--______________ 149 Methods of brushing -___________________________________ _______________ 110b Selection of brush and roller ----___________________________________________ 109b Wood, olive-drab -_________________ ________________________________________ 98 "Starving" --_ _______________________________________________________________ 105i Stencil key sets __…----_-- _________________-________________ -138, 139 Stenciling: Application __________________________-------------------______________ --121 Methods -____________________________________________--___________________ 120 Purpose ____________________-------------------____________________ 119 Storage: Brushes on rollers --__________________________________-----------------------112 General __________________________________________________30 Streaking ________________________________________-____________________________ 22 Streaks in finish ------______________________ 105g Suction-cup-type spray gun ______________________-___________________---------106b Supplies for preparing surfaces _____________________________---------------140c Surface, sanding, lacquer type ------ ___________________ _______---------------48 Sweating -____________________________________ ________________________________ 26 Tables:
Drop in air pressure (table XI)

47 47 55 55 55 47 56 13 47 7, 47 95 59 57 44 55 78 67 67 67

62 15 10 55 5.______ 55 87 21 12
82

__________-_______________________--------Finish systems for aluminum and magnesium surfaces of fire-control materiel
,(table VIII) ________________________________------------------_________ __

42

Finish systems for wood surfaces of fire-control and related materiel (table IX). __ Finish systems-fire-control materiel-steel and metal surfaces other than aluminum and magnesium '(table V) ----- ______________----------------_ -Finish systems-metals-tactical vehicles (tracked and wheeled) luster is semigloss as noted (table II) --________________________----------------------Finish systems-wood-tactical vehicles (tracked and wheeled) (table IV) -----_ Miscellaneous finish systems (table X) __________________---------------------Oil paint coverage (table XII) _______________________-----------------------Paint films on metal and wood surfaces (table I) ------------_---------------Reinforced fiberglass parts--surfaces (table III) ____________________________-Treatments and finishes for aluminum surfaces of fire-control materiel (table
VI)' _______________________________________________________________ __ __-

43 37
30

31 44
95

28 31
39 39

Treatments and finishes for magnesium surfaces of fire-control materiel (table
VII) ________________________________________-_________________________

Tactical vehicles (tracked and wheeled) __________.-___________----------------Tank (Paint container): Agitators __________________________________________________________________ Description _________________________________________________________________ Operation __________________________________________________________________ Precautions ________________________________________________________________ Tape, masking ________________________________________-_______________________ Target materiel ___ ___________________________________________________________ Techniques of mixing ___________________________------------------------------Telescopes and fire-control eqiupment in interior of combat tanks ------------------

78 131 130 132 133 140d 151 11 100

29 79 78 79 79 87 96 6 44 113

TM 9-213
Paragraph Page

Thinners: Alcohhol, denatured _________________------------------------------------------------Enamel, synthetic -______________-------------------------------------------------General __________________________________________ _---Lacquer, cellulose nitrate, dope and lacquer, blush retarding -----------------Lacquer, clear -------------____--------------------------------------Oil, linseed, raw --------_____---_______---------------------------Paint, mineral spirits --____---------------------------------------Solvent, dry-cleaning ---________-___________________- _____---------------Turpentine, gum spine ____________________________-----------------------------Tips on painting ___________________-------------------------------------------Tools, other ___________________________________________… ________________________ Topcoat ------------------------------------------------------------------Touchup and refinishing procedures ----_----__--------------------------Touchup painting, spray gun --__-----------___-----------------------------Transfers, decalcomania (See Decalcomania transfers) Transformer, air ________--- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Turpentine, gum spirits --____----_____----------------------------------------

32e(1) 32e(4) 9d(2) 32e(5) 32e(5) 32e(2) 32e(6) 32e(3) 32e(7) 150-152 140f 32d 87 108 137 32e(7)

16 16 5 16 16 16 16 16 16 95 87 16 35 57 87 16 36 3 85 91

Unpainted surfaces __-_________________________________--______________________ 89 Unsatisfactory equipment report ___----__ ________-----___--------_------------3d Useful painting data ------________-_________________________________-------- 149-152 Vaporproof lamps _…_-___________________________------------------------------Varnishes: Asphalt ___________________…_______________________--_______________________ Coverage of ____----_________________________________…_---_ General ___________________________________________________________________ Method of brushing Moisture- and fungus-resistant for the treatment of communications, electronic, and associated electrical equipment -----------------------------Shellac, bleached, type I, medium body, and orange, type II, medium body __---Spar, water-resisting _________--________________________________---------Vehicles: Binders -------------------------------------------------------------------Thinners -----------------------------------------------------------------146

71 27 149 95 9b(3),70 5,27 59 1---_-____--_--________ i10f 72 40 73 9d(1) 9d(2) 28 18 28 5 5 4 41 44 13

Visibility ______________________________________________________________________ 8 Wood surfaces: Pretreatment of ___________________________________…________________________ 93 Selection of painting system ______…_______________________________.--------- 98 Wrinkling ----_____________--…_--____________ …_____--27

114

TM 9-213
BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE ARMY:

Official: J. C. LAMBERT,
Major General, United States Army, The Adjutant General.
Distribution: Active Army: DCSLOG (1) CNGB (1) Tech Stf, DA (5) except CofOrd (9) CofT (none) Ord Bd (1) USCONARC (3) ARADCOM (2) ARADCOM Rgn (2) OS Maj Comd (2) except USARE'UR (5) USARCARIB (5) USARJ (5) USARPAC (5) LOGCOMD (2) MDW (1) Armies (3) except Seventh USA (8) EUSA (8) Corps (2) Div (2) Regt/Gp/Bg (2) Bn (2) Co/Btry (2) except Ord Co (15) except TOE 9-17, 9-47, 9-377 (none) Ft Belvoir (5) Ft Bliss (5) Ft Bragg (5) Ft Hood (5) Ft Knox (25) Ft Sam Houston (5)

G. H. DECKER, General, United States Army, Chief of Staff.

Ft Sill (5) Ord Comd (3) except Ord Tk-Autmv Comd (20) OWC (2) GENDEP (4) Ord Sec, GENDEP (4) Ord Dep (10) Svc Colleges (20) Br Svc Sch (20) OSA (2) POE (2) Ord PG (10) Ord Arsenals (5)except Frankford Arsenal (10) Raritan Arsenal (10) Ord Plants (2) Springfield Armory (3) Centers (2) MISMA (3) Def Surplus Bidders Control Ofc (2) Def Surplus Sales Ofc (2) Ord Dist (1) except Cleveland Ord Dist (2) New York Ord Dist (5) USA Corps (2) Mil Msn (2) MAAG (1) JBUSMC (2) JUISM;AGG (2) Units org under fol TOE: 29-55 ' (2)

NG: State AG (3); units-same as Active Army except allowance is one copy to each unit. USAR: None. For explanation of abbreviations used, see AR 320-50.

115

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