Mircea Ţicleanu1, Paul Constantin2, Nicolae Ţicleanu3, Radu Nicolescu1
1 2

Geological Institute of Romania, 1 Caransebeş str, Bucharest. E-mail: Ex- Geological Institute of Romania. E-mail: 3 University of Bucharest, Department of Paleontology-Stratigraphy, 1 Bvd. N. Bǎlcescu. Bucharest

Keywords: galactic cycle, galactic year, subgalactic cycle, galactic winter, glaciations One of the cosmic motion with great influence on the Earth geological evolution, mainly on the terrestrial biosphere, is the galactic motion of the Solar System. This has obviously cyclic character and reflects the Sun complete rotations around the center of our Galaxy. The absolute time values advanced by the astronomers concerning the complete rotation period, the galactic year period respectively (chron) are several (between 60-70 My and 275 My, but usually between 150 My and 250 My), which led us to the idea of trying to connect the galactic cyclicity (the galactic year as a matter of fact) to the major periodical changes that marked the evolution of our planet. Our attempts led to a period of the galactic year (cycle) of about 180 million terrestrial years (more accurate 180.80 My), period that could be extrapolated in the past to the whole geological time. The first significant observation of this study is that the Mesozoic could be accepted as a reference year cycle. The Palaeozoic is composed of two galactic years, the first corresponding to the Lower Palaeozoic and the second one to the Upper Palaeozoic. The pre-geological phase (“Star phase” – Macovei, 1958) extended on four galactic years, and the Achaean includes seven galactic years. Proterozoic has 11 galactic years. From the last galactic year, corresponding to Cenozoic, only about 67 My have passed. A coincidence was noticed between one galactic year period, and the temporary extension of the geotectonic cycles. Thus, for instance, the galactic year corresponding to Lower Palaeozoic suits to the Caledonian geotectonic cycle while Upper Palaeozoic corresponds to the Hercinic geotectonic cycle. The Kimmeric geotectonic cycle could be equivalent only to the galactic year corresponding to Mesozoic, and the Alpine geotectonic cycle one could suit properly only the galactic year corresponding to Cenozoic. Equivalencies could be made between the geotectonic cycles of Proterozoic era (Karelian, Late Karelian, Gothian, Grenvillian, Assyntic, Brioverian, etc), and the galactic years corresponding to Proterozoic, as well. The internal structure of the galactic year seems to be shown by the subgalactic cycles (Raup-Sepkoski cycles), of 26 My. These were put into evidence by statistical paleoecological studies made by Raup and Sepkoski (1982, 1984) on a 250 My range (Mesozoic+Cenozoic), for the marine environment. The repetition of the significant extinctions on ranges of about 26 My seems to have different amplitudes, that may give the internal structure of the galactic year, in which one can easily distinguish warm and cold galactic seasons (galactic winters and summers, respectively) which give the character of a great and important climatic cycle to the galactic year. The main glaciations known in the Earth history, beginning with the end of Proterozoic, correspond (with scarce exceptions, among which the most important is the Quaternary glaciation) to the cold phases of the galactic cycle (year), to the galactic winters respectively. Between these cold phases there may be calculated periods of time between 155 My and 190 My that reflect, approximately, the galactic year period (about 180 My), but, on the one hand the position of these glaciations is approximately, as
Bucur, I.I. & Filipescu S. (eds) – Contributions to the Scientific Session I.P.Voitesti , Vluj Napoca, 2008, 81-84

M. Ticleanu et al., - The reflection of the galactic motion of the solar system in geological historynof the Earth

absolute age, and on the other hand the galactic winter extends on a longer period of time, and the thermal minimum of it could be placed differently from a galactic cycle to another due either to the influence of longer cycles (the metagalactic cycle) or of shorter ones, or due to other reasons. The positioning, in time, of the most important glaciations (beginning with the end of the Proterozoic) is placed, according to the actual data, to: 940 Ma, 770 Ma, 615 Ma, 570550 Ma, 440 Ma, 320-250 Ma, and 146 Ma. The majority of these glaciations is placed obviously near the absolute values of the galactic years limits assigned on cyclicity criteria (using the period of 181 My of the galactic year): 940 Ma (in comparison with 970 Ma established on cyclicity criteria), 770 Ma (in comparison with 789 Ma), 615 Ma (in comparison with 609 Ma), 440 Ma (in comparison with 428 Ma), 320-250 Ma (in comparison with 247 Ma). Even the glaciation placed between 570-550 Ma could be included towards the end of the galactic year (established on cyclicity criteria) placed at about 609 Ma. To a galactic winter could be ascertained as well the glaciation included in the range of 320-250 Ma, an earlier galactic winter, manifested before the limit of 247 Ma. But to all these one could add the last galactic winter, placed to the limit MesozoicCenozoic, which led to a great number of extinctions in the animal world, among which was the dinosaurs disappearance, as well. For an easier time orientation, one could name the major glaciations, the above mentioned galactic winters namely, reported to the corresponding tectonic phases. On the other hand, it is very obvious that the glaciation from the end of Lower Cretacic (146 Ma) (Gröcke et al., 2005), and those from Eocene (42.5 Ma), Upper Miocene (10 Ma), and the Quaternary glaciation could not be connected to some cold phases of the galactic year but to some shorter cycles. In correlation with the galactic year, the Earth moved towards a galactic summer which would reach its climax in about 26 My; the next galactic winter (with its middle after 26+90 Ma) will be superposed on the next geocratic moment of the Vail-Payton megacycle (with a period of about 362 My) bringing about an unprecedent crisis of the biosphere. Towards the middle of the XXth century the Russian astronomer Pavel Parengo was estimating the galactic year at 176 My. According to the astronomers Lavrov A. and Litchkov R. (fide Mihai, 1986) the duration of the galactic year could be 170 Ma. Rampino and Stothers (1984) noticed that three of the most severe mass extinctions are separated by a time interval of about 180 My. This value seems to be consistent with the galactic revolution duration of the Solar System, took over by these authors with a value of 170±10 My. The conclusion is that the main evolutionist changes in life history on Earth could be connected with the galactic dynamics. Iasamanov (1993) estimated the galactic year duration to be about 215 My. According to this author every galactic year consists of one 30-million-year cycle corresponding to the perigalacteum position of the solar system, one 85-million-year cycle corresponding to the apogalacteum position, and two medium periods lasting 50 million years each. Very close to the value of 181 My which we admit for the duration of the galactic year, it is to be considered the 183±3 My interval which separates (according to Goncharov and Orlov, 2003) the overwhelming majority of the important mass extinction events during the Phanerozoic. This time period could correspond to the anomalistic period of the Allen and Martas model which is in relation to the Sun successive passings through the apocenter of its Galactic orbit. The Ukrainian authors Kulinkovitch and Yakymchuk (2008) adopted the general notion of “anomalistic galactic year” (AGY) whose duration is that estimated by Pavel Parengo (respectively 176 My). The same authors admitted the possibility of distinguishing four seasons of the galactic year similar to those of the terrestrial year. Litchkov

