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DAVID HARRIS

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Oncplaiants accipias.cr

DORLING KINDERSLEY LONDON NEW YORK STUTTGART


A DORLING KINDERSLEY

BOOK

Project editor Louise Candlish

Art editor

Liz

Brown

Assistant editor David

Walton

Assistant designer Carla

Dc Abrcu

Senior editor Roger Tritton Senior art editor Tracy Hambleton-Miles DTP designer Zirrinia Austin Managing editor Sean Moore Managing art editor Toni Kay Production controller Meryl Silbert Picture research Julia Harris-Voss, Jo Walton Photography Steve Gorton, Andy Crawford

First published in Great Britain in

1995

by Dorling Kindersley Limited,


9 Henrietta Street,

London

WC2E

8PS

Copyright

1995

Dorling Kindersley Limited, London

Text copyright

1995 David Harris


may be reproduced,
stored

All rights reserved.


in a retrieval

No

part of this publication

system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,

mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written

permission of the copyright owner.

A CIP

catalogue record for this

book

is

available
5

from the

British Library

ISBN

7513 0149

Colour reproduction by

GRB

Lditrice

s.r.l.

Printed in Singapore by Toppan Printing Co. (S) Pte Ltd

ti-'i
s
'

Contents
Introduction

6
8

Bastard Capitals

78

The Development of Western Script


Script

Cadels

80

Timeline

12 14

Getting Started

Italian

& Humanist Scripts


84 88 90

Rotunda

Roman

& Late Roman Scripts


/

Rotunda Capitals

Rustic Capitals

Humanist Minuscule
Italic

Square Capitals
Uncial

20
24

94

&

Artifical Uncial

Humanist
Italic

&

Italic

Capitals

98

Swash Capitals

100

Insular
Insular Insular

&

National Scripts
28 34

Majuscule

Post-Renaissance Scripts
Copperplate

Minuscule

102 106

Copperplate Capitals

Caroline

& Early Gothic Scripts


38

Caroline Minuscule

Roman &

Late

Roman
108

Scripts

Foundational
Earlv

Hand 42
46

Imperial Capitals

Gothic

Script Reference Chart

20

Gothic Scripts
Textura Quadrata Textura Prescisus

Glossary

122

50

Bibliography

124
125

54
Versals

Index

& Acknowledgments

Gothic Capitals

&

58

Lombardic Capitals
Bastard Secretary

62

66

Batarde
Fraktur

70

&

Schwabacher

74

Introduction

Introduction
Book production
The production of a manuscript book is
a

FOR 2,000 YEARS, the western Latin alphabet a vast


has developed and been modified by

complex

business,
skills

requiring the

of

range of social and technological changes,


providing
a rich

numerous craftsmen.

and varied resource for the

modern
in

calligrapher to quarry. This

book

charts that development, presenting scripts

both historical and practical contexts. Calligraphers of all levels will be able to
explore the origins of each script and

Magnifying glass

A
eyeglass

magnifying
is

glass

or

a valuable aid to

understand anew the construction of


the 26 letters that

examining the letterforms


in historical manuscripts

we

use every day.

shown

in this

book.

Generally, Latin-based
into
is

scripts

fall

Ascender line

Bracketed serif

Capital line

two

categories: formal

that
Counter

Minuscule

Majuscule (capital Bar


letter,

scripts

used as the instrument of

Tongue

(lower-case later)

upper-case
letter)

authority; and informal

- the

cursive
Bowl (bow,

or quickly written scripts used for

everyday transactions. History


repeatedly shows formal scripts

cuned

stroke)

degenerating into cursive forms,

Interletter

Inner-

which

are, in turn,

upgraded,

finally

Horizontal

Stem
(main
stroke)

letter

achieving formal status as


in their

new

hands

space

foot

space

own
fall,

right.

historical analysis in this

The pages of book chart


Interlinear space

the rise,

and revival of these

hands, and explain the emergence

of other significant scripts.

Headline
(waistline.

Practical advice Following the historical study of

each script

is

a practical guide to
Pen angle

the construction of the letters in


that hand.

complete alphabet

is

included, showing the separate strokes

needed to produce each letter, and indicating the probable sequence


of these strokes. To the
left

of this
Descender line

alphabet, the chief characteristics

of the script are described and

Letter anatomy
order to identify or construct scripts, it is become familiar with the vocabulary of calligraphy. Unfortunately, there is no agreed
In
essential to

demonstrated

in a separate panel.

headline is known to some calligraphers as the "waisdine" and to typographers as the


"x-line". Although these letters represent only a few characters, the terms used to

The appearance of a

script

is

standard nomenclature, so terms used in this

influenced by a range of practical


factors, including the cut

of the nib

used to write

it.

Full information

most commonly favoured by and palaeographers. Alternative terms, including those used by typographers, are shown here in brackets. For example, the

book

are those

describe their
to
all

components

are applicable

calligraphers

the letters in the alphabet.

full

glossary
this

of the calligraphic terms used


is

in

book

also included {pp. 122-123).

about tools

is

given for each script.

Introduction
This angle indicates the degree of

forward lean of the


case, the

teller; in this

biotf

angle

is

clone to

10

Model scripts The search for


The height of the
ascender
three
is

a definitive

model

The minim height of


this f
is

for any particular

hand

is

virtually

four pen widths

impossible. Within each script there

about

pen widths

are endless variations, ranging from

Letter height ano hen ancle The height of a letter is calculated


in

the excessively formal to the almost


The pen
is

held at

pen widths, shown in

this

book
form

an angle of 40
to the horizontal

indecipherable. Therefore the scripts

to the left

of the

letter in the
is

included
this

in

the practical pages of

of a "ladder". Each script


with the pen held
angle.
this

drawn
This letter
is

at

one

book

particular

written

are actuallv a svnthesis of J j

The

figures

used to indicate

with a "slanted" pen


(square-cut nib)

various different styles, and should

angle refer to degrees to the

horizontal. Where relevant, the approximate angle of the forward lean of a letter is also given. This is

be used to prompt your

own

personal redefinition of the hands.

measured in degrees to the

vertical.

Manuscript sources By definition, a script

is

system

of handwritten characters, and the


Stroke sequence A recommended sequence of strokes is given for all 26 letters of each script. The use of transparent colours makes it clear where a
stroke crosses

majority of the scripts included in

this

book come from manuscript


An arrow-head
indicates where the

sources.

Where

or overlaps with another.

appropriate, an enlargement

stroke finishes

and

of a section from an important

the pen

is

lifted

manuscript

is

shown, often

revealing;

the basic ductus of the script under


scrutiny and giving invaluable clues to the construction of letterforms.

Imperial Capitals

One

significant script included in this

book must be regarded separately from the rest - the Roman Imperial
Capital.

A product of the
it

brush and

not the pen,


Thefirst
letter in

was, until recently,


a script at all.

the sequence

not accepted as
The second stroke
The black arrow indicates
ibe progress of thefirst
stroke; creates

Due

shows the model that you should


follow
in this example,

the ascender of the letter

to

its

complexity and importance to


calligraphy and typography,
in

a Caroline

and, finally, the crossbar

is

Minuscule ((pp.

40-41)
of a
quill

modern
it is

on reaching the pen


is

added with a third stroke

baseline, the

pushed

explored

depth in a section
first

The

sensitivity
it

back over thefirst stroke

at the

end of the book. For the


letters arc

pen makes

an

ideal tool

and upwards

for drawing hairlines

time, the origins and structure of


all

26

demonstrated

in

an

Writing tools Some materials and implements

are

more
of a
script

suitable for an accurate representation

than others. For instance, most scribes writing before 500 used either parchment or vellum,
1

which remain
implement
is

to this day two of the finest writing surfaces. Frequently, the writing

way (pp. 108-1 19). Left-handed work The step-by-step letters demonstrated in this book are the work of a righteasily accessible

handed calligrapher. Left-handed


calligraphers can follow the

of equal importance. For a Batarde letter {left), it would be difficult to achieve the very fine lines with any other implement than a sharply cut quill. Advice on the selection of surfaces and writing tools
is

same

angles and stroke sequences, but

might find

it

useful to adjust their

given in "Getting Started" (pp. 14-15).


The
quill has been shorn

normal writing position to the "underarm" position: tuck the arm


inwards, turn the hand to the
left,

of
it

most of us barbs, making


easier to handle

and

shift the

paper

down

to the right.

Nibs cut obliquely from top right to

bottom

left

can also be verv useful.

The Development of Western Script

The Development of Western


in about THE FIRST ALPHABET evolved in Phoenicia B.C. by the200 B.C. Greeks,
1

Script

This was adapted in the eighth century

whose letterforms were borrowed by the Etruscans and, in turn, by the Romans. All subsequent Western scripts have evolved from Roman originals. The scripts in this book are
grouped
(pp.

in six categories:

Roman and
(pp.

Late

Roman

Scripts

16-27, 108-119), Insular and National Scripts

(pp.

28-37),

Caroline and Early Gothic Scripts


(pp.

38-49), Gothic Scripts


(pp.

50-83),

Italian

and Humanist Scripts

84101), and

Post- Renaissance Scripts (pp. 102107).

The duration of

each script

is

shown

in a timeline (pp. 1213).

PROBABLY the most important event


in

Etruscan letters
These
have been written in Oscan, an ancient Italian language derived from
letters

the history of Western script was

the

Roman

adoption of the Etruscan


first

Etruscan. In addition to the writing system,

alphabet.

By the
a

century B.C., the


several scripts.

Romans had developed

almost every aspect of Etruscan culture was adopted by the Romans, including the legal and military systems.
This icrracoua tablet, of a type used to mark property

One was

quickly penned, cursive

script used for correspondence,

and

land, shows clearly recognizable letterforms, such

scratched onto a

wax

tablet or written

as this character, which resembles an overturned

with

reed pen on papyrus. This hand

was

influential in the

development of

The Latin alphabet


This inscription from the base of the Trajan

the minuscule letter, including the

Column, Rome,

Half Uncial

(pp.

38-39). Another

key script was the Rustic Capital,


used
in

is one of the finest surviving examples of Imperial Capitals (pp. 108-109). The oldest Latin alphabet contained 21

characters, as
late

opposed

to the Etruscan 20.

By

manuscript, signwritten,
(pp.

and inscribed forms

16-17).

characters, the

23 two additional characters- Vand Z - having been taken from the Greek Upsilon
times, the Latin alphabet had

Roman

Imperial Capitals

and Zeta.
for

The

third

Roman

hand produced by

modern

the first century B.C., the Imperial Capital,

now known
in

of these characters have survived medieval times of letters J, U, and W.


All

use, with the addition in

as

was used

both

stone-carved and brush-drawn form


(pp.

108-109). Over 2,000 years


the letters of the script provide

later,

the basis of our

modern

capitals.

:\

*CAaS'ARIDl\ IN
^
;

HVAl
.*
:

Capital, a modified

By the fourth century, the Square de luxe bookhand,


(pp.

KRAIAN
MA\li\
>Ei
\
i !

W ^JGERMHAG
:

had also emerged

2021).
script that

Another important
its

had

origins during the


(pp.

Roman

period

V V

was the Uncial


in

24-25). Similar
that

form

to the
it,

Greek Uncial

\R\NnVM^V\NT.\
v

preceded

this

was developed for

use by the early Christian Church.

ON M
1

sTA

N^^l.

The Deveeopmem

oi-

Westers Script

Chari
Iii

p.magnf.

and Alcuin

Insular

and National scripts


in the fifth century,

Emperor Charlemagne modelled himself and his court on his Roman forebears. Roman influence in the Frankish Empire was particularly

many ways

the eighth-century

After the demise of the western

Roman Empire

important in the areas of learning and scholarship, in

which the emperor was aided by a prominent monk from York named Alcuin. Under Alcuin's abbotship from 796804, the great scriptorium at Tours. France, was founded. Here, the Caroline Minuscule was created (pp. 38-39).

numerous hands developed in the kingdoms carved out of the remains


of the Empire.
Irish scripts,

such

as die

Insular Majuscule (pp. 28-31), derived

from Uncial and Hall Uncial forms,


are

now known
in

as "insular" scripts.

Elsewhere
The rounded
tip

Europe, national scripts


in

included the Visigothic


of the
it

Spain and

the Merovingian

in France.

penknife suggests that

was also used for scorinq


lines

The most important means of


communication between different nations was the Christian Church,
which kept the torch of litcracv and
learning alive. Irish

on the page

monks formed

manv monastic
and Corbie
Italy.
The scribe casts a critical eye over the

centres in Scotland and


as well as in Luxeuil

northern England,
in

France, and Bobbio in

Meanwhile, monks from

Rome

The production of book covers was a separate


craft requiring the skills

The parchment

is

stretched on a

wooden

newly sharpened nib of the quill

jrame and scraped with a curved knije

entered southern England and were


responsible tor the widespread

of a team of workers

conversion to Christianity there. J

The

1'U.oduction

Caroline
first

and Early Gothic scripts


empire
in the

of manuscripts
These 12th-century illustrations show some of the processes
involved
in

The emerge from

West

to

the remains of the


that of Charles

the production ol
First,

medieval book.
skin and then stretch
The finished manuscript book lends
authority to the monk's preaching

Roman Empire was

the

parchment maker would soak the and scrape it. Next, the dried parchment would be trimmed and scored in
preparation for the scribe.
text

the Great (Charlemagne).

By the ninth

centurv, his Frankish Empire stretched


Once dried and cleaned, the
parchment
is

trimmed to

si/e

The

from the Pyrenees to the Baltic. A reformed hand devised by Alcuin of


York became the established hand of
the empire

would be planned
left

in detail,

with spaces

for the

work of

the illustrator and illuminator.

it is

now known
(pp.

as the

After the scribe had completed his


text, the illuminator

the gold

leaf,

would apply which was then


illustrator.

Caroline Minuscule

3839).

Outside the Frankish Empire,


national hands persisted. In
Italy,

overdrawn by the

were gathered and bound, and the cover fitted.


Finally, separate leaves
The book
is

the Bencventan script was one of the


longest surviving
Teaching from written manuscripts
was a key aspect of monastic
life
1

post-Roman

scripts,
until

bound and the scribe prepares

to

used from the mid-eighth century

make any necessary annotations to the

text

300

(pp.

Insular and

84 85). In England, the Anglo-Saxon Minuscules


the Caroline Minuscule

sufficed until the tenth century (pp.

34

35),

when

was introduced. Over time, the


Caroline Minuscule became

more
This

compressed, anticipating the angular,


uniform aspect of Gothic
Once the leaves ol the manuscript
are placed in order, they are

letters.

The punched
lines,

holes are joined

by scored

Small holes are punched through the


parchment, probably to provide
guidelines for spacing

compressed

script

is

known
(pp.

as Late

between which the scribe would


then write the
text

stitched together

Caroline or Early Gothic

46-47).

/'//;

Devei.opmf.ni of

Western Scripi
..-.

cncratiquam Ugnum c(b plati


ramtti cftrfecu^ dmtrftt* aquaruV
Gothic scripts Bv the end of the 12th century, a
Textura Prescisus
is

characterized

This

h\ the "cut offjeet of certain


letters,

such as this r
II

Jwm
,

complex system of Gothic

scripts

ih,-

"indmill Pidltcr

Gull III Tl XH'RA SCRIPTS from the 13th-century Windmill Psalter shows Gothic Textur.i Prescisus script (pp. 54-55). lioth the Prescisus and its twin script the Quadrata were reserved tor prestige religions book work.
detail

had evolved throughout Europe. For


simplicity, these are often divided

into

two groups: the

high-quality

(de luxe), formal hands used for

both religious and secular book


text,

and the cursive hands used for

documentary work and, from the late 3th centurv, lor vernacular book
I

production.

The two most important


SO 31

de luxe bookhands were the Tcxtura

Quadrata

(pp.

and
3 3).

its

twin,

the Prescisus (pp. 34

Bastard scripts
Gothic cursive scripts are

known

as

bastard scripts, and they remained


in

use until supplanted by the


in

Copperplate
(pp.

the

8th centurv

102 103), some 200 years after

the demise of the formal Gothic

bookhands. Bastard hands are


difficult to categorize, differing

from

country to country, town to town,


and trade to trade.
I

lowever, general

differences can easily be discerned

between English
(pp.

(/>/'.

66 67), French
(pp.

70

71),
It

and
in

German

74 7 ))

models.
that

was

bastard text script


ol the

minuscules and capitals


first

same hand

appeared together

with the Gothic Capitals used to begin new sentences and denote

proper nouns

(pp.

58
I

59).
II

llMWIM MlNl'M

from a translation of Pliny's Natural History shows beautifully penned Humanist Minuscule letters. The handwritten Renaissance script was used as a model for type by 15th-century Venetian printers. It quickly replaced the Gothic models favoured byjohann Gutenberg, the German inventor of printing with movable type.
This manuscript page

/(>

Till.

DEVELOPMES'l

01

M'/:s;/\ SciUI'l

Gothic
MH,1)>|,til nttii(.~XTiMi(.

basi \ri>
is

si

This page

from

.1

win Hook of I

lours

Italian

and Humanist
a

scripts

mum

V> ilim

produced

France after the introduction

In Italy, the

formal Gothic scripts


footing. Italian

(irfubifirtuut <mfrpfoiin

.-;

of printing.

Ownership of a handwritten
time was an indication of
status.

book
.1

at this

never really secured

ATwuuiHt-tr. x>x

ctfoic^inniiii

high social
late

The

elegant script
.is

is

letterforms of this period

generally

tifr (fiua ).vr|iuirtniijmi(cii|tni


ivtviiii/h

Batarde hand
(/>/>.

known
'11-71).

Lefrre

known
(pp. ti4

muriSiuVcrfu'i*3

Bourguignonne
contains
.1

which

by the
.S'>)

name of Rotunda

mixture of cursive and

Textura elements.

^Oitiiuc mi/cmr

were rounder, with a much more open aspect than their


By 1400,
he
a revised version

noFif..\>/iif
The Ratardc
letter f often

has

Gothic contemporaries.
of the
as

clamor.
Oiirnif liVfu tpjiflrflfl
).\//ioii(iii

a distinctive forward lean, as


does the long form
</

/,

Caroline Minuscule script


I I

known

^j^n "Vim jxuic


cm en net

Modern calligraphy
This three-dimensional work, which

lumanist Minus, ule had

become

iiunttiHtiirtMj

inter

iii^ininiitiiuiijrtrtiHiiituiiL

measures 24 by 35 by 5 centimetres (9 by 14 by 2 inches), was created in 1993 by Denis Brown. Entitled Phoenix, the page of Insular letters - reminiscent of the great manuscripts of Kells and Lindisf.nnc
(pp. 2S-.il)

the established writin" hand ol the

Renaissance
its

(pp.

90-91). Eventually,

iimuii MiiiKctMjIiwti

mo.ui

adaption for type

made
in

it

the

iiitr:ctfiiunn"f>iiime.*vuw

mifm contain cta;iutirtii)fifiii


rtif-

pre-eminent letterform
and
day.
its

Europe,

has been penetrated by


a

itoiiioi)tt iviimii)wfrfic

use continues to the present


variant of the

electric wires as

metaphor
life

ol the

phoenix creating new

from the old.

Humanist
in

Minuscule that also remains


is

use

the

Italic (pp.

94 95). Devised as
in
1

manuscript hand

1420,
500.

it

was

adapted for type by

Post- Renaissance scripts

The
is

final script

of significance
(pp.

the Copperplate

102
this

103).

As the name suggests,


originallv a

was

hand engraved or etched


copper. Typified by

on sheets

ol

delicately joined loops and exotic

proportions, this cursive letter could

be engraved with
it

far

greater ease than


in its

could be drawn. However,

simpler handwritten form, the

Copperplate did have the advantage


ol
1

being very

last
it

to pen and, by the

9th century,

was the standard

script

of business and education.

/Modern calligraphy

A modern
at

calligraphy revival began

the beginning ol the 20th century

with the pioneering work of Edward

Johnston

in

England

(pp.

42 43) and

Rudoll von Larisch and Rudoll Koch


in

Germany

(pp.

14 13). Since the


calligraphy has
cultures, both

1950s, interest
proliferated in

in

many

those with and without Latin based


alphabets.

During the

last

20 years,

as ealligraphers have

explored and

redefined letterforms, calligraphy has

become

an art form

in its

own

right.

//


Script Timeune
Date
(a. p.)

Script
1(10

[N opssf7^
<

,r

J>

"XHrxreM;
Greek Uncial

Timeline
2(1(1

Oi

i)

Roman

Cursive

Key
( ;r (

y fine; lint:
line:

Chiei line ol influence

Dotted

Duration of script for text Duration of script for use


oilier than for text

}
300

While

UNCIAL

41

II

New Roman
Cursive
500
I

-4- I

Halt Uncial

"
r-

figNifi car ud

\fo rrnoncl,
i

Cliimm Hai

Um

iai

Insular Minuscule

(.00

myflrfmtiie
I

VlSIGOTHK
700

ij.-j. Beneventan Minuscule


ik
... <>vj-.. ,.

Minuscule

lurllll LUXEUM Minuscule


1

avijciusS
Insular

SHU

i
Caroline Minuscule

Majuscule

b^pci fmo

whx

>)IHI

I
I

II

II

1100

200

jbcnmmfopartu
Rotunda

Early COTIIK

\^mS'1kctmnaM

1300

pntifimntunmn|--^n$ (Etrnmtam
Textura
I'RI SI
INI

1400

Textura quadrata

I5oo

(.00

l7oo

isoo

140(1

Foundational Hand
21MKI

(British Calligraphic

Revival)

fcsnth the hog

12

Script Timeline

SENATV$POP^lfomQM5m(^R~
Imperial

!U sue Capitals

Capitals

d\Cjx\

IMPROB1TDVR
Square Capitals

Ki M( CAPI Ms
I

Insular Display Capitals

rC9:i|Sik

I(i\ihmu)ic

Capitals

mftar&tyar&Cw
Bastard Secretary

Humanist Mini ^

ulas nodes led:

CMoltofig nor mi

[talk

^encmbttfrxkuj
li\l \RI>I

bt&miM-QbcAm
...J
[-U

AK

II

ColTIKI'LATE

Gl RMAN (\l IGRAPHK


i

Revival

1
V"

SWtv&gfbfyfto

V
13

Getting Started

Getting Started
the tools THE ART OF CALLIGRAPHY begins withselected should be

and materials, and these

with great care. Often,


a s;oocl result
is

a struggle to

achieve

an indication that the chosen


is

surface or writing tool


a

unsuitable.

Owing to

widespread revival of interest


is

in calligraphy,

there

now

an enormous range of pens, paper,


available.

and other equipment


information
is

Here, basic

given on the types of surfaces

and writing implements you can use, and also on how to make the two traditional types of

SUK. FACES

pen the
The reed pen

reed pen and

the quill.

For practice and trying out


initial ideas,

lightweight designer's
layout paper
is

the quill [opposM) have been used since antiquity. Although both have now been superseded by other writing implements, the reed pen remains an ideal tool for expressive calligraphy. It is usually made from a hollow-stemmed garden cane (Phragmitis communis), but some calligraphers

The reed pen and

ideal.

For
a

more
paper

formal work, good-quality


is

important - preferably

use a synthetic material, such as plastic tubing, instead. A sharp cralt knife - always take the greatest care when using it. is required to make a reed pen

smooth, close-grained and acidfree type. Vellum, made from


calfskin

or goatskin,

is

the finest material

.1

selection oj

for writing, with

parchment a close second.

and machine-made papers

WlUTINCJ IMPLEMENTS
In addition to the reed pen and quill, there is a huge ratige of writing implements from which the calligrapher can choose. Fibre-tipped pens are ideal for trying out ideas, while, for
I

he

,i

.nu//

pointed
sable brush

and economy, detachable nibs are an excellent option. The use of a fountain pen guarantees a constant supply of ink. although a spring-loaded dip pen is more
flexibility

for drawing
built-up
letters

convenient for changing ink colours easily. A broad-edged


brush
is

Spring-loaded
dip pens are

essential for constructing

The calligraphic
fountain pen

idealfor largescale

Imperial
Capitals
1.
(j>p.

work

A standard
pen holder can
fit

one of the most


convenient tools

Cut

a length
(7

centimetres

of cane about 18 inches) long. Use a

2.

On

the reverse side of the cane,

110-119).

directly

underneath the

first

cut.

a variety

strong craft knife to 4 centimetres


reveal the
(l'/i

make

a cut

about

make

a shorter cut to create the flat

inches) long to

top of the pen nib. Next,

remove

.1

jibre-iipped
is

of detachable nibs fopposite;

hollow centre of the cane.

any pith from the core ol the cane.

pen

ideal for

preliminary work

Return to the underside ol the pen and carve shoulders between the two
3.
cuts.

4. Finally,

make

longitudinal cut
('';

about

1.5 centimetres

inch) long
this

Make

square or oblique cut

through the centre of the nib will

across the top of the nib as desired (see

make

the flow of ink easy.

The

"Straight" and "slanted" pens, opposite).

reed pen

is

now

ready to use.

14

Gettixc STARTim

The

quill
quill is

Although the
convenient
as

probably the

finest

of all writing

tools,

it is

not

as

other implements and requires more practice


a

in

handling.

Being of a
is

softer material than

steel

nib or a reed pen.

it

requires gentler
it

pressure than you


far

would

expect, but the subtlety of line that

produces

superior to that of other pens. Turkey, goose, or swan feathers are

the most useful, and duck or

crow may

also

be used for formal work.

USINCI A

WHETSTONE

To
at

sharpen steel nib, hold the pen 45 to the whetstone and stroke
.1

the top side along the stone.

Detachable nius
Pointed Copperplate

steel

nib
1.

Cut

the shaft of the feather to a

2.

Holdiim the

shaft firmly,

make
a

Spcedball
obliiiue-cut nib
.

length of about 20 centimetres


(!'' inches)

long, sweeping cut

on the underside

and carefully
it

strip

the

ol the quill. Carefully

make
tip.

second

barbs from
Mitchell

using

.1

scalpel 01

cut to shape the shoulders and pare

sharp craft knife.

the edges to form the

square-cm nib
Detachable reservoir
for Mitchell nib

Parchment
sheepskin,

is made from anJ is tougher

and more

fibrous than vellum

A
Use a reed

long, broad-

A broad -edged
I

pen for
expressive

edged sable or
synthetic brush

synthetic or
sable brush

is

calligraphy

used for
\

essential for

large- scale

The
Is

.pull

Imperial
Capitals

Imperial
Capitals

the most

traditional

3.

Make

short longitudinal cut

4. Place the tip

of the

quill

on

of tools

through the centre of the nib to ease


the

cutting surface and carefully cut


the shaft to create the nib edge.
a square cut tor a "slanted"

How

of ink.

Remove

the pith

auo Make

from the centre ot the pen and any


remaining material on the outside.

pen and .m

oblique cut for a "straight" pen (Men).

"Straight" and "slanted" pens


book, there are references to "straight" and "slanted" meaning of these terms appears to be contradictory. The "straight" pen is held horizontally, producing thick stems and thin horizontal strokes. The "slanted" pen is held at an angle of about 3<>. creating horizontal and vertical strokes of similar weight.
this

Throughout

pens. This can cause confusion, as the

.1

"straight" pen has


cut at

an angle
it

of about

an oblique-cut nib. 70 to the

.1

"slanted" pen has a sauare nib, cut

at riaht

angles to the shaft


(

it is

ideal

shaft

is

ideal for scripts sui b a-

for scripts such as the

online

the

Half Uncial (pp. 40-4

Minuscule (pp.

40-41*

IS

Rom.w SlLate Romas

Scripts

Rustic Capitals
IF
THE CALLIGRAPHER of today
is

sometimes

confused by the rich variety of scripts available,

both

modern and
period,

historical,

then the opposite

[ILVMiVAlMAMOatVI
AUlOfvL^AKAOVNiUli
-

must have been true for the scribe of the early

Roman
The
the

who had

only three basic hands.


-

first

was the magnificent Imperial Capital

most complex of all scripts, used in stonecut form on the great monuments of state (pp.
108109). Secondly, for everyday needs, there

was the cursive

script

the

m
MV

quickly executed
in the Latin

hand used by everyone writing


language. Thirdly, there

was the Rustic

Capital,

an elegant alternative to the Imperial Capital

If
jb'J

and popular with both sign writer and scribe.

FROM THE

FIRST TO the

fifth

century,

the Rustic Capital

was used

for

de luxe
The nib would have been
held at a near vertical [or
the upright strobes
.

manuscripts, particularly works by


Virgil. After the fifth century,
it

lost

favour as a manuscript hand, although


its

'

tOEU\

use tor

titles

continued for centuries


is

afterwards. As far as
script

known, the

lOit
Verc.ilius

OLUON JVMCOKDOl
N 1-N
I

was not used

for Christian

literature,

and the conversion of

ROMANUS, ECLOCA II
This magnificent and
rare
Virgil

DELlCl A::-D0AV1

Rome
with
(pp.

TAN1IVAUNU1UMN5A5-

to Christianity in A.D. 313,

example of a
in

its

attendant use of the Uncial

manuscript

Rustic Capitals dates

24 2j), may be one reason for the demise of the Rustic as a bookhand.
Rustic Capitals also served as stonecut letters, often used in conjunction

from the second half


ot the fifth century.

The words

are

separated by a punctus

(mid-point), instead

with Imperial Capitals on the less


prestigious

of the

scriptura contlnua

(continuous
typical

script)

monuments.

of this period.

The hierarchy of scripts


Rustic Capitals were used for
until the late 12th
a
titles

Nl C

IT

llblK

TflkTIVS-

century as part of so-called "hierarchy of scripts".


Rustics were used for chapter
first lines.

openings. Uncials for the


followed
in this

SANCTTSSTcw^CY3A.T7e^eNlTeHTTSblSTOTU\qU7ffTlI noirninluc^m cAputr.^Ltri CrcftobLJyorTm levenu um tntnuendam


I

example by a fine Caroline Minuscule text (pp.JS-39).

tOUVON
16

oo

Rustic Capitals

Writing materials

The
Ttie

fact that

we have

pen or brush
ai

evidence of the

is

held

an angle

of

Rustic Capital in both manuscript and


signvvritten

40

for the

broad

form shows

that

two

diagonal stroke

different writing
.

implements were

IkY.AUNLVlVMAM
bNIlh'.H'AV'biA:
I

used.

The
pen

script

would have been

written with equal fluency with either


Rustic: Capital R execution of the letter R begins with a twist of the pen at the head

a reed

or after the fourth


or a brush. The
a

The

century, a quill

brush used would have been

broad

edged, flexible sable, held

of the stem.

at a near-

upright angle to create the thin stems

and broad horizontal strokes. A simple ductus

The

basic difference

between the
lies in

Imperial and the Rustic

the

complexity of the stroke weight.

The

strokes of the Imperial are even,

with no sharp contrasts in weight.

L_

The feet

of the letter turn slightly

downwards

This effect requires numerous changes


in tool angle (pp.
1

beforefinishing with

an upward flick

10
is

19).

The

The portrait illustration shows


sitting beside

I'irtjil

ductus of the Rustic


pen, with
in a

simpler to

lectern, with
left

a capsa

for storing scrolls to his

pronounced difference stroke weight between the

thick and thin strokes.


Calligraphic flourishes
occur on the F. X,

and L

A-vD:DAhUXlM suVJJlKAM&AT
|:

RACACUUNUfAGC*

llmmsmM
.i".
,

r''fii-Qf!*".*^iifi

WKBgnsaMS
The interlinear gloss has been
written in a

Papyrus leaf
PapyiUS was the principal writing surface for over 3.00(1
years until the late

Roman

OSEMSfllWS
lNSlMSSmi&M
ftjJpTOJmfc
wi~/

period.

modern

Italic

was made by pounding together two strips of


It

hand (pp. 94 95)

papyrus leaf laid


al

right angles

Peter Halliday
This

to each other.

modern

version of Virgil's Eclogue

7/.

written in black ink

by

on cream paper, was penned Peter Halliday in 1983. Note the contrast he achieves between the broad horizontal and diagonal strokes and the thin verticals.

Detail from Vergilius

Romanus. ECLOCA

II

I.V5.:Oa'AJv2:Ba1
17

Roman 8lLate Roman

Scripts

Rustic Capitals
THE DUCTUS OF the Rustic Capital
as
is

Tiiere

is

no

crossbar on the

is

different

from the other

hands shown in this book in that the pen angle can be as steep

85 to the horizontal for the thin vertical strokes. This angle


relaxed to nearer 45 for the foot serifs and diagonal strokes.
The

is

tall letter

and

Therefore, from the top of the stem to the beginning of the foot,
the pen

rises

above

must

twist as

much

as

40 , and

this transition is the

key to

the headline

well executed Rustic Capitals.


foot, the

With

its serif,

thin stem,

and broad
is

(below) typifies

many

Rustic letters.

The

letter height

generally between four and six pen widths, but can reach seven.

1.

Using

a square-cut

pen nib,

2. Pull the right,

pen downwards to the


of the

begin the serif of the letter

L by

while twisting the nib from 65

pushing downwards with the broad

to almost vertical at the line

edge of the nib. The pen angle should be about 65 for this stroke.

Without lifting the pen, begin drawing the fine stroke of the stem.
stem.

Tlie second
>

stroke of the
tall

rises

above the
headline

At about halfway to the baseline, anticipate the foot serif by gradually


3.

4. Lift the pen, turn

it

to 45,

and add major

the foot serif in one firm,

downward
is

turning the pen to about 50. This


will create the distinctive Rustic

diagonal sweep.

The

foot
it

element

in the script for

leads the

thickening of the stem base.

eye forward to the next

letter.

This broad sweeping


curve
is

drawn

in

one

This form of

is

most

commonly used

smooth stroke with a

pen angle of 45-50


Tliis alternative

form ofG

is

Diagonal sweep
It is

used on the

the repetition of the

bottom line of

downward sweeping
strokes,

a page of text

combined
Alternative

with the near-diagonal


strokes of the feet,
that gives the Rustic

Capital

its

characteristic

rhythm. These strong


strokes provide a

counterpoint to the
fine vertical stems.

Rustic Capitals

T7if stem

This

is

the

of die]

is

modem
form of]

identical 10

dial of die

53
I
i

I
J
The
rises

serif of

die lad

This
die

is
1

modern

above

form of\J
die headline

\\

m
^k

I
/

fi>r

h f V,

\
l\

use the

same

I
II/

^^/

rfurtiw as //ie

\^^

I-

N
_t

This form of used


for

Y is

ad

text

except the bottom


line

of a page

f
X
The

ut
C

Use
of

this form

Y only on

the bottom line

Alternative

of a page of text

could

alternatively be

completed in a
single stroke

19

Romas &_L-m: Romas

Scripts

Square Capitals
As A LATE FOURTH-CENTURY Roman hand without

iYprecedent or descendents,
(Capitalis Quadrata) falls

the stately Square Capital

awkwardly into the evolutionary pattern of Roman scripts. Because very few examples survive from this period, the duration of its use and the development
of
its

style arc subject to conjecture.


its

however, one of great dignity,

The script remains, grace owing largely to the

Small

serifs

are

Square Capital

M
letter.

drawn with the


corner of the pen nth

The broad downward


strokes of the A/ typify

the Square Capital

openness of the letterforms and the clear letter separation.


Parchment was stretched across a wooden frame and
the residual flesh removed with a circular knife

It

is

oftes believed

that the

Square

Parchment makir
In

Capital originated as an attempt to

Rome, parchment was


A,l.

an established rival
principal

interpret the brush-drawn

Roman
in

to papyrus by

300 and was the

surface for writing late

Roman

manuscripts,

Imperial Capital

(pp.

108-109)

such
It

as the Cotlc.x

VmY,mn.< .1256 (opposite).

pen-drawn form. However, die thick


downstrokes and hairline horizontal
strokes of the Square Capital point to

was invented

in

Pergamon, Asia Minor,


Egyptian trade embargo in

in response to an

197-158

B.C. that cut off the supply

of papyrus.

the use of a horizontally held pen, in


contrast to the angle of 30 required

San Sebastiano plaque


The
inscription

on

this

plaque in the Church

to produce the visually balanced


vertical

and horizontal strokes of the

Imperial Capital. This suggests that


the Square Capital

of San Sebastiano. Rome, dates from between the years 366 and 3H4. Notice the imaginative ligatures of certain letters, such as N-T, ll-K. -A, and T-E, and the way some letters have been inserted inside others.
I

may have been


^

derived from another source.

EVT^ ^HTv SM ARTYRCRV DE LIA-FVS SATYRANNI

Contemporary influences It is perhaps more likely that


inspiration to

CAR

FIG \CMQ*y IASPA RIXRTVN CrVUURMCXENDI


I I 1

scribes

writing in Square Capitals looked lor

contemporary carved

lettering, rather than to the brush-

created capitals of their predecessors.


(

)nc such

example
in

is

the lourth
:'

BESSEISJTRANSIEREDI ESALTMENT ANEGAKTVR MITTfrVRlNBARATERVMSANeVSlANATOMNlASANSIS VVLNERAQV^EI N TVEER ATM O RTTSrVET VENDAPOE STAS
'

C ARA S NLVVI E M -SE QVTTVRN OWPOEKARE RARTVS TESTAK VM F R AGNENTAPARAlsFN ES OA4 NVSA ) RET
I

century plaque
Sebastiano,

the

Rome

Church of San (right), in which

stroke angle and letter proportion

coincide with the manuscript hand.

EXPRESSITCTAs^JASVSNE R ITVMVENERA R ESIFVLC' RVM *.-,? v " ~3m.~ \


,
'

NOCTESOPORJFERATVRBANTINSOMNlArVENTEM OSTENDTTLAEBRAINSONTISQWE^EM RRATENERET Q\AERJTVRINVESrvSLITVRFOVETC)i\1 N EAPRESlAT


"--"
-

,1|

...

JV\A.\.li\l\ IN UAR missv * EsirRor>i.n>\


I
20

Square Capitals

Codex Vaticaxus 3256


This manuscript of Virgil's Georgia was
written in Square Capitals in the late fourth

century. Perhaps

one reason why

it

has

survived

was written on parchment instead of the more fragile papyrus. Because of the scarcity of examples of Square Capitals,
is

that

it

it is

difficult to assess the


is

duration of the

K)
\i \r 1
i 1

\l l\ -U.\ (X'Xll
1

VN IWI.WIV t R IVL.'v.M AM
1 1

,v

hand, and there


J

xs rtlxut >cv\u \ >i .i.\ ii

VM

vw
I

\\l

n\

it

no evidence to suggest that survived beyond the early fifth century.

[ I

UR.I

AKIOHMO.VUAIM lAMM
t
I

XA>i:iRAI
I

X'AMr/vlMK VXI ISSCIXTM PAN lflSHll IGWM V MS A.il Af Y X !U Mil >I ,\[k)AOM X WIC
I I
I
I

Surviving examples

Only two known surviving examples


of Square Capitals exist, compared
to

im proem inv.iissv uc.i xsix:u r>.\i.c:tsi.\s primage hi Mi a:u>.\ioiuaIis\ 'nil hue ivw .NSIM\ IK VAIIAMC.lAXIMSAUlARIA lASAC l IV K VM IX) >ONAN.U:VSJ L>l Id Rl X SI l\M MOXFIhRA M*X!l>L\i\0;iAPnll\ "S\ 'IMAl \<
i
I
I I

some 400 of the other

late

Roman

bookhand, the Uncial

(pp.

24-25).

,1

Both manuscripts are dc luxe texts of Virgil dating from the fourth
century.

tssi

iu>imi;o>u;si<(>i
II

in.uAfiiww u
1
I I

AIVX1SK.I W9SVI MAMMRASIr \rrAKMAip.v.>lK ixirioxm s'ii.wiia IN 1 1 l.v LOl \ At El SM & L 3 HOM N A X 1 V R AY > C\VOWNI$l>l ADSIOVISIERlxAAIIXSK 1AESI *l i E1SOK4IN II UUIMSAX 'fSflXX IR.I50TA4 MCI TRIM *MMI L\R \S\OI ISO VOv A\E HIH.V.

One

is

the Codex Vaticanus


in the Vatican

CARIA'VSIX
I

3256

(left),

housed

Library, the other a text

from the
clear

monastery of St. Gall, Switzerland.

From

this scant

evidence,

it is

that the Square Capital

was the
scripts,

U! VA. ACX VM A a )\i\ss\tyi.\M


1
<

most shortlived

of

Roman

OKI \ A M
I

1UVSI 3LVS HASI* H" ARISACE vissoLvvc R.I ov r { m iksi OVA Sl N l>\ RISAC.RESI PA AMI
1
I

and palaeographers are forced


to conclude that
in

terms of

the evolution of calligraphy the

hand represents

a blind alley.

Time-consuming work

One

reason for the short


is

life
it

of the

Square Capital

the time

would

have taken scribes to write each


letter.

The multiple angle changes and


constructions require

difficult serif

Detail from Codex Vaticanus 3256


Instead oj the more
thickJim stroke

considerable patience (pp. 22-23). While such time-consuming labour

common

In this detail,

it is

clear that the script

is

written
the fine
is

may have been

acceptable for

titles, it

of the letter R, u hairline stroke has been used

without word division and punctuation.


upright strokes of A, N,

On

M,

R, and

1
',

the pen

would have been highly uneconomical


for text, particularly in

turned from horizontal to vertical, which produces a strong contrast in stroke proportions. The triangular
The
tall
I.

comparison
16-17).

is

often

found

in

serifs that

terminate the hairline strokes have been


nib.

with the more practical Uncial


or the Rustic Capital
(pp.

inscriptions

and manuscripts

added with the corner of the pen

from

the latefourth century

M Af>0.\0\l X \VK
)

tfNSlN^EJVM.Ct^lAs
21

Roman &_Late Roman

Scripts

Square Capitals
THE SQUARE Capital broad strokes
serifs.
is

characterized by a combination of

both straight and curved

- delicate

hairlines,
is
.

to

Use the comer of the nib add the serifs of the A

and neat
the

Of the dominant broad


draw, involving
a

strokes, the diagonal


as great as

most

difficult to

pen twist

45

The simpler

vertical strokes are

made with

a single

movement

of the pen, held almost horizontally. Upright hairline strokes occur on the letters A, M, N, R, W, and X and can be made bv skating the wet ink from the main stem stroke.

Use the comer of the


to

nib

add the

serif

of the

Begin the
curve of the

with the edge of the nib

Drag

the tail of the

with the comer of the nib

Xlost Square

Tlte

comer

Capitals are

of the nib
is

about Jour pen


widths high

used for

Basic elements The Square Capital letter is about four pen widths high, with the letters F and

adding the
serifs

L drawn slightly higher than the rest. The script is best drawn with a reed
pen or
a

square-cut steel nib.

Complex
The
letter

letters

perfectly balanced

Wis one of the


letters in
It

most complex
the hand.

consists

of

The F

is

tall

one broad diagonal, two hairline verticals and


three
serifs.

series
is

of

angle changes
for
its

required

F
1.

letter, rising

slightly

above

the headline

If

construction.

Begin the

with a

2.

Make

a small

pen angle of about 45,


progressively turning
the pen to the vertical
as
it

horizontal stroke

on the

headline, then pull the

reaches the baseline.

wet ink downwards with the edge of the

nib.

IHHIZH
3.

Return

to the

4.

Now

draw the

5.

Still

using the corner


nib.

headline and build

leading vertical stroke

of the
at the

add the

serif

nTllis
is

letter}

Drag

the

tail

of the

modem
',

up the

serif under

the horizontal stroke.

with the corner of the nib and add the serif.

head of the

construction

J with the the nib

comer of

diagonal stroke.

22

Use the comer of the nib

Twist the pen from

45

to

U draw

the serif of the

almost horizontal for the


diagonal stroke of the

77ns

letter

is

n
90
to

Square Capitals

modem

construction

I
Twist the
the

The Li a L is

tall letter,

rising sli slightly

above

the heac headline

pat

slightly for

diagonal stroke of the

to

Use the comer of the nib add the serifs of the

Twist the pen from

45

for the diagonal stroke of the

Y
Use the comer
of the nib
to

draw

the serifs

of the

Use the
'

comer of

/the nib for


the serifs

of the

Use

the comer of the nib to the serifs of the

draw

Tlie two diagonal hairlines of the

can extend below the baseline

Use the comer


'

of the nib

to

draw

the serifs

of the

T IP XIEf
The

Use

the comer
to

of the nib

add

the serif

of the

is

madefrom

the

O,

with

m additional stroke for the

tail

Slightly
twist the

Use the comer

pen for
the tail

gt

of the nib to add the serifs 5 of the

of the

y^\

Tlie elegance of Square

%
\^T

Use, he comer of 'In- nib Mr the

Ik
'

l^^serifoftheK

'^t

^_
the
serif of the

_
S

^^

J4

Tlie third

and

Capitals

is

assisted

by

fourth strokes of
the

R can be
combined

VIRGIL
Two
lines

generous
spacing

inter-letter

and by

interlinear

spacing that equals the


letter

height

Use

comer of the nib

to

add the top

For the final

~5Z3>

stroke of the S,
twist the

pen

anti-clockwise

GEOR.GICS
of Square Capitals

towards the

main

stroke

23

ROMAN

Si_L.ii

i-

Roman

Scripts

Uncial

&
Uncial
(Littera

Artificial Uncial a Broad diagonal and vertical


strokes, contrasted with delicate hairlines, typify

Artificial
originated in the

Artificial

Uncial

letters.

Uncialis) THE ROMAN UNCIAL scriptor third century second

The \rnficial Uncial form oft


.

is

drawn with the pen held


near to the horizontal

A.D., possibly in

North

Africa. Although

its

beginnings are subject to conjecture, there


are noticeable similarities with the

Hairline strokes should be

Greek
and

drawn

as finely as possible,
left

using the

corner oflhc nib

Uncial

e,\c-ApnuL\i|u.\eiwcootno*:iio nii|ttt\escNiepit\iuc^icuciicc NOtfM|:MtniS'OSCC'ClV"!IM.-S


uvicrci(hil.i|piisei>,sclUissccv'

a-

curved, functional script that had


-

\OlutCllUNt CXlLcci*SVKsOtlS OetyOCINSCCUNOOlfiACIAuiOUlS


Paragraph openings are preceded
b\

been used since the third century B.C. was the official hand of the Christian Church. By the second century, Christianity was
increasing in influence throughout the

a larger

letter in

the margin

tu,\imn!Ocu>ncyK;iin\*.NoiMSfiis oi.Nflulun.\ulsiwowiMUi.W\:j KerciNT*ll.CBU!l' 1-icLnou.rhisrccitmiiv NlcsewicoNCLii piOci pno|:i:!>sto ucLeiusprxiulM'l.syclsxucMl'


'

insupcmusiLecrumesi qUOSINOROtNCRCCI i.sni

-iiiuliro
I

^crrcumReClT^HCl uiieUusepiso j" bMrcii.vspuiKo*

Roman Empire, and

UNCIAI SCRIP!
it is

hMJCNIlllX^cropLsKl.XSl.MUIOIK

likely that the early

qUACluWCpMHCSNOS'iKieco**
ClllONlCXCfOOSecuciiOciuLcuW*
cuiusrouttJMVisGiiuivr'-.v.-.

Christians consciously adapted the

Greek

This economical Uncial script was written in about 450. The pen is held at 3(1. giving a

xn

Uncial to the Latin language as a script

well-mannered, flowing quality


to the text.

i|u.\esecuNiuncoNSinuiN.vioB8 Ctl-eioOluNlUH o-nisin.vrc


pllio llNRIPROpcSSIONCKlCiCS i.d.eS!M=I|CM|U-CpCRNOSllf.".lU

MM-ocRSutocoHClUum?* Oooro
-

The

text

is

written

appropriate for their

new

religion.

as scriptuta continua

(without

spaces between words),

which

was

common

for this period.

The Uncial script was brought southern England from Rome by


missionary 597.
Its

to
the
The
revisions in the first line

St.

Augustine in the year

seem to hate been made by

later,

untutored band

name, meaning "inch" or


is

"inch-high letter",
St.

attributed to

I
-.'

Jerome,

a translator

and compiler
Bible.

cc '.\'omtKi.-\oc\:icv>u

of the Vulgate
possibly used
in

(common)
as a

He
.

encmro
:

it

term of derision,
practice

CKNCRxmU 9.*,l.a\TORrS
C|t jcxr> c:\piii

objection to the

common

txxlcsixe

The dedicatory

verse

from the

Codex

Amialinus shows

typically fine serifed

of wasting parchment by using large


letters for de luxe books.

Ocbic.vi \l.r\|icV:s
Ft: TI,'G>
C

Artificial

Uncial

letters

f.\Nt:OBM^ORUCi 3
\RIV\S

Origins of minuscules The beginnings of our modern lowercase letters can be discerned in the

Y mccnis OepiNiB\| jxx: ixis

OeciOTi
/

Codex Amiatinus The Codex Amiaiinus Bible was written in Wearmouth


and Jarrow before 716. Initiated by Abbot Coelrid. this imposing book is the
earliest

Uncial script.
rise
p,
i/,

The

letters J, h,

and

piC NOR A ODITTO CTX'.I


Cr>CC|CK:
I

above capital height while


and
r

i,j, n,

drop below the baseline.

oxxisc|opr.\NS
INTeRCAUdl.\ p.\TRlS

known

liible in

Larin and was produced


for presentation to I'ope

further departure from the capital

AN

1 1

Gregory

II.

Although
first.

form

is

the absence of any elaborate

serif constructions. This simplicity

IncacI.is

cnecnoRem
h.\IM IK I.OCUCn

mistakes occur in the

second, and

fifth lines,
is a

the

makes the Uncial, together with the Caroline Minuscule (pp. 38-39) and
the Foundational

remaining script

tout

SCCOpCR

tic forte

of the

Artificial

Uncial.

The
and

finely

drawn

Hand

(pp.

42 43),

hairlines

delicate serifs

are ot a superior quality to

ideal for learning the basics ol

pen

those in the Vespasian


Psalter (opposite).

handling and calligraphy.


24

JfSXLtlS

(IH-.\

(|(KUiVI KlWIW)

, *''

(Kn.vopuopi

Xvs oerWsou ffifwam&He xNTsapoRcoo sibciJNTes ureowT


i|(in

SvijaoTRepi

cMixes (dc.vs

uiimiIan tcttg ixicmcunei

ipsi i\i:nun\riS(JN'l

rc eciOeRUNT-

i(:oxsisi.\N'i.\0(ii:KS{iu>iin- i:\siu\No\riiTx;
imi"

ci)umocioisiis'sinu:vi"iN'iu piioiiljucr)

IN IS6c

UGO SibGRMtO/.-.

if

ii

>

..i.

n'md pern \on'oI>xm: KoquiRXaf) UTiNnXBlTem ix-oomu o.vi omxiisds oiomj.s uitxcuih \e. a<kruiOcvm cioHun r.vuun Bni irrpRO TocxK.vrcjiliishi
citn

\hsco\Oiiim;

in'txim:kx'\i:uI.os<jo ix'OioinxIp

R1H1) |>IJOTl:,VirilH:

INXIWe.OXOrTOTXISORX'XCUl.lSII

f\pi :Tli.\ eYAl.TMIITOH;

UNCMrrem
uostnoos
1..,..

cvxl xmi
i

cxpurnxum* scipuurkimi
'

i.ikc.uiiso

r'"]"' > ' i'yi'-llyruiimol.xiM) iKiaduknxcuIjo

ems hosTixm uiisil.vnovis cwiaho irir>s.\.,.><ibic\<ri


..,'.
.

..i

ie

vxucuox'ts t]Dce<.mne>m u<i.\c.L\m.\tn \o re

twiseRMteni

!i

crruvxtioiiiie-

in

Vi m-asian Psalter

I'hc interlinear ijltH* n<j%

The Vespasian

Psalter

was written

at St.

Augustine's

added

in the ninth century

Artificial Uncial

Abbey, Canterbury,

in the early

eighth century.

The
ol

The Uncial hand was


in Britain
1)1
I

well established

interlinear gloss contains the earliest

known copy

the Psalms in English.


26,

The opening D from Psalm showing the figures of David and Jonathan, is the earliest example of a historiated initial in Western manuscripts. The illuminated title is
written in built-up

by the time the twin abbeys

All

FROM

1111

VlM'AMW

I'SAI II

of

Wearmouth and Jarrow were


in

The

serifs in this detail

are slightly bolder

than those
(opposite),

in

the Codex Amiatinus


indicates the use

Roman

capitals.

which

of a

less

sharply cut quill.

674 and 682 respectively. Soon, the monks of Wearmouth, Jarrow, and Southumbria (England
founded
south of the River
I

lumber) were

win '|Hvru \oxo bxxc nequrRM


ixoomooxi oa >x use is Diei&us TuiOeMn uoluxTMCtn oxun
UO) \ftsi:o\OrniH; ixtxiscrxwi
Raa>

producing manuscripts of a quality


equal to that anywhere else in Europe.

Their work included the landmark


Bible the Codex Amiatinus (opposite).

However, the hand they were using


was not the Uncial of St. Jerome, but
a highly intricate

and scrifed version,


reminiscent ol those
(pp.

with thin horizontal and thick vertical


strokes,

and

serifs

pRomxiiiDC ix\r>scoxon
k\
i!\\\I.t\<htuh:
>

on Square Capitals

2021). This

extremely beautiful calligraphic hand


is

known

variously as Artificial Uncial,

fx ptn

Late Uncial, or Romanising Uncial

of the Canterbury Stvle.


25

Romax

(k.

Lath

Romax

Scripts

Uncial
THE
no UNCIAL
IS

&

Artificial Uncial
The
Artificial Uncial,

a practical writing hand and as such presents

X
Uncial

Artificial

Uncial

Draw
lb the

the hairline loop

comer of the

nib

difficulties to

pen.

however,

is

subject to considerable elaboration involving

many pen - but

twists
as

and changes of angle. Both forms of the script are regarded


bilinear

written between two horizontal lines

they

show the beginnings of a tendencv


development of our lower-case

that ultimately leads to the


I,

letters: F,
L rise

N,

P, Q_,

and R drop

B B
Uncial

Tlic second and


third strokes of
the
13

can be

combined

Artificial Uncial

B
For the second
stroke

below the baseline, and D, H, and

above the headline.

of the C,
and drag

_ ^V^.
i iicial
Artificial

c c
Uncial

twist the nib anti-

clockwise
the ink

downwards

Artificial

Uncial

Pull out the

tail

of the

with the corner of the nib

Uncial

Basic differences

easily

penned with
Artificial
is

.1

The Uncial
written with

letter
,i

is

steel nib.

The more
Uncial

pen angle
in

complex
Uncial

D
Artificial

Uncial

D
I

of 30. Simpler

letter

written

construction than the


Artificial variety,
it

with a pen angle ot in". It can be penned with


.1

The

Artificial

'ncial

could be enclosed

r }
"S

~^
^*
jt

For the

serifs

can be quickly and

steel

nib or a quill.

Pen

twists

In the Artificial Uncial, the


characteristic

e
Uncial

of the E,
twist the nib

[
1

A E

anti-clockwise

^^^~-^
Artificial Uncial

^^

^"l\

ink downwtirds

pen

twist that

occurs on the

serifs

of letters

G, K. L. .X, and 7 can be executed simply and quickly.


C, E,
F,

To draw
of the

the

serifs

F. twist the

nib anticlockwise
1.

Begin by drawing

horizontal hairline stroke,

using the
2.

full

length of the nib.

On

P F
Uncial

and

(fait"

the ink

downwards

reaching the end of the

Artificial

Uncial

stroke, gradually twist the

pen antiresultant

clockwise from the horizontal to


near vertical and
serif is indented,
visible at the
lift.

The

with a small blob

top right-hand corner.

Uncial
Blob

9
G

<7
Artificial Uncial

Complete the

curve
ol the

and

tail

in a

single stroke

Indentation

Uncial
The
blob
serifcan be
left

b b
H
Artificial

Uncial

H
Modern
Artificial

with the
still

and indentation

visible

Modern
Uncial J

Uncial J
The
I

and]

are

drawn

3.

The

serif can

be neatened
I

in a single stroke

by using the comer of the pen


nib to draw a hairline stroke

back up to the headline. This extension is then filled in with ink.

J
Uncial
/

IDrae out the tail ol and J Willi the the


1

Artificial

comer

of the nib

Uncial

26

Uncial ^Artificial Uncial

Uncial

k k
K
Artificial
Tlie Uncial

On

the third

strobe, twist

%*
K

the nib to the

horizontal

Uncial

Drag out
of the

the tail

Uncial S

s s
Artificial

To draw

the serifs

of the S, twist the


nib anti-clockwise

and drag

the

Uncial S

ink downwards

with the

comer
L

oj the nib

Tlw

Artificial

resembles a

version retains

minuscule Utter

the appearance

ofa

capital

Uncial

Artificial

Uncial
Both forms

L
have a

1
2

At

the

end of the
oj

second stroke

the L, twist the

ofM

minuscule appearance

an co
Uncial

Artificial

Uncial

m
first

nib anti-clockwise

and drag the ink downwards

T T ^ a ao

'-
Uncial

For the
the

serif of

T,

twist the

lib anti-clockwise

and drag

the

Artificial

Uncial

ink downwards

Uncial

Artificial

Uncial

"*

On

Tlicsv forms of

arc

the first

Uncial

Uncial

N N o o
N
Artificial

modem

cofistnicfions

stroke of the

N,

fin's/

p/i
N
Begin the

the nib to the vertical

Uncial

Uncial
stroke of the
twist to

Artificial

Uncial

near vertical angle

Artificial

Uncial

o
Drag the
left

at

45 and

w uoim
These forms <>/"W are
constructions

modem

Uncial

Artificial

Uncial

Vie bowl of the Uncial P


open than that

is

more
form

Uncial

V
'

Artificial

PP
of the Artificial

For the
the

serif of

X,

twist

the nib anticlockwise

and

drag the ink

ti'

of the P to the with the comer of the nib


tail

riu4*1 Uncial

V X

downwards

Swifrial Artificial
Uncial

Uncial

Tlie

is

A^
Tlie second

dotted

and

third

q 9
Uncial

strokes of the

Q
Q
r

mil)'

be

drawn as a
single stroke

ry
Uncial

Artificial

Uncial

Artificial

Uncial

nn's alternative

Alternative
Artificial

Artificial

Uncial

fonn

of

/his

Uncial

me appearance
tf a
capital letter

Uncial

Artificial

Uncial
Tlie simpler

Z
Fonn both
serifs

of the

by

twisting the nib aiili-dockirise

and

i 'ncial

can

dragging the ink downwards

Drag

the

tail

be penned in a single stroke

to the right

with the corner

Uncial

Artificial

Uncial

of the nib

21

.xi

pmjpCRttJspijgiiomuiri

lpsoRiim esc, TiftTiiiinardDunin


r
>.

trd iriiirsqiioiiiain ipsi possa

* * OaJll^-KT^GOmUJ ISsS
.1

'

iHjuih^aKTiiniicqiioiiiam

9 Tpsi nonsuLucbuiJum

hi

to
k

quicssftnatriKi

& sianuu

lusaaum qnomaxn ipsi toai


urn
1

n^eRicoia >es quoi i ion

ipsi n ii68CRi<

oudm m

caiisaji itrn

ipgi
PI!

dm
i

<

ndobui

rcr

- .?

.*

pan pa uiiomuin pZiTD?.

qmprasccuuouem ptfEJpL' main pnoiKmiiitTracuri quoin


;ci

ISSIIIAR MAJWiCUI.k

Insular Majuscule
The Insular Majuscule (Insular Half Uncial) derives
name from
"Insular"
is

its

its

origins in the islands of Britain and Ireland.


Latin for "island", and "Majuscule" refers

from the

to the height of the letters,

much

larger

and bolder than those


(pp.
is

of the

complementary

Insular

Minuscule

3435).
of

As
the
it

a prestige

hand, the Insular Majuscule

characterized

by letters drawn slowly and carefully, with

many

lifts

pen

(pp.

32-33).

In early

medieval Britain and Ireland,


I

was the favoured hand for sacred manuscripts written in Latin, including two of the most beautiful books ever
produced, the Lindisfarne Gospels and the Book of Kells.
Beatitudes pagb from the Book of Kells The border of this page from the Book of Kells combines and incorporates both zoomorphic and the eight initial
/is

he thickened base

is

created by

moving the pen


right of the stem
it

slightly to the

and then pushing


point

up

to the

midway

If ever there was a golden


age of calligraphy,
it

was the

anthropomorphic decoration. The horizontal stroke over "spu" in the first line denotes an abbreviation of "spiritu" ("breath of God"). The horizontal stroke is a device used by scribes for oftrepeated words. Also typical is the letter it in the 3th line, which has been extravagantly extended in order to fill space. The use of red dots to outline initials and ornament text is more sensitive and
1

beginning of the eighth century,

when Northumbria was one


Careful study of the thinner

ot

the most nourishing centres


in

/ mi on
/ I

the (gives clues to

of art and scholarship

western

the construction of Insular

restrained here than in the Lindisfarne Gospels (pp.

M)-M).

Majuscule

letters

Europe. Interaction between


scriptoriums of the twin Augustinian

monasteries Jarrow and

Wearmouth
p.

