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JacquesRanciereThePhilosopherandHisPoor:2004(LePhilospheetsespauvres:1983) Contents EditorsPreface vii EditorsIntroduction:Mimesis andtheDivisionofLabor ix OnDirkRembrantsz xxii APersonalItinerary xxv I.PlatosLie 1.TheOrderoftheCity 3 2.TheOrderofDiscourse 30 II.MarxsLabor 3.

3.TheShoemakerandtheKnight 57 4.TheProductionoftheProletarian 70 5.TheRevolutionConjuredAway 90 6.TheRiskofArt 105 III.ThePhilosopherand TheSociologist 7.TheMarxistHorizon 127 8.ThePhilosophersWall 136 9.TheSociologistKing 165 ForThoseWhoWantMore 203 AfterwardtotheEnglishLanguage Edition(2002) 219 Notes 229


I.PlatosLie Epigraph 1 1.TheOrderoftheCity 3 a. Intro b. FifthMan 3 c. QuestionofTime 6 d. TheOrderoftheBanquet 8 e. Imitators,Hunters,andArtisans 9 f. ProfessionalQualification:DicePlayersand Exterminators 12 g. ThePhilosophersintheWorkshop 14 h. TheThreeMetals:NaturesLie 17 i. TheTwoMoneys:CommunisminPower 19 j. AnotherBanquet,AnotherLie 21 k. TheVirtueoftheArtisan 23 l. TheParadoxofJustice 25 m. Women,BaldMen,andShoemakers 27 2.TheOrderofDiscourse 30 a. Intro b. FromOneCavetotheOther 33 c. BastardThinking 34 d. ThePhilosophersSlave 37 e. TheBabblingMute 39 f. TheOrderofDelirium 42 g. TheNewBarrier 44 h. Theatrocracy 45 i. TheChorusofCicadas 47 j. TheDivisionofAppearances 50 k. AttheFootoftheRampart 51 II.MarxsLabor Epigraph 55 3.TheShoemakerandtheKnight 57 a. Intro b. TheInsurrectionoftheShoemaker 57 c. TheNightofSt.John 61 d. TheIdeologue,theShoemaker,andtheInventor63 4.TheProductionoftheProletarian 70 a. Intro b. TheOrderofProduction 71 c. TheOtherCave 72 d. TheScaffoldingofWork 74 e. TheNonPlaceofScience 76 f. LaborandProduction:TheDiscreetCharmofthe RadicalBourgeoisie 78 g. TheSchooloftheProletarian 80 h. TheBackwardWorker,ortheParadoxof Communism 82 i. ACommunistAmongtheLapps 83 j. AFalseExit:ClassandParty 85 k. TheGeniusoftheStraubinger 87 5.TheRevolutionConjuredAway 90 a. Intro b. TheAbsoluteBourgeoisie 91 c. TheBourgeoisBetrayal 93 d. TheTriumphoftheLumpen 95 e. TheSwampFlower 98 f. TheComedianKingandtheBeggarKing 100 6.TheRiskofArt 105 a. Intro b. CavalrymenandComedians 108 c. TheDutyoftheBook 112 d. TheUnknownMasterpiece 115 e. TheErrantScience 118 f. TheTestamentoftheArtist 122 III.ThePhilosopherandTheSociologist Epigraph 125 7.TheMarxistHorizon 127 a. Intro b. TheDcorofProduction 127 c. TheSunandtheHorizon 129 d. TheParadoxesofProduction 132 8.ThePhilosophersWall 136 a. Intro b. TheTiredGuardian 136 c. TheParty,orContinuousCreation 139 d. TheDialecticalSeal 142 e. ThePhilosophersWindow 143 f. TheWorkeratHisMachine 145 g. TheAbsoluteWeapon 147 h. TheSartreanKing 149 i. ThePhilosopherandtheTyrant 151 j. TanksintheSnow 153 k. TheParasiticDialectic 154 l. TheLittleDyer 157 m. TheKingwithoutaShadow 159 n. TheExplosiononCanvas 161 o. AWorldwithoutWorkers? 163 9.TheSociologistKing 165 a. Intro b. TheMusician,theChief,andtheDyer 165 c. TheScienceofRightOpinion 166 d. TheScissorsandtheKettle 168 e. TheDyeoftheShoemakers 171 f. TheDenouncerDenounced 174 g. EpimenidestheCretanandParmenidestheMarxist 176 h. ThePhysicianandHisPatients 179 i. TheScienceofPractices 182 j. ThePianist,Peasants,andtheSociologist 184 k. TheVulgarSociologistandtheDistinguished Philosopher 197

Contents EditorsPreface vii 1. PublishingHistory a. Initialtranslationdelayed(JohnDrury,Oster) b. Parkerrevised i. Rancierehashighlyallusiveprose ii. ChallengetosoundasEnglishaspossible 2. Polyvalentwords[JonathanRethinkingonlybecomesphilosophicalwhenfamiliarwordsgrow strange] a. PartagedivisionANDsharing(viii) b. Savantexpert,scholar,orscientist c. Finend,aim,goal,purpose,conclusion d. Comedinactor(neutral)comedian(slightlypejorative) EditorsIntroduction:MimesisandtheDivisionofLabor ix [Parker] Epigraph:Aretheymypoor?EmersonsSelfReliance 1. Whathasphilosophytodowiththepoor? a. oftensupposedthepoorhavenotimeforphil b. menofpoor: i. plebes,menofiron,demos,artisans,commonpeople,proles,lumpen,series,groups infusion,masses ii. shoemaker c. Ranciere=inWesternthoughtpoorplayleadingrole i. Objectsofanalysis ii. Illustrativeofphilargument 2. PHP:BourdieuandHistoricalConjuncture a. Initiallypublishedin83 b. 20yearsofdetours(eachwiththeirownturn)(x) i. seminaronCapital ii. protestinterruptsthesisonFeuerbach iii. universityfactory iv. 10yrsinworkerarchives 3. Late70s/early80s(xi) a. Initiallythoughttheimageofworkingclass=autonomous b. Butfoundthattherewasnotclassinitself i. Nouniversalprideinwork ii. Desiredescape c. welooktoomuchatworkercultureandnotenoughatitsencounterswithothercultures d. imitation(blockquote) e. mlangehybridity(xii) i. constitutiveiterability,imitativeincorporationofdiscursivenormsforeigntoitself 4. NightsofLabor a. eveningsofmid19CFrenchworkersWriting b. doublyandirremediablyexcludedforlivingasworkersdidandspeakingasbourgeois peopledid i. listofnames c. antipositivistsocialhistory i. notauthenticity

ii. whatgavethiswritingitspoliticalefficacywasnotthatitreflectedorembodieda specificclassidentitybutthatitdisruptedsuchidentitiesinmimingthenormsofa cultureforeigntoitswritersorigins d. ***EQUALITY i. notatheme,buttheconditionoftheirperformanceasaspeechevent ii. FNonlaterRanciereonequality e. CritiqueofNOL(xiii) i. aconceptual ii. nohistoricalorphilosophicalmodel 1. itsfreeindirectdiscoursecf.D&Gslinguistics 2. impossibletoseparateRanciereformthecharacters 5. PHP a. PHPappearstobephilv/vNOL i. Differentiateauthorship ii. EngagesclassicalWesternphilosophy b. Butitsnotclassicalphil i. AttempttomarkclosureofpoorfromWPhil 1. Obj/subj(cf.Lukacs) ii. Canonecritiquefromtheinside?(ofaclosure,egofphil)(xiv) 1. CretanLiarsparadox(Ialwayslie) c. Poorasersatzofphilosophy(ersatz=substitute/replacement,displacedelement) i. Threatensphilosophy,thereforemustbasedphilonit 1. unfairdivision 2. other,supplement,orstrangefigureofabjection(includedoutside) 3. philcreatesinoculation(cf.autoimmunity) d. Plato=artisan 1. *****philosophyastotalitarianpractice(vbxivxv) e. Marx i. poorasclasshasownworktodo ii. contrad(notmlange) 1. purgeshybridityfromproles 2. sacrificeslumpen iii. straubingerbohemians=CretanLiarsofcommunism f. Sartre i. Subjectgroupsofworkerphilosopher ii. Rscritique:worldishybrid(xvi) 1. Sartrecantimagineworkerswhocandotwothingsatonce 2. luxuryeliminatedthroughserialization g. Bourdieu i. ReversalofPlatonism 1. R,Bonlyradicalizesplatonism ii. Rscritique@timewhensocialistgovembracedB iii. BssociologyassumeaninequalityevenmoreobduratethanPlatos 1. becausenecessarytoBratherthanarbitraryforP 2. alogiconlythesociologistcanread(204) 3. evenwhilecondemningphilosophyforitsnaturalizationofclass distinctions,thesociologistkingpresupposesthepoorcanonlyeverdotheir ownbusiness,forsuchhomogeneityiswhatBourdieusnotionofhabitus entails(cf178) 4. ***makingthehybridwriterintellectualsofNOLinconceivable(175)xvii a. directquote189,200,199

b. butKant/Schillercan h. statusofNOL i. philosophyofappearance 1. Bachelard:thereisnosciencebutthescienceofthehidden 2. concealedtruthreflectonlytheneedsofthosewhoprofitfrommaintaining thesedistinctions:doesmystificationexistanywherebutinthewordsofthe demystifier(cf170/173) ii. NOTideologycritiquenorsymptomaticreading(contraAlthusser) 1. Notlinguisticturn 2. Shareswithdeconstructionv/vPlato iii. RsreadingofPhaedrus(xviii) 1. PoliticalDemocraticEquality 2. literarity[littrarit]structuralcapacityofwritingequality 3. theatrocracyruleoftheaudiencedisdainedbyPlato a. dangerousiterativemimingofrolesnotonesown b. Plato(1011),Marx(623),Nietzsche(121) 4. divisionoflabor=philosophicalattemptstoregulatemimesis i. Shoemakeriseverywhere(xix) i. InRepublic ii. Characteristics: 1. divisionoflabor(4) 2. outofplace(48) 3. againstthegloryofwork(59) 4. inunexpectedplaces iii. Wagner(61),Marx(689) j. AutonomousroleofArt(xx) InterludeonDirkRembrantsz 1. DutchPeasant 2. Shoemaker a. immiserated 3. Knowledgeofmathematics a. Cultivated,oftenattheexpenseofhislivelihood 4. ConsultedM.Descartes a. hadpicturedhimasmostapproachablepersonintheworld b. butDwasunderswissguard 5. ThreeVisits a. FirstRwasrebuffedasanimpudentpeasant b. Second,waspresentedtoDasabeggar i. Offeredmoneytoleave ii. Rrefusedthemoney c. Third,Dhadhimwelcomed i. closetoD ii. Rbecomesoneofforemostastronomersofhiscentury APersonalItinerary xxv 1. Proceedsfrom23questionsthatareatonce,verysimpleandverycomplicated a. Howarewetoconceivedoftherelationbetweentheorderofthoughtandthesocialorder asharmonyorasrupture? b. Howdoindividualsgetsomeideaintheirheadsthatmakesthemeithersatisfiedwiththeir positionorindignantaboutit?

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c. Howarerepresentationsofselfandotherwhichsustainhierarchy,consensus,orconflict formedandtransformed? Ownhistoryacertainnumberofdetours a. aseminaronCapitalcalledtounexpectednotoriety b. athesisonFeuerbachinterruptedbythedinofthestreet c. sometimespentcirculatingbetweenuniversityhallsandfactorydoors d. tenyearsofresearchinworkerarchives setoutasownguide a. dissatisfiedbyteachers b. becominghistorian(xxvi) c. 1830/50[fn:NOL] i. utopiansocialism ii. contraworkingclassexpression 1. etherealpoetry 2. combatingpamphlets 3. doctrinalnewspapers d. Questions: i. PositivistQuestion: 1. whatcouldapersonthinkatsuchamomentinthehistoryofdiscoursesand insuchapositionwithintheorderofsociety? ii. morefundamentalquestion: 1. howcanthosewhosebusinessisnotthinkingassumetheauthoritytothink andtherebyconstitutethemselvesasthinkingsubjects? iii. Response: 1. whenproletarians,ingrantingthemselvespermissiontothink,invadedthe territoryoftheliterati,theliteratiansweredevasivelybycelebratingworkas thetruecultureofthepoorandthefutureoftheworld,andbywarningthe representativesofthatworldofthedangersofdevelopingasplit personality Rancieresrecollections a. Platosdoublesidedbetrayal i. Borrowedfromartisanstheparadigmsofphilosophy ii. Orderedthesesamepartisansnottothinkaboutanythingbeyondtheirjobs b. Rsownera: i. Homagetolabor,proleconsciousness,spiritofthepeople 1. Perfectionofformsofauthority 2. andthediscoursesofservitude ii. wasanefforttorestore 1. aclassitsconsciousness 2. peopletoitsculture 3. exclusionbyhomage,mostimportantly iii. typifiedinBourdieusDistinction 1. whichopposed a. proleamorfati b. bourgeoisculturegames 2. prolesthoughtasunabletothinkexpertquestions[dessavants](xxvii) historyofcastrationofpoor=straightline a. plato i. philospherasweaver ii. shoemakers=nonphilosophers b. moderndiscourseofexpertsandleaders

i. virtueofpopulism ii. denunciationofideologicalvanities c. alongtheway i. MarxprolongedthePlatonismhewasoverturning 1. Onlygivesproles=truthbyvirtueoftheirexclusion d. Butnotreallyastraightline i. Platosartisan:howcanjusticebeestablishedbeyondallquestionsoftechnique andthehygieneofindividualandsocialpreservation? ii. Opposite:Marx,whosebrutalitytowardtheoldmoonsofthephilosophy firmamentwaspurchasedatthepriceofeveryrecurringlacerationsand paradoxes 1. Sancho,notDonQuixote?? 2. Inconsistentprolebutbourgeoisiequicktoswoon? 3. Workmadeunending:byillhealthorbyamorefundamentalquestion regardingthedistancebetweenrevolutionaryjusticeandsocialhealth? 6. Shortapologyfortheendofthebookaspolemic 7. closelyrelatedthoughtontwopresuppositionsofhisreading(xxviii) a. violatedacceptedpracticeofaskingauthorquestionsthatauthordidntaskhimself i. powerofamodeofthinking=itscapacitytobedisplaced 1. justasthepowerofapieceofmusicmayderivefromitscapacitytobe playedondifferentinstruments b. doesntdistinguishbetweenreadingsrecognized/disavowedbyagivenauthor i. ie:youth/maturity(contraAlthussersuseofBsepistemologicalbreakinMarx) ii. singularmodesofthought=alwaysbasicallysaythesamething iii. onlyimbecilesevertrulychange,sincetheyalonearefreeenoughregardingall thoughttofeelathomeinanyparticularmodeofthinking iv. asimpleruleofmorality:nottotakeforimbecilesthoseaboutwhomIwas talking,whethertheyhappentobefloorlayersoruniversityprofessors(cfGauny thefloorlayer,chp3/9) I.PlatosLie Epigraph 1 1.TheOrderoftheCity 3 n. Intro a. Platoscity i. 45personswhoprovidethematerialnecessities ii. farmer,mason,weaver,shoemaker iii. masterpieceofeconomy 1. selfmiraculating a. nodeityorfoundinglegend b. foundssociology i. 19Cwillbegrateful ii. owncentury=differentjudgement iii. Aristotlethinksneedsomethingmore 1. justicepowerofwhatisbetteroverwhatislessgood 2. DOL c. R=lookforjusticeinPlato o. FifthMan 3 a. Firstclueofjustice:fluctuatingnumberofequals i. FourORfive b. Allareequals

c. Butcouldonepersonbelessindispensable? i. Shoemaker?(4) ii. Platodoesntthinkshoesseemnecessary 1. ShoemakeralwaysatthefrontlineofDOLargument 2. Asifhisretainedsomeusefulnessforthephilosopherthatgoesfarbeyond theproductsofhistrade iii. Fundamentalprincipleoftradesmenapersoncandoonlyonethingatatime d. DOLandAdamSmith(5) i. Plato=infiniteneeds ii. Timelimited 1. Notconstantlywork 2. Buttradesmenmustalwaysbereadytowork(nickoftime) iii. (Socrates)Aptitudesdistributedamongdiffindividuals e. Moreontime i. Whymustworkeralwaysstandready,espifthereareoffseasons? ii. Cantaworkerswitchtasks? f. FourTermsarrangingthemselvesintoapattern(6)(******summary) i. Countlessneeds ii. Timeinshortsupply iii. Workerswhoaremoreorlessindispensable iv. Aptitudesamongwhichwedonotknowhowtodistinguish g. Argumentstwolamelegs i. Arbitrarinessofnatureandconventionalityofsocialorder ii. Differenceinnatures=excusewhyonecantcomplete2difftasks iii. andsomethingabouttime p. QuestionofTime 6 a. Feuerbachtimeismostimportantcategoryfordialectician i. Itexcludesandsubordinateswherespacetoleratesandcoordinates b. Platostime=unique i. Notthatofphysicalnecessity 1. Generation,growth,death ii. Moreambiguous 1. Halfphil/halfpop 2. Halfnat/halfsocial iii. Nottimeneededtoaccomplishtask(ergon) 1. **yes:timethatpermitsorprohibitspastime(parergon) 2. besidenecessitytowork 3. leisure(schole)oritsabsence(ascholia) c. exclusion i. excludedbyvirtueonabsenceofleisureortime:ascholia ii. commonlyfoundrelationbtwnlabor/politicalorder 1. Xenophon,Aristotle,plato(7) iii. Xenophon: 1. Impossibleforartisanstoparticipateinpoliticlife(absenceofleisure) 2. Farmers,however,havetheleastabsenceofleisuresotheycan! iv. Aristotle=reverse 1. Artisansruindemoctoomuchleisure! 2. Farmersleastbad,donothavetimetoexercisetheirpower v. Plato 1. Alsoagreesartisanscannotmakegoodcitizen 2. Doesntposititassuch,however

a. Intermsofoccupations vi. InRepublic:matteroffact 1. Communityoccupations 2. Differencesinnaturesbutnodifferencesinnature(8) 3. Everyonecanbeacitizen vii. Doesntexcludebyreasonofbasenessofjob,justtheimpossibilityofholdingmore thanonejobatatime 1. Onlyonespecialcategory,thosewhoseoccupation=twothingsinone: imitators q. TheOrderoftheBanquet 8 a. Imitatorsdontthreatenfirstcityorder i. Expandbeyond45:34supplementarycategories: 1. Joiners,smiths,wageearners(heavylabor),exchange(shopkeepersand merchants) 2. Harmonious,piety,fraternity ii. Notcommunismbutegalitarianrepublic 1. Labor,vegetarian,pacifist 2. Productioncommensuratetoneed 3. Apoliticalandindustrious 4. Followsanarchist/Malthusianmyth iii. Butjustice?Divisionoflabor!? 1. Glaucon:SocratessinterlocutorandPlatosbrother(9) a. Wantstoraisethebar! 2. Justice=returningofhealthyandusefulworkerstotheirspecificplace b. Newcitywherebothjusticeandinjusticearepossible/thinkable i. =Banquetconfusionanddistinction 1. democraticaspirationwitharistocraticpomp 2. simulacraofdiscourseconspirewithrealityofneeds r. Imitators,Hunters,andArtisans 9 a. Orderofbanquet=orderofmixture i. Ifcity=distrofusefulworkers ii. Politics=motleycrowdofunuseful 1. Massofworkerswhocatertoanewrangeofneeds 2. superfluous b. superfluouscanbydividedintotwotypes(10) i. simpleproductionofluxurygoods 1. acquisition:providesuperfluousneedsassuch ii. productionofimages 1. imitators:reproducesandfalsifiestheimageofthenecessary c. injustice! i. Notluxurythatcorrupts(itjustgivesanoddbalancetothings) ii. Imitation! 1. SocratesattempttoreintroduceimitationintoDOLfails a. Attempt:humannatureismintedinsuchsmallcoinagethatonecan imitateonlyonethingsatatime 2. TheateristoostrongtearstheDOLtoshreds(11) d. crossplay(jeucrois) i. artisanissimple,makesusefulobjects 1. noleisuretimetobesicksharesvirtuewithwarriors ii. imitator 1. appearances

2. willmixeverythingintoacacophony s. ProfessionalQualification:DicePlayersandExterminators12 a. Warriorstakefromartisans,butnotviceversa b. Newsenseoftimeforartisans:timedevotedtoprofessionaltraining i. Couldneverhavetimetodoanythingelse,letalonglearnarms(13) ii. noonecouldbecomeanexpertplayersofdraughtsordicewhodidnotpracticethe gameexclusivelyfromchildhoodbutplayeditonlyasapastime? c. Diceplayer i. Diceplayer=superfluous 1. Demonstratesnecessityofwarrior,toprotecttasteforluxury/hunting 2. huntforsuperfluous ii. diceplayerssuperfluousnesscorrespondstoequivocalnecessityof5thman 1. &givestheshoemakersfullemploymentitsmeaning iii. DOLnolongerreflectsrelationshipofusefulnesstoprofession 1. Nolongeregalitarian 2. Rather,hierarchyofnatures a. Distributionofaptitudes=distributionofgiftsofunequalvalue d. Justicenaturerelationshipnowinquestion i. Indispensablenatureofsmith,warrioretcnolongerestablishesegalitarianism(14) e. Newstartingpoint:warriorasmanwhocoulddosomethingelse i. Requiresspecialeducation ii. philosophy t. ThePhilosophersintheWorkshop 14 a. Newrole:philosopherwhotrainswarrior(addedtoartisanapprenticeshipofwarrior) i. Philtoo(inaddtowarrior)ischildofluxury b. truephilosophers:laborersintruth,notartisansofappearance(15) i. havetomarkselvesofffromimitators ii. establishrelationtoartisans(classicrefsinclhere) c. philosopherlookstoweaverinordertocreatesocialfabric d. mixingtogethershoemakingandphilosophytopurgesimulacrum(16) i. first,provephilosophythroughbaseness(positivityofasort) ii. second,denouncingtechnique:nomassproduction e. onlypossiblebysayingartisan=unique:producerofonethingandonethingonly(17) i. notasatechnicianoftheusefulbutsolelyasamonotechnician ii. specialization=prohibitionagainstdoinganythingelse 1. playing,lyingandappearanceareforbidden 2. *****painter/sophistarentfalseartisans,theyareartisanswhotransgress therulefixingtheirstatus f. summary:artisanisthetechnicianwhohasnorighttolie! u. TheThreeMetals:NaturesLie 17 a. Hierarchyappearsasknowledgeandregulationofsimulacrum i. Scienceoforders=scienceofthelie ii. PreventsthePrometheanthreat:democracyorequivpoweroftradesmenpeople (18) b. Philosopher i. becomesspecialist 1. innatureand 2. thelie ii. makeshimengineerofsouls c. differenceinnature i. establishedsolelybyphilosopherguardian

ii. notirrationalorconcealed(andthereforenotideology) iii. astory,declaredtobesuch 1. phil=onlywhohasknowledge/powerofthelie(goodlie) 2. necessaryandsufficientlie a. createsaneducationalmachine d. thenoblelieofthethreemetals i. whileallofyouinthecityarebrother,wewillsayinourtale,thedeitywho fashionedyoumixedgoldinthemakeupofthosefitforrule,forwhichreasonthey arethemostprecious.Inthatofthedefendershemixedsilver,andironandbrass inthemakeupoftheplowmanandothercraftsmen(19) v. TheTwoMoneys:CommunisminPower 19 a. 3metalsmythnotneccantiegalitarian i. mythofeducationallowseverynewgenerationtobedifferent(iron>gold,etc) ii. butseemstooperateinonlyonedirection,downward 1. thegoalthenbecomespreservationofbottomcorruptingtop b. createsmythtogetelitestoacceptprincipleofnonownershipofgood,preventing corruptionofthestate(20) i. createsareversetrick: 1. givesustounderstandthatwhichisspecifictosoulsofironisthethinking onlyofmoney,hardcash,totheexclusionofallsymbolichonors 2. theoligarchisthegoodworker 3. alwaysapotentialcapitalismand,forthisreason,thephilosophercan stigmatizehimwhilereservingtohighbornsoulsthesymboliccurrentand honorandpowerassociatedwiththerulerslackofownership(21) ii. tosaythattheworkercannotbeaguardianorwarriorissimplytosaythatheis unworthyofbeingacommunist********* 1. communismisnotthefraternityoftheclasslesssocietybutthedisciplineof aclassdominationideallyremovedfromthelogicofworkandproperty w. AnotherBanquet,AnotherLie 21 a. somefunctionsaremoreindispensable,somequalificationmoreserious i. thestatedoesnotneedssomanypieceofpottery;itmerelyneedstoknowhowto recognizepotters(22) 1. andhow,ifnotattheirwheel?Maybejusttoappeartobeatwork ii. ***thedangerisnotadropinproductionbutalackofidentity,forwhileallforms ofproductionmaybeequivalent,thesameisnottrueofidentities b. ***artisanhasrighttoonelie:thelieofthespecialtythatdefineshisbeing i. weresomanyshoesreallyneeded?(no) ii. atrueshoemakerisnotsomeonewhomakesgoodshoesbutsomeonewhodoes notpasshimselfoffasanythingotherthanashoemaker******* iii. thethingthatmarkshimoffandservestoputhiminhisplace iv. ashoemakerissimplyamanwhoisforbiddentoengageinanyactivityotherthan shoemakingthephilosophersdoublegame(23) x. TheVirtueoftheArtisan 23 a. Aristotlessquaringofthecircle i. Diffbtwnfunctions/naturesisprimary ii. Inequalityofvirtuesestablisheshierarchy:everyonenaturallycondemnedtotheir lotinlife b. Butartisanisanimpossiblebeing(24) i. Anunthinkablenature ii. Freeworkerdenatured,anaccident,neitherincluded/excluded

iii. Hybridityisunworthyofpoliticaleconomyofsuchandanunpardonable disturbanceforthecity c. Platossolution? i. Artisansdonthaveownvirtue,mustcomefromoutside ii. Philosopherguardiansnecessarytoputthemintheirplace y. TheParadoxofJustice 25 a. Justice? i. Everyoneshoulddohisownbusinessandnothingelse ii. TheDOLthatalreadyorganizesthehealthycity 1. Buttheartisansvirtueofmoderationsimplymeanshestaysinhisplace 2. Onlylieallowedistocheatonhisfunction b. TyrantCritiasandscience(26) i. theparadoxicalfactthatinthePlatoniccityitisnotnecessaryforthespecialistto becompetentor,ifyouwish,thattheircompetencehasnothingtodowithtruthan canevenbealieinordertopreservetheonlyimportantthing:thenothingelse, thevirtueofthosetowhomthephilosophiclieconcerningnaturehasbequeathed ironastheirportion.MissinginCritiasscienceandcityisthisPlatonic incompetence,whichistheothersideofthephilosophicliethatanticipatetruthand reservestheplaceofscience.Thescienceofgoodandevilcomesbywayofthe scienceoftruthandlying.Thelattermustfindeffecttheapportionment(le partage),reservingroomfortheroyalscienceoftheideaofthegood.Onlylying permitsaradicalseparationoftheroyalsciencefromthedivisionofcompetences. (27) z. Women,BaldMen,andShoemakers 27 a. FirstdefinitionofDOL=adoublelie(natureandfunction) i. Onewhoisshoemakerbynatureshouldmakeshoesandnothingelse(28) ii. Yetwecantevenrecognizespecificaptitudeforshoemaking b. Orevenmore:relationshipbtwnnaturalaptandsocialfunctionwhenneworders challengeold? i. Ex:sexualdivision//challtosexualaptitude ii. (Bad)example:whatifbaldmenbecamecharacteristic? c. anythingelse i. thebarrierofordersisthebarrierofthelie(29) ii. illusionthatputshiminhisplace iii. justaprohibition 2.TheOrderofDiscourse 30 a. Intro a. Concernsofcorruption i. Necessityofpreservingradicalpurityofphil 1. Parvenu=theonlyonerealenemyofthephilscity a. Parvenu=newcomertoasocioeconomicclass 2. Philsexerciseofpowerisnotapromotion b. Philcantseekpower,othersmustcallonhimtoexerciseit i. Howdoesoneknowthephilfromtheimitator? ii. Philosopherguardiandoublymenaced 1. Knowstruth 2. Knowslies iii. Todistinguishselffromtechnologicalimmitation,philmustcomeimitator himself 1. Notartisanoflies(31)

2. Notintellectualjackofalltrades(bricoleur)(sophist) c. privilegedstatusofphil(32) i. Ifshoemakingiswideopen,whyisphilnot?(DOL?) ii. PhilnotwithinDOL!(elseitwouldfallintothedemocoftrades) iii. Rather,itsduetonature 1. Somebodiescannotaccommodatephil, 2. theyaremarked&stigmatizedbytheservitudeoftheworkforwhichthey havebeenmade a. *servilelabor! b. Artisanwhomeddlesinphil=afugitiveslave!(akintothosewho takerefugeinthetemples) iv. Privofphilmaintainedbyservitude,notDOL!(33) 1. itisforthesakeofthephil,notthecity,thatonemustpostulatearadical breakbetweentheorderofleisureandtheorderofservilelabor b. FromOneCavetotheOther 33 a. Slavery=metaphor i. Platoscomplaint:peopleattempttofleethebondsofslaveryinthetempleofphil 1. Forplato,theydontdesirefreedom&beledtotheabodeofphil 2. Theydesirepettyspectacle,nottheinvisiblesunoftheIdea ii. Philosophersonlyselectthecaveprisonerswhoasknothingofhim 1. Orderofphil=selection,constraint 2. Functionsthroughtheaskesisofrenunciationlosertakesall a. Ex:Warriors/guardiansproveselvesthroughrenouncingownership b. Ex:Phil=receivepoweronlythroughnotdesiringit(34) c. **thesurestloserisalwaysthemanaboutwhoitwillbesaidthathe hasnothingtolosebuthischains b. counterstorytothecave i. thefugitiveslave ii. sortsaccesstoeducation 1. thosewhotrybutnotworthyarebastardsbaldsmiths c. BastardThinking 34 a. Righttothink i. NolongerQoflabor/class,butphilosophicallegitimacy ii. Birthiscritical b. Puritythroughdesignationofbastardly(35)(acontrario,argumentbyprovingcontrary) i. Birthhascondemned/markedthosewithadefectmakingthemnotworthofphil ii. Differencesinbodies,irreducibletomoralhygiene 1. philosophyisnotamedicinebutasecondbirth c. heritage(36) d. powerofthepeople=greatestvice i. thepeopleturnpoliticsintoanartofflattery ii. akingdomofparvenus d. ThePhilosophersSlave 37 a. Menosslave i. Provesscienceispossible ii. Butaspecialscience 1. drowsyscienceofslaveisonlypossible,first,bythephil 2. toawakenthedrowsyscience,needtodialecticalprovocationoftheelect iii. oncetheexperimentisover,theslavereturnstonothingness b. Platosprolesubject(38) i. thepossibilityoflosinghischainsexistsonlybyphilosopher

ii. neverlosethemexceptwithintherules c. linkofphiltosocial i. freedomsrelationshiptoknowledge 1. therehadbeentoomuchplayintheknotjoiningthetwo 2. evenacertainSocrates ii. virtuecannotbetaught 1. divineelection/initiation 2. thephilosopherchooseswhototransform iii. someknowledgeunleashed/somesciencechaineddown(39) 1. harmonybtwnsocialorderandorderofdiscourse 2. city:3classes,noslave 3. orderofdisco:freedomorservitude e. TheBabblingMute 39 a. Egyptiantalethatmakesthedivionsofdiscourseunderstandable i. godTheuthandKingThamusofferswritingtohelpmemoryandscience ii. Thamusresponds:writingwillhurtmemory! b. Writing(40) i. Mutediscourse 1. externalmarksaresimulacratheydonotanswerquestions 2. cannotdefenditself 3. samethingoverandover ii. livingdiscourseisopptowritten(notoral) iii. writtenisalsotooloquacious(talkative)drift 1. knowsneitheritsaudiencenortheirneeds,cantrasmitanythinganywhere 2. doesnotknowthesharing[partage]ofthelogos 3. theuncontrolleddemocracyofthisdiscourseatlibertymakesphilosophys finetitlesandbeautifulappearancessparklebeforetheeyesofourtoo cleverartisans 4. bastardy!itputsthelogosatthedisposalofmenwhoseworkhasdamaged theirbodiesandmutilatedtheirsouls iv. mustpurethoughtmustbedividedtoprotectagainstimitation(41) 1. worldoftechniquesandtechniciansmustbedividedfromplayof appearancesthatgovernstheroadtotheIdea 2. twolives,andeverythingmustbecutintwo 3. ((aphilosophicaltruth,notasocialtruth)) c. tiedtothecritiqueofrhetoric i. rhetoriconlymirrorstherelationshipoftherhetoricianwithhispublic ii. buttherhetoriticiandoesntknowtowhomheisspeaking(likethephil) 1. rather,hedoesnotwanttoconductsoulbuttoholdhispublic 2. sotherhetoricianonlywantstoknow: a. ****thenumber b. lessatechniquethanmerelyaroutine,akindofcuisineservednotto producersbutconsumerswhoalwayschoosethesamefood iii. discourseatlibertyisputbackinitsplacebyPlatoscritique:adiscourseinand amongfellowslaves f. TheOrderofDelirium 42 a. Love i. Notpartofthethefreedomofthediscoursethatremainsinchains ii. Lovesistheprivilegereservestothosewillingtoletthemselvesbehad,tobe possessed(43)

iii. Adivinedeliriumforbiddentoshoemakersandtheiroratorbecausetheyforbidit tothemselves 1. Theyonlyknowtechniqueandreproduction 2. thepeoplesoratormakesdiscoursesonlovethewayshoemakersmake love,whichisinfactthewaytheymakeshoes b. artisanaresecurelyshutupinthekingdomoftheuseful i. thelawofdeliriumauthorizesthedivisionofdiscoursebydividinguptheworldof imitationsthatbarsandguardsaccesstoit ii. twotypesofimitators: 1. divinelyinspired:dialecticianphilosopher 2. falsepoetartofimitation iii. itmaywellhappenthatapoetisinfactasophist,butneverthatasophistisapoet (44) g. TheNewBarrier 44 a. theeschatologyofthePhaedrus i. thereisaclearorderoverall 1. betweenthepoetandtheproducerthelineisdrawnseparatingdaimonic fromdemiurgicmen.Theartisanoccupiesaplacefromwhichitisnolonger possibletoclimbbacktowardthedivine ii. ahierarchyofimitation iii. missing=hunter(45) 1. falseimitatorsarenothingbuthuntersofgifts,votes,orbodies 2. ahunterisonlyacookoncampaign h. Theatrocracy[lathtrocratie] 45 a. Thephilosopherscleansweepoftheartisan i. divinedeliriumhasputorderintotheworldofimitation ii. theworldofimitationsdividesitselfonthesubjectoftheartisan,leavingtothe philosophertheguardingofappearances b. displaysofthetheater:anuntidiedremainderofthedivisionofimitations i. theatrocracyisthemotherofdemocracy ii. **music(46) 1. musiciangivesthecommonpeoplejurisdictionoverhisart iii. notjustaregulationofspectacles c. thepowerofthemusician,thetragedian,ortherhapsodistisadivinepower (delirium)**** i. heonlyneedbybesidehimself,hiseyesfilledwithtearsandhishairstandingon endforhispublic,too,tobebesideitselflead(ing)backoncemoretothegodwho conductssoulswhereitwill ii. IfIonistrulyinspired,thedisorderisirremediable d. onlyretainsgripifpeoplewantandgettheirmoneysworth(47) e. ******************complicatedargumentonspectaclethatmeritscloserinspection i. dealswith: 1. turningbackintoaregulationofspectacle 2. gettingpeopletoonlyloveanimitationofthebeautiful(ratherthanthereal thing) 3. reducingthepowerofspectacletothenonpowerofselfcongratulation i. TheChorusofCicadas 47 a. Thephenomenologyofthespectacleistheinverseofthenothingelseofspecialization i. Sociology+aestheticsputsOneandManyinitsplaces 1. Philosopheraslegislature 2. Shoemakerasoneofthenoisymultitude(48)

ii. Keyistopreventshoemakerorcarpenterfromforgettingthediffbetweenuseful workandsimulacrum b. Truepleasure i. Nottopleasethepeople ii. Nottopleasethebody,easesuffering,fillavoid,gratifyaneed iii. Butpleasuresacontrariotheslavishonesleisurepleasures c. Leisureasaduty i. obligatednottosleepbythesigningofthecicadas 1. chorusofcicadas=intoxicateswithdivinemusicforgettoeat/drinkand eventuallydieasaresult! d. ChorusofCicadas=tracesthecirclethatisolatesphilfromartisan(49) i. thefactofbeingincapableofresistingsleepcanbeusedtodetectthepresenceof servilenaturesamongthosewhoareneitherbaldnorlamenorbastards(culls) ii. aquickjabatthedialectic e. themythofleisureestablishesthenaturallinkbetweenthelawoflaborandthatofthe theater i. divisionbetweendumbmusicloverandpoliticalanimals ii. *****softeningremark(50) j. TheDivisionofAppearances 50 a. Singingofcicadasallowstheorderofdelirium(music/love)tobecutbythebarrierof leisure(adutyonlyaffordedtononartisans) i. [Butthenaloveinfourpieces](51) b. foreverythingtobecutintow,afinalbirthmythisneeded i. divisionintotheorderillegitimacy(too) ii. PeniaandEros:thesociologyoffunctionsrecuperatedbythegenealogyofvalues c. DelphicOracle: i. Tothephil:knowthyself ii. Totheartisannothingtoexcess k. AttheFootoftheRampart 51 a. thephilosopherisnotafraidthatmenofironwillgetholdofthetruth;heisafraidthat artistswillgetholdofappearance b. thephilosophersexclusion i. thephilosopherlocksthedoortwice 1. first:divisionoflabor(excludesimitatorsandkeepingsartisansintheir place) 2. second:thedeliriumofinspiration(doublingofappearances)(52) ii. alsostated,thephilosopherkinginventstwosciences 1. asociologythatdismissesappearancesfromtheuniverseofusefulfunctions 2. anaestheticsthatcausestheappearancesguardingphilosophicallegitimacy torecoilbeforethefunctionariesoftheuseful iii. twofiguresaredistributedoneithersideoftheartisan: 1. thesophist:negativityandillegitimacyofartisanwhohasdepartedfromrole 2. thepoet:thephilosopherkingscompanionbuffoon c. RsreadofPlato: i. thattheorderofthetruecannomorebegroundedinascienceofsciencethanthe socialordercanbegroundedintheDOL ii. thelieofartthenoblelieofnature 1. thephilosopherclaimstofoundthelegitimacyofhisownlieinthescience ofthetrue 2. rather,itfoundslegitimacybydecreeingitsowngenealogicalmyths iii. nottotalitarian,buttoprotectitsownnobility

d. Summary/conclusion i. philosophycantracethecircleofitsownautonomyonlythroughanarbitrary discourseonnatureandnobility,adiscoursethatmakespossibleitsowntensionby imitatingitstelos,perfectnature.Butthisimitationisforeverdestinedtoborderon itsowncaricature(53) ii. RdisagreeingwithNietzscheonthenoblelie iii. thetavernisatthefootoftherampart iv. astringofreferencesIdontget. II.MarxsLabor Epigraph 55 a. marxattemptstobecomeapracticalmanandgetarealjob a. getsrejectedbecauseofhisbadhandwriting 3.TheShoemakerandtheKnight 57 a. Intro a. Workerssongs(whetherinaworkorinleisure) i. Helpmaintainthatsemblanceoflovewhich,morethanskill,keepstheworkerat hispost b. hanssachs(germanpoet,playwright,shoemaker) i. proposesthepeopleasjudges ii. scrambleseverything(Classical)bysuggestingapoetknight,notafellowartisan b. TheInsurrectionoftheShoemaker 57 a. Wagnerin1868illustratesthegreatnightmare i. Theinvasionoftheshoemakers(intootherdomains) b. Alreadyexistsinapprentices i. Police&businessownersalreadyrecognize(58) 1. Theaterownersemploythemaspaidapplauders 2. Policeknowbetterthantoencourageit ii. thegreatestevillienotinthemassassuchbutinitsdecomposition 1. theatergivesthemthewrongidea,sopolicedislike c. insurrectionofshoemaker i. sociologists:prideoftheskilledworker&shoemakervirtue ii. noshoemakervirtue,onlytheextensionoftheclassicaldivision d. prohibitionandhierarchy(59) i. orderoftheguild 1. onitswayoutbymid19C ii. theinsurrectionoftheshoemakerisnotabattlefortheirstatusbutabattleagainst it 1. story:ludditeson,resistingtheprofession! iii. nothingelsenowprotestedontwosides: 1. thosewhodecidetoacquireanewskill 2. thosewhoappropriatethepleasureofappearancetheleisuresofthe dialectic iv. theroutingofnature,themixingoffunctionsandmetals,thepassageof monotechniciansintothemotleyworldofimitatorswheretheycounterknights inspiredbydivineartandphilosopherswhohandovertheirsecretstothepeople (60) 1. proponentsoforderaredisturbed:aestheticdisorder,politicaldisorder, symbolicdisorder,realdisorder

2. othersareafraidofdemocracyofthearts:turninggoodartisansinto imitators a. ****solution:returnpopculturetothepeople b. anyonewhoupsetstheorderofestatescanbecalledashoemaker (61) c. whogetscalledashoemaker?Marx! c. TheNightofSt.John 61 a. Wagners1845fableofshoemaker/knight i. Exceptiontoreinforcetherule ii. Functionedthroughanintermediary 1. Beckmessertownclerkandamarker(62) 2. Pettybourgeoisthediscountsophistofmoderntimes iii. Positivistizingofartisanalvirtue+popculturalgenius 1. Shoemaker+Knight b. Twocritiques:NietzscheandMarx i. ForR,NietzschescritiqueofWagneronlyechoesPlato ii. SettledbyappealtoTheatrocracy&defenseofphilosophy d. TheIdeologue,theShoemaker,andtheInventor 63 a. Marxdiff.thanNietzsche i. Notterritorializedcivilizationvsbarbarism ii. Aninterpenetationofthetwo b. MarxscritiqueofDaumersphilistinism(backwardness):(64) i. 1)Ideologyastheinabilitytocomprehendthedevelopmentofproductiveforces ii. 2)theoppositionbetweentwotheatricalfiguresofhistory 1. 1)tragic,authenticexpressionofthestrugglebetweenold/newworld 2. 2)comic,derisoryreptitionofahistalreadyplayedout/valuesdead iii. therefore,Daumerisunabletoseetheliberatingelementsintherupturesofthe industrialageandhavenothingtoappealtobutapast(RcallsitDonQuixote) 1. thatappealistorepeatanalreadyexistent(past?)socialformthe productiveactivityofNurembergindustryinitsgoldenage(65) iv. Marx:Nuremburgisalreadystillbornbecauseitshybrid,bastard v. overcomingPlatonicprohibitionforMarx 1. notthroughhybriditybutthroughtextilemills(66) a. largescaleindustryandtheworldmarket b. inventionofthemachine 2. machine=furtherspecialization a. curseforthebourgeoisie:competeamongeachother(suicide) b. cursefortheprole:mustabandoncompetenceofartisanship (strippedofallpositivity) c. Rsowncritiqueofphilistinistbackwardness i. falsenobility(67) ii. critiqueofM: 1. navepastoralaboutthecommunistofthefuture 2. mostimportantforwhatitexcludes a. industrialfabricationandartisticimitation b. whichiscertainlythemostradicalwayofnotmixingthetwo iii. bastardyistheforceofthelieattheveryheardofproduction(whichRsaysMarx agrees) 1. numbergwasdecadentbecauseitwasshabbycomparedtothefactoryworld iv. MarxvsHegel(68)

1. goodhistoryisonthesideoftragedy,therewherethetragicherofights againsthistory a. hegel=tragedyascension,themomentwherepowersofnature clashwiththoseofthelawofthestate b. marxitissanchopanzanotdonquixotewhobattleswindmills (germanideology) i. theploughmanssonwhothinksonlyofhisstomachand speaksinproverbs ii. theideologueisnotthechimericaldreamerbutthestrong spiritwhodemystifiesknightlyillusions(andtherefore understandsnothingabouthistory) v. formarx,theshoemakerpoetisthemanofbadhistory,themanofthedoubleas opposedtothemanofcontradiction,theworkwhowantstoimprovehisstatus whenhemustsacrificeitthemanwho,intheworldofmanufacturing,makes prosaicthegreatpastoraldream(69) 1. workersformarxmustsacrificetomachine,science,andcombat 2. samegenealogyofvaluesasNietzsche: a. inthedivision(partage),theyopposetheartisansofcomicdecadence totheknightsoftragicdecline b. tragedyisthegrandeuroflineindeath,comedythepettinessofdeath inlife c. formarx,asforNandPlato,therearetwowaystobebornandtodie 3. Inthefaceofthosewhodenigratedecadence,thesupposedoptimismofthe theoryofproductiveforcesisimmediatelyrippedtopiecebytheplayoftwo contrarypowers:thegrandtragedyofwaterandfire,ofproductionand destruction,andthelowcomedyofearthandair,offabricationandimitation. OnemaytalkasmuchasonelikesaboutMarxsPrometheantheory,butthe bodyofPrometheusisfragmentedfromtheoutset.Thematerialismof historyandthedialecticsofrevolutionruntheriskofneverencountering eachotherinit.****** 4.TheProductionoftheProletarian 70 a. Intro a. Historyhasonlyoneprinciple i. onefirstmustliveinordertomakehistory 1. butlifeinvolvessimplereproduction 2. nothingelsebecomesgoldenruleofworkerslife 3. agenerallawofhistorythatresoundsobsessivelythroughtherhetoricof GermanIdandManifestoofCommunistParty ii. literaryexamples 1. unifiesthehistoricalprocess,production(71) b. TheOrderofProduction 71 a. Marxsbigreversalisheavenearth,throughproduction i. Buthumansdoesafewmorethingsthansimplereproduction(orproduction)lets on ii. ButproductionisthepointofdepartureforM 1. Everythingisproduced,allformsofactivity,evensociety 2. Everythingthentracesbacktotheiron(artisanal)production(72) a. Shouldworktotheadvantageofthemanofiron b. Philosophersarelimitfigures,whotransformproductionintoitsown imitation

c. TheOtherCave 72 a. Inversion(butnotasimpleinversion) b. Philosopher=reducedtorankofthemostbackwardproducer i. philosopherslaveenchained(73) ii. criticalcriticismcreatesnothing(marx:holytrinity) c. ifthekinghastakentheplaceoftheslave,westillneedtoknowwhichattributestheslave receivedfromroyalpower i. shoemakernolongerexcluded ii. buttheresnophilosophicalrealmtobeincluded(reducedtoempiricalfact) 1. noscience 2. universewhereallarefabricatorsandimitatorsproduceonlytheillusionof craft d. TheScaffoldingofWork 74 a. Whocandevotehimselftotheempiricalobservationofhistory? i. Problem,if:everythingisproductionandpeopleareproducersoftheirideasatthe sametimeastheirmateriallife ii. becausethosewhoperceivetheprocessarealsotheoneswhoappearto themselvesinthephantasmagoriaproducesbythisprocess 1. sothereisnogermanideology 2. bauer/stirneractuallydoseethingsastheyare(itsallillusion?) iii. wouldhavetoassumetheressomewherewithlessillusion b. ideology,maythenbethateachdoeshisownbusinesswherefabricationandimitation, truthanddoxa,exchangetheirpowers i. everythingbecomesequivalent ii. Theideologues(Proudhon)issomeonewhotriestotheraiseascaffoldabovethe earthtoreachtheheavens(namely,science)(75) 1. Butdoesntunderstandthattruthnolongerresidesinheaven c. seeingisntillusionbuttheactivityofchangingthings i. Proudhonjustfabricateswhereheshouldsee,contemplatewhereheshouldchange ii. Butallknowhowforgesavisionoftheworld iii. Therefore:ideologyisjustanothernameforwork(76)***** e. TheNonPlaceofScience 76 a. bothphilosopherandworkerarethenideologues i. therefore,mustcreateaphilwhosnotaphilandaworkerwhosnotaworker ii. scientist&prole(nonplaceorutopian) b. science i. completelyinexplicable 1. anaccident,improbablethrowofdiceintheorderlyplayof fabrications/imitations 2. nonplaceofallplaces:truthbehindapperance,butdeaithinlifeand nonbeinginbeing 3. powerofdissolutioncriticism ii. MarxsbookonHegel(77) 1. BackwardnessofGerman a. Perfectnonplaceoftheoldfeudalworldandnewbourgeoisworld b. Preventspoliticalrevolutionbutdrawsinoutlinethefuturesubject ofthehumanrevolution c. theprolespureidentityofbeingandnobeing 2. Marxthenrisksbeingascienceofphilistinism 3. theethicsofdemystificationisthatofpreservation;theethicsofcritical scienceisthatofdestruction(78)