M. Ticleanu et al., - The reflection of the galactic motion of the solar system in geological historynof the Earth

considered the galactic year to composed of 3 (three) distinct phases: glaciation, temperate and xerothermic ones. Sankaran A. V. (2008) adopts a 250 My duration of the galactic year (according to Shaviv, 2003) considering the important events in Earth’s evolution produced with a ~176 My periodicity to reflect the time taken by the Solar System to travel from one galactic arm to the same position in the next arm (in a more complex galactic model), idea asserted, after 2003, by same other authors, too. Selected references
Caratini R. (1987) - L’année de la science, Éd. Seghers, Paris. (Cap.1: Astronomie), p. 1-93. Gillman M., Erenler H. (2008) – The galactic cycle of extinction. International Journal of Astrobiology, Vol. 7, Issue 1, p. 17-26. Goncharov G. N., Orlov V. V. (2003) – Global repeating events in the history of the Earth and the Motion of the Sun in the Galaxy. Astronomy Reports, vol. 47, Issue 11, p. 525-533. Iasamanov N. A. (1993) – The galactic year and the periodicity of geological events. Rossiiskaia Akademiia Nauk, Doklady, vol. 328, no. 3, p. 373-375. Kulinkovich A. Ye., Yakymchuk M. A. (2008) – Geochronological calendar as an alternative to the geologic time scales. Preprint. Institute of Geological Sciences at the National Academy of Sciences of Ukrainian, 30 p, Kyiv. Macovei G. (1958) – Geologie stratigrafică, (ed. a II-a), Editura tehnica, 565 p., Bucureşti. Mihai E. S. (1986) – Omul şi astrele. Editura Dacia, 311 p., Cluj-Napoca. Rampino M. (1997) – The galactic theory of mass extinctions: an update. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, vol. 69, no.1-2, p. 49-58. Rampino, M. R., Stothers R. B (1984) - Terrestrial mass extinctions, cometery impacts and the Sun’s motion perpendicular to the galactic plane. Nature 308, 709–712. Rampino M. R., Stothers R. B. (1986) – Geologic periodicities and the Galaxy. In: The Galaxy and the Solar System. R. Smoluchowski, J.N. Bahcall, and M.S. Matthews, Eds. University of Arizona Press, pp. 241-259, Tucson, AZ. Raup D. M., Sepkoski J. J. (1982) – Mass extinctions in the marine fossils record. Science, 215. p.1501-1503. Raup, D. M., Sepkoski, J.J. (1984) - Periodicity of extinctions in the geologic past. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 81(3), pp. 801–805. Răileanu Gr., Pauliuc S. (1969) – Geologie generală, Ed. Didactică şi Pedagogică, 462 p. Bucureşti. Sankaran, A. V. (2008) – Galactic triggering of geologic events in earth’s history. Current Science, vol. 95, no. 6, p. 714-716. Shaviv, N. J. (2003) - The spiral structure of the milky way, cosmic rays, and ice age epochs on earth, New Astron., 8, 39–77. Ţicleanu M., Ţicleanu N., Constantin P., Stelea I., Trifulescu M., Nicolescu R., Burlacu P., Borcan G. (2006) - Analiza timpului geologic din perspectiva ciclurilor cosmice (astronomice) recunoscute sau propuse în domeniul geoştiinţelor. Contribuţii ale şcolii româneşt de geologie. An. Inst. Geol. al României, vol. 74 (special issue), p. 236-240, Bucureşti.

M. Ticleanu et al., - The reflection of the galactic motion of the solar system in geological historynof the Earth

CITARE: The Reflection of the Galactic Motion of Solar System in Geological History of the Earth 2008 Autori: Ţicleanu M., Constantin P., Ţicleanu N., Nicolescu R. In: Bucur I. I. & Filipescu S. (eds) Contributions to the Scientific Session “I. P. Voitesti”, Cluj-Napoca, p. 81-84, Cluj University Press.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful