POLYESTER FIBRE

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Fibre manufacturing process:
Today over 70 to 75% of polyester is produced by CP (continuous polymerization) process using PTA (purified Terephthalic Acid) and MEG. The old process is called Batch process using DMT (Dimethy Terephthalate) and MEG( Mono Ethylene Glycol). Catalysts like Sb2O3 (ANTIMONY TRIOXIDE) are used to start and control the reaction. TiO2 (Titanium di oxide) is added to make the polyester fibre / filament dull. Spin finishes are added at melt spinning and draw machine to provide static protection and have cohesion and certain frictional properties to enable fibre get processed through textile spinning machinery without any problem. PTA which is a white powder is fed by a screw conveyor into hot MEG to dissolve it. Then catalysts and TiO 2 are added. After that Esterification takes place at high temperature. Then monomer is formed . Polymerisation is carried out at high temperature (290 to 300 degree centigrade) and in almost total vacuum. Monomer gets polymerised into the final product, PET (Poly ethylene Terephthalate). This is in the form of thick viscous liquid. This liquid is them pumped to melt spinning machines. These machines may be single sided or double sided and can have 36/48/64 spinning positions. At each position , the polymer is pumped by a metering pump-which discharges an accurate quantity of polymer per revolution ( to control the denier of the fibre) through a pack which has sand or stainless steel particles as filter media and a spinnerette which could be circular or rectangular and will have a specific number of holes depending on the technology used and the final denier being produced. Polymer comes out of each hole of the spinnerette and is

instantly solidified by the flow of cool dry air. This process is called quenching. The filaments from each spinnerette are collected together to form a small ribbon, passed over a wheel which rotates in a bath of spin finish: and this ribbon is then mixed with ribbon coming from other spinning positions, this combined ribbon is a tow and is coiled in cans. The material is called undrawn TOW and has no textile properties. At the next machine ( the draw machine), undrawn tows from severl cans are collected in the form of a sheet and passed through a trough of hot water to raise the temperature of polymer to 70 degrees C which is the glass transition temperature of this polymer so that the polymer can be drawn. In the next two zones, the polymer is drawn approximately 4 times and the actual draw or the pull takes place either in a steam chamber or in a hot water trough. After the drawing is complete, each filament has the required denier, and has all its sub microscopic chains aligned parallel to the fibre axis, thereby improving the crystallinity of the fibre structure and imparting certain strength. Next step is to set the strength by annealing the filaments by passing them under tension on several steam heated cylinders at temperatures 180 to 220 degrees C. Also the filaments may be shrunk on the first zone of annealer by over feeding and imparting higher strength by stretching 2% or so on the final zone of the annealer. Next the fibre is quenched in a hot water bath, then passed through a steam chest to again heat up the tow to 100 degree C so that the crimping process which takes place in the stuffer box proceeds smoothly and the crimps have a good stability. Textile spin finish is applied either before crimping by kiss roll technique or after crimping by a bank of hollow cone sprays mounted on both sides of the tow. The next step is to set the crimps and dry the tow fully which is carried out by laying the tow

0. The cut fibre falls down by gravity and is usually partially opened by several air jets and finally the fibre is baled. Therefor the safe upper spinning limit with different denier is DENIER 1. at one side of the reel is a presser wheel which presses the tow on to the blades and the tow is cut. it could be 1. FIBRE SPECIFICATION: DENIER: Usually the actual denier is a little on the finer side i.16 and for 1.35.0 3. The tolerance normally is +. Some.e for 1. The two is guided to a cutter and the cut fibres are baled for despatch.on a lattice which passes through a hot air chamber at 85degree C or so. Each slot has a sharp stainless steel or tungsten carbide blade placed in it. Theory tells us that in order to form yarn on ring spinning (and also in air jet) there must be minimum of 60 to 62 ifbres in the yarn cross section.05 and C. The tow is wound on a cutter reel. Denier specifies the fineness of fibre and in a way controls the spinning limit.0 1.2 D.0 COUNT(Ne) 90 80 62 40 32 .4 2.V% of denier should be 4 to 5%. it will be 1.4 . The cutter is a reel having slots at intervals equal to the cut length desired 32 or 38 or 44 or 51mm. The bale is transported to a ware house where it is "matured" for a minimum of 8/10 days before it is permitted to be despatched to the spinning mill.2 1. balers have a preweighting arrangement which enables the baler to produce all bales of a pre determined weight.

2 1.8 as against 3. spinners preferred 51mm to get higher productivity.M. 30s is an upper limit with OE AND 1.0 are called micro-denier and commercially the finest polyester staple fibre that can be worked in a mill is 0.4 to 3. 44.4 2. because T.0 3. When spinning on open end system. the nepping tendency is also more .0 1. Here the safe upper spinning limit is DENIER 1. CUT LENGTH: Cut lengths available are 32.M. 51 and 64mm for cotton type spinning and a blend of 76. For blending with other manmade fibres. So all the fibre producers recommend finer denier fibres for OE spining .5 for 38mm fibre. so a crompromise cutlength is 44 mm.2 Denier is being used. With this cut length the T. the minimum no of fibres in the yarn cross section is 110. even for 10s count in OE. in USA and other countries. 38.7 D.0 COUNT(Ne) 50 40 30 24 16 However in actual practice . The most common cut length is 38 mm. If the fibre legnth is more.7 to 2.The limit is for 38 mm fibre.0 and yarns with 35 to 40% lower imprfections can be achieved compared a to similar yarn with 51 mm fibre. Deniers finer than 1. 88 and 102 mm . The limit rises for a longer fibres.average cut length of 88m for worsted spinning. will be as low as 2. In the future spinners will .9 to 3. will be around 2.