f. LaborandProduction:TheDiscreetCharmoftheRadicalBourgeoisie 78 a. Labor i. Disappearsin1844Manuscripts ii. Anyfurtheruse=useofideologues iii. Onlythingleft=productiveforces b. Hegel:thediscreetcharmoftheradicalbourgeoisie(789) i. Masterslave c. crackingthehistoryofproductionintwo i. 1)accumulationoftransformations ii. 2)revolutionarygettingridoflabor 1. tosucceedinriddingitselfofallthemuckofagesandbecomefittedtofound societyanew(Marxquote:GermanIdeology) g. TheSchooloftheProletarian 80 a. Schooloflabor=losehisstatusasaworker i. Apprenticeshipcomesotanendwherelaborhasbecomecompletelyanalienpower ii. Prole=agentinhistorynotbecauseitcreateseverythingbutbecauseitis dispossessedofeverything 1. Completealienationfromfruitsoflabor,evenself b. nothingcouldbemoregrotesquethanimaginingaclassconsciousnessbasedonthevirtue ofthelaborer i. theproletarianissomeonewhohasonlyonethingtodotomakerevolutionand whocannotnotdothatbecauseofwhatheis ii. thepurelossofeveryattribute,theidentityofbeingandnonbeing,nottheempty IDofHegel,butanidentitythathasgonethroughtheschooloflabor,i.e.through theoppositionbetweenthenothingofthelaborerandtheeverythingofwealth 1. **theproleisMenosslave:tabularasa,theblanksurfaceonwhichonthe conditionthattheManifestogiveshimexistenceasasubjecttheRevolution willinscribeitselfwiththesamenecessityasthediagonalofasquare(81) iii. prolesareantiworker 1. workersnotyetprolesare:artisan,lumpen,pettybourgeois,ideologue 2. merelycomicmasksdisguisingthedistancebetweenworkerandprole,the noncoincidenceofthetimeofdevelopmentandthetimeofrevolution c. **onceagainthenothingelse i. divisionthroughtechne ii. buttechneisdivided iii. togainaccesstocommunistrealmworkermustnegateselftobecomeprole h. TheBackwardWorker,ortheParadoxofCommunism 82 a. weightofthedeadontheliving i. obstacle=backwardartisansattachedtocraftsstaubinger ii. RsaysMarxknowsbetter: 1. Attractionofartisan=desiretodosomethingelse b. Engels,recognizestheobstacletothetransformationofstaubingercommunistsinto revolutionaryprolesisnottheirstatusasartisansbuttheirstatusascommunistnotthe heavyweightoftheirjourneymanpastbutthelightnessoftheiranticipationofthe communistfuture(83) i. Theirproblemistheyarealreadylivingtheworldtheyoungrevolutionary scienceseekstocreateandit(thescience)cantfindanythingsuperior[[Imight havegottenthiswrong]] i. ACommunistAmongtheLapps 83

a. Theproblemisfromworkerswhosesenseofthevanityoftheirtradehascarriedthem fartheralonginthestrippingawayoftheoldartisanalcharacterfromthosewhofitmost closelythedefofaprole(84) i. Notthoseresistant,butthosealwaysreadytobeonboard j. AFalseExit:ClassandParty 85 a. Backwardnessofthestaubingeristhecommunism i. Claimtoalreadybeprole ii. Dialecticiancantshowtheyrenotprolebecausethedialecticiansproledoesnt evenexist b. Materialistsolutionbecomes:waiting i. Butwaiting(forthematerialconditions)doesntwork(86) ii. Whileindustrialproductioncouldcreateaclass,thatsnotwhatisneeded 1. nonclassisneeded 2. prolewillberevonlytotheextentthatitisthedissolutionofallclasses c. whydidmarx+engelsdecideonbothaclass+itsdissolution? i. Themanifestoshouldhaveneverexisted ii. Parties(paradoxically)divide,notunite 1. proleofallcountries,unitemeansworkersofeachcountry,divide iii. science+vanguage=division iv. MarxandEngelshatedthepartyanyway(87) k. TheGeniusoftheStraubinger 87 a. nothingcouldbebetterthantheclownsofthepartyingeneralandthestaubingerin particular(88 i. theclowns 1. canhardlyundertakeanyinitiativewithoutbotchingit 2. butforthisreasontheycanbetrustedtodothejobofrepresentingnothing ii. toarriveatthetragicdimensionoftherevolution,thebourgeoisdramaof representationmustbedoubledwiththeshakespeariantragicomedyof dissolution iii. thelegitimacyofthefirstbornsonsofmodernindustrymustbedoubledwiththe bastardyofthemendicantphliospherkingsandmercenariesstaubingerof communism iv. therationalityofthedevelopmentofproductiveforcesmustbedoubledwiththe legendofthemoleofrevolution 5.TheRevolutionConjuredAway 90 a. Intro a. Detoursnecessaryfortheproletoexistthroughitsparty&manifesto i. Buttheyrerepressedbehindoptimisticrationalityofahistorythatisanddoes nothingelsethanwhateveryonecanseeplainly ii. discursivecastofCOmmManifesto 1. proclaimsthatthereisnothingtoproclaim 2. exceptsomethingthatismaifestotoeveryoneseyes iii. gravediggingprolesstirthewholestrataofofficialsociety b. marxlovesgeology(becauseofhisutterconfidenceinmodernsociety) i. confidenceisntinprolesthough,butthebourgeoisie! b. TheAbsoluteBourgeoisie 91 a. Miseenscene,subjectofmanifesto=communistparty i. Notaresultofthestaubinger ii. Northevirtualpowerofthechildrenofindustry iii. Butbecauseoftheterrorofitsspecter

b. Legitimacyofspecterofcommunismderivedfromallthoseunitedagainstit! i. reversethespectertogetthesubject ii. divisionalonecandothetrick 1. itpresupposesunity(theAll) 2. atotalitypresupposedbyitsverydivision iii. partyisbirthedastheOnetowhichallotherareopposed 1. boureoisierecognizetheproleasitsowndouble,sealedwiththegodor deviloftheproductiveforces iv. bourgeoisiealonehaveagencyinthemanifesto(92) 1. universalhistory 2. doallthebreakingdown 3. itseventheagentofitsowndestruction v. prolesareplayers,butnotgods 1. gravediggers,notevenassassins 2. everythingtheydo,theyowetothebourgeoisie 3. reliantoneitherthedivisionortheirbackwardness 4. thenothingistheoneprivilegeremains(andeventhatwasgiventothem bybourgeoisie) a. lackstatus(93) vi. bourgeoisierevolutionalsobecauseitisalreadythemovementdissolvesall classes!! 1. Itsactionisntdialectical,simplymaterialist c. TheBourgeoisBetrayal 93 a. CommManifentrustsprolewith: i. Materialistdemsyt ii. Dialecticaldestruction iii. thecreditthatthetextgivestobourgradicalitygoeshandinhandwithits confidenceinthepoliticalreadabilityofhistory b. butthatconfidencewasdoublydisappointedwithrevsof1848 i. botchedrepresentation ii. demystifiermystified c. 1848: i. partageofclassesinplace ii. buttheneverythingbecomesconfused 1. revelationofthemanifestiscoveredoverbytroupeofsubstitute comedianswhoseburlesqueperformancereachesitsclimaxinthetriumph oftheclownLouisNapoleon 2. =backwardness(94) iii. reinforcesfailureofclassinitself d. prole=caughtbetweenoldandnew i. itabandonsitspowerwithoutputtingupafighttoaswindler,aleaderofasociety ofparasites,aboorwhoserepresentativecapacityderives,asidefromthe pickpocketssurroundinghim,solelyfromthebackwardnessofoldpeasantFrance e. thebourgeoisiewereafraid:fear! i. Wasafraidofavictorypresagingitsowndeath ii. WantedtogiveBonapartemerelytheappearanceofpower 1. Sacrificeditspoliticalinterestforitssocialinterest iii. WasentrustedinCommManifestothroughitspowerofproductionanddestruction, butshrunktothetask(95) iv. Instead,actedlikeasenileclass f. demystifiermystified

i. thelimitofdecomposition ii. eachclassappearstobedoubled,decomposedbyitsowncaricatureitslumpen d. TheTriumphoftheLumpen 95 a. Thedecompositionthatdoubleseveryclass,generallyonlyrecognizedinlumpenproles i. Marxssociologyisincoherent(96) ii. Lumpenisntaclass,butitsmyth 1. badhistorythatcomestoparasitizethegood 2. itisinscribedinanalreadyconstitutedpoliticalmythology a. bourgeoisdenunciations(disturbancesoforder) b. workerdenunciations(nonmilitants) b. rottennessoflumpen i. notjustgarbageinthestreets 1. decompositionofclasses,whichcantaketwoopposedforms a. activedecay(gooddeathtoclass) b. passivedecade(bad,failtorealizefullpotential) 2. everyclass,insofarasitsmembersdefendtheirownsocialinterestis virtuallyitsownlumpentoitself(97) ii. explainsthefallingshortofthebourgeoisie 1. hasitsownlumpen:parasiteoffinancearistocracy 2. failureof1848=simplyamobofindividualseagertofilltheirpursebyany means(98) 3. statevampirism 4. themodernbourgeoisieisstillmerelyabackwardmobreplicatingthe villainyofthecriminalunderworld,therottennessoftheMiddleAges,orthe pigstyofthepeasantry e. TheSwampFlower 98 a. 2formsofadditivedecomposition i. smallholdingpeasant ii. Napoleonicmobster b. Marxdoublesthelowerpeasantyouthwiththeswampfloweroftherural subproletariat(99) i. Backwardpeasantryisthesecretofmodernclasses ii. Sothelaborerwaseveronlyapettybourgeois,theideologueaswinherd,the staubingeralapp iii. everyentrepreneuratroglodyte c. defeatofrevolutionisthentheothersideofclassstruggle(99100) i. nonsenseofahistoryruledbythelawofadditionalone ii. platonicmythoftheworldupsidedown(mixture,massesofthetheater,etc) f. TheComedianKingandtheBeggarKing 100 a. Paradox i. AllowstheNapoleonicclowntotriumphatthesupremehouroftheclassstruggle ii. Engorgesthestatevampireatthemomentwhenbourgeoiseconomicrationality demandscheapgovernment b. Makesbothbourgeoisandstateintobackwardparasites(101) i. revolutionarydialecticofproductionanddestructioniscorruptedbythe materialisthistoryofpreservationandreproduction ii. doubling=reversalofscience 1. reduceseverythingbacktoindividualinterests 2. imitationandtheaterisjusttomaskpettyknavery c. revolutionariesinexile i. thebonapartistartificialclassthatliquidatestheFrenchrevolution

6.TheRiskofArt 105 a. Intro a. Thefailureofrevputssciencebackinitstime i. Butbackwardmovementisalsoarejuvenation ii. InexileinLondon,(marxs)scienceaccumulates b. MarxandEngelsgreatdreamistheexpansionofproduction/exchange i. therationalityofeconomics,aswithanypoliticalrepresentation,hasitsown roguerythatbothdoublesandgnawsawayatit 1. intoxicationofthenewworldvs.crisis 2. magicofgoldvsriffraffofprospectors ii. Msays:CaliforniaandAustralia=casesnoforeseeninmanifesto 1. First:countertendencyofcrisis 2. Second:ensurestriumphoflumpen c. Thebackwardmarch,thecomedyofthelumpenalsoparasitizetheroyalroadofthelast instance(107) i. Corruptionofeuropeanworkingclass 1. 1)BetrayalofmilitantsattractedbygoldofNewWorld(deserters) 2. 2)workershappytobecomepartytothebourgeoisorder ii. workingclasshelpsconjureawayrevolution,toobourgeoistoseizethecrisis(108) b. CavalrymenandComedians 108 a. Scienceandrev=inleaguewithbackwardness i. By1884,everythingstabilizes ii. Engelswelcomescalm(endtosocialconflict)sohecandevotetimetopuretheory (109) b. Engelsthehorseman(110) i. Notthescientistcorruptionofmarx(111) 1. marxsgeologicalmaterialism ii. Wasactuallymoreintohistory c. Revolution i. Riskofrevactionnotdefeat/death,butcomedy 1. Ridiculekills ii. revisaphysics,notsubjecttosociallaws 1. scientistsandstrategiststrytobeobjectivelymorerevolutionarythan phrasemongers 2. butobjectivityalwayscomestoolate

ii. thesocietywhereMarxhimselflives 1. listofMarxsmotleycompanions(102) d. theliquidationofmarxsparty i. movestoscience 1. whichrequiresnewmenequaltothenewworld(103) 2. theabsoluteOneofscienceisaffirmed,amidthemotleymassof revolutionaryparasites ii. onlyscienceconcentratesthecuttingedgeofcontradiction,whichisforeversocially postponedandalwayspoliticallystolenaway 1. philosophyaspurenonplaceproducebyextremebackwardness***** 2. buttheworkofsciencebelongstoimmaturefoolswhohavestillnot recoveredfromtheirrevolutionaryfantasies(104) 3. itbelongstothebeggarlyarmythatgnawsawayattheorderofclassesand itsfactoryrationalityevenasitisgnawedawayatbythatorder a. marxasaparasite(viaengels)devotedtothedestructionofcapital

c. TheDutyoftheBook 112 a. thewholeofdifferencemustbeconcentratesinthescienceofthepartytocome i. sciencealoneentailsthenegationofthebourgeoisworld ii. scienceisatoncetheabsoluteleisureofthephilosopherandthetotaldedicationof themilitant b. scienceofinterval: i. gapbetweentwocrisesthatcanbededicatedtoresearch/writing ii. distancebetweenoccupationsofthemultitude 1. worksacrifice(113) a. Flaubert b. Marx 2. Bothcommittedtotheabsoluteworkofthetotalnegation iii. Flaubertdemonstratesthatmarxisnotproducingthesciencedestinedtoarmthe prolewithknowledgeoftheobjectiveconditionsoftheirstruggle 1. Proledontneedthescienceofcaptobeeducated c. mythofscience(114) i. aworkofabsolutesacrifice,ofthedescentintohellrequiredtogivetothevoiceless massofdeadsoulstheBookthatwillredeemitfromoblivion,usheringinthe Proletariatsubjectinplaceofthemotleycrowdoflaborers. d. JobofCapital:inscriptionofcontradiction i. NotthroughSVorevenlaborvalue 1. NeedtocombatProudhonssolutionoffreeexchangeamongproducers ii. Foundincommodityfetishism: 1. theequivalentformofthecommodityisanexclusiveone iii. Alsointheinscriptionoftheproleinscience 1. Onlypossibleifheexamineshowcapitalalwayskeepsonescapingdeath (115) d. TheUnknownMasterpiece 115 a. Capitalasanartisticwhole,anentirety i. Marxholdsback,notwantingtomakeitpublic(116) ii. Almostcomplete,butleftsystematicallyincomplete 1. Preventingitfrombeingimitable,repeatable,prostituted,Marxist b. Marxnotamemberofhisownparty. i. Partymembersimitate,repeat,transformartintocomedyandtechnique ii. Gothaprogram.(117) 1. Allthepartymembersgetitwrong 2. Itsart:antitechnique,antiimitation,antilabor 3. (funnyasideonvaluelaborpower[notlabor!]) c. capital=critiqueofpoliticaleconomy i. critiqueoflabor ii. trueproduction=withoutbossesorcalculation(silkworm)***** e. TheErrantScience 118 a. Nopoliticalart b. everythingisbourgeoismeansthereisnooutside(119) i. nootherplacefromwhichtoraiseanotherarmy(nosci) ii. everythingtakeplaceswithinthesublimeandgrotesquetragicomedyofthe bourgeoisera 1. revjusticeonlyasaproductofa2xannulment a. reversalbetweennormalityofhistdevelopment b. pathologyofitsdecomposition iii. scicantprovideusawayout

III.ThePhilosopherandTheSociologist Epigraph 125 a. Sartre,onaprolewhodesirestobebourgeoisbutisstillthepeople 7.TheMarxistHorizon 127 a. Intro a. Whathappenswhenthetombofthescientist(Marx)iserectedandtheartists(Engels) ashesarethrownaway? i. Marxism. ii. Thewholesystemwevecometoknow(artisticallycreatedherebyR) b. TheDcorofProduction 127 a. Marxistis i. Thescenesetwiththerationalityofthenewtechnologicalworld(128) ii. ViaSartretheunsurpassablehorizonofourtime 1. Thathorizonisdcor:lineofflightreducedtobackdrop b. Marxismhorizon=dcorofproduction i. thecoldedgeofpolishedsteel,thesolidlineofunadornedconcrete,theprecise workofthemachine ii. hardoversoft,straightovercurved iii. itworks(D&GsAO) iv. productivebodiesliberatedfromtheprisonofthesoul(Foucault) c. newguardian:workermachinist i. philosophysingsthedemocracyofproductivebodies ii. manofthesoul(129) d. philosophershoemakersceneturnsagain i. philnowamongmenofsteel ii. shoemakernotendowedwithasoulwithoutvalue(backwardness),theproductive bodysdistancefromitself iii. thenewhierarchy:moreorlessproductivebodies,organs,andproductionmoreof lessliberatedfromthesoul,whichistosay,fromantiproduction(129) iv. someBarthethingIcompletelymissed c. TheSunandtheHorizon 129 a. Sunandmoon:Phil/doxaredistributetheirvalues

1. (ofproductiveforcesvs.revdecision),reformorrevolution 2. justlookatMarxsdissepicurusandDemocritus 3. onewillneverhaveanythingmorethanexternalmarkswithoutlife*** iv. noneof(Marxs)thesesofscienceteachuswhetherweshouldstudyinourroom, standinsteadforelections,orprepareweaponsforaninsurrection*******(120) 1. scienceonlyteachesonething,notknowledgebutawayofbeing 2. itteachesthosewhostudyittobeequaltothenewworld*** 3. itdoesntofferlaws,onlymodels 4. Capitalasartisreminiscentoftheonerealrev,theCopernicanone v. theapplicationofsciencecanonlybethis:learningtointerprettheworkonthe stageofrevolution.Thereisnoescapefromthetheater(121) 1. onemustdoitbetterthanthecomedians,andeventaketheirplace 2. raisingconsciousnessisanimpoverishedvirtue 3. rather,itistheartofbecominghistoricalagents 4. andisananticomedian(122) f. TheTestamentoftheArtist 122 a. theartofcontradictions(123) b. Engelswasreallyapoetandanartist.

8.ThePhilosophersWall a. Intro b. TheTiredGuardian c. TheParty,orContinuousCreation d. TheDialecticalSeal e. ThePhilosophersWindow f. TheWorkeratHisMachine g. TheAbsoluteWeapon h. TheSartreanKing

i. Divisionbetweenphil/peasantunderstandingofthesun(130) ii. churchmen(philosophers)wanttogiveeachitsshareestablishacertainnature ofthevisible b. longtermfutureofphil i. intheslowcollapseofeternaltruths. ii. Whatwillbethepermanenceofopticalillusionsthatmaintaindividebetweenwhat scientistsknowsandwhatthepeasantsees? iii. *stageofconflictsandcomplicitiesbetweenphilosophyandsocialknowledge(131) 1. thephilosophyofthepoor 2. theersatz(displaced)functionofphilosophydenouncingphilosophyby establishingotherformofknowledge***** c. ersatz=socialknowledgesofacculturation i. goesthroughlaundrylistofpositivismandempiricism ii. newterrain=division(partages)ofscienceandmisrecognition(132) d. TheParadoxesofProduction 132 a. Marxismmodifieshorizonofvisible i. ViaThesesonFeuerbach 1. Delegitsthecountryphilosopherwhowantstoliberatehumanityand sciencebydemysitifingthespeculativesun,turningtheheavenlydivinity intothesesiblefervorofearthlylove 2. Critiqueofreps=stillwithinhorizonofimpotentcontemplation ii. Butpeoplemakehistorybuttheydonotknowtheydoso 1. Theyalsodo,butnalwaysfabriceaknowledgethatisalwaysbesideswhat theyare(133) 2. necessityofmisrecognition 3. harkensbacktomachinery b. misrecognition i. howdoyoulearnwhatyoudontknow?(listenupdonRumsfeld) ii. illusionmachinesthatturntechnicaldemystificationintogeneralsimulacrum iii. tooclassicalfortheworldheinvests,marxcontinuestolovethescienceofTruth morethanthedemystofdoxa,litmorethanthetheater,theknightserrantmore thanmachinists. 1. Presence/absence,spoke/unspokensubjectsmake/misstruthofsocial (134) 2. Leavestheanswertothephil/socofthefuture c. moreradicalproblem i. engineersofsoulswillalwaysknowhowtoconsigntheirsharestothedialecticsof natureandhistoryastheneedsofthenewautocratsdictate ii. andnowtheworldofmakingordoingisnowaworldnolongerdistinguished formitssimulacrum iii. crossplaysbegin(135) 136 136 139 142 143 145 147 149

9.TheSociologistKing 165 a. Intro a. Philosophercantthinkownplace b. TheMusician,theChief,andtheDyer 165 a. Bourdieusantiphilosophy i. SummarizedthroughSartreswords: ii. whereveranelitefunctions,anaristocracyofthearistocracyoutliningfor aristocratstheshapeofthewholeman,newvaluesandworkofart,farfrom enrichingtheoppressedman,increasehisabsoluteimpoverishment.The productionoftheeliteare,forthemajorityofpeople,rejection,wantand boundaries.Thetasteofourartloversforciblydefinesthebadtasteorlackoftaste oftheworkingclasses,andassoonasrefinedminesconsecrateawork,thereison moretreasureintheworldwhichtheworkerwillneverpossess,onemorethingof beautythatheisunabletoappreciateorunderstand.(166) b. thegeneralsstrategyisthedyeofthedyer(universalizeowntastetoall) i. thecraftsmansdyeholdhiminplacelikeacommondyer c. TheScienceofRightOpinion 166 a. Philosophydoesntofferdyetoshoemaker(onlythewarrior)(167) b. Sociologistpledgestothinkthedyeoftheshoemaker i. Butisnttheterritorythatitclaimstowrestfromphilosophyalsothecirclewhere philosophyimprisonedit,theterritoryofthepoorwherephilosophygavesociology theleisuretoinformphilosophyofthesocialcausesofopticalillusion? ii. Thatsthedirtytrickplayedbythephil c. Marxtooksociologybackward i. Placedthetruthoutsideitself 1. Establishedintherelationsofproductionandproductiveforces d. caughtbetweenthepincersofeconomyandphil,sociologyrespondedbyhollowingout thespaceofdoxatoreversethegametoreinscribetheparticularityofhistorical materialismintothegeneralityofdisenchantmentofthebourgeoisworld;tomakethe economyofproductionaparticularcaseoftheeconomyofsymbolicpractices(168) d. TheScissorsandtheKettle 168 a. thesociologistsweaponsarethoseofhisadversary i. statisticaltables(scissors)andopinionpolls(kettle) ii. butstatsshouldbesimple:reproductionandconsumption 1. thejusticeofstats=demystification(169) iii. opinion: 1. platosays:rightopinionalwaysmissesitself 2. toasurveytaker,itwillonlyreflectclichs b. roamingthestreetswithopinionsonaleashwhentheyroamtherealreadyontheirown, thesociologistalwaysfalsebehindhisowncaricature,trappedinthecircleofthese verisimilitudesthatimposethemselvesonlyastheydistancethemselvesfromthetruth theyresembleineverydetailexceptthecriticalone:truth,bydefinition,doesnotroamthe streets

i. j. k. l. m. n. o.

ThePhilosopherandtheTyrant TanksintheSnow TheParasiticDialectic TheLittleDyer TheKingwithoutaShadow TheExplosiononCanvas AWorldwithoutWorkers?

151 153 154 157 159 161 163

i. sowherearewetofindthehidden?(170) ii. evidenceroamsthestreetstodissimulateitsownsecret c. ifthesocialmachinecapturesus,itisbecausewedonotknowhowitcapturesus i. allrecognitionismisrecognition,allunveilingaveiling. e. TheDyeoftheShoemakers 171 a. Statsonedfrombourdieu(andpasseron)classist i. Republicanexplanation:lackofresources ii. Libertarian:edstructureisauthoritarian iii. Sociologist:itisschoolthatreallyeliminatesproles 1. Throughwhatismakespeoplebelieve a. Name:believethatitdoesnteliminate b. Obligingthosewhotheschoolwasntcreatedfortoeliminate themselvesspontaneously b. itistheillusionofinspirationthatproducesthedyeoftheshoemakers(172) i. schooleliminatesbydissimulatingthatiteliminates 1. evenbetter:iteliminatesinordertodissimulatethefactthatiteliminates whilepretendingnottoeliminate ii. schoolmakesthechildrenofthecommonpeoplebelievethatitwelcomesthemand theirotherswithequalopportunities,thatsuccessandfailuredependonpersonal giftsindependentofsocialconditions(173) c. commonsenseobjections***** i. didthegreatmystificationofeqopandinequofgiftseverreallyexist(otherthan anywhereelsethaninthewordsofthedemystifiers)?(no) ii. thefoundersofthepublicschoolneverdesigneditforsocialequality,onlyfor politicalequality&marginality 1. itpromoteschildrenofcommonwhocancompleteanddemotesthoseofthe elitesthatcant f. TheDenouncerDenounced 174 a. itispreciselybydenouncingtheinstitutionthattheyexpressitstruthdespite themselves i. indecnouncingtheauthoritarianismofthepedagogues,theyclaimindissimulating itthereallawoftheinstitutionofwhichtheyarethequintessentialrepresentatives b. sociologicaldescriptionisfirstandforemostamythicaltale(175) i. keepingthechildreninschoolwhoeliminatedthemselvesfromitisthebestwayof eliminatingthemthroughthedissimulationoftheirelimination c. areversalofPlatonism i. ifhethinkshecanstudy,itisbecausehebelongstoasocialcircleinwhichpeople alreadyhavedoneso;ifhedeludeshimselfabouthisgifts,itisbecauseofhis exceptionalabilities(inheritorsquote) ii. behindthistautologyemergestheverdictthatoneescapestheimpossibilityofthe principleonlythroughthebetrayalofitsprinciples(176) 1. parvenu(newlyacquiredclassstatus)ofeducationappearsdoublyasa traitortohisclass: a. 1)individually,inforcinghimselftoacquirethedispositionthat allowtheprivilegedclassestoassimilatelegitimateculture b. 2)collectively,inmaskingwithhisownsuccesstheglobaleffectof elimination g. EpimenidestheCretanandParmenidestheMarxist 176(mainargument,dunnoifI completelygetit,though) a. Thereisnosciencebutthescienceofthehidden i. Buttheonlyhiddenthatcanreturntosocismisrecognition

b. thearbitrary(177) i. pedagogicactionisarbitraryinadoublesense: 1. reproducesadeterminedculturalarbitrariness(thecultureofaclasswhose poweritthusconfirms) 2. itsexistenceintroducesintothefieldofpossibilitiesadivisionthatnever bearsitsnecessitywithinitself c. CretanEpimenidesallcretansareliarsnothingcanbeconcluded i. Ifarbitraryproclaimsitselfasnecessary: ii. pedagogicauthorityisarbitrarinessnecessarilymisrecognizedand,forthisreason, objectivelyrecognizedaslegitimateauthority***** 1. arbitraryisthenoutofreach a. thenonnecessityofthenecessitythepedagoguewillneverhave pronounced b. onecanneverforcenonbeingtobe i. nevercanthearbitrarybenecessary ii. thelanguageofthenecessarycanneverproclaimthearbitrary d. pedagogyofthethreemetals(178) i. thesociologypretendingtotellthetruthaboutthelie. e. Thephilstartedfromthearbitraryinordertoreachnecessity(179) i. Thesociologistreachesnecessitystartingfromtheillusionoffreedom ii. Proclaimsthatitistheillusionoffreedomthatbindsartisanstotheirplaces 1. Declaredarbitrarinessbecomesascientificnecessity f. Parmenidesthemarxist: i. Combinationofboth: 1. leteachremaininhisplaceanddonotforgettheclassstruggle ii. thedisenchantedbanalityofabourgeoisworldthatcriesout,ateverystreetcorner, thegreatsecreteveryoneignores:classstrugglehasbecomeaneternaltruth possessingthedoublecreditoflongkillinganyone,butalsooflendingtosciencethe eternaldenunciationofitseternalforgetting h. ThePhysicianandHisPatients 179 a. Sociologycandonomorethanexplainwhyphilmisrecognizethetruereasonskeepingthe lowlyrankedintheirplace(180) i. Onlyresult=psychoanalysis(??) ii. Onlypossibility=enjoyyoursymptom(takeontheirhabituswithoutguiltor suffering) b. Thecritiqueofelitismbecomesnewjustificationofhierarchy(181) i. Profwhodemystifiedelitism c. SocbecomestheimaginaryoftheSartreancommunistparty i. Representingthosewhocantrepresentselves ii. denunciationforthesakeofanabsentclassbecomesthedailyfareofsemilearned opinion,andthestruggleagainstelitismreproductionthecommonprogramfor ministerofeverytrend(182) i. TheScienceofPractices 182 a. Shiftfocustosmallmachines i. espouseandretracetheconfigurationofthesocialfield ii. theformsofhabitusthroughwhichsocialagentsenabledtheincorporatedpastto servetheanticipationofpossiblefutures b. sociologyasascienceofpractices(183) i. notadictionaryofregulationsorcollectionoflockroomopinions ii. anobjectivizationofthegame c. gamebecomesrestricted

ForThoseWhoWantMore 203 1. Summary 2. Inthebeginning: a. Givens: i. Philosophydefineditselfv/vother ii. Discodelimitedbyexclthoughtfromlaborer b. Doublemovethatfedtheprivilegeofphilosophy i. elevated(classant)labortoreproduction 1. loveofsolidrealities 2. Inscribedrationalityoftechnicalsuccess&financialgain ii. demoted(dclassant)philosophers 1. shadowmakers 2. reservedtherighttotheluxuryofappearancethatcommandtheprivilegeof thought

i. gamerequiresaspecificnotionofexchange ii. thesymbolicgameisreservedfortherichandismerelytheeuphemizingof domination 1. thepoorshabitusforeclosestheirabilitytoplaythegame d. knowledgeeffect(184) i. thecapitalistisonlyCapitalspuppet,or,conversely,theproleisalittlecapitalist,a liberalentrepreneurmanaginghishumancapital. e. Wayout?Partage i. Thosewhohavecapitaltoplaceonthesymbolicmarket,andthosewhohaveonly theirlaborpowertoreproducefreewillvsfate j. ThePianist,Peasants,andtheSociologist 184 a. BourdieuandKant b. music(185) i. experimentofMiguelAngelEstrella:playedpianoinavillagetoseewhatpeople liked ii. illusionofculturalcommunism 1. theillusionofmakingthosewithoutthehabitustoappreciatelegitimate worksbelievetheycanappreciateit 2. theformidableperversityofthisillusionisobviouslythatitdoeseverything asifitwerenotanillusion.Itworks 3. butthatsbecauseofmusicssilence.Itresistscommentary.(186) iii. thesociologistwilljudgemusicaltasteswithouthavinganyonehearmusic(187) c. bourgeoissurveytakersalreadyknowtherightanswer i. winnereverytime:sartreansubjectwhocanfreelymakehimselfaphilsopherora waiter(188) d. photographs188 i. fictitiousquestionsofaestheticsaboutphotographsthatarenotperceivedas aesthetic e. alltheseproduceinevitablywhatisrequiredbythesociologist:thesuppressionof intermediaries,ofpointsofmeetingandexchangebetweenthepeopleorreproductionand theeliteofdistinction(189) f. theremustbenomixing,noimitation. g. intheaestheticuniverse,theremustonlybedistance(190) i. theexpulsionofart1901 ii. k. TheVulgarSociologistandtheDistinguishedPhilosopher 197

3. linkedtohierarchythroughfable 3. Modernsociologythattearsfromthephilsopherthemaskofhisdivinefreedom a. recognizesbehindthegamesofphilaesthetics,thelawofasymbolicorderbasedonthe exclusionofthevulgarenjoymentsofthedispossessed b. denouncesinthefreedomofphilosophersthesimpledenegationofthesocialrelationsof domination c. Twosidesofargumentthatconnectthem(204) i. Themeans&ends(ethics)ofdemystification 1. reversalofPlatonism,onlyradicalizesitsinterdictions 2. sociologyinplato=rationalizehierarchyaccordingtoDOL a. acertainarbitrarinessofthenaturalorderthatcommandsonetodo hisorherbusiness 3. sociologicaldemystrecaststhatarbitrarinessasnecessary a. circumscribesuniversalfreedom b. asciencethatoldhierarchiesanddivisions(partages) 4. Value a. Plato:whatisbest? i. Contrawhatcostsmore,whatworksbetter,whatismoreprofitable? ii. Platonicsplit:(205) 1. Loveofphilvs.loveofpeople 2. technique(rhetoric)character(artisan)principle(democracy) iii. Platosredistributionoforders=degradefalsenobilities(206) b. Rembrantsz i. Descartes=opentoArtisan ii. Comtesprolemustabandonpolitics(207) 1. abandoningthefeversofpoliticalequalitytocomplywithitscontemplative vocationandsinginchorusaroundthepriestsofscience 2. overcomingpoliticsthroughscience 3. =theCartesianphilof3rdEstate c. Guardingofappearancesin18C i. Glaucon,Voltaire,Kant/Schiller 1. theoptimisticvisionofanindustriousworldfreedfromcorporations, superstitions,andchildishness ii. civilizationofworkbackfiresonworker(208) 1. excellentatproducingcommodities 2. firmlyfixesartisansasdestinedforsimplereproduction&machinelike gesture 3. thesocialbecomesutility iii. EndsinHegelsPhilosophyofRight 1. overcomessociabilityofpoliticaleconomy 2. throughrationalityofthestateuniversal 3. policeofthecorporations(whichitwassupposedtoend) iv. Nietzschereference,Schiller(209) d. Revolutionaries i. Threecrossplays(jeuxcroiss)betweendemsy/egal 1. reignofproductionthroughspecialists(savants) a. discouragechildrenofprolefrompursuingthevanitiesofimitating theproducerking(theenemyofidle!) b. specialistshaveowncrisisofvalue: i. poweroftheworkingorder ii. or,proportionofbrotherlyharmonies

e. Marx: i. ThesesonFeuerbach 1. Attempttoestablishrevviasocialpractice 2. ***Rscritiqueofpractice a. practicenotopposedtotheoreticalspeculation b. practiceopposedtoAristotlespoietics i. theproductionoftechnique ii. anArtisanalpractice 3. statusofPoliticsandtheManinMarxv/vHegel(210) a. outcomeofownlabor/laborofnegative b. notState,butadvancementofcapsweepsawaytheoldgrimand archaismofrepresentations 4. basicprincipleviaFeuerbachsocialrelationofmantoman ii. twooperationsofcommunism: 1. universalequalityofleisure/participationofallinwhatisvaluableinitself a. techne&sociabilityofexchange 2. communismstelos=Schillersaestheticfigure: a. Reintegratedman(lhommerecompos)(211) b. Notpossiblebymeansofeducation iii. Possibleonlythrough 1. Demystificationofdemocraticheaven 2. Refutationofpoliticalofpaideia 3. Shoemakerthinkersprolewithoutqualities a. dispossessionoftheprole b. Marxscontrib.toHegelsPOR c. Proleasabsolutebeingotheroflaborer d. valuecanariseonlythroughgeneralizeddevaluation iv. Bolsheviksplit 1. UltraBolshevikradicalismofphilosophiesoffreedom 2. InfraBolshevikskepticismofsociologiesofdispossession 3. Marxneverresolveswhatheexpounds(212) v. Twopartcritique: 1. Reductionoftheidealfigureofthebesttotheattributesofsocialsubjects 2. Reopeningofthegapinwhichexistenceletsitselfbecomparedtoessence vi. declaredadeathsentencetoallformsofexistencewherehumanessenceis denied 1. possiblethroughparlorgamecalledcritiqueofthecritique 2. demystificationofdemystifiers(ieMarxKofStirner/Proudhon) vii. requirestechniciansfreedfromheavenlysuspicions 1. ***Marx:itisnotfortailorscobblers(213) f. TwofiguresoftheMarxianbecomingworld i. Marxismofleaders 1. poweroftheactor[comdien] 2. ascribessocialIDonbasisofprofferedspeeches

2. artistsreproachbourgeoisie a. forturningaestheticexcellenceovertoindustrialleveling b. onlybyaffirmingthemselvesaspurerepresentativesofthework ethic 3. schoolsoftheRepublic(importance??) a. initiatechildrenofthepeopleinaesthvalues/equalityofcitizensense b. withoutseparatingthemfromthestate

3. decidedprole/revneverwhereonethinkstheyare ii. Marxismofscientists 1. Groundsselfinphilosophy a. Actualizesociologyorecon b. Completewithpoliticsoraesthetics 2. IncompletenessofMarxistknowledge a. Infiniteworkofconstruction b. Analysisofitsownimpossibility 5. Sociologicalencounter(mavericks) a. Ex:Veblen,Weber b. Sociologiesradicalizationofitsinterdictions i. asingledemystificationinthenameofthesocial(214) 1. assigningofID/socialdifference 2. towhicheverypolitical,theoretical,oraestheticemergencecanbeboiled down ii. worldsolidifiesaroundone/twosimpleaxioms 1. athingcannotbevaluableinitselfbutdraws a. itsconsistencyfromsocialconcourses b. itsworthformsocialdistinctions iii. nothingnewcanhappenunlessarrangedthroughsocius 1. grossedexample:electoralsociology(whichmocksdemocracy)therealized simulacrumofdemocracy c. *******thebecomingphilosophyofsociologyisthemourningofthethoughtofequality i. denyingthatthesubjectofdemocracycaneverhappen,sociologicalcritiquespeaks oftheeternalreignoftheslightdifferencethroughwhichthebrutepositivityof ethosuniteswiththepurediscriminationofthesymbolicorder ii. sociologysatisfiesthecontradictoryrequirementsofourliberalcorporatistorder: theliberalresignationtothegameofinterestsdrivingtheworld,andthesyndicalist reductionofegalitarianhopes.(215) iii. thedemystificationofwhatisideologicalinthenameofthesocialbecomesthe ordinaryfareofconformingthoughtwherethetransformationofthesovereign peopleintoasurveyedpopulation,ofpoliticaldiscourseintojournalism,of instructionintopedagogy,andofaestheticsintoanimationoftheenvironmentall feedthetransformationofdemocracyintoitssubstitute,sociocracy iv. ex:schoolfailure d. therealknowledgeofsociocracy i. Adoubleknowledgeoftheignoranttowhichrespondsthedoubletruthofscience 1. itforcesustoseeundershirtsstickingtobodiesinworkingclasscafs,to recognizeunavoidablesocialpositivitiesthatheavenlydiscoursedenied 2. whileatthesametimeclaimingthatdifferencesareallconstructed (bourdieu)(216) ii. nihilistprofessorialcunningthatclaimsprivilegeofknowingdiffbetweenreality andsimulacrum 6. Recoveringthevigorofphilosophy a. NotnavenostalgiatoendsimulacraandreturntonativeearthofEarth b. Rather,toevaluateimitations i. torefusetoseeinthemonlymonetarysignsbeingexchangedataratefixedbythe stateofforces ii. tojudgeifwhatourinstitutions,ourimages,andourdiscoursesimitateis democratichopeoritsmourning(217) c. philfindsitselfimplicated

AfterwardtotheEnglishLanguageEdition(2002) 219 1. ReviewofNOL a. Twothemes i. Frenchlabormovementin19C ii. Socialconflictingeneral b. Against: i. Historicalmaterialism ii. Politicalavantgardism c. For: i. Revealnatureofworkingclassintellectualrevolution ii. Butnotcounterdiscourseoferawhichvalorized: 1. Crafttraditions 2. Formsofpopculture/sociability iii. symbolicrupturewithcultureofcraft&popsoc(workingclassidentity) 1. notaffirmationofvaluesspecifictolabor 2. againstthisdivision(partage)ofthoughttosome,productiontoothers d. Ex:Frenchworkersin19Cclaimingstatusoffullyspeakingandthinkingbeings i. Creatednewspeapersorassociations ii. Wrotepoems iii. Joinedutopiangroups e. Not: i. importationofscientificthought ii. affirmationofaworkerculture f. Instead: i. transgressivewilltoappropriatelang/cultureoftheother ii. actasintellectuallyequal 2. IntellectualstatusofNOL a. Differences: i. RupturewithMarxistorthodoxy ii. Divergencefromsocialscienceofdominatedclasses 1. Andthepoliticalpropositionsitinspires b. Critiqueofprogressivist&bottomagainsttopthatpreservessocialorder(nb:Iwonder howthisrelatestoracewar:gobineau/foucault) i. Historicalnaiveteresortsthattoworkingclassculturesandsociabilities ii. Sophisticatedsociologicaldemystificationofdistinguishedculture iii. DevelopmentofnewdiscoursesofIDasthrougholddiscoursesofclassstruggle 3. PHP a. Attemptstoshowhowmostmodernscienfitifdiscoursesmaintainsthepartage i. Splittingtimes/occupations ii. Philosopher/artisan iii. theirrespectiveshares b. specifichistoricalmoment i. briefeuphoriaofSocialistsafterthe70s ii. ephemeralMarxistrevival+reformistambitions 1. socialscienceegalitarianism 2. viaeducation

i. previousattemptsonlyguardpurityofthoughtviaexclusion(partageisused) ii. isitpossibletothinkatthesametimethehierarchyofvaluesandtheequalityof mixture? iii. reviewoffigures(Aristotle,Kant,Marx)endswithhistoricity.

iii. dominanceofBourdieus1)Reproductionand2)Distinction 1. generalinterpofsymbolicviolencethatsetdominantclassesinplace 2. schoolritualsandculturegamesexcludethedominated a. viaanethoswhichtheycantadapt(221) b. bearblameofownfailure 3. reductionofhighculture a. conviviality b. adaptingsociabilitesofchildrenoflowincomeclasses(largely migrant) iv. Twoideasofinegalitariansymbolicviolence(whichconfrontoneanother) 1. Impositionofhighcultureforms/manners 2. Divisionofthought/languagetoupperandautochthonouscultrtolower 3. strugglebetweentwokindsofprogressivism a. oldrepublicanpedagogy:universalismandpromotionofchildren i. excellence b. modernistpedagogy:sociologicalreshapingtoreprodneeds i. reductionofinequalities c. politicallyopposedas:socialsciencesvscommongood/citizen c. PHP=attempttointervene i. Againstboth: 1. Sociologicaldemystificationsofaestheticdistinction 2. Philosophyofeveryoneinhisplace ii. Unfortunatelyproximitytocountermovementin80sthatbegananti68ism 1. Critiqueofillusionsofsocscience 2. Goodphilosophy,healthydemocracy,republicelites,wealth iii. Rdistinguisheshimselfviatwomoves: 1. impactofmodernideaoflitondemocracy a. poeticsofknowledgeNamesofHistory&morerecentwork 2. egalitarianequalitydemocracy d. Jactot&IgnorantSchoolmaster[onequality] i. Equalityaspresupposition,notgoal(223) ii. evenifequalityweretogroundinequalityinthelastinstance,itcouldberealized onlyindividuallyintheintellectualemancipationthatalwayscouldextendtoevery persontheequalitydeniedbythesocialorder 1. neitherformalnorreal 2. neitherintheuniformteachingofthechildrenoftherepublic,norinthe availabilityorbargainsinsupermarketdisplays 3. fundamentalandabsent,currentanduntimely. 4. Availablethroughthetransgressiveappropriationofanintellectualequality whoseprivilegeothershadreservedforthemselves 5. neitherlawcommontoallnorequalitygroundedonrightsorvalues e. Newhistoricalconjunctureendofactuallyexistingsocialism(vb223) i. InFrance:bicentenaryofFrenchrev.intellectualsvssocialistadmin ii. TwoparadoxesfromconsensualrealismoverMarxistutopia 1. EndofMarxistatthecostofeconomicdeterminism a. Makestherolesofgovbusinessagentsofinternationalcapitalism 2. Endofsocialconflict&classstruggleinthefaceofradicalarchaism a. NationalFront b. realistcentralismdefinedutopiaasoptimizedcalculationsbutbred racismandethnicwarfareinthetheaterofappearancesthan consensussoughttoeliminate

iii. RrevivingideafromPHP: 1. linkbetweenpowerofequalityandthatofappearance a. plato:demos(pplwnoshare)vsappearance b. aestheticcommunismofworkersemancipation 2. appearance:thesupplementthatdividesreality,nottheillusionthatmasks therealityofreality a. democraticappearanceisnotidentifiablewithlegalformofthelegit statethatwouldconcealclassinterest/conflict 3. formofdemoc=formsofdispute(225) a. not i. interests/opinionsbetweensocialparties ii. theconsultationofpartiesconcerninginterest iii. commonlaw 4. demos a. not i. idealpeopleofsov ii. sumofthepartiesofsov iii. thepoor/sufferingsectorofsociety b. asupplementtoanyrealistaccountofsocialparties c. Def:theconstitutionofasceneofappearanceinwhichpolitical subjectsinscribethemselvesaslitigious,fictitioussupplementin relationtoeveryaccountofsocialparties iv. Disagreement(fn,recentRworkinEnglish) 1. theformsofthepoliticalwereinthefirstplacethoseofacertaindivisionof thesensible a. thecuttingup[decoupage]oftheperceptualworldthatanticipates, throughitssensibleevidence,thedistributionofsharesandsocial parties 2. interplayofformofsensibleevidence a. waypeopledotheirownbusiness i. personal/common ii. private/public b. inscribed c. redistributionpresupposes i. visible/notvisible ii. heard/notheard iii. noise/speech 3. inNOLworkeremancipationdivision a. nightastimeofrest b. cycleofproduction/reproduction c. leisureofthought 4. inPHPplatonicallocationofworksabsenceoftime>workersvirtue a. absenceoftime=symbolicdivisionoftime/space(226) b. Platoexcludes i. slacktime/emptyspaceofartisanfrom(re)production 1. space/timeofmeetingsin 2. onlyinsofarastheyhavethetimetodosomethingother thantheirwork 3. findthemselvesinaplaceotherthanthatofworks performance

4. **emptysupplementaccountingforsocial parties/organization ii. markstwoantagonisticdivisionofthesensible 1. agora/assembly a. powerofpeople b. whereequalityisaffirmed 2. demos=collectionofworkers 5. Disagreement=formalizationoftheantagonisticdivision a. Police/politics(policeetpolitique) b. Police: i. Thedivisionofthesensiblethatclaimstorecognizeonlyreal partiestotheexclusionofallemptyspaceandsupplements 1. Groupscommittedtospecificmodeofdoing 2. placewhereoccupationsareperformed 3. modesofbeingcorrespondtotheseoccup/places c. Politics i. Modeofactingthatperturbsthisarrangementbyinstituting withinitsperceptualframesthecontradictorytheaterofits appearances ii. Dissensus=itsessence 1. Nottheoppofinterets/op 2. Buttheproduction,withinadetermined,sensible world,ofagiventhatisheterogeneoustoit iii. Production 1. Anaestheticsofpolitics 2. Notanaestheticizationofformsofpowerorthe manifestationsofcollectivity 3. Itmakesvisible(&audible)whathadbeenexcluded iv. Inscribesoneperceptualworldwithinanother 1. Antagonisticsubjectivationofthedivisionofthe sensible 2. Ex:worldinwhichproletariansorwomenmay participateinacommunitywithinanotherinwhich theybotharevisiblydomesticbeingsoutsidethelife ofthecommunity f. Moveshesmistakefor,butnotactuallytakingpartin i. Notopposingthevoicesfrombelowtothevoicesfromabove 1. butofreflectingontherelationofdivisionofdiscoursesandthedivisionof conditions 2. Interplayofbordersandtransgressionsaccordingtowhichtheeffectsof speechthatseizehumanbodiesbecomeorderedordisturbed ii. Notpassingfrompoliticsandsocietytolit/aesthetics Notes

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