0 to 6. The super high tenacity fibres are used essentially for spinning 100% polyester sewing threads and other industrial yarns.8 to 5. Currently most fibre producers offer only high tenacity fibres. These fibres are generally used on worsted system and 1.0 / 3. 32 mm fibre is preferred as it enables smaller dia rotor(of 38mm) to be used which can be run at 80000 to 100000 rpm. Air jet system uses 38 mm fibre. • • • • Low pill fibres. TENSILE PROPERTIES: Polyester fibres are available in 4 tenacity levels.4D for knitting Medium Tenacity .4 gpd range and Super high tenacity 7. have tendency to form pills and generally give harsher feel. but then the dyeablity of these fibres is 20 to 25% poorer. For OE spinning .4.0 D for suiting enduse with tenacities of 3.5 gpd(grams per denier).usuall in 2.0 to 3.0 gpd High tenacity 6. Spinners prefer them since their use enables ring frames to run at high speeds. also have lower yield on wet processing.0 gpd and above Both medium and high tenacity fibres are used for apparel enduse. .standardise for 38 mm fibre when the ringspinning speed reaches 25000 rpm for synthetic yarns. The higher tenacities are obtained by using higher draw ratios and higher annealer temperatures upto 225 to 230 degree C and a slight additional pull of 2% or so at the last zone in annealing.

if lower.0 plus ELONGATION BREAK 45 . Mills oversprayed upto 0.4 7.55% 25 .5 4. one fibre producer was having a serious problem of fly with mill dyed trilobal fibre. To give a concrete example.5.30% 16 .0 . CRIMP PROPERTIES: Crimps are introduced to give cohesion to the fibre assembly and apart from crimps/cm.0 5.5. While spinning 100% polyester yarns it has no significance.5 6. but cohesion due to crimp is far superior to the one obtained by finish.20% 12 . Testing polyester fiber on Stelometer @ 3mm guage is not recommended.14% AT T10 VALUES 1. the fibre will give high fly leading to lappings and higher breaks at winding. The T10 or tenacity @ 10% elongation is important in blend spinning and is directly related to blend yarn strength. This value should be around 10 to 11.4.0 plus All the above values of single fibre.5 . Crimp stability is more important criterion and this value should be above 80% to provide trouble free working. Tenacity at break is the deciding factor. ultimately the fibre producer added a steam chest to take the two temperature to 100degrees plus .8 .5 3.0 .6.2 . A simple check of crimp stability is crimps/inch in finisher drawing sliver. Dyeing at 130 degrees C in HTHP dying machine reduced the cpi to 6 to 8.g TENACITY LOW PILL MEDIUM HIGH SUPER HIGH 3. Spin finish also gives cohesion.0 6.0 .8% did not help. Trilobal fibre is difficult to crimp as such.1. Card loading took place yet fly was uncontrolled. so it was with great difficulty that the plant could put in crimps per inch of 10 to 11.3.Elongation is inversely proportional to tenacity e.

Zimmer & Schwarz and Hoechst from Germany and George A. antibacterial anti foaming and stabilisers. Kao from Japan.one that gives lubrication / cohesion and other that gives static protection.2 to 0. It is only by a mill trial that the effectiveness of a spin finish can be established. A spin finish is supposed to give high fibre to fibre friction of 0. Spin finish as used normally consists of 2 components . but if a mill has new OE spinning . Then the dyed fibre ran well with normal 0. Henkel.18 % added spin finish.45.4 to 0. high level spin finish is required if it is mixed with viscose.Goulston from USA. so as to control fibre movement particularly at selvedges . Most fibre producers offer 2 levels of spin finishes.15 to 0. Schill &Scheilacher.Takemoto. Matsumoto. Each of these components have upto 18 different components to give desired properties plus anti fungus. The reason being that viscose has a tendecy to rob polyester of its finish. low fibre-metal friction of 0. There are only few spin finish manufacturers .before crimping and then could put in normal cpcm and good crimp stability. However in most of the mills even lower spin finish works better for low production levels and if the production level is high.15 to enable lower tensions in ring spinning and provide adequate static protection at whatever speed the textile machine are running and provide enough cohesion to control fly and lapping tendencies and lubrication to enable smoother drafting. Lower level finish for cotton blends and 100% polyester processing and the higher level finish for viscose blend. For OE spinning where rotor speeds are around 55000 to 60000 rpm standard spin finish is ok. SPIN FINISH: Several types of spin finishes are available.

metal friction gave very good results. then a totally different spin finish which has a significantly lower fibre . it would be difficult to card the fibre . The instrument measures the charge picked up by the fibre sample.machines having rotors running @80000 rpm. If the maximum charge of 5000 and half life decay time of 3 min is used .160. Therefore it makes commercial sense to hold DHS around 5%. L and B colour: L colour for most fibres record values between 88 to 92.fibre and fibre . The need to clean rotors was extended from 8 hours to 24 hours and breaks dropped to 1/3rd. it decides the fate of the fibre as the runnability of the fibre is controlled by spin finish. With DHS around 5%. Dupont uses an instrument to measure static behaviour and measures Log R which gives a good idea of static cover. maximum charge should be around 2000 volts and half life decay time less than 40 sec. In conclusion it must be stated that though the amount of spin finish on the fibre is only in the range 0. for fibre to work well. same is recorded and machine switched off. Then the time required for the charge to leak to half of its maximum value is noted.105 to 0. Also. finished fabric realisation will be around 97% of grey fabric fed and with DHS around 8% this value goes down to 95%. when the charge reaches its maximum value. Values range from 5 to 8 %. especially on a high production card. where a bundle of well conditioned fibre is rotated at high speed in a static field of 10000 volts. so it is the most important component of the fibre. DRY HEAT SHRINKAGE: Normally measured at 180 degree C for 30 min. Effectiveness of spin finish is not easy to measure in a fibre plant. b . "b" colour is a measure of yellowness/blueness. In general with this instrument . there is s Japanese instrument Honest Staticmeter.

colour for semidull fibre fluctuates between 1 to 2.8 with different fibre producers.3 to 100+-8. Optically brightened fibres give b colour values around 3 to 3. . DUpont calls fused/undrawn fibres as DDD or Deep Dyeing Defect.05 to 0. Collect all the flat strips(95% of fused fibres get collected in flat strips). DYE TAKE UP: Each fibre producer has limits of 100 +. OB is available in reddish . The ideal limit should be around 15mgm/10kgs. Even with 100+-3 dye limits streaks do occur in knitted fabrics. This with 180 ppm of optical brightner.10 % TiO2 Semil dull : 0.3 % TiO2 dull : 0. FUSED FIBRES: The right way to measure is to card 10 kgs of fibre. less is the chemicals degradation of the polymer.5 % TiO2 extra dull : 0.2 to 0.5. Semi dull is the most popular lustre followed by OB (100 % in USA) and bright. The upper acceptable limit is 30mgm /10kgs. The only remedy is to blend bales from different days in a despatch and insist on spinning mills taking bales from more than one truck load. pick up fused and undrawn fibres and weigh them. Spread it out on a dark plush. LUSTRE: Polyester fibres are available in bright : 0.7% TiO2 and in optically brightened with normally 180 ppm of OB. Lower the value. greenish and bluish shades.

RESISTANCE TO WEATHERING: good 15.7. retains 70 . to which spin finish is applied and coiled in can . Softening temp : 230 .3 7.1.5 .5 .forming final polymer Melt spinning :Here molten polymer is forced thorough spinnerette holes to form undrawn filaments.5 . Effect of Sunlight : turns yellow. CRIMPS PER INCH: 12 -14 3. ACID RESISTENCE: excellent 18.0 : wet 3.240 degree C 12.4 6.PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYESTER FIBRE: 1. SHRINKAGE IN BOILING WATER: 0 . %DRY HEAT SHRINKAGE: 5 .15 2. Melting point : 260 .80 % tenacity at long exposure 14. ORGANIC CHEMICAL RESISTENCE: good PROBLEMS WHICH OCCUR POLYESTER STAPLE FIBRE: DURING MANUFACTURE OF The manufacture of polyester fibre consists of 4 stps: • • Polymerisation:Using PTA/DMT and MEG on either batch or continuous polymerisation (cp_ .0 4. SPECIFI GRAVITY: 1.7.ALKALI RESISTENCE: damaged by CON alkali 17. DENIER: 0. % ELASTIC RECOVERY.270 degree C 13. TENACITY : dry 3. %MOISTURE REGAIN: 0.8 (at 180 C for 20 min) 8. ROT RESISTENCE: high 16.41 9.45 : wet 15 45 5.36 . %ELONGATION at break : dry 15 . GLASS TRANSITION TEMP: 80 degree C 11. @2% =98 : @5% = 65 10.

2 to 1. crimped and crimp set and final textile spin finish applied and Cutting: in which the drawn crimped tow is cut to a desired 32/38/44/51 mm length and then baled to be transported to a blend spinning mill.3. Sometimes due to commercial constraints like high buildup of fibre stocks etc.v). only polymer which contain optical brightener has b of 3 . the positive sign for b colour indicates yellowness whilst negative sign shows blueness. Most spinning mills . In that case the polymer that is produced has a higher "b" colour and a lower DEG content.63 for polymer meant for apparel fibres.• • Drawings: in which several million undrawn filaments are drawn or pulled approximately 4 times in 2 steps. annealed. Most fibres have L colour values around 88 to 92. DEG content. Intrinsic viscosity is an indirect measure of degree of polymerisation and this value is around 0. quenched.8 %. % oligeomers and L and b colours. b colour denotes yellowness/blueness of polymer. the CP may have to be operated at lower capacities.8%.2 to 1. Oligomers are polymers of lower molecular weight and vary in quantity from 1.5 whilst all semil dull polymers show b values of 1. which indirectly shows chemical degradation of the polymer. Running a CP @ lower / higher throughput: Every CP is designed for a certain throughput per day.5 against normal value of 1. L colour signifies whiteness as a value of 100 for L is a perfect value.0 will show fibre to be yellowish and has a little more chemical degradation.0 to 2. Like say 180 tons/day or 240 tons/day. L and b are measures of colour.. DEG or Di Ethylene Glycol gets formed during polymerisation and varies from 1. which gives higher fluorescence under UV light. Higher "b" colour of say 1. 1.PROBLEMS FACED IN POLYMERISATION: properties of Polymer: The polymer formed is tested mainly for intrinsic viscosity (i.4. Higher values indicate more yellowness.

so then divide bales with reflectance values of say 80 to 90 . Bales from different groups should not be mixed.4 to 0. and will cause rings under UV lamp. another 91 to 100. Third is to mix up bales from 4/5 trucks to do a blending Changes in DEG: The amount of DEG in fibre is directly proportional to dye pick up or dye ability of the fibre.have a practice of checking every cone wound under UV lamp to find out whether there has been any mixup. Since fibre production group is keen on maintaining merge. they resort to lowering of annealer temperatures to maintain dye ability but in the . Higher the DEG. higher is the dye ability. then higher "b" colour material will give higher fluorescence compared to that of lower "b" colour materials. Then while issuing bales to blow room. ring bobbins of both "b" colours will be received. so much so that some filament producers add DEG. and when cones are wound and checked under UV lamp. but then higher DEG will lower tensile properties. issue first group say 80 to 90 then issue the enxt group and so on.0 and then if one despatch comes of "b"colour of say 1. However if a mill is consistently receiving fibre with a "b"colour of say 1.5 does not give variation in dyeability. So if the CP is run at lower throughout. so the dyeablity of the fibre goes down. Second is to use bales from each truck separately. Fortunately a minor difference in "b" colour of 0. What can spinning mills do to overcome this problem: One way is to use a Uster Glow meter which measures the reflectance of fibre samples under UV light. DEG drops down.5 then in winding. So this practice is not followed for fibre. third 101 to 110 and fourth 111 to 120. We understand that these values lie between 80 and 120 for samples from different bales. where tensile properties are critical.

failure of pumps to remove product from one reaction vessel to another etc. When the amount of oligomers increase. There is yet one more problem in CP. The surface oligomer content almost doubles on dying dark and extra dark shades. here "b" colour actually improves It must be emphasized that the "b"colour changes occur not only due to higher / lower thorugh put but there are several other factors such as air leakags in valves / polymer lines. and mills will notice thread strength falling by 5-7% if annealer temperature is lowered from say 210 degree C to 180 Degree C. it manifests itself in excessive white powder formation on rings and ring rail.PROBLEMS FACED IN MELT SPINNING: .5 gms/litre in reduction clearing bath.process tensile properties suffer. then they will produce fibre with a different merge which normally accumulates in the warehouse and so is not appreciated by both marketing and top management. It is a sudden increase in oligomer content. If fibre production group does not do this. Oligomers cause problems in spinning of dyed fibres. Also when CP is run at higher than rated. All oligomers will go into suspension in reduction clearing liquor and get removed when the liquor is drained. Higher annealer temperature also cause higher surface oligomers 2.1. then higher temperatures have to be used to compensate lower residence time. The only way to control oligomers is to use LEOMIN OR in 1 .

spin finish. IF the spinneretters have been used for more than say 6 to 7 years .PROBLEMS FACED AT DRAW LINE: Draw line is the place where the fibre is born. choking of polymer filters and non-uniform quenching or cooling of filaments. but few producers have them. The only way to control is to ensure that breaks at melt spinning are held at the minimum. However some fibre manufacturers get value as high as 10 to 12.V. Fused Fibres: These are caused mainly at melt spinning either due to breaks of individual filaments or breakages of all the filaments(ribbon break) and polymer and block temperatures are too high. 3. crimp properties.spin finish and crimp.V% of Denier: A good international value of C. However if a hole is dirty or has polymer sticking to it. elongation at break . shrinkage and dye ability are all imparted here. failure to do this will result in trailing end leading to fused fibres.% of denier is 4 to 5. its effective diameter is reduced. For obtaining excellent runnability of the fibre in a blend spinning mill. and the filament that comes out becomes finer. Other reasons could be impurities. Denier is controlled by having uniform flow of polymer through each spinnerette hole. then some of the holes would be worn out more than others and filament emerging out would be coarser Currently sophisticated instruments are available to check the cleanliness and actual hole diametrs of each and every hole automatically. the two most important properties are . . tenacity . Tying of broken position in the running thread line should be as near to the broken position as possible. All its major properties denier.Control of C.

e from 0.35 to 0. web will lap around doffing rolls. Mills blending polyester with viscose need higher amount of spin finish and also mills running their equipment at high speeds.120% spin finish on fibre. Sliver could be bulky and will cause high fly generation during drafting.causing coiler choking.20). the pump motor stops. anti bacterial components. a major portion of this finish is washed away.15-0. one that gives cohesion and lubrication and the other confers static protection. These spin finishes are complex and each may contain some 18 chemicals to not only control inter fibre friction ( should be high at 0. which is linked to the draw machine such that when the machine stops. the finish and its percentages are normally not changed. On the other hand if spin finish is on the higher side. Finish is made in hot demineralise water and is sprayed on to tow after the crimper by a series of spray nozzles mounted on both sides of the tow. This textile finish consists of two components. then the fibre will run smoothly. 60 to 65% of problems faced in mills are due to uneven % of spin finish on the fibre. IF a fibre producer desires to put say 0. The percentage spin finish is decided by the end use of the fibre. slivers will become very compact and . On the draw line.120 +0. fibres will become sticky and lap around the top rollers.Spin finish: Finish is applied to the undrawn tow at melt spinning stage essentially to provide cohesion and static protection. sliver will not pass smoothly through coiler tube . fibre metal friction (should be low at 0.40). usually these 2 components are used in 70/30 ratio. The finish is pumped to the spray unit by a motor driven metering pump. card web will show high static. The percentage of finish on the fibre is based on spin finish manufacturers recommendations and fine tuned by tech service. If the finish is on the lower side.005 i. Once set. then ideally the %finish should be maintained @ 0.115 to 0. anti foaming compund etc. and a textile spin finish is put on the tow by either kiss roll or a spray station.125 only.

could cause undrafted.11 and in trilobal. Thus it is extremely important to hold finish level absolutely constant.14 crimps per inch crimp stability . The crimps per inch of drawing sliver should be atleast 10 to 11. Crimp: It is the most important to spin finish for smooth running of fibre. We can get an indication on how good crimp stability is in a spinning mill by measuring crimps per inch in fibre from finisher drawing sliver. if below this. There are 3 aspects of crimp. crimps per inch in fibre at finisher drawing . The reasons for non uniformity is concentration of spin finish varies. then the crimps stability is poor . Trilobal because of its shape and super high tenacity due to very high annealer temperature (220 degree C) used which makes the fibre difficult to bend.be 27% on tow crimps per inch can be measured by keeping a fibre in relaxed state next to a foot ruler and counting the no of crimps or arcs. • • • no of crimps per inch or per cm .usually 12 . as it is crimps per inch in fibre is 11 to 12. sprayer holes are choked . Fibres like trilobal and super h igh tenacity fibres are difficult to crimp. after dyeing it goes further down to 8 to 9. In dyed trilobal fibre. Crimp stability refers to % retention of crimps after subjecting fibre to oscillating straightening and relaxing. so to compensate may be a cohesive compound like Nopcostatt2151 P or Leomin CH be used in the overspary. Also fibre dyeing particularly dark and extra dark shades reduces crimps per inch from 14 to 10 .be 80% plus and crimp take up . Normally fibre producers check spin finish% on the fibre quite frequentlyeven then in actual practice considerable variations occur. the tow path has altered and so the spray does not reach it.

Draw ratio does not change in running. the crimps are set by passing tow through a hot air chamber. 1. if a filament had a break at spinning and this is fed as a trailing end to the drawing.may be around 6 to 7 so necessitating using almost 50% of cohesive compound in the overspray.e not in a straight line.0 million filaments are drawn or pulled. Tenacity / Dye ability: Both these properties are controlled by acutal draw ratio and annealer temperature. then that could be due to lower stuffer box pressure. After the tow is crimped . the wrapped portion solidifes. If crimp per inch is low. Plasticised fibre: When drawline is running and if some filaments breaks then these broken filaments wrap themselves around a rotating cylinder. The operator then cuts out the solid sheet and throws it away as waste but then usually picks up the plastic end and uses it to thread the material and so a small piece of plastic material goes into the cutter and falls into the baler. Most drawlines have temperature indicators . it means the steam supply to crimper steam box is low. then it means the crimps are shallow and would have lower cohesion. since most of these cylinders are steam heated. and causes plasticises and fused fibres.but then some buttons have to be pressed to see the . If the difference is much smaller. then that end cannot be drawn fully. Normally this difference is around 18 to 20%. Undrawn fibre: As the draw line. Undrawn fibres are generated if the draw point is not uniform i. Crimp take up is % difference between relaxed length and straightened length of fibre in fibre stage. but annealer temperature can fall due to problem of condensate water removal. but if crimp stability and/or crimp take up is low.6 to 3.

and these jets open up fibre clusters. If the blade is not very sharp. a highly tensioned tow is first laid over sharp blades and the pressed down by a Pressure Roll. However if some blades become blunt. resulting in filaments being cut. The tip fusion occurs when the blade is fully blunt. Because of crimping clusters get formed. This opening is obtained by having a ring of nozzles below the cutter through which high pressure air jets are pointed up. then the pressing of tow on to those blades creates high temperature and so tips of neighbouring fibres stick to each other and so separating this cluster becomes impossible. otherwise these can cause choking either in blowrrom pipes or in chute feed. Such fibres are called nail heads. If it is not getting removed in Lickerin it will go into the yarn and cause a yarn fault. Over length / Multilength: Over length fibres are those whose length is greater than the cut length plus 10mm and are casued by broken filaments which being broken cannot be straightened by tensioning at the cutter. Tungsten carbide blades gives sharp cut Opening of fibre cluster after opening: When fibres are cut. there could be some rounding at the cut edge.temperatures so if the annealer temperature falls. . PROBLEMS FACED IN CUTTING / BALING: Nail Head / Tip Fusion: In the cutting process. it does not give a straight edge. and so those need to be opened out. Multilength are fibre whose length is exactly 2 or 3 times the cut length and are caused by nicks in neighbouring blades. tenacity will fall and dye ability will increase which could lead to a change in merge. they fall down by gravity into the baler.

8 deniers in cutlengths 32/38 mm.8 is also available. buses. MICRO DENIER: Available in 0. Low dry heat shrinkage is also recommended for this purpose. aircraft interiors etc. socks. FLAME RETARDANT: Has to be used by law in furnishings / curtains. Ideal for village handicrafts etc.2 and today 0. Standard denier recommended is 1. blankets and air conditioning filters SUPER HIGH TENACITY: It is above 7 g/denier and it is mainly used for sewing threads.like in cinema theatres. cars etc in Europe and USA. The high shrink fibre enable fabrics with high density to be produced and is particularly used in artificaial leather and high density felt. furniture. car mats. It is also available in siliconised finish for pillows. so that pills which forms during use fall away easily. etc where a large number of people gather . seat covers. ANTIBACTERIAL:It is antibacterial throughout the wear life of the garment inspite repeated washing.7/0. Suggested uses are underwears. CATIONIC DYEABLE: Gives very brilliant shades with acid colours in dyeing / printing.SPECIALITY FIBRES IN POLYESTER: • • • • • • • • HIGH/LOW SHRINK FIBRES: The high shrink fibre shrinks upto 50% at 100 degree C while that of low shrinkage is 1%. sports. . Ideal for ladies wear EASY DYEABLE: Can be dyed with disperse Dyes @98 degrees C without the need for HTHP equipment.5/0. Low shrinkage fibre is recommended for air filters used in hot air. for suiting end use and knitwear fibre with low tenacity of 3 to 3. suitings.5 gm/denier. it is suggested that the blend be polyester rich and the reed/pick of the fabric be heavy. To get the best results. It is recommended for curtains. ladies dress material because of its exceptional soft feel. LOW PILL: In 2 and 3 deniers. Ideal for high class shirts. shoes etc. automotive interior.

Unsaturated polyesters refer to that family of polyesters in which the backbone consists of alkyl thermosetting resins characterized by vinyl unsaturation. Polyester also refers to the various polymers in which the backbones are formed by the “esterification condensation of polyfunctional alcohols and acids”. beddings and padding. This fibre is used for binding non woven webs. while hollow fibres are used as filling fibres in pillows. In other words. it means the linking of several esters within the fibers. Polyester can also be classified as saturated and unsaturated polyesters.• • • MODIFIED CROSS SECTION: In this there are TRILOBAL. Polyester is a term often defined as “long-chain polymers chemically composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester and a dihydric alcohol and a terephthalic acid”. TRIANGULAR. Trilobal fibre gives good feel. LOW MELT FIBRE: It is a bi-component fibre with a modified polyester on the surface which softens at low temperature like 110 degree C while the core is standard polyester polymer. Saturated polyesters refer to that family of polyesters in which the polyester backbones are saturated. Characteristics of polyester • Polyester fabrics and fibers are extremely strong. quilts. Usual reactants for the saturated polyesters are a glycol and an acid or anhydride. CONDUCTING FIBRE: This fibre has fine powder of stainless steel in it to make fibre conductive. high molecular weight thermoplastics such as polyethylene terephthalate (Dacron and Mylar). Triangular fibre gives excellent lustre. . They consist of low molecular weight liquids used as plasticizers and as reactants in forming urethane polymers. FLAT. Some fibre producers offer hollow fibre with built in perfumes. and linear. These are the most widely used and economical family of resins. For pillows silicoised fibres is required. Recommended as carpets for computer rooms. DOG BONE and HOLLOW FIBRES with single and multiple hollows. Reaction of alcohol with carboxylic acid results in the formation of esters. They are mostly used in reinforced plastics. They are thus not as reactive as unsaturated polyesters. Flat and dog bone fibres are recommended for furnishings.

Polyester is the choice of fiber and fabric for many industries. The manufacturing process also deserves a more detailed description. Though polyester does not require much ironing. It can be used for insulation by manufacturing hollow fibers. Polyester can be dry-cleaned with no hassles. Polyester is also a strong fiber that is hydrophobic in nature. Uses of Polyester The most popular and one of the earliest uses of polyester was to make polyester suits – all the rage in the 70s. furniture. carpets and even curtains. mildew and abrasion resistant. one could never imagine the history of polyester to be quite so illustrious. Dry the fabric at low temperatures to get maximum usage from the clothing. pillows. Polyester is hydrophobic in nature and quick drying. Hydrophobic nature: High tenacity and good durability makes polyester the choice of fabric for high stress outdoors use. It is easily washed and dried. Polyester clothes were very popular. if you must then iron warm. PET bottles are today one of the most popular uses of polyester. . Polyester care tips Taking care of polyester clothing is really easy and very time efficient. sheets. Adding a fabric softener generally helps. Polyester retains its shape and hence is good for making outdoor clothing for harsh climates. It can be applied to a wide variety of useful purposes. Use of polyester in garments Polyester is used in the manufacturing of all kinds of clothes and home furnishings like bedspreads. wrinkle resistant.• • • • Polyester is very durable: resistant to most chemicals. The fabric is also coated with a water-resistant finish and further intensifies the hydrophobic nature. The revival and success of polyester is without doubt something that is here to stay. • • • Polyester clothing can be machine washed and dried. The disco clothing of the 70s with all its jazz and flash was made of polyester. stretching and shrinking. Having learned a little something about polyester and how popular it has become. It is thus ideal for clothing to be used in wet and damp environments. Due to its strength and tenacity polyester was also used to make ropes in industries.

it is also used by climbers. Miscellaneous: Polyester is also used to manufacture high strength ropes. That’s what polyester became famous for. pull it. power belting and much more in industries. polyester has many uses for homes and industries as well. Mylar: An unusual and little known use of polyester is in the manufacturing of balloons. Carothers’ Work . This keeps the body warm in cold weather. Cotton and wool tend to flatten over a period of time and loose the warming effect. The balloons are made of a composite of Mylar and aluminum foil. These are made of Mylar – a kind of polyester film manufactured by DuPont. sails. The crimp helps keep the warm air in. History Of Polyester Scrunch it. hoses.Being the most heavily recycled polymer worldwide. sleeping bags and other outdoor gear are using the new insulating polyester fiberfill products. Thus. which is then warmed by the heat of the body. Climbing suits. Air is trapped inside the fiber. floppy disk liners. Shatterproof and cheap these bottles are an absolute boon to the beverages industry. parkas. Another method to build insulation is to use crimped polyester in a fiberfill. skirts and suits. Polyester was the fabric of choice in a changing economy of speed. Industrial uses of polyester While clothing used to be the most popular use of polyester and which made it a household name worldwide. wash it – without any wear and wrinkles. it is also stain resistant and hence very popular. Wrinkle resistant: Polyester is also wrinkle resistant and is used very often in everyday clothing like pants. One can also do winter windsurfing wearing dry suits lined with polyester fleece. Polyester is an ideal fabric for this kind of insulation because it retains its shape. Creating insulation: By creating hollow fibers it is also possible to build insulation into the polyester fiber. efficiency and convenience. If the food industry produced fries and coke. PET: The most common use of polyester today is to make the plastic bottles that store our much beloved beverages. the textile industry supplemented it with Polyester – quick. Used either by itself or as a blend. cheap and easy. tops. thread. there are many other uses polyester is put to. Not the rubber kind that you use for water balloons but the really pretty decorated ones that are gifted on special occasions. shirts.

Later that year. the first polyester fiber – Terylene – was created by Whinfield and Dickson along with Birtwhistle and Ritchiethey. polyester took a back seat. PET & Terylene Carother’s incomplete research had not advanced to investigating the polyester formed from mixing ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid. which they named Dacron. Polyethylene terephthalate forms the basis for synthetic fibers like Dacron. the infamous double-knit polyester image hit the industry and polyester soon came to be known as the uncomfortable fabric. The Tennessee Eastman Company started a YES campaign for . Terylene was first manufactured by Imperial Chemical Industries or ICI. The polyester market underwent rapid expansion and textile mills emerged everywhere. Polyester was first introduced to the American public in 1951 as the magical fabric that needed no ironing! PET and PEN are duPont trademarks that have turned the use and consumption of Polyester around.H.Carothers who discovered that alcohols and carboxyl acids could be successfully mixed to create fibers. Many of the mills were located at small gas stations and produced cheap polyester apparel. polyester is largely regarded as a cheap fabric that is rather uncomfortable for sensitive human skin to wear. Kodel was developed by Eastman Chemical Products.It was W. It was British scientists – Whinfield and Dickson who patented PET or PETE in 1941. Carothers was working for duPont at the time and unfortunately when he discovered Nylon. In 1950. Terylene and polyester. DuPont’s Role It was in 1946 that duPont bought all legal rights from ICI. Unfortunately. The Phoenix Rises Today. The Tennessee Eastman Company and the Man-Made Fiber Producers’ Association’s (MMFPA) Polyester Fashion Council played a significant role in the revival of polyester. the emergence of luxury fibers like polyester microfiber and various polyester blends the industry is experiencing resurgence. Polyester Becomes Popular Subsequent to the development of Terylene and Dacron. The inexpensive and durable fiber became very popular and the industry expanded rapidly till the 1970s. Mylar was introduced in 1952. the Dealware property of duPont manufactured another polyester fiber. Inc in 1958. However.

The molten polymer is then extruded through a spinneret and the filaments are subsequently drawn into the desired polyester fiber. Variations are introduced to obtain desired end results. PET is the most common production. water.PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and PCDT (poly-1. is done with the help of catalysts. The idea was to focus on the wash and go properties of polyester rather than sell it as a cheap fabric. They conducted various studies from 1981 to 1983 and found that 89% of people could not distinguish between polyester and other natural fibers like cotton. the main raw material is ethylene derived from petroleum. they solidify. There are variations in the compositions and therefore in the properties of polyester fibers. 4-cyclohexane-dimethanol to form poly1. and petroleum. Microfibers give polyester the feel of silk and are rapidly becoming the choice of fabric. the fibers are drawn or elongated. PCDT fibers are drawn at higher temperature due to their higher melting point. 4-cyclohexylene-dimethylene terephthalate). Polymerization. the chemical process that produces the finished polyester. pentalobal. The colorless molten polyester then flows from a slot in a vessel on to a casting wheel and takes shape of a ribbon as it cools to hardness. the synthetic fibers. the filaments are drawn to a greater extent. dried to remove all moisture and blended to make it uniform for getting it ready for spinning into yarn. Here’s to heralding a new era in the history of polyester! Polyester Manufacturing Polyester fibers. In this reaction. the cheap image of polyester seems to be on it’s way out. For higher tenacity. fibers may be textured which . trilobal. Certain additives may also be combined with the spinning solutions for specific properties. air. the biggest contributor to the appeal of polyester is the discovery of microfibers. hexalobal or octalobal can be used for special effects like opacity. Hollow fibers may be produced to make it lightweight and for providing greater cushioning or insulative properties. With an expensive tag to match. Depending upon the desired properties. it was found that people were more interested in the appearance of the apparel than the fabric it was made of. terephthalic acid at a high temperature in a vacuum. Hoechst Fibers Industries also played a part. Drawing After extrusion from the spinneret. Spinnerets having hole of different shapes such as round. The polymer thus produced is then cut into very small chips. 4-cyclohexylene-dimethylene terephthalate or the PCDT Polyester. two or more molecules combine to make a large molecule whose structure repeats throughout its length. PCDT is more suitable for heavier applications. are long chain polymers derived from coal. These molecules are very stable and strong. PET Polyester For manufacturing PET Polyester.polYESter and popularized it via radio and television. During the drawing process itself. with the help of godet wheels. Delusterant can be added to make the fiber dull. the PET fibers are drawn hot as it produces more uniform fibers. Modifications can be introduced in each of these varieties for obtaining specific properties. When the fibers come in contact with the air. It is stronger than PCDT. PET can be used alone or blended with other fabrics for making wrinkle free and stain resistant clothing that can retain its shape. a flame retardant may be added or certain other antistatic substance may also be included. such as draperies and furniture coverings. Crepe effect can be obtained through crimps. Types of Polyester The polyester fibers are generally available in two varieties. PCDT Polyester This variation of polyester is made by condensing terephthalic acid with 1. They are formed through chemical reaction between an acid and alcohol. Spinning Polymer chips are melted at 500-518°F (260-270°C) to form a syrup-like solution. As for PET Polyester. PCDT is processed for melt spinning. It is oxidized to produce a glycol monomer dihydric alcohol which is further combined with another monomer. the polyester fibers are usually drawn up to five times its original length. Usually. while PCDT has more elasticity and resilience. Also. Today. comfort or feel. luster or its suppression. wool and silk. wicking.

home furnishings. The staple may be bright. multifilament yarns and spun yarns. The direction and amount of twists are decided by the desired end use. semi dull or dull and tenacity may be regular. used for sheer lightweight fabrics like tulle. and is mildew resistant too. voile and organdy.saves time. it is wound on large bobbins or flat-wound packages. Polyester yarns resistant to various chemicals. Polyester clothing can be preshrunk in the finishing process. The regular tenacity semi dull yarn used for various apparels including lingerie. . Texturizing is either done along with the drawing process or afterwards during throwing or texturizing process. mid or high. recording tapes. efforts and production cost and also gives greater quality control over the finished fibers. It may either be spun alone or blended with other staple such as cotton. After the polyester yarn is drawn. It has several advantages over traditional fabrics as it does not absorb moisture. and sleeping bags. Textured Yarns These yarns are made of PET multifilaments. ropes and nets etc. wool or rayon and then spun into yarn. computer. The fabric can be dyed easily. and micro organisms are produced from high tenacity fibers for such industrial uses as conveyor belts. outerwear. such as clothing. Textured polyester fibers are an effective. stretch and sag resistance. nonallergenic insulator. ready to be woven into material. There is the bright. Its low absorbency also makes it naturally resistant to stains. regular tenacity polyester yarn having light. This makes it resist shrinking and it doesn't stretch out of shape. Its more dull version is used for shirts and blouses. The yarns are made basically as monofilament yarns. thus it is used for filling pillows. and electrical insulation. Spun Yarns They are made of staple or cut PET or PCDT polyester fibers. There are various types of such yarns. It may be polished to reduce crimp and increase luster. quilting. The properties are also pre-determined. Application of Polyester Polyester is used in manufacturing of many products. Filament Yarns PET Polyester is used to make filament yarns either in monofilament or multifilament forms. industrial fabrics. Types of Polyester Yarns The polyester yarns have a wide range of diameters and staple lengths.

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