(see the Codex Amiatinus,

24)

and that

at Celtic

Lindisfarne (see

the Lindisfarne Gospels, pp. 30-31)


led to the production of

some of the

greatest achievements of medieval art.

The Book oj Kells The Book of Kells was written at some time in the second hall of the
eighth century and the early years of the ninth century, probably by Irish-

Northumbrian monks.
oritur)
'

Its

place of

shrouded

in

uncertainty and
its

the
is

first

record

we

have of

existence

an account of its theft

in

1006 from

the monastery of Kells in Ireland.

The
in the

four illuminated Gospel texts

Book

ol Kells

were written

bv The Gospel of St. Mark The Insular Majuscule is without capitals as they are used in the modern sense. Chapter openings, such as this detail from the Gospel of St. Mark in the Book of Kells, commenced
of display capitals, a Versal (pp. 58-59), or a combination of both. Verses would open with a larger character, which was often decorated or filled with colour.
a line

at least

three scribes in insular

versions of Uncial (pp. 2425) and

Half Uncial
The ascender of the
letter

(pp.

38-39)

letters.

These

slants to the right, with

would have derived from characters


originally introduced into Ireland

the Hedge serif balancing over the bowl of the letter

with

from the ancient region of Gaul bv


St.

Patrick and his missionaries.

29

Insular &,Natiqnai Scripts

TARA BROOCH
This intricately decorated brooch was found in Ireland in 18511 not
tar

from ancient Tara. The date


is

of its construction
similarities
initials in

unknown,

although striking design


with some decorated
the Lindisfarne Gospels

suggest an early medieval date.

These curvilinear patterns arc


very similar to those in the

Lindisfarne Gospels (rights

Detail from the

Chi-Rho page
and curvilinear

The

interlaced birds

patterns in this detail are almost


identical to decoration

on the Tara

brooch. This style of zoomorphic


interlacing
is

of Germanic origin.

CHI-RHO PAGE
I

hesc ornate display capitals on the

Chi-Rho
this

page of the Lindisfarne Gospels make

one

-innf4

;j3,'*l

of the most impressive leaves in the book. A variety of influences are evident, including Greek, Roman. Half Uncial, and runic. Eadfrith's use of the capitals is highly creative. There are three different forms of the letter A on this page: two on the second line, and a third, form on the bottom line (pp. 32-33).

OC

The Lindisfarne Gospels The richlv illuminated Lindisfarne


Gospels date from the end of the
seventh century,

when

the scribes

of the Northumbrian monasteries

were entering their most productive phase. The Gospels were written
in Latin

by

a single scribe, Eadfrith,

who became Bishop of Lindisfarne in 698. An interlinear gloss, providing


a translation

of the text into English,


the tenth century.

was added

in

The Durham Gospels


In addition to the

Gospels from

R&TM1LT
E

Lindisfarne and Kclls, there are a

number of other books and fragments from this period that reveal wellexecuted Insular Majuscules.
the

Among

most outstanding arc die Durham Gospels, which are contemporaneous


with those of Lindisfarne and

may even have been written


in the

Lindisfarne scriptorium.
is

The

elegant, well-balanced hand


Eadfrith's.

markedly similar to

Other

examples include the Echternach Gospels and the Book of Durrow.


30

[XSIII.AR AlAJIISCllir.

%KpiKTXJhiciiouurn

Manuscript decoration

The

scholar Giraldus Cambrcnsis,

pn aep.ru o cum

writing in 1185, remarked: "...you

mav

sav this

was the work

oi an
I

angel, not of man... the


studv, the

more

more

am

lost in fresh

amazement." He was describing,


in all probability,

the decoration
(pp.

of the Book of Kells

28

29).

This, along with the illustrations


in

the Lindisfarne Gospels and other

works from the

early medieval

pLUSSC QUI CUCCXI


'Cell cu

period, represents the highest

achievement
decoration.

ol

Western manuscript
the carpet
tilled

Scm >servu im

From

pages (pages without text and

entirely with intricate designs) to the

Qrlu cccs cxi axixpl i foot

decorated

initials

and display

capitals,

and from the shields, trumpets,


spirals,

Tjeftcaxm-diceiis

and knots to the labyrinthine

interlaces that dissolve into fanciful

Quoiiiairi
in u ta
^ e en 5 ehy. e-bhp-

Quroem
$a

animal forms, the craftsmanship


has remained unsurpassed. Today,

we view

the

work with
as

the

same

cpu oca suttc


ytVtp

wonderment

Cambrensis, often

requiring a magnifying glass to study


the fine detail.

OTrDiuajieiJajnnajaoiJc*
/;i

this Insular Majuscule text, the distinctive


serifs

wedge

hove been executed


flick of the

ub

a horizontal

pen

St. Jerome's

preface

This beautifully decorated page from the

shows the preface to of St. Jerome. The abundant use of red dots around the initial letters is a common design feature ot the book.
Lindisfarne Gospels
the text

The interlinear gloss.


written in

As well

as a

outlining the

letters,

the dots

an Anglo-

provide

background of delicate colour.


Gospels
is

Saxon minuscule
fpp.

One
The
text

folio in the Lindisfarne


1(1,0(1(1

15), is the

decorated with over


the page indicate the

such dots.

earliest surviving

rubricated letters at the top ol

translation into

end ot one and the beginning of another.

Anglo-Saxon of
the four Gospels

In this

work by Denis flnmn,

the medieval Insular Majuscule letters

have been recreated in a modern context

Denis

Brown
a

This calligraphic piece, entitled Cultural Decomposition, was created by the Irish calligrapher Denis Brown in
1993. At 1.2 by 1.6 metres (47'A by 63 inches),
it is

work of great

scale

and power. The medieval

artistry

of

the Insular Majuscule letters are seen to be systematically corroded bv the symbols of modernity, the electric cables.

31

Ixsuiar 8l \'mio\

1/

Scripts

Insular Majuscule
The Insular Majuscule
scripts.
is

among

the

most prestigious of
built

Most

letters in this

hand are

up from
lifts.

a series

Or form of a

Push the
first

The bowl

of

pan of

the 3 should

the slroke

be spacious

The oc fonn

of a

is

often used

of composite strokes and involve multiple pen

Ascenders

and descenders are minimal. The script tends to he hold, with


a letter

height of between three and five pen widths. Clear

Tlte second stroke o[

spaces should he allowed both within and between letters, and


interlinear space
is

the a finishes with a skated hairline

generally equal to about

two minim

heights.

Uncial form of a

Wedge

serif

6
b, is made by drawing a downward stroke at about 45

The sum of
the
curve to the
left

b should II

/
I

M^ki Ml

Balance the top

the stem ore the bond of the b

^^^_^ ^^^J^

c tc
Pen angle and wedge
with
.in

The
C

second

stroke ol the
is

a separate,
stroke

pushed

serifs

that

on the

Insular Majuscule letters are written

short

oblique-cut nib, with the pen

angle between the horizontal and 15.

The

distinctive

wedge

serif,

such

as

main stem. This can be preceded or followed by a hairline stroke along the top ot the wedge.
into the

T>
Uncial form

Twist the nib upside


douii
to

draw the

dart

ofd

Horizontal darts

downward
on
use the back of the
a diagonal

stroke, then pull the

pen

To
pen

create the darts that appear


I.

to the right to
stroke. Letters

make

long horizontal

letters d, g,

and

c.

nib.

Begin by drawing

stroke to the right, followed

by

a short

g and I have a second dart; create this by twisting the pen downwards to an angle of about 15.

d e

Alternative d

Tlie hairlim

of the e can k
extended
right
to th

and fuiiski
with a dim

Complete

tin

Tlw

earner of the nib

am

be

second slroke

oj the (in

used fo draw the

sliorl

dun

a single movement

Draw

the
i

am
low
sic

of the

Alternative dart

An

alternative technique to

that described

above

is

to use

the corner of the pen nib to define the dart before filling
in the outline

with ink.

on the

-/."
~V

Draw
of the

the tin

horizontal

dam
tlir

with

back of the

nib

32

INSULAR Majuscule

h
11

The

second and

third strokes

if to
<~

of the h can
he combined

Tlie serif at the top of the q


is

a variation of the

wedge

serif

I|
Sfazte (fa m//

ra

of the \

'Hie arc of the

/tit)

separate strokes

S~ST
t;
2
4

The second and


strokes can be

third

combined

[A

The

final stroke
t is

of the

pushed

m
n
14
Alternative n

1r
/it'

d/fer drawing the

im u
serif,

the

ftw

in
The
x
is

Tlie v takes
the form of a

modem u

completed without

lifting the

pen

irii
Hither of these two

ui till
hairline
In-

forms

ofn can he used

1, i3j
77w
cross stroke

of the n can
to fill
lint'

of the

extended to the right

skated or drawn

space at the end of a


Tlie

with the nib corner

is

composed

oj

two

single

opposing strokes

0)
After drawing

IfP

u
Swivel the nib upside

Draw
stroke

the third

the

serif,

the

down

ofthe

z with

can be

for the long horizontal stroke

the edge of the nib

completed in

a single stroke

33

IXSUl

IK &.

\llo\

1/

S< RIPTS

Insular Minuscule
>NGSI1
)i

EACH

()l

A<there has usually


hand for use
in

THE MAJOR prestige formal hands, developed a functional complementary

POINTl D MINIM

en

The name

derives from

everyday transactions and for writing non-

the characteristic long

.weep of the descenders.


This
i.

sacred manuscripts. In the case of the Insular Majuscule, the

in contrast

t<>

the

squarer descenders ol
ihi- set

complementary script is the Insular Minuscule, which dates from the late fifth or early sixth century. Its use continued in England until after the Norman Conquest of 1066, and in
Ireland
it it

minuscule.

has survived lor Gaelic use into the 20th century,

making

one of the most enduring of all Latin


was

scripts.

The Insular Minuscule


brought to the British

mainland

INRISl \i'-M

The
on the

Priory
site

from Ireland by
was taught
at

St.

Columba and

of Lindisfarne ee.is (bunded in 1083, of the earlier Anglo-Saxon monastery.

the monasteries oflona

and Lindisfarne. As with the Insular


Majuscule, the script was then
disseminated on the Continent by
missionary
"insular"
is

Irish

monks. The term


between
l\ /'K'H F.H.B1A
hi S.
II-

applied by palaeographers
\MOXlS
Provable Salamonis, a work

to indicate a shared culture

Ireland ,mA Britain, tree from

by the great Anglo-Saxon


historian Bede,
.in

Continental influence.

Insular

Minuscule
in

script that

was written in had been


I

on
piMirtis oti&irto
pi\<Jabiij"

Anglo-Saxon hand
After the Council of Whitby
the influence of the Celtic
in

perfected

Wearmouth-Jarrow by 750,
IAN PRAYER-BOOK minuscule from a Mercian
7~:,

t j? |

suromarrj

vwppW oiuKW 6tH0iw*w*j


*'-'*'

664,
MERI
This page of set prayer-book was written in the early ninth century, possible in Worcester, Britain.

cnaUjSram ;S

tfciilndyrain

Church

InrwitMi.ee^nvimr.tnf ahiirr.ra'

weakened
Wales and

in I:n<dand, Scotland, and

\r me>irn$tf\mlndt(Tntmiii biminnciilinre
ectUfinrtc dv^xhqvp'.rcrvem Jrtjjrtecojv
ijiti

more

distinctive AngloIts

Compare

the relatively restrained decoration


initial letter

t)m ofrrnipmnre C|\e.uirr. caeUm>


tv3 ifiieftic

Saxon hand began to emerge.


quality
is

of the

with that ofBede's

oTTeivnan-s

man

cxoirmia qiwe bifl* ss'

classed in lour grades:

Historia Ecdesiastica (opposite),

which

chltf-lnomntous *supti\ omnia

features spirals, frets, .mil knot interlaces.

\fz- tmntiTiir mibi omnia


pd'citue

Irtus Itisecnui
v.'pnve

hybrid, which contains hall-uncial

mat oxalic

civimiiu

pvi

elements and the


a carefully

oc

form of a;

set,

iWJnabuliy UlKthturh" mftvo US^i In banc


acl\CTv hon.ms- hjiiu-nr
hmii.il lnciuspi
muchiij'.liii

executed, formal hand;

hiau?rni Iituuto otCucw^


^ici'iv nej'-CKtvj\j:
1

cursive, the basic, functional

hand; and currens, the quickly

v jCT0

ueUo'iy nolldw

lurpn

.'

penned, informal hand. By the early


ninth century, the most favoured hand
in

s
verse

Incortpoiv? oetwiituiiv ctfinmnsi


'ft.>Jro
'

pnulrab aextnmm> 5 plain

otrmipcruiTCtfi'i .nn tf? iv ji a\ uVd

southern Britain was the pointed


Dot
stipple

and colour are

cursive minuscule, m(\

it is

this that

often used to decorate ilie


first letter of
.i

m
The
i

we
I

use as our model (pp. 36 37).

)l

Ml
I

ki IM

V
I

The

cross stroke o)
f*>

is

frequentlj

aural

stroke oj the

.'.-.

Ml

III

VN

I'k \\

K-BOOK

a/

link Icticrs

the leading stroke of the following p

pctqvem DCptvecon

Insular Minuscule

tppYy
ttli:rrw'<v pa"St*nTi -"ixcc Inborn?
'

cc-cj^tpTTj-dtrm v^oxronctfao
iiibBrdnwtivwilfl piwnwirqjTiio

'

lht\ whimsical decoration,

The decoration around the


Chflkm* fupcnwit
itra"ikiirni|-^:tr

with

letter*
is

transforming into las jornuil than that


I

initial

h resembles that found

animals, used for

in
C'ar.-fta;wlr canAicffe* -$vU-<trt

metalwork on a hoard in

apilals in the
it)

mJisforn

Ajgwan-CBittf pno.vrmum font*


TTnxT?rmenTft*: o*yiip7

Ircwhiddle, Cornwall

Gospekfpp.

i\)

ennras
I

i^praf oacfonm
-llj-TU:

p:

mc

ceni

Us

iui.

ECCLESIASTICA
in

Carolingian influences
By the tenth century, the Insular
Minuscule was undergoing changes,
first

CvWfT-p-

CIO

OWU>

In

Bede's Historia Ecdesiasttca

Getitis

Anglonm, written

-nonnwTtmn

c^tcti- trstot^- pwwf

njnwnmi cmincpir
*oim:n-Li:cc[^

southern England in the descenders .ire made


single stroke

about H2o.
in
.1

becoming angular and upright

and terminated by an upward Qick* The pen is lifted between each stroke.
liwufa^Kaift^
afffw-tt*

and then, under the influence of the

^wxfc--oiu.\rda-f

Opi^pnr&rj-

Caroline Minuscule (pp. 38 39), becoming more rounded. By the


1 1

th century, the script had entered

op jFpitfDJT*

fil&im infim; -wjiuh*

jmrorjJrfi

its final

phase of change, with the

-*I*-o infntEnjm hrlrr ntbnun

apqin I'Mhdncp

Bfh^^am ofjiuipi-iA'

.nu-p)i mi*?ui*t itair-pt*.

letters gaining a squarer aspect.

Changes of pen angle


The boxed capital
letters

The

short

s it

used hoth

demonstrate runic influences

medially and terminally


Innww nwla

jyfip'lcam

km* pjnfcun

n-ppq'tj
odfcs

l*

Throughout the development of the early Insular Minuscule, it was the changes of pen angle that allowed the
scribes to express their calligraphic
virtuosity. This

IDSH)MAf)OLAD

Cfttt
if

bur fj-pxnm-

wjttj Iw-ip celrtic

|t*Ji

milix irMJiIa

jofi

wtm

tjrtrc

Hum

P)ir* cplv ilf?-* yfc* lii pwiB mr-i^-ijjim *f*


trft-B

element of play seems

b*16I:iW-

pBbfe

p&m

progressively to have diminished


as the

pinnnn TiV* Vprt* cMnnjjt Kant ^Klrtr *fosi

hand became squarer.

cpcccmazjar ocq<
ptecrov ncckftr ccn

oy oti^p

il^inwn pioj- [pita- m)i Ujpn capnfo'

vpn n-pAun pin


*Pi |t*l

Katmnu -ranfoi tn^tm?*


If-f^in #itt

lu the

modern

eve, the long, spikj

^*v jjfU'Ic kirnm

<p>

Litton tSf# p-**uii

-ftWnirWiih(y

-j-[*p*

descenders of the pointed cursive

minuscule are made

all

the

more

1)1

All

ROM

IUI. ///S/"K'/1 licCl.liSIASTICA

Exeter Book
Written during the second half of the
tenth century in a fine

dominant by their appearance on letters r and s (pp. 36 37). The


other minim characters are rounded

Note the two different forms of? that occur at the end of the first and second words of this detail. The use of the upright form of the letter d in the second line is a departure from the Uncial form (pp. 24-25).

Anglo-Saxon

square minuscule, the Exeter


is

Book

and compressed, which gives

more

an anthology of vernacular poetry.

flowing texture to the page than any


of the later Insular Minuscules.
. I

decorative sweep on the


lea

Compare

this

form of a with the oe form

tmal

ofm

mas occur

at

usedin the Historia Ecclesiastics

the end of a word or line

c|in

crtetuirc^

4&
35

INSUMR ScNATIONAI. SCRIPTS


The
3
is

pointed

at the lop

Insular

Minuscule
find the ductus of the Insular
In die

CALLIGRAPHERS MAY WELL

Xl
TJie stem of the

Minuscule one of the most satisfying to accomplish.

Anglo-Saxon pointed minuscule shown here, the characteristic


pointed aspect

most noticeable on the descenders -

is

created

could be more
this

by progressively turning the pen to a steeper angle as the stroke


is

upright than

drawn. The

pen begins at the headline at an angle ol about

40 and on reaching the bottom of the descender has turned


to a near vertical.

The minim height

is

about five or

six nib widths.

<*

-1

Using the edge of


the headline with

a
.u

square-cut nib, begin

Return to the headline and begin


2.

Continue to pull the pen downwards,


3.

'7,
Tlie ascender of the (could
rise

the

downward
at

stroke

gradually turning

above the headline

a short

downward

with the pen

an

the nib in an anti-

diagonal stroke.

angle of about 40.

clockwise direction.

Tlie crossbar of the (should be on the


baseline

The bowl of tin

g could

be more
this

open than

At the baseline, the pen angle should be


4.

5.

Once

the descender

6.

On
at

reaching the
original angle,

has tapered to a point,

headline, the pen should

about 65, reaching 75 at the tip of the


descender.

begin retracing the


stroke before separating
at

be

its

<^t

Tltc letter]
is

Now proceed with


next part of the

a modem

the

the baseline.

letter.

36

Insular Minuscule

Tlie stem of the

can

be completely upright

tt

7i

>'<\

%
3

<<*h
letter

'

Create (he

w by

combining the u and v

V
o

'<

W
Tlie

'VI
1Y
'<r
>

o>
c

can he

drawn with one


stroke or two

s
%>

Use

either

one

or two strokes
to

draw the z

This
r is

modem form

of

more recognizable

than the historically


correct form

6c
Tlie tall c
f,

f.-Xk

/*=>

was commonly ligatured with


n, p,
r, s, t,

g,

i,

m,

u, x, y,

and

Long

The modem
s is often preferred

E-t ligature

37

Carouse

&_ Early

Gothic Scripts

Caroline Minuscule
At
first

The ascender

is

caual

in height to the

minim

sight, the differences

between the Caroline Minuscule


late

il.(Carolingian Minuscule) and the (see Vatican Basilicanus, below) are not

Half Uncial scripts

clear.

The main

Caroline Minuscule h The Caroline


Minuscule is written with
with the pen held at 30
(pp.
a

distinction

between the two


40-41). In

is

in the pen used to write them, the Half

square-cut nib,

Uncial using a "straight" pen and the Caroline a "slanted" pen


(pp. fact, the a

Caroline Minuscule was developed

40-41).

in the eighth
It

century as

reformed version of the Half Uncial.


1

survived in this form until the

th century, before evolving


(pp.

The minims adhere


to the headline

strictly

and

into the Early Gothic (pp.

46-47) and Rotunda

84-85).

baseline, creating neat,


legible lines
,

text

By the LATE eighth century, Charlemagne (Charles the Great,


King of the Franks), had created
a Frankish

Empire

that stretched

from the

Baltic to

northern

Italy.

Inspired by the glories of antiquity,

Charlemagne
scholar

instigated a great

cultural revival.

The prominent Alcuin of York was made


in

rMMeoiTKittdi

Abbot of St. Martins

Tours, France,

where he established a scriptorium and Court School. It was here that the existing Half Uncial was reformed
to create the Caroline Minuscule.

NO

4cr-icn
j

itolum.

mrp-ple
idee Kim^'i-Ma

huin.
!i
.'
'

Kia

A dominant

script
its

e-i-Vieibir-ex-iM
clarity

Characterized by

and ItfKlNI cyiidimVi

uniformity, the Caroline Minuscule

gradually

became the dominant


It

script in Europe.

arrived late in
in

mil mlier-til
<:-

England, but was adopted

the

creo

HI.
i

:;

!-

I-Lllf:

tenth centurv for Latin texts, such


as the

o""r

PWI

Ramsey Psalter (pp. 4243). Over 400 years later, it was


in

itu
'.

itnjMiii

rediscovered by Renaissance scribes


and,
turn, adapted by Nicholas

KIT'

Jenson and other type designers


in

Venice for their early


-

printing types (pp. 9091).


al>i

Vatican Basilicanus
The Half Uncial
form of
write
it

is

usually defined

by

its

capital

N and by the

oblique-cut nib used to

early example, probably

Although lacking in subtlety, this from the late fifth century. shows clear and unambiguous letterforms. Note how vertical the script is compared to the slanted
(p. 40).

Caroline of the Grandval Bible

(opposite).

38

Caroline Minuscule

These modern Caroline

letters

Capital

letters, loosely

derivedfrom Uncial
to

have been written in gouache


n a background of watercolour

and Roman models, hare been created


harmonize with the minuscule hand

Sheila

Waters

Composed
oeonewm*u

in 1990 by the English-born

calligrapher Sheila

eqiiiaistAnt.Artscli fee plumes

Waters, this work


is

from triecrray-wbinrflooi-ofmistr
Between tncroountxin diAirts
\r>

part

entitled

of a triptych Cloud

Conceptions from

morning sun.whichslowlybums
-ttte v.\Uev -fb^AMW.

Above.

The

text

is

arranged asymmetrically
in a stretched,

modem

Tne'Uiixe tivo" cnxnwertxt sinister rnusnroomeiixpee

version of Caroline

which stxyxwU
Iti

le.'Andliien dissolw-r

Minuscule.

The even
allow
to the

height and straightness

rnornin^rlitrlit,ASnocufiAti I couUvt-jdhupan.

Prankish Empire
The extent of Charlemagne's Frankish Empire in the early ninth century is marked in red on this map of modem Europe. As
the empire
Latin

of the
to be
letters

lines

^Mytrccsxre. 'tone? miles pAS*;'

subtle colour changes

Kent rnetl to p.\r-er>tr VAt>on_>

made

without
busy.

expanded north of the Alps, and Greek learning was carried with

the overall design


it.

becoming too

A square-cut nib

NCIPIT LIBER EXO DVS


ac-csu^t
J-t^jE|. C:

The major
Minuscule

difference

between

the Half Uncial and the Caroline


is

the cut of the pen nib.


is

The

earlier

hand

written with an

oblique-cut nib, which produces


an upright letter with contrasting
thick and thin strokes.
is

The Caroline

written with

square-cut nib,

which produces letters with strokes

pLlORU
51

of even proportions

(pp.

4041).

Textural colour

When viewed

as a

page

of text,

Stl>JTl^

the textural colour of the Caroline

ij

Minuscule

is

quite distinct from that

of the Half Uncial. While the Half

cucrnxcoB sincuLi
J

Uncial letters have a static aspect, the

Caroline letters have


thrust, an

a slight

forward

element most noticeable on

CLicv>Z>ocr>-i

the ascenders and descenders.

Minims

BUS SU1S INTRO! 6


RUfJ
p^ube-n- frmeoTv

adhere sharply to the headlines and


baselines,
script's

which emphasizes the

T
.

ordered and logical aspect.

L<Mi- Itidx. ifiXcU^rr'ZJs.btilor,


.

The square-cut pen nib gives the Caroline


Minuscule
letters

Ceo mi >~rn n
i

cixn

fm epTiJ.vlj m

a slightforward thrust

<rxd

e-c.vfe-r-

'

The Grandval
There
is

Bible
letters.

a subtle

forward thrust to these exemplary

fxc-fun'cac'fcmor-cisxoo. {epm\.<p n-z*. autne^uc'

Caroline Minuscule

They
the

are written

between four imaginary


reach the top
line,

lines:

minims

adhere to the central two

lines,

the ascenders

and the descenders reach


as

u n l u e-riiCfryjcr^i b: et u

f om rtt

cj-.

co^n.\n on eYZi a_.

the bottom line. Th>' ascenders and descenders


are exactly the

same height

the minims.

39

Caroline Sl Early Gothic Scripts

Caroline Minuscule
The Caroline Minuscule
calligrapher to master.
is

one of the reformed

easiest

hands for a

As

script, its original

function was to

communicate

legibly (pp. 3839).

The

letters are

without embellishments, the word spaces clear, and the ligatures


minimal. Although closely related to the Half Uncial, from which
derives (below), the Caroline
is
it

always written with a "slanted" pen

whereas die Half Uncial

is

usually written with a "straight" pen.

A forward slant
10
is

of about of the
letter

characteristic

Caroline Minuscule

lc

(ll
Tlie third
stroke of the

Tlie

pen angle
is

for the

hand

about

35
d

Basic elements

could be a

The minim
is

height of

continuation

the Caroline Minuscule

of the second

between three and five pen widths, with a further two or three for the ascenders and
descenders.

The

serifs

i-

T\\e sweep of the third stroke

on the ascenders of b,
and / have a clubbed appearance.
d, h, k,

of the e could
continue upwards
to

Other letters, such as /, m, and n, have slightly wedge-shaped serifs.

join the bowl

Tlie stem of the f

can also be made

Caroline Minuscule
.

Half Uncial
a is

with a single

downward
The Caroline
Minuscule
This oc form of 3
is

stroke

a two-storey,
-

characteristic

of

open

letter

the

Half Uncial

rr
Tlie Caroline

Tlie Caroline

n UUUS a
recognizably
lower-case form

Kt

Vie Half Uncial hand


retains the

Uncial capital n

Finish the h with


this

inward sweep

The Half Uncial


is

written with a

"straight "

pen

(oblique-cut nib)

Minuscule

is

written

with a "slanted" pen


(square-cut nib)

=*;

zn

or unth a foot (see


alternative n, opposite)

Skate the
the
i

tail

of

toform a j

40

Caroline Minuscule

Pull the foot of the

along the baseline

c nzj&m
for the

Use one continuous stroke

second and third legs of the

v>
Finish the

in?

with an inward sweep

or afoot (see alternative n,

below

right^

zcEZjrn
'

Finish the

with an inward

sweep or afoot
(see alternative

n,

below

rightj

_D

iL&)
Alternatively,
the

p could
strokes,

be drawn in

two

with the second


stroke continuing
to the

stem

Tlie stem of the

q could be

a continuation of the second


I

-X
4^
Tins
is

stroke

r~Trg
Long

the

traditional long

form ofs

szzs
Alternative n

Tliis alternative

foot for h,

m, and n can be
used instead

of the suvep

41

Caroline

<Sl.ik/>

Gothic Scripts

Foundational

Hand
is

NO BOOK ON
without
its

THE mechanics of calligraphy

complete
belongs
is

reference to

Edward Johnston's Foundational


it

Hand and
a

simplicity and integrity. Historically,

to the early 20th century. However, the basis for the script

manuscript dating from the year 966, the Ramsey Psalter.

Foundational
With the pen held

p
.it

Believed to have been produced by scribes at Winchester,


the

30. the weight of

77w strokes arc drawn


with a broad-edged
"slanted" pen

Ramsev

Psalter

was written

in a

hand now known

each Foundational

as

letter

appears to be

the English Caroline Minuscule, an Anglicized version

evenly distributed

between horizontal
and
vertical strokes.

of Frankish Caroline Minuscule (pp. 38-39).

Br the end of the


Crafts

19th century,

under the influence of the Arts and

movement

in

England, a whole

X>

i^ruirc

dnc die ifto:


..
*

artists
this

new philosophy was emerging among and craftsmen. The basis ol


philosophy was that the honest

fmcpeccxcoriofcuftrodireco tfcrar nri dnerniiaxrcnn


j:

construction ol an artefact was

achieved only by the correct


interaction of tool and material.

tac

mifencoidu oia drie

Medical student Edward Johnston


readilv
in

fug nof quern acimodum

endorsed

this idea

and began,
writing
In

fpenunmufimr
I

1897, to experiment

in

letters with a

broad-edged pen.

nrc drie fpenunnonconfiin

1899, his work came to the attention

dAr iru<Vemum

of W.R. Lethabv, Principal of the


Central School of Arts and Crafts
in

London,
In
at

who

invited

him to teach

classes in Calligraphy

and Illumination.

mediate orm opera dm dno


)

'

1901

Johnston also began lecturing

the Royal College of Art, London.

LuidarrcVfiiper exaltanr

cum

tnfecuLi

Luidaa
In this detail, the

en anqdx

dm dnofecdi dno
dno

B B

enaquAeorrirqiaefupqdof
lunr driaiJ canfmrxux^fdnidno \
en ibl&lunx
.

"lumped" serif on the

has

hecn completed after the

Mm has been drawn


Psai

The Ramsey

The Caroline Minuscule of the Ramsey


calligraphic
Illuminating
qualities
I

Psalter

bencdicnr ftrtUe edi dno

was one of the hands on which Johnston's work was based. In H'riiino and
and
Lettering,

he

stated, "it

h.is

.ill

the

chcrnifimbcrd^rofdno

of good writing in a marked degree, and consider it, taken all round, the most perfect
satisfactory

and

penmanship which

have seen".

42

FOUNDA Til MA I Ha \'D

fpi ::,

cdfcmiuTinopqruxi
LETTERS COPIED |fROM A^lOm-CENTUKr ENGLISH MS.

kwiuJi.i*.

oft*

aesG
-

six

CONSTRUCTION OF "SLANTED-PEN HANDS'


:

DEVELOP
I I
.

&T OF "SUNTED'PEN "HANDS


t-.

tit/

' (i'.i,l,

tuij ihintm^k nJtruntir.*^.

u jrrrmimiiulv thuf
j.%1 flu-uiii

71i v.jui^.-j d
i.-rr.u

M neatly imlbr;
-

iwtV!

io* Cnflury li JiniiJj-iin Oir t,trU rvmin^-iHal.'-liwi*} if Fruufi iim" 0:iili^Virf'u/(f"KjTJi-(t'i'htii u iiJ, nxuA)

2 TKf fnuvie. Hp* tutkt i)>mU dw WfAK f*:.^uf jmwiii.iJJ ^ourali. .-.(..l,:,
.

.,

'r iiiiui.ii

A- the Uimv" ait nvii^li >=i tvupini ni

uW

tivi

b&M - 41 Ui lly u
i-i'-ct ii u-

VTc Uiirunxrr rmnul- ucp<cc-nocci-cdtCilxi


I
|

hxljijur etMiitijtpunJ \.f. I.e. with *orsnanjlil_.U>'


'

and u .lIE-IilD in oj"rf.i aiuonaliw* jwnvU Ka.tUrarfori.71J JHF.lt *iwi^*ni J<^MTTP^R**^i*'*in^^B^JKf*n*B


, *

black

lmq^^fw

n!r iwccwii.tai^)iii j

iw/ic niiu

roman'small

Letters

11.

abcderaiiiiklninot)Qqrstuv.vp
AN
ITALIC

HA\D

innLfartni At TtmAhmihI
1

LJ(l Vi.WlTiuwnrli^mJrI*i>vwiWe\<
.! > l
i

wind

TV du*Juaiftjn.-i (foV ITALIC HmVi ot Umal vvmjMt>n,; h-iiiclww 1 Nwrwoi Aawwi mt*4iA.wi fn" wVMfWftUfe] SmmJU) ...MllTinraaiTl.t|.*jtttti.M(i)i..; JMfll SlOff |, -)lt'.lJth(BHj jr-u ri rf.vrWiflu;
1

^J*J.'2.*tfM Ujfinr(Mia4SiiH i*b*t /' i'l, J LI./.,'/ . I ,**..

^ dawn I'n^wmlNwJ

Edward Johnsti >\


Through
teaching.
his calligraphy, design, writing,

and

abbedefc/hi
It

kllmnopaS StUUVWXVZ&^jb^Sg
j
reman uiptui M,^.,U4^'w^r*iff*}
'

the

Edward Johnston became one of the most influential pensmen of the early 20th

Century.

He

is

pictured here using his favourite


quill.

writing instrument, the

"Slanted" pen letters


Johnston was encouraged
in his

A ROMA)3\SMA]J-lE7TERHWDwif.tr*^ Vjr^tiwraUlinruy^^^uwI^JTmi^

work

AitJiuthinGENERAL NOTE 2 A wr, hwi rub sfivtuA. mnbdir tmff&tfciif ' d'4K "Aiiwur - Ait ifAr aKwrtdwry firm An*mwiubui^u*ur*tfc/;.w^** iou/a^

*%K%K" '*'

by Sidney Cockerell, the former


secretary to William Morris,

who
Psalter.

" SMALL-LETTERS, rtwi **&! /,*#. m V >,4,v,i,t*tf. timi /. tut,, to, ... an excellent formal hand for MS. work and to develop into later forms (Rcf. W. & L. cullo. VIII. &r pp. joj-jio). rapid and practical haml for modern MSS. (Ref. W. L. eollo. XXI. fc pp. 311-3'S)' II. luIklhnJ: L.collo. XX. fie pp. 310, *8ij. HI. Rimaa Small-Isller IU*J : suitable for the most formal modem MSS. {Kef. II. and 111. may be taken as MS. models for practical adaptation to f>rintitt', painting, curving, &c: ci. Pis, 10, it, 14, 10.
l LATK
I,

6,_-

SLANTED-PEN
.

introduced him to the Ramsey


It

FaunJtilianiil Han.! :

was then

that he

wrote to

a friend:

&

W.&

"And

so the idea

came
work

to

make
In his

living letters
Jf* -i I.J-H"
Mi
: -1. 11/ ..

with a formal pen".

p*.<i.i.(,-fliit..r.i

great instructional

Writing and

Illuminating and lettering, published


in

1906, he explained his preference

WORKSHI
.1

I-

lii 1909, in collaboration with the artist Eric Gill, Johnston produced scries of student worksheets on which he described the Found.1tio11.il H.ind as

for "slanted"

pen

letters,

such as

those

in

the

Ramsey

Psalter, oyer

Ct fiocc sctibimii^
vbbis utgaiidatfe
o^Qaiidiuni vestruni
sit plenum.

develop into later forms". On he modified the Ramsey Psalter script by making it lighter and more upright. and he included his characteristic "sharp-headed" serifs.
"excellent for formal
to

MS

work and

the Half Uncial letters written with


a "straight"

the sheets,

pen

(pp.

38

39).

Drawn
at 30,

with

broad-edged pen held

the "slanted" letters had the greater

strength and legibility, and the text


they produced was of an even weight.
.

rka (sr<iiiiiuncwtitJ.QjMra
r
,

Careful consideration of
weight,
this
iintl

text size, letter

flHdiwmusabajtfaraiuiKfmnus wwfe Qyoiiiain Dais (uxtsn fi ttiwbmf hi cw nan sum ullac.


:

spacing

is

dcmonnratftl in

"Sharp-headed" serifs The most marked diflerence between


Johnston's letters and those of the
Caroline Minuscule
is

mature work hi Johnston

the serif on

ascenders. Regarding the "pushed"

Study sheet The main text of this study sheet from l')l') is written in Johnston's own fully developed Foundational Hand. The ascenders are more ordered and shorter than
those demonstrated on the earlier worksheet {above).

pen strokes used lor "lumped"

serifs

as forced, Johnston advocated the

use of "sharp-headed"

serifs

made

Johnston's mastery of Italics

(pp.

94-95)

is

also clear.

from "pulled" pen

strokes.

43

Caroline Sl Early Gothic Scripts

Foundational

Hand
is

A
I

A MOST

AS IMPORTANT in calligraphy as the lettcrforms


in

the

manner

which the words are

laid

out on the page and


its

the textural effect that they achieve.

With

regularity of ductus,

in which arches, curves, widths of letters, and internal spaces all relate, the Foundational Hand demonstrates a perfect evenness of

texture (see Inter-letter spacing, below).

The pen angle

is

about 30
is

increasing to about 45 for diagonal strokes.


five nib

Minim

height

four or

widths, with a furdier three for ascenders and descenders.

a b
c

To draw the serif and stem of the b,


see letter
1

Ml thefirst
strobe of the c

along the baseline

d
The key
As
this

To draw
of the d,

the

serif and stem


stf
\

letter

letter

useful to explore the construction

composite character of it. d. c, ii. and q shows, the o is the key letter of the hand. Take time and care to

of Foundational

letters

by drawing

them with two


together.
to the

pencils taped

The

pencil points relate


nib.

compose

its

two curved

strokes.

It is

comers of a pen

Internal spaces

The

elegant oval

of space within the


letter o

provides the
to

model

which

all

other spaces in the

hand should conform.

ideally

To draw
Inter-letter spacing

the serif

and stem of the


h, see letter]

The

spaces

between

letters

should be

as

consistent 3S possible.

Many

scribes train

their eyes to study inter-letter spacing as

keenlv

as

the letterforms themselves.

oil lira*
44

A>
V*

To draw
of the
letter
1 i

the serifs

and], see

Foundational

Hand

fr
To draw
the serif

and stew of the


k, sec letter
1

t
1

Pull the second stroke of


the
t

Push the edge of


the nib

along the baseline

downwards

Return

to

the top

to the left (\)

2^
curve to

and pull

the

pen

downwards

to

draw

Make an inward

the stem (3)

join the main stem (2)

^
To complete
the
letter,

pull the

To draw
u, see

the

"V

serif of the
letter
1

'

'%

m
To draw m,
see letter
1

stroke along the baseline (3)

t
;

*m
Tt

v %y$

the serif if the

n
O

To draw
serif of

the

~\

W
I

then,
1

see letter

jfcQ
draw
the

PTo

^W
II

serif of the p.

see letter

O
r

T)ie fifth stroke of the the

can begin

to

left

of the stem

Turn

the

pen

nearer to the

horizontal to

broaden the
second stroke

of the z

r
s

To draw
see letter

the

serif of the r,
i

Tliis alternative

&
9
^^^

'(kj'

easierfor beginners to

g may prove pen

than the traditional form

To avoid

the

s lilting,

stretch the first stroke

horizontally

Alternative g

J
^^^<
45

Caroline &_Early Gothic Scripts

Early Gothic
Caroline) THE EARLY GOTHIC script (Proto-Gothic, Late from the of western Europe

The pick

at the

head of the new

can either he drawn as an


stroke or

maul

added on completion

was used widely


1

in

most

late

1th century to the mid-1 3th century, a period that

fell
The how
auite

between the end of the Caroline era and the beginning of the Gothic. In retrospect, the script can be seen as transitional between the Caroline Minuscule (pp. 38-39) and the Gothic
Textura hands
(pp.

is

compressed, giving
if

an oval

aspect

5057), for

it

contains characteristics of
the
Early Count
letter
is
/<

each, including the rounded


split

bows of the Caroline and

This Early Gothic


written with

ascenders of the Quadrata.


script

the pen at an angle of about 40.

The Early Gothic


Minuscule.
It

The Winchester
The
illuminated

Bible
the Winchester

evolved directly from the Caroline

initials in

was more compressec and oval than its predecessor and greater attention was paid to such
details as serifs
Its

Bible represent a high point in medieval


artistry

and are the work of six


Elijah

different
I'

These ruhricated capitals


reflect

illuminators. This initial letter

the

Book of Kings shows

from being

the use of Rustic


titles. Iscc I'hc

Capitals lor

and the

feet

of minims.

consulted by the messengers of Ahaziah.

hierarchy of scripts, p. 16*

development was possibly the


lncii'n'IiBrR

IT

simple result of scribes altering their

a S3 .VI. /' ./so.


ton

pen nibs from square-cut to obliquecut. This


letters

uitwMtfM IaKH
4015.

produces more angular


...
.... I,
i.

~\i

Mwlnrn<fi riir(sjir^

sivf
h
c
.

nUTiAt--urn

and gives an upright aspect


The difference
letters written

to a page of text.

"
..

motulilnrf crndutittm (cvnioncm

I
..

kibuimnf-

ud (Mrrutvlurii asfts

between

with

j^il

mt\
.

iitjuKrliwfum lca ,<fHi, V<:Fra'>tr


.

nin:
.

......
I

|1l'iiirtfm.ra .nq-.inftrom jffiw(rcni


I

square-cut nib and those written

<

turn-urn
'

moan hi af mtmup tew

with an oblique-cut nib can be seen

(IV

when comparing
Bible with the

the Winchester
Bible
(p.

M dimmf okdtre ctvictiUs -'quo twetwn ucr Ivjjnltntim- a BW mum tt


civp<rs

'

nwcnfquf .ifcliKof <tiwcr. Hunc de mi-fit


'

Grand val

39).

IliHinlnv
-

The Winchester Bible The Winchester Bible is one of the most outstanding books ot the Earlv Gothic period. Commissioned
by Henry of Blois, the Bishop of Winchester, Britain, it dates from
about
1 1

ntf dwelt rempuf .idmouer. .rctr. njfunt:tno ncm fdctamctrrovutn dcn:-v}ium .imt luimlmiim fiyKCifinmrt'mti munAim wwhnn intcucrf: ptwhdtfli ponui qitmn (didrffe cftmul
i-ctmtf. Ocmde q.t mupirurnilnrf

The
is

initial illuminated

d v/C\ aft mi-tttnorittn dent :qiutnfi cam 1<rnw ,iliqiiifYiVOTvnTcr-Apcnce igrcur,.uircSodorcm tint crcroc llUtto itoto immcrs ictainmronira

meW

mm

extended toJill the

X btmm
ill
l

auntc- qct nobis ficcmncuiimul'cOTn .u^twinf edebramxf myfen_

length of the column

of text

St.

Ambrose,
is

HtW itltf- tpbera qi (ft aiy<nre <tr ucrrtunif nrnifqurfq: .id jctm qd irrouToaOTur cocjnofattc- 'I1'"' W&ondttW msmmifli deberormuni p oc mi-fttnum celcbrautr rye numafec ficitc lecnmtrf

mm

curorer <*fintfom-\xidUoitracm;.qiu.\immmi ttnabjr <vlnrduI

50. Written with a "straight"


at

De Misteriis I
This page

from a
at

pen held

an angle close to the

theological tract

horizontal, the script features short,

probably penned

n Jkenj uroj cfinfrfe few wort" .uxnttr : in atrmj qiUAtaaufiftt _ oiran dodwr- fctmrum mm decekrc- toft bee rrfa-ara unit r f&ftbuitKtivflitf cS rcqsticntaomf Cicwnum Swepetc quid mwrrogaCftf raopwfcc quid ttfpondaiS fLcnuncufti chabolo *op<nbtifni'

neat ascenders and descenders. These

Rochester

Prion,'.

mnnde oL'bwimcd.KtioluptaabuS-Teneairuottiu-nonintu
railo mortuottmi
uafcfc
,'1d

Britain, in 1130.

The
hand

inUbro imiarainn-S 'tdifti tUiclcttnanr

create

more

interlinear space than

Early Gothic

fifdoctm, uidiftifutmnu Ciccixlocctn . rloli amlidsrare wrporum futunii- tid mmtftenorn -jrim ttyfttrnimf onjdif

longer ascenders and descenders

would, and so
the line.

aid the reading of

Many of the Lombardic

complete contrast to that of the Winchester Bible (above). Although the nib is square, the pen
used
is

in

Wc^cS frarc faiprom ft qua

ctirtodiunr facn

lik.- >.

iliS^-

Capitals in the Winchester Bible,

is

held

at

an angle

used both as display capitals and as


capitals within the text, are

close to 40,
results in a

which
strong

among

headline, reinforced

the finest of their kind (pp. 62-63).

by a sturdy

baseline.

46

.!/</>

Gothic

Paper maker

The
This Venal letter
I

earliest

European

departs from

paper was
The pen
is

made from

Gothh conventions
informality of

in the extreme
its

rags of cotton or linen.

decoration

held
St.

at

a shallower an^le
IX*

than in the
MisU'riis
I

Ambrose,
f

which were chopped. soaked, and laid on a


sieve before being

manuscript

opposite A

resulting in less lea.ihle lines of text

pressed and dried. In


Britain, relatively fine

paper was available by


the 12th century.

doqim imzrtextu&ttiylfa
paraf lance tnodasm
pondus

nam ttinaeihlibtmiotierpen1dtfi
vcv xrtruifq; huttc netp mmicdtfcuCCicml

depnmac- eq? riirfus zmporincu


ncuacuiirchnquaxr-7 AXi^quip pc etuf tettcmup tzttira atLexmrixp

concepaeme futtc gpMldf farqfcjp


cos

ad Cohan venetr farfhma nittr*


miexcenonh peep

kanx norma, p fwaT incurtam pttec-,


ttonnullfuero

nf inferuuunr'uc Ci quiCeas ftibn


liiiCpmmnt^dcCidemcr 1 iirtFquibe

ml muctitaT'tcdhoc Ctbi eoZquod


CouClomnzar abCcondactyndebertw quoq: nartxaoiter htdxmca per
Cigpihcmotie diamrToUmfucob

uirj^Cpopuleafuindef&amtgda.
texuf-

tSctxpUxaniC- ejxparct decav-

vcauiv eafdezmcaCq: comcibufm

^tfqqpexpolumhiaznc candov

umdtogtnapfeTunc'''azq: mbunc
fubdinir;.

&Ppamrc; TtLt a. qupittccgrx cmif-

fnadu- colai effeAuf-e- wmuffVbi

PoCwvq: eaf mmu&ftr*

Caroline &_Early Gothic Scripts

Early Gothic
EARLY
has an upright,
the headline of the

Tlw bowl on

the

a should be large

GOTHIC SCRIPT is written with a "straight" pen and compressed aspect. The wedge serifs on

horizontal stress to

minim characters help create a strong the text. The minim height varies between
six

f
The ascender height
of the b can equal
that

approximately four and

pen widths, and ascenders and

descenders frequenth equal the minim height. Because ol the 0 and 40 - various great variation in pen angle - between 1
types of serifs are included in the hand.
all is

of the minim

V_

The most

distinctive of
k,

the split serif on the ascenders of letters b, d, h,

and

/.

d
Split serifs

1j
Omit
the crossbar
create a

"Filled" serifs
ascender with a pen angle of 40.
serif and

Create the

split

third

method
the
is

involves
(C).

drawing the

left

main stem

first,

then

""filling"

split serif

adding the thinner right serif (A). Alternatively, extend the thin serif into the stem (B).

The pen

held at a constant
letter.

30 for the whole

of the f to

long form ofi

9
Titefeet

Alternatively,

the

could

h
in

on the of

completed

straight strokes

three stroke)

the

minims terminate

with an upward
turn

of the pen

77ie h could
alternatively have

serifedfoot

Early Gothic
letters

Flat-headed and

wedge
is

serifs

should be

fourth serif variation


10.

the flat-headed type (D),


strokes,
is

written with

an

created

by overlapping two

with

pen angle
serif (),
ii.

Thcj

is

<.'

oblique-cut nib

of about
as the in

fifth serif

type
/,

the

wedge
p,
r,

modem

which appears on the

letters

HI, n,

and

as

well

modern letters j, v, and if. This can be drawn one or two strokes, with a pen angle of about 40.

48

Early Gothic

fc rc ^
/

4-

Pull the first


stroke of the
1

along the baseline

C u
5*
4
77ie v

Thefirst stroke of the


c

foii/d

extend above
the headline

xrit
i

m
:tr

^
i

V
15

modem

V
'/it
Tlie second

construction

&
1/
Tltt

<*'\T {
w
is

modem

3
<>
Tliis

construction

(i

?
Z
is

and
of the

third strokes

x cum be combined

Tltex has a i
distinctive tail ctive

^^/

^m/

y*
:
This ligature between
the long
5

and the

half I can be used


o, and
*

Tlie halfr

constructed
t is

a distinctive

after letters b,

with a single stroke

feature of the

hand

1
Full
r

Half r

S-t ligature

*8
49

C-t ligature

Gothic Sciupts

Textura Quadrata
3th century, the Early Gothic THE BYscript BEGINNING of thea non-cursive, angular hand known as had evolved into
1

the Textura

Quadrata (Black

Letter,

Old

English).

The name

indicates the

woven appearance of the

lines

of text, "Textura"

meaning "an even effect in weaving". The script represented a revolutionary change in calligraphy - after centuries of emphasis on clear letter recognition, individual letters were
suddcnlv subservient to overall tcxtural effect.
The
script's

Textuka Quadrata
most distinctive teature
is

,\

the

diamond-shaped terminals of the minim

strokes.

With

its

dense, angular strokes and


feet, the

diamond-shaped heads and


Quadrata
graphic
letter
is

to

many people
ol the
it

a
?-<3

embodiment

Middle was used

?&

Ages. In northern Europe,


into the
liturgical
1

6th century for high-grade


manuscripts, second only
its

faiimeGmonrficnietiialJcatra.
385

in

prestige to
(pp.

twin script die Prescisus

b cjlQuani Diietut noiniius


aiumfffiattiitmtJS foe*
totalis ptfiif. tofttam tun lattOf

5455). The Quadrata 's decline

as a

de luxe bookhand may have


its

been partly due to

large size; the

demand for smaller, hand-held books meant thai more modestly sized scripts such as the Schwabacher
(pp.

offtnmus.fiqpltatrpiantK*

74 75) and Humanist Minuscule

uc cuius muuftrai

utcrttlu

fmu

(pp.

90 91) were more suitable.

However, the Quadrata did survive


into the 20th century in the

nuts tmiimtn.fitfttacnis ciustro


Cainutattrpu.^.jnfta canonoii.

form

ol

cut letters, stained glass letters, and


titles

on deeds,
favoured

as well as
in

being

much

Europe by

annaiwroulanoitcfmu
imtismcr quant tiDtoffr
to ego

signwriters, shop owners, and

designers of newspaper mastheads.


77ic outlines of Vcrsals

famulus tuus ob D ton m

and

illustrations were

drawn

in the spaces provided by the scribe: here.

they have been outlined in metalpoini. with the

quoincoitntatuscsminuuftc

gold and colour

still to

be applied

The Metz Pontifical


This beautifully crafted page from an early
14th-century French manuscript shows Textura Quadrata at its finest. The even, textured effect of the page is created by the scribe's meticulous
scribe

no facto coiiftituor Cicnftmm


ouftcro

Out placatus acctptasffi


c
-

minim height. The may have used an oblique-cut nib. which would have made the production of fine hairlines
regulation of spacing and
particularly easy {pp. 14-15).
capitals
,S

IS

Note

the rubricated

and /. preceded by the capital P. The stroke through the stem of the P denotes the
contraction ot "par", "per", or "por".

*A%*

50

Textura Quadrata
Painting in Chichester Catheijrai
This painting shows Bishop Sherbourne
asking King

Henry

VIII to confirm the

charter lor Chichester Cathedral.


1

By the
1

ital*Kflf

time the work was painted in 5 Quadrats would have been obsolete as
hand, appearing only occasionally
in

9,

the

a text

brush-

drawn form. The artist has padded out the text on the top line with awkward word breaks. The inelegance of these breaks is possiblyexacerbated by the requirement to place the word "Rex" above the Kings head.

The
The
split

text

on the hook

ascenders

includes the alternative

and descender* have


been exaggerated,

Gothic

a.

which features

a double crossbar

pameuarlv on the
descender

through the counter

of the p

Di

\n

from Painting

in

Chichester Cathedrai
1 he split ascenders and descenders are
-

Dotting the and j The characteristic uniformity of the


i

particularly

developed

in this

brush-drawn

Textura Quadrata letter produced


an interesting innovation that remains
in

version ol Quadrats, but they have caused

the

artist difficulties
/

A and

- the ascenders of letters clash with the descenders of the /is.

use today. Having been easily


letters, the
i

mistaken tor other


Many
strokes, such as those
s,

was

distinguished from other letters by a

on the

terminate with

Hick (by the late 14th century, this had

hairline flourishes

evidence of the scribe's


virtuosity

developed into

a dot).
/,

The

letter

also

Xrt.a.to.c.Tj.

doubled up

as a

acquiring

a tail

when

so used. This change, along with

The counter of this large

.f.g.\)a.k.

the late medieval inclusion of the w

Venal

is

used to display

and the differentiation of r and

gave

the coal of

arms of the

d'Orgemom family

l.m.n.o.p.q.r.hC.
jC.tr.tt

us our 26-lcttcr Script status

modern
is

alphabet.

Gothic alphabet
This page from
calendar-,
a

jr.fc.*.&
3trr
ttoftir
(|ttir$

The

status ol a script

generally

determined by the number of


separate strokes and pen
its
lifts

hymn-, and
Guillaume
dates
It

prayer-book belonging
to

used

in

creation,

distinction particularly

d'Orgemont
gives us
.in

discernible in the Quadrata.

from about 1386.

almost

Generally, the

complete alphabet of Textura Quadrata


letters,

compressed the

more angular and letters, the more


in their

including

two

strokes will have been used

and s. Close examination of


versions
r.

of a,

the letters suggests


that the

construction.

useful indicator ol
is

the status of a script

the bowl of

pen may have

the letter a, which can range from


a

been cut obliquely.


This would explain
die relative thickness

low -status, almost cursive form

(see the Painting in Chichester

of the stem strokes.

Cathedral, above) to a high-status,


rigidh geometric lorm (see the

compared

to the

diagonal and

diamond

strokes.

Gothic alphabet,

left).

Gothic Scripts

Textura Quadrata
THE ESSENCE OF THE Quadrata
with strokes differing as
is

Tlie bowl of the

the formal, upright letter


possible

a can be more

ounded

little as

from one another.

Curves are practically eliminated and the formality is only broken by the use of hairlines. These include the skating strokes
that

occur on letters

a, e,

and

r,

created by dragging the wet

ink with the corner of the nib. features are the split

The Quadrata 's other distinctive ascenders and the diamond feet on the
a

minims, applied with only

small space between each one.


Basic elements A "slanted" pen
(square-cut nib)
is

Tlie final stroke

used for the Quadrata.

of the c can a hairline

be

The pen

is

held

finished with

at

an angle of between

35 and 45 for stem


strokes, adjusted to
a

shallower angle for height

connecting strokes.

Minim

is

generally about five

pen widths. The


relatively large size

of the

letters

makes

the use of a reed

pen

ideal.

Join the third

stroke

of the e
of the

to the stem

minim

Drawing
The
split

a right serif
is

ascender

drawn

in

two
to the
stroke.

Adding a left serif The pointed left serif should be


little

Tlie ear of

the

could
a

strokes.

Begin the

right serif above the

shorter than the right one.


its left

Turn

II
^k

be drawn as

headline, pulling the pen


left

down
one

the nib onto

corner and use


stroke.

separate stroke

to complete the stem in

the

wet ink from the previous

77if

upward
i

stroke
can

above the

and j

Textural effect

be substituted for a Inter-word space should


be equal to about two nib widths full

To

inner-letter spaces

achieve the ideal textural effect of Quadrata, and inter-letter spaces should

diamond

stroke

each equal the width of one stroke.

52

Textura Quadrata

AT

If

77if cross stroke

I
I

of the

ran if

finished with

a hairline

i
-^

n
^
g
6 Mifcc jure
r/iii/

Make sure
left

that
is

a small space

m
n

a smart

i*pdfc is left

between
each fool

rt

between the

two diamond
heads of letters

u and V

of the ni

Make

sure

that small

spaces are

J
*^ -

left

between

the three

diamond
heads of
the

; u

Drag

the

tail

of the

x with the wet ink of the second stroke

N
i

n tl
5
I

Drag

lite

ink

with the comer

U
CH
O-r
ligature

Tl-

1
^^^
2 The
hairline diagonal

of the nib

to

complete the
split serifs at

the feet
letters

of

p anil

7
i The right-hand

of the z can be drawn


as a separate stroke

Skate the hairline


of the r with the
corner of the nib

The halfi
can be used
to

follow a

right-hand

bow

Skate the
hairline of the s

bow of the p
the left-hand

can

be joined with

with the corner

of the nib

bow of the e

Conjoined p and Con

simuapec
catomm ti on (tart<&ttt cad) cdra xm^
"^rw

plmUajtdotntm ttbltttirafctus
i

legtnuftnrdtiabtfdtcatno^
ft

mccmcittam Ugnum cjb plan ramm efHem* decttrfus aqttaro r

^fc^

Textura Prescisus

Textura Prescisus
(Textualis Use of the Textura PrescisusQuadrata
Prescissa,

Black

Letter) paralleled that of the

(pp.

5051), both
its

in its

duration as a bookhand and

in

the development of

textural style.

The two

scripts

even used the same Capitals


is

and Versals

(pp.

38-59). The chief difference between them

indicated by the adjunct to the Prescisus 's

name,

vel sine pedibus,

which translates

as

"with

its

feet cut off". This refers to the


in the

Vie square-ended
Prescisus feet contrast

square -ended bases of the


The Winhmii
Tlie
i

minims and descenders

hand.

m
The
flat feet

Textura Prescisus m
of the
Prescisus are the script's

with the

diamond

feet

of the Quadrata

most
I

characteristic feature.

Psalter

was written in England in about from The Judgement of Solomon, the tine filigree work is done with a sharply pointed quill. The steep pen angle used for the text produces typically angular letters with strong diamond heads and narrow minim strokes. Stroke width and inner-letter spacing are equal.
Windmill
Psalter

nmtaittr&aratWrr
|irtoniiiii(itiintiln

Both the Quadrata and


Gothic script
(pp.

the

1290. In this folio

Prescisus evolved from the Early

46 47) and date


1

iraimDctminrmel
fiairipisinfptnif
Uitattlni&fttintnc
[ttiplftt6 aictfusft

from the end of the


the

2th century.

Palaeographers are uncertain which of

two came

first. It is

possible that

the Prescisus originated in southern

totopue couim qui ocmiiiinit


I iiiirin

England and spread to France, where


scribes

iinnffiifaptrtntt

were inspired to develop the


likelv the result

tipuO Ooniimntirtqui lo

jflmturmdld dOucrme dimiidm#?

mmtommume
pftmdninfaimi

Quadrata. The arrival of the Prescisus

was most

of a creative

jnuamrasiSE
gttii pontine Oommcfor mcrii $|
pioptrrnontai
cftntifcnroiOid

burst from a calligraphic virtuoso.


But, whatever
rapidly
its

jrmmanomscrfa
atii6tti(b?um-H

origins, the script

mum rquui ftidtiie

became a more prestigious bookhand than the Early Gothic.

tudSBHH^i
cotttttrtM
Till. OllMISHY PSALTER The Ormesby Psalter, written
in

precise

hand
was a
its
It

|bfrdmrc|uid cgniU6/rpdtt
frSgo

As

a script, the Prescisus

fum:t an thrum

tour Jc force.

was

as precise as

name

suggests and scribes needed a

Nunidhmrdmr
fj&

particular dexterity to use a "slanted"

ami Ocdindtdbld tii6 funtrt tratlfae fmn (initio


inttutniKd

East Anglia in about 13(10. reveals a

more relaxed form of Prescisus than


that used in the Luttrell Psalter.

pen to produce the

artificially

constructed feet that imitated the

The Luttkei

Psal

ER

4 z& <Snuid tnca ntfirnidtd ftttiTd ic &


V
v
: -

The

Luttrell Psalter, written for a

wealthy Lincolnshire landowner in about 1325-35. is Prescisus writing at

work of a "straight" pen (pp. 56-57). The length of time it took to write the script meant that it could be used
only for large, prestigious books.

The lines of text are uniform and condensed, each stroke neat and
its

finest.

Use

started to decline during die late

precise.

The

thickening ol minims

towards their base may indicate a twisting of the pen (pp. 5657).

Gothic period, and the introduction


of printing saw
its final

demise.

The diamond heads of minims arc


following a curved stroke

characteristic

bath of both Textura

scripts

f\%,

LUTTRELL luttrell

Detail from the P.SAI uk i'sai R


1 1

pioptrrnomen tuutrnquta faa


>~>

Gothic Scripts

Textura Prescisus
THE PRINCIPAL DIFFERENCE between the Quadrata and Prescisus
is

Drag

the ink with the

corner of the nib to

7
{'

complete the foot of the a

the latter 's absence of diamond feet

on

letters a,

m, n,

r, t,

and

u.

The

split

ascenders on
in

b, h, k,

and

f, h, i, k, I, are reduced
the

or flat-headed (square-ended) and,


script, letters a, c, d,

the extreme form of the


'lite split serif of

and

e are

even deprived of a baseline stroke.

Prescisus has a

more

clearly delineated base than the

Quadrata and

interlinear spacing

is

approximately equal to the minim height.

1i

can be replaced with


the flat-headed type

J ^
%
3

o
SI'

P
A
hairline can be
c

included on the

is

diamond-shaped

Common

elements
a

approximately

five

pen widths and

I
Tlie hairline of

The Quadrata and Prescisus have number of elements in common. Lioth have a minim height of

both are written with a "slanted"

pen (square-cut nib). A pen angle of 45 is usual for both Textura scripts.
Twist the pen 1
Twist from
the lop of the stem

^^
I

Outline

^^
by

the foot

45
-I

at the bottom

drawing along
the baseline

of the stem
o_

the e should touch the

main

stroke

I /

^P /
'
*

and up

to join

//if tip IH

BK^ *

\
twist

Filled feet

Pen
at

To make
foot,

the square

A second method
involves twisting the

draw the stem

an angle of 45, then

pen from 45 to the


horizontal in a short,
swift

f
/Numerous
tools are suitable
letters,

Drag

the ink with the


to

Omit

the cross
to list

comer of the nib cor


con 'omplete the foot

stroke

of the f

this letter is

a longi

add the outline of the


foot by dragging the

movement

(above).

ink with the corner

Alternatively, begin

of the
then

nib. This

is

twisting at the top of

for writing Prescisus


including the reed

filled in

with ink.

the stem (above

right).

pen
.

Vie

sixth and

seventh strokes of the

can be

~V

combined

Drag the ink with

Use

the comer
to

h
Flat-headed
serifs are

the

comer of the
complete the

of the nib

nib

complete the split

to

square feet of the h

ascender of the h

13
serifs
feet, the

nib before filling


flat-headed
left).

Like the square

with ink (above Alternatively, add the serif by


it

in

Alternatively, afull

diamond can be
to

used

created

artificially

with
is

twisting the

pen downwards from the


(above).

dot the

and)

"slanted" pen.

One method

to

horizontal of the ascender line to the

outline the serif with the

comer of the

45 angle of the stem stroke

56

Textura Prescisus

Letters

d and o

arc

among

the

bowed

Prescisus letters that

can be easily conjoined

Two

forms of half r

Conjoined d and

57

Gothic Scripts

Gothic Capitals
Versals lies in their

&

Versals
Exuberant flourishes of
this

THE PRINCIPAL DIFFERENCE between Gothic Capitals and construction: Gothic Capitals are written
with single strokes, whereas Versals are composed of several
built-up strokes.

kind are limited to opening


letters

or letters on the lop

line

of a page of text

Versal

is

a single initial letter,

drawn

larger

Gothic Capital P
Decorative diagonal
strokes and hairlines

than the text script and used to indicate a title, chapter, or

paragraph opening. The

size

of the Versal and the amount of gold


it is

reduce the amount

of white space

in the

and colour used to decorate


perceived status of the

directly proportional to the

letter's

counter and

initial

within the text. Although less


is far

a page

enhance its status in of text. In this


P. the thick
is

impressive than Versals, the Gothic Capital

from

plain,

diagonal

complemented

with elaboration

in the

form of hairline

verticals

and diagonals.

by hairlines above and below it.

It was in Gothic text hand

that capital

and minuscule letters of the same


first

appeared together. Gothic

Capitals, which used the same ductus


as the

m&i*

minuscules

(pp.

50-57), were

used within text script to begin a sentence or denote a proper noun.


In

important sentences or verses,

Gothic Capitals were frequently


usurped by Versals. In
its

simplest

form,

a Versal

can be an outline

letter filled

with a splash of colour.


it

In

more
p.

sophisticated forms,

can

be historiated (see the Winchester


Bible,

46), zoomorphic (see the


Kells, pp.

Book of

28 29), or

floriated (see the


p.

Book of Hours,
spirals, frets,

84). Alternatively, the decoration

can be abstract, with

and interlaced knots (see the Lindisfarne Gospels* pp. 3031).


Rounded bulges hare been added
to the
,

stems to give extra emphasis to the letter

The counter of each

letter

has been decorated


.

with vertical and diagonal hairlines

Sample alphabet
of Gothic Capitals have been drawn on this incomplete sample alphabet, which dates from about 1400. Although the letters are not the finest examples of Gothic Capitals, each stroke is clearly shown, making them useful
sets

Two

models for the modem calligrapher to follow. Note how the scribe has created extra weight on some bowed letters by adding an extra stroke.

S8

Gothic Capitals
Tim
St.

&_ Versals

Vaast
in
]

Bum

Written

northern France
]th century,
is a

in the early

the St. Vaast Bible

product

of"

the Franco-

Saxon school, which had been producing books of the highest order since
the mid-ninth century. At
first glance, the manuscript looks ahead of its time, so sophisticated is the

page design. However, the


plait and knot decoration around the Versal betrays the manuscript's Saxon

pedigree (pp. 28-.il).

The suggestion of a bracketed


scrij

shows that these capitals

were modelled on Imperial


letters

(pp. 108

109;

In this Versal. the initial letters

E and T
(this

have been combined


is

combination

the origin

of our modern ampersand)

SlMI'LE

These
for the

Versals

VEkSALS may be

by the scribe responsible sample alphabet

(opposite).

They have been


penned, with

freely

the letters

drawn first and the decoration


.ulded afterwards.

Models for Versals


Over die centuries, Versals have been
modelled on
a variety

of letterforms.

During the Gothic period, they


were generally based on Lombardic
Capitals (pp.

62

63). In both the

Caroline and the Renaissance eras.


Imperial Capitals

were often used


1

as

models

(pp.

108

09). Possibly the

most ornate Versals ever drawn were


those in the

de luxe Northumbrian

manuscripts of the early medieval


period (pp. 28-31).

derived

These were from Roman, Greek,

and runic models.

Ca dels

The other significant model for


Versals
(pp.

was the Bastard Capital


Pattern hook
Designs for Versals were chosen by the patron from pattern books such as
this

78 79). Enlarged and embellished

by a series of interlacing strokes, this

type
(pp.

of Versal

is

known

as a

Cadel

80-81). Cadels were


use with
Italic (pp.

later revived

for

94-95) and
scripts.

page shows

Copperplate

(pp.

102 103)

one from the 12th century. This a final working pattern, in which the intertwining; stems have been accurately worked out.

59

Gothic Scripts

Gothic Capitals
GOTHIC CAPITALS use the same ductus as the minuscules
(pp.

52 53, 5657) and

are written with the

same "slanted"

pen. However, the capitals have a wider, rounder aspect than the
rigidly

formal minuscules, and the two forms contrast strikingly


together.

when used

The number of calligraphic

flourishes in
Tlie bowl

each Gothic Capital

make

it

an unsuitable script for writing a


this,

whole word or
provide
a less

a full

page of text. For

Lombardic Capitals
64-65).

of the

can

flamboyant alternative

be strengthened with

(pp.

an additional

stroke

For the
the

serif of twist

C,

the nib anticlockwise and

drag the ink

downwards

Thebtnvl of
the

D can be

strengthened with an

Letter height

The
is

letter

height of the Gothic Capital

approximately seven pen widths,

two

higher than the minuscule height.

Hairlines

The

inner-letter space

the use of hairlines,

comer of the nib. one or two vertical

is reduced by drawn with the There are usually

Alternative

D
cuwe of
can be

hairlines,

and a

single diagonal hairline

on either side

of a thicker diagonal stroke.

e
Alternative

77ie

the

strengthened

with an
additional
stroke

Create
the bulges

The pointed
by
beaks of the
hackles are

weaving the
pen
in

drawn

a single

with a jagged

downward
stroke

downward

stroke

Tlie first
stroke

Bulges and hackles The vertical strokes of Gothic Capitals can be


given additional weight

of the F

extends below
the baseline

and interest in the form


of bulges or hackles, which
left of the Use only one or the other and always make them consistent. Generally, calligraphers add three

protrude to the
stem.

To draw
serif of the

the

G,

twist the nib


anti-clockunse

and drag
the ink

bulges or hackles.

downwards

60

Gothic Capitals

Tlie curve the

of

Tttc

bowl

of

can be

the R. can be

strengthened

trengthened

with an
additional
stroke

with an
additional
stroke

Vie

sixth

stroke of the
I

could be

drawn Jrom
right to left,

finishing

with the
hairline curl

Tliefoot of the
can be adapted

L
to

join on

to

the

following letter

The
the

curve of

can be

strengthened

with an
additional
stroke

Tiie

bowl of the

O or Q can be
strengthened

with an
additional
stroke

Tlie bowl of the


1'

can be

strengthened

with an
additional
stroke

'

Gothic scripts

Lombardic Capitals
ALombardic
Capital
is

a built-up letter characterized


serifs.

bv curved stems and distinctive monoline J

Unlike Gothic Capitals (pp. 5859), Lombardic letters worked well in sequence and so were used for whole

words and phrases. Thev were successful both in penned form as display capitals and carved form for monumental work. The script was increasingly prevalent by the midth centurv, and finally ousted by the Humanist Capital in the 16th centurv (pp. 9899). However, it enjoyed a resurgence, particularly as a monumental letter, during the 19th-century Gothic revival in England, under the influence of the architect and designer A.W.N. Pugin.
1
1

The Utter

M can
to

alternatively adhere

Lombardic Capital
A
square-cut nib
is

a baseline

cross stroke,

used to

making the right-hand


stroke

draw Lombardic

Capitals,

a minor image

with the pen held close to the horizontal (pp. 6465).

of the left-hand one (pp. 64 65>

There
some
"I

is

reluctance among
in

Dots ore used on


the letter

authorities to use the adjective


relation to this

to

gin

the strokes
.

ombardic"

extra weight

script, because the letters have little

1NCI PITEZE

specifically to
Italian

do with the northern region of Lombardy. However,

over the centuries, the term has

been widely used and accepted by calligraphers, typographers, and


letterers,

and has come to represent


this

the particular combination of Imperial

and Uncial elements that make up


distinctive

hand of capital

letters.

A simplified Imperial
Lombardic Capitals can be seen as simplified, pen-drawn versions of the

Roman

Imperial Capital.

The multiple
1

strokes of the Imperial (pp.


are reduced to a

10

19)

minimum, producing
easy to execute
The
text
is

a letter that is relatively (pp.

64-65). The Lombardic script

usually includes Uncial forms of

written in a
Very fine Early

A, D, E,

M, and T

(pp.

24-25).

Gothic script

fpp.

46 47)

CESIUM
.

-ATino.niquaiminqnnira mcnfif.aim own mmaSlio

The Winchester
The

Hihi

capaumum roraa ftuimun

cbobdr-^pcrafarks

Vision of Ezekicl, from the Winchester Bible (/>/>. 46-47). includes a series of meticulously crafted Lombardic Capitals. In common with other works from the

co^-crmdi innoncf cjalnqimira Tncnfif.ipfocjt

mid- 12th century, the scribe has shown little concern about breaking words at the end of a line: for instance. "INCIP1T

annurqumrarxjaTifiTiigrancmif Ttgif toacfrim

EZECI-mil. "'reads "I\C1PIT:EZE/CHIEL".


initial.

In the illuminated

faftrnndtucrbum

dm adocchictfttiubuzf

Ezekiel

is

depicted dreaming by the River Chobar.

The

four interlocking wheels are symbolic of the four Evangelists.

facadotxm-imxrra cbaicfeauim fctuf fUimcn

62

Lombardic Capitals

In this early

example

77ii'sc

display letters read: "IS

of a historlaied Venal
(pp. 58-59), the Virgin
is

\'RI
This

IHU
is

PS

NM DNI INCPT LIB SACRAMTR".


of:

Tun GELLONE Sacramf.ntary


In the title letters

of this eighth-century
in

text

an abbreviation

"IN

NOMINE

for Christmas

Eve Mass, produced


Capitals.

northern

shown

in the

form
I

DOMINI NOSTRIJF.SU CHRISTI.


INCIPIT LIBER SACRA MATRIS"

France,

we

can discern the crude beginnings

of a capital

letter

of Lombardic

The

scribe has used

Imperial Capitals as his models, drawing the outline of each letter in a single stroke with

narrow pen
title

nib. In the first three lines, letters

The words of the have been considerably abbreviated. On the second line the abbreviation of "DOMINI" as "DM" has been indicated with a mermaid instead of with the traditional horizontal stroke.
feature internal decoration.

Built-up letters
Unlike most other capital scripts
included
letter
is

in this

book, the Lombardic

not the product of a natural

basic

movement of the hand. While each component of the GothicCapital, for instance, is made
a single stroke (pp. 60-61),
is

from
a

Lombardic component
sides of the

built

up from several composite strokes.

The

stems curve inwards,

drawn with the pen held horizontally. The monoline serifs


usually
are also the product of the horizontal

pen; they are generally slightly

concave and are not bracketed


to the

main stem

as

they are

in

the

Roman

Imperial Capital.

Embellishments The Lombardic Capital forms


basis for

the

mm
Wtt-l
'

and the

many Vcrsals (pp. 58-59), amount of embellishment


is

and decoration

limited only by
(p.

the scribe's imagination


I
.-

64).

"

C,S

7 tJ.

I tINlh '"VMS!
-

However, the stone-cut Lombardic


letterform
is

often modified as a

result of the nature of the surface

for instance, the fine serifs are either

thickened or omitted altogether.

The Lombardic has been used extensively on other surfaces:


textiles, metals, glass,

and ceramics.

Below the

title capitals,

the chapter

opening has been written in rubricated

Uncial

letters

(pp.

24 2 5>

Below the chapter opening, the


script

text

has been penned in a Half


39>.

Uncial hand (pp. 38


recognisable by
lis

upright aspect

63

Gothic Scripts

Lombardic Capitals
THERE IS NO HISTORICAL precedent for a full set of Lombardic
Capitals and those

shown here have been compiled from

R
Uncial

variety of sources. Unlike Gothic Capitals (pp. 60-61), they are

used for writing complete words and phrases and so consistency


is

of great importance. Concentrate on making the weight of

stroke, die level of compression or expansion, and the serif

construction exactly the same in each letter you draw.

The concave
serifs

line of the

form of A

can terminate at

each end with a


decorative blob

B
Uncial

stm
Waisted stems
Waisted
curved
precise
steins can
vertical
l 'se

a narrow
to

be created by overlapping two broad. strokes and then adding the hairline
is

pen nib

the decorative
blobs at the

^ C
add end
serifs circle

horizontals at the top

method

to

and bottom (above left). A more draw the whole outline with a
fill it

of the

narrow nib and then

in

with ink (above

centre).

Rounded
rounded

letters

Define the form of


letters

Outer

circle

Inner

by

drawing either the


outer or inner circle

form of D

Either of these two

forms

ofD

can he used

The latter often proves more practical


first.

(see letter

O.

opposite).

Expanded and

To

coinpressed letters regulate the chosen


of expansion or

level

compression, use the


spaces enclosed within
characters as guides.

Compressed
have shorter

letters
serifs

than

expanded
can be

letters.

Bows
Expanded
letter

fully

rounded
Compressed
letter

or pointed.

Basic form
'etter

Display capitals
Since the
1

2th century,

the Lombardic Capital


has often been heavily

elaborated

when

used

as a display capital.

Decoration can range


Floral
decoration

from simple additional


caselines to

complex

illustrations that are

gilded and in colour.

Lombardic Capitals

IS

s
_*=

a
VUs
lombardic

iJ

modern

construction

Tftis

Lombardic

is

it

modern

construction

X
J?
2\\
1
-'

f X\2

// //

65

Gothic Scripts

The top loop oftk

Bastard Secretary
HISTORICALLY, THE MORE FORMAL
a

should not exceed

minim

hcia.hi

manuscript hand has become,

the greater has been the need for a functional cursive script to

complement
Minuscule

it.

Just as the Insular Majuscule

spawned the

Insular

in the eighth

century

(pp.

28-37), so the prestige

Tcxturas of the 13th century (pp. 5057) gave rise to parallel hands
for the less prestigious

work of the

day.

scries of

complementary

cursive scripts evolved both regionally and nationally, quickly

developing into
classified

fully

fledged hands in their


title

own

right.

Thev

are
liAMARI) SECRETARY
II'

under the generic


a

of "bastard" (bastarda) scripts,

the

term denoting
script

mixed cursive and Textura parentage.


34-35)
The illuminated border and
Venal arc characteristic of
I

The w

reaches ascender height

and is identical in both minuscule and capital form.


j"o-

The cursive

(pp.

,.

Srj|

i-

,v-

had probably been rediscovered for

Sth-century English

documentary use
die end of the
1

in

England towards

manuscript work

.
1

invKsi'imO' >fi'- pG>'"" op !"' (""I"

2th century. Although

aV &fof ltenr^.-^^ "

-V -

l"""

M tfip* |* rmpiurof -"i - tSS '


' '

'

lifnom); [|>m pint iiSi-ii wemtium (l(<a(hnt

>-

speed was the most important


consideration, the script was also
The downward flick from
the ascenders
is

Wf
known

(Jiifillra

a dpbusnaii fCpttmu

|)jc

BSBifi

rBf* <^>''-i.

designed to impress, as the loops and


linking letters testify.

as
ifftflv- Ivf

an "elephant's trunk"

The French
The
feet

jS it

MM

'

* otGcr tfbrK

.1iS frm/flimaiffc 1 1 tSrr

n<pntQJfiinp/)i rwnftfloi rtnS ftttnsv"'

V" BuCCiii iumt:yjcnfn

form of cursive,

called Secretary

of the

araillatii'9i-ii|limn(Jn.-ufvhiOAe-nSEmrnstof l^iifmoi^-.

minims turn upwards

or Chancery, was introduced into

(oi-Si(mm-frv|'**'1"5"'"ft'l6cti--''
,

of<"'9'-'

.,r,-i'rn.

iM

rrtmci(fer fi0(hnfl<A>iifliSc^.^W-T*(i4K6KT
yst^n^Jnioilfli'iii''riWrnft:*l9fiicodfi

England and Germany


of

at

the end

ofomeiWcSH

the

4th centurv. j

When

Textura
it

features

were incorporated,
in

became
The horizontal stroke over
the ampersand denotes the

mftc-(&r(icnT"toon Hon pKhramtn<iMSmfMiif^i ww" & ftbtattVt ir< f" w (* of G"" "S'WI* l"

lW

f>
I

known

as Bastard Secretary in English,

%
.

HO mmitt^rtforfrfcrflxliolSSmst Jte .-Tnt rtii^itliuwr^ 9 fic mfmm iln? ' ftiW liifflt* V- f* w Mftfl wile
;

lie

nUS mcSi'ci'Mic of mn -n9not : )ifif'|!ir yc is no;jiiSi


iiitcfeiKlTe "f fv.4*f fonc
Toivfifn'rii
'

^o

iiicSHW-ne i f irnie&f )'.*


'"

'h'

VJ>ifl'uojB

Batarde

French

(pp.

7071).

6m ft" 6 ""'v fc
u> no iunoy(c

ftfi* wwfitfic

tSa

Sxc ) fc imir & Wi5

abbreviation of a word

.Ineicv flaiiinl?rt&Kfltt(iitnurocficf'^fnoi'Slf6ujiTil

Meditations on THE Lin: oi- Christ


This manuscript page

*s8
iAineto\*t
fyni|l\iUvtf ytta fti

*ua AiSnioieoiicr yens no (rime cAVrffeSncIli; fote |Mtft: /iflrtfIK-oi ttit*fecVP* < TO lt'Jc8 <'W & -T * M9 fr' *'"' <r*' 9 **1' Xt iCoiSce mSycScas ofififltraiin m fthmpBcrfmc f fe'-m (i/f
,'l , 'i

to'WmWenrdnmplcflfjwSGnijTiiwtfffcrft'iciiiofftQrcBoiBciiicii-?
Qii: miiienilii8ciiciril?tiln?<iiaTSisniofifliiiQS;ifeii!/hnvi'K'

shows the translation into Middle English by Nicholas Lowe of


'

Co(icofo"iri(tvn^R^^i9foitfiiiifiop<aiScftiiioiiWiti;^floliSfijTf affO ffen tSnttii 9f(c


oonR'tfic to tPei&ii

B*'R "lii? nates of Scrantcnun notfluioii^- tfic

m ferine: fote sfls in cnstif|lft'<u ftiftSe ram itGm


rtWP w cyfflC m r< foffeli of (4c fbnw cimaiR<9V

civ

popular 13th-century
Latin

work

attributed

III? U#& At W'ldVH* ; rtumiftuSMiu u- (lm rtAf \*& 'if wMfttffc W i^fef i (<ct* hum* >W tnum? 0"> H \t t^<tt cPUKim>(fttl.%n>
.

Wtrfuan yiit

x iixvi (xrw fta Rtt< <Siv wkti wmt* Wjm tin? tfSvi iw uri^* 1tfourofenipuSit &m >*mr fefeU ro (v c-nup us i" ftftWH <f ft
i

nif

(9 fieni jrittfocn of rvmfjfc SniTiffc.Vn?erttoin5t

^^cfce(?e*rrKnanoirt<iiif?rifl*tiiQiofe'ltofJfiiiiiiC).lo'iii

ccrtmi iwrtrca fim BfJflrtreOffln

(lti

ilf

to St. Bonavencura.

glut tv
'

fcfa Amuiffc? *mG \*f * vf*;< pfcv euit '(bf? ft* u M &rf< hm u|'.v."ia [v.; .( >ff
,Yi# fetf*

E^f

One of 49
oi the text
exist,
it

versions
to

vfli \t

known
145(1.

Vflt if "i

cmiiti $hU|fi in tirof Rfk.'ffirtl'na m^ucltim J' wftVyf mwuiftBf fp: \i it fj'iw to RT \*t fi
-

dates

from

L-^SuJ^^V^'L V \<*t Kvh friflwf pffhlfc aifli-iita Ant. ^Mdrw tWljott mt Hu9 ftttSitrt >& li Wi/
41 &n vutWflnufc
jt luiil'im.Vrtt
if

about

The

tS<i'u

maucv Rft* rf tnf~t


-..'. f- ......
.

teM' Aitif lift itui" cpWb


.

-^
'

script includes the


\w*~jt
A...i *....!.. ....i-i-

#
this earlier translation
is

Anglo-Saxon thorn
sign, a character that

vc^Rulw prtfR VMiR It &^t vtU ii it;

resembles
represents a

and "th" sound


a y

Mf*^t'gKK cue v*'

(pp. 68-69). This sign

KUP^rtiMc tunny 9o|lliQut\'ii><iUf-'irfr(i>w rlDuiwiwrJ tonuhi, fPimiiK i(ch>C' 'tivr (nupu fontcft vv ir :rtvh hi ni^tiffli i *nkii to HP u u (*&* oft* &cR-:e : \*vfo* i/**' v*ff* nuv tfttwtu mtii-.g >:f \ih*uw* mrflMWQ mtf
*

Kane medieval manuscript


Dating from about 1430.
of
St.

remained

in use until
'

*
rf
'

Y-

imliwKi'pflft* diuf tlii^ wtucuip(niifroiictcv1-fil(u


ftiiul

Bonaventura's
In this

reff^'

the 16th century.

'fc*

t^urt n(iciw

pixtiiicf prtffvuire* (iiiVtv(iAi(ni(!-V^

rKtoV'H \t FigmiWii*. vrti un'Vdf'vili i-.ViinwJlpi*" .'fif* .^r--V-/V)'lii ftlv t**yu I'tiCf <| iirf \tff\tfr f-iUi'i.- v^rwinit--*
fy
.

Meditations on

lite

Life of Christ

also the

work of Nicholas Lowe.

version, the scribe has

made

use of both the Anglo-Saxon thorn sign and


feet

t;>J.)^~>rniiiiisi

(.i

\v ii tfk

The Anglo-Saxon thorn


sign has been used

JET

'-?

cvfcrnfe^citt iM'Cwv

unm.m"B,-fi*fp (hint pnnMlEO M'X 'fRtOinVcuWift jiwre. vat*?wfi'

the

throughout the

text

modern tit for writing the word "the". Notice also the serifs at the of the minims, which are turned upwards and not broken as they are the Bastard Secretary of the Adam and Eve text (opposite).

in

66

Bastard Secretary

French and German features


r

There are certain features

that

help identify a bastard script by


p \\i

<U to jhiMl <}tt.1


fktmtejjSSf

its

nationality.

for

sfWof 4&* fe&$g


<

^w**#>
tti

for

The French form, instance, is most distinctive the calligraphic feast made of
form of s
(pp.

the /"and long


Early

7071).

i|SlJK<itme rc a<mi tri-ctt^m (mutt <U&

German

cursive scripts were

fffes ftife --uc to Steam.

tttj

to0

$& vu

ilu4fi <&4 fi*S f^ f <** fi*r fir foracte^""TOT of w itrnigOfco ft W* &vwp

wav

characterized by bold, expanded

minims and
descenders.

tall

ascenders and
they were

When
1

contaminated with Textura features


at the

end of the

5 th

century, the

fefctfje

tniiaw%6^ttv-fw4e-ciut^<ftm'y

dttimttecttot^^^Wmfc^&^+^w

Fraktur and Schwabacher hands

emerged, featuring "broken"


letterforms (pp. 74- 75). English characteristics

^o <$ <m Setfe- ^fefP^J*** %w<t* efrtfr


#c itogfi* to fctft^r ^B&? <Stt -rtfi?) fo0&>. tot *a
focfetfta

* & v J

^ P* wr

tc<*

Sm ftp* "*** #f

In English

models,

it is

the letter

w
the

that attracts the

most attention

same impressive, looped form


(opposite).
is

is

used for both minuscules and capitals

ftmiSm <t8 net* <mS feftafi doi-'^ni


tttafce

Another English feature

1 srifeSftmi

#e- jow&

m -tfc Qgfc of

otij

the long,

downward

terminating

Hick from ascenders, sometimes


called an "elephant's trunk".

Generally, the English Bastard

ipfcrntiic fctSc <& to Sfeitm. tnv <Cb>3


.

Secretary tends to be staid and

RPJ**

prosaic, lacking the subtle shifts

of pen angle that characterize

its
it

$c/map not
<WSrtti9
-tfct
/*,..

fife <t*(9 mitt ^axfcra frcw*


fto

tutm foe fan

Ss.jif <Sc futelto *


iif

^
*,

French counterpart. As

a result,

was highly
.

practical,

and so had
:

se

U %& feSB^w fc ^f^ J>.< ttwa


r..(&* 0

long

life

as a

document hand
1

it

was

used well into the

8th century.

Stetoi- <?

Adam and Eve


This text of the story of Adam and Eve was
written in English in about 1415.

fine upright

aspect to the letters suggests that they

were written
pronounced

with an oblique-cut nib. In the best English


Bastard script traditions, the

w is well

and the
The
text includes

'"elephant's

minks"

are boldly drawn.

set of

capital letters

written tilth the

same ductus as the lower-

caw

test

(pp. 78 79J

The impressive height and looping form of the Bastard


Secretary

w make

it

the most striking letter in this page of test

Detail from
In this

Adam and

Evi

valuable detail, a split in the quill

allows us to see very clearly both sides of

each stroke. Notice particularly the letter/ this is constructed with a single stroke, the

pen beginning at the vertical, then turning to about 30 at mid stem before returning to the vertical for the descender (/>/>. 6869).

ueia^raam
67

Gothic Scripts

Bastard Secretary
AS
A FUNCTIONAL, CURSIVE script, the Bastard Secretary
is

l\ written with as
wherever

few pen

lifts

as possible,

with letters linked


far

practical. Consequently, the

hand can be penned

more

quickly than the formal Gothic scripts, such as the Textura


(pp.

Quadrata

52-53). Ascenders are complemented by strong,

downward
the

diagonal strokes

known

as "elephant's trunks",

draw n

to the right of the

stem

at

an angle of about 45. These echo

downward

diagonal strokes of the

minim

feet.

The angle of the


"elephant'i trunks"

should be consistent
throughout the text

c
usually

Complete
the

The

tail

of the h
to

is

hairline loop

dragged
letter,

the

left

of the

of the d

i'h

almost at a parallel

single stroke

to the baseline

Key
The
letter

letter

is

a useful

with which to
the

start practising

Bastard Secretary.
It

includes both the

"elephant's trunk" that

sweeps from the head of the ascender almost to the headline, and
the characteristic

77ie e

is

almost

Tlte

tail

circular

and can o

of the e

could join the

hare the appearance of a


letter

second stroke

The
stroke

second

of the

downward
the pen
at

pull

of
For the fust stroke of the
f,

'/
'
1

retraces the first


to

the foot

gradually

the headline

of the stem.

twist the
to

pen

/
I

and

curves slightly
to the right

the vertical

Drawing an upward loop


With
1/

Adding a downward diagonal


Without
strong
lifting

its

sweeping

hairline loop, the

the pen,

make

one of the most distinctive letters in the hand. After drawing the bowl, create a large arc by pushing the pen
is

downward
it

diagonal stroke,
to join the

Make

a hairline

curving
at
its

to the

left

bowl

stroke from the

midway

point. This stroke will

foot of the stem

to

upwards in one sweeping movement.

echo the shape of the loop.


, <*

the headline, before

starting the final

downward

stroke
tail

Basic elements

and

The pen angle for the hand is about 40-45


and
a square-cut

nib

is

generally used.

Minim

The

letters

and}

height

is

four pen

can he dotted

widths, with the

ascender equal to a
further four widths.

68

"

Bastard Secretary

Drag
tail

the hairline

of the y with the comer of the

pen nib

^\
2

Twist the pen


to

the vertical

/V

to finish the

M
m

descender of the

q with a hairline

V
Conjoined
letters

^
Fullr

Conjoined
Tlte halfr
is

letters

are less a

used lo with a

feature of the Bastard as the

Halfr

i
I

Quadrala, but thisfomi of

follow

letters

right-hand

bow
Abbreviation

p-p

ligature is quite

common

of "that
Y-t and w-t
(featuring the
sign, p.

Anglo-Saxon thorn
uvre

66)

common

abbreviations of

the words "that "


respectively

and "what

69

Gothic Scripts

Batarde
Bourguignonne) THE BATARDE Bastard Secretary English
(Lettre
is

the French equivalent


It

of the

(pp.

66-67).

was developed
This baseline cross
stroke

at the

end of the

3th century and used until the mid- 16th


can he extended
letter

century, evolving from a lowly cursive bastard hand into a formal, prestige script in its own right. Batarde achieved its most
sophisticated appearance in the mid- 15th century, an era
the popularity of the printed

The

p is pointed and
can he drawn

tail

of the

when the
a word

begins

when

either upright or

book was increasing among a whole new section of society. In this dc luxe form, it was the hand favoured by Burgundian court circles, hence its alternative name.

Batardi;
Batarde
ifts
/>.

slightly slanted

In constructing the
a series

of pen
is

and angle changes

required (pp. 72-73).

Br

the mid- 15th century, book illustration in France was moving


,i\\a\

from medieval stvlization 54 55), becoming


naturalistic.
less intricate

(pp.

and more
shedding
letters

The Batarde

hand used for manuscript books was


its

Mpxtti.}$(mibne

own Gothic
lighter,

ancestry -

\mm<xnlmmmi
jnm\tt$untxna\\(t ffum mtAiHRpi

were

seeming to

dance on the page. This effect was


achieved partly by making several

changes of pen angle during the


construction of each
letter. In

_JimlwmmriidOiw
QHiftnccrium
a

it

tenant

returning to the major key after each

change, the scribe could create

jM^t tmtt amnmnont


liEinfttifm naptxnmw Q utaiftoOittr i^s^amr
Bfrrttotouttfttbthiflg; wimut qui ailtont ifcrij

rhythmic harmony across a page of


text. This
is

JAp;3H

particularly noticeable

in the Froissart

Chronicle

(opposite).

!Jv^
t >

However,
such

in other Batarde scripts,

as that in

the

Book of Hours
text
is

IMSis
e

fflftofrif fr Dn6,ufrfflo

(right),

the

harmony of the

achieved instead bv the maintcnanc

titflfHjiiiwucTtrrtrwtiw. 1IS7

of one constant overall angle.


ascenders are one

lESrtf Dtatttotitmurartr ,;Li r iiiwiwitaiottia^LiilX^I

77ii- split

ofseveral

Gothic Tcxtura characteristics that


ha\ e snrrii ed in this bastard script

Hi

ii

>k

of Hours

This page

is

from

a small

prayer-book

written for the wealthy I'oligny family in about 147(1. The script's Gothic origins
are clear: ascenders are split, descenders modest, and minim strokes terminated with feet reminiscent of the Quadrata (pp. 50-51).

The

overall textural effect

is

closer to the dense

authority of the Gothic Textura scripts than to the light harmony of a true Batarde. such as that

achieved

in

the Froissart Chronicle (opposite).

70

Batarde

aHHiii Hcr afioihlu inning ii mtma i.n-uHim.oiliiW<onv (n.rtiirnnnf<^ii

(- Ulll/lu.

MC...,..,,,,

am-illl/iniiUwci\-ulr.-4:irrw
ir\vir.iiu> IIKtliitv.-tiUrMiiw

tSWtU

(irtiiCtrfttwuiKitliin-

rt.tfMlH|l/tM 1V11IV
llii 1

.,'illllltt

.1 1'ltittif /iiitixi^iii ,'itii \i'ii.

fidtrtWiM.ina hunt -*V<><


1

frtfftt tta fmffixt mifiuB


,\cf-

6*

UKI

(lit-

-.

in/.

.-i.i

lc*fmtMMfrtncmQtP
("ie

l.i-,Ua>MK rvt.lln.lh<K<Tla

Hint
BMrfl

fauut ,wtfi#te
HUlllf Vi

hmneff

Hi^fejit<vcil.-.wV .iiikc t.wirr-.immiT /,'V.v

'TvtTfllirOHl

lll.'ldt

liip'iin(iir\'iic-.*

co|i/iiWrbKfi(iMJFlf**M*fr iroiiirulrc-^-MgnmtrV/Hrhr
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iliititfutrl

Ot ff

The Froissart Chronicle


This

copy of the 14th-century chronicle ofJean Froissart. A delightful book, it has


is
i

Vita Christi

The
(left)

scribe of the Vita Christi page


Je la Mori Ihesa
skills

modern appearance, owing

partly to the
partly to the

relationship of text to margins


restraint

and

from La Vengeance
his

shown

in

the decoration.

The

feet

of

had arguably lesser

than

the

minims end without elaboration and the script is generally more cursive than thai used to write the Book of Hours (opposite).
(

two contemporaries featured

here.

He

docs not achieve the


Froissart Chronicle
his

"an arn<i^Hf <=?"

harmony of the

or Book of Hours,

pen angles
is

C
The

are inconsistent, and he

unable

lum>itiv*.

(\nr

to return to any constant

pen angle.
the
at

Common features
In

some examples of Batarde,

Detail frcjm the Froissart Chronicle


initial
I).

and long form of 5 lean forward


these

is

decorated with

Cadel
.ire

(pp. 8I)-X

The horns on

the letter g

an angle. By keeping the angles of

similar to those
.rapn+Jcnftcu&T& BGmikiSi Liiire CuiMmnr
>c?iii ?i^

on the g of another Gothic

two

letters absolutely constant,

icrlwiiuiur

\*rii.irwt'.a*n; Hi.Ikuciii

Fraktur (pp. 76-77). Both the halt rand full r forms are used in the text.
script, the
'.

the scribe can create a counterpoint


to the

cr^iuliiciui\ttim.imu
iin.i.ic
:

XBWtflQc iftfvi'

main harmony.

This textual

liiiiii.iTiii.'ii(ii.iiuV-*^v

\man ft niw Su'iicfotfc

3*?
r--'^

I'lt'K.f

.V.'ii

jv(-.>.viimsccrmui.iiik
kfitjvffi*ntein<nt

&tm

The /onvtird lean ofihe later

effect
t

erfbucaaadui ac^nmenKnc pmic

wi
Igg

/.*

one of the most distinctive

known as "hot spots" is common feature of Batarde.


Other frequent
characteristics

'".

"v

</><nai#n ei .minn.i1

'^Lv^ncAiiiii;iii(iir.>u

iHaiAciurane *tik pHMtkuuiic ^iomicAu -. a* oiUiVm a+mmJ&m .v


Th/t.*nn<;ut1kii'.nc-

characteristics

of the BatarJe

iMccr.Wfiiia-

^uwiiacnifm

VlTA Christi

I'AGE
I

of Lettrc
i7(i><'iiir

Bourguignonne are the

^>uiLAimciinionuiiiUii> IT;

This page from hi

de

la

Mori Blesa

overlapping strokes reminiscent

main text, which opens with a Versal. The book dates from 147V and was written by David Aubert ot Ghent, scribe to Philip the Good. Duke of Burgundy. In the illustration, we see the scribe presenting the book to his patron.
includes the rubricated prologue to the

of Fraktur

(pp.

74-75), and the

delicate hairlines used to join strokes;

these

seem

to add a further sense to a page of text.

of

movement

7/

Gothic Scripts

Batarde

Finish the
first

and

third strokes

TO
to

ACHIEVE THE most successful Batarde letters, the use of a

of the 3 with
a hairline
flick

quill is

recommended. A

sharply cut oblique nib

is

required

produce the exquisitely


s

fine hairline strokes.

The clubbed/and

long have with

arc frequently written

more

boldly than other letters and

forward slant (the two letters have the same basic form,

a crossbar

added

for the/). This

produces "hot spots" within

the written text and makes for a distinctive textural pattern.

Prepare
to

to

add the

crossbar

the

quill

(by turning to 10

the

Tlie curve of the c

terminates with a
hairline flick

77ie

key

letters

and long

should lean slightly

to the right

Tlie hairline

Drawing the /and long

turn the pen from 30 to the vertical


as

stroke of the c

is

The many changes of pen angle


required to draw the Batarde/and

you

pull the

pen downwards,

finishing with a hairline. Retrace the


first

long

are typical

of this sophisticated

stroke, looping outwards to the

hand. Begin about half a minim above the headline and gradually

right to create a thickened stroke,

return to the original angle

and of 30.

c
OmA
the crossbar of the f to create the long

drawn

at

an angle

of about 45

form ofs

(left)

Draw
Tile curved hairline stroke at the lop of the letter

the hairline

crossbar of the (at

q can be The
letter

an angle of 10
f can lean

continuous with the descender

The clubbed shape


of the (can be
exaggerated

forward at a more

pronounced angle than

Descenders

this (pp.

70-7 1)

The

q are

descenders of letters p and made by turning the nib

anti-clockwise from the horizontal


to the vertical, finishing with a
hairline.

The descenders may


left,

alternatively slant to the

5
The
height

echoing the forward lean of the/ (above) and long s.

of the
is

Bdtardc minim

The

leading stroke

about four pen widths

of the h finishes
with a flat foot

hairline at the

Flat feet
Flat feet straight

top
all

and

tail oj
is

occur on

leading

the letter h

minims

in the script,
t

characteristic

such
the

as the

stem of the

and
Tlie
j
i

first

leg of the n. In a

and

more

cursive version of

can be

Batarde, the

minims may
flick at

doited

terminate with a

the

end of the downward stroke, as on the second leg of the n.

12

Batarde

Tin' stew

and
77/t*

6
r

leading/out of
the k can be

Stem and foot


can be drawn

drawn in a
single stroke

\
ll

of the

in a single stroke

V I t

Tlie

first

onil second
1

strokes of the

can

be combined

r
2
*.

The

loot

(>/ //if I

can be

extended ex

slightly

I fc

I.

7.

//

ni 1
5

9
77re

Hie first two


strokes of the v
Cdrf /'c

drawn

in

vy

single

movement

W
to

1 n
r

ft

conslntctetl

from

nw conjoined vs

s
/
Dn/i> OH/ '/ hairline Dr.ii; i'/ // hairline " tail of the x with the /.

J/

comer

ol

the nib

Twist the pen

a near

vertical

angle toform the


hairline descender

P
f
1 1

of the

77ii'

(eM

z can

alternatively be

drawn
stroke

in

a single

Vktc practical, Batarde

letters

can be connected

XI
Full
r

with hairline strokes

Halfr

Joined

letters

Vie and

right

the

left

bow of the h bow of the

Tlw p
i'h/}'

(Hid

h <c

f/i*'

o can be conjoined

feffen (>/ joined

hen by

a hairline stroke

73

Gothic Scripts

Fraktur
German
first

&

Schwabacher
LETTER)
is

FRAKTUR (GERMAN

marriage between

cursive scripts and Tcxtura Quadrata (pp. 50-51).


1

Manuscript examples of the hand date from about

400 and

FkAKTUR
it

It

The

distinctive

appeared

as a typeface
its

about

century

later.

Early type

spikes of

many

Fraktur

letters

versions of Fraktur, and

more

cursive, vernacular cousin

are the product

of overlapping
strokes (pp. 76-77).

Schwabacher, remained close to their pen-written origins.

They were designed by the leading German calligraphers


of the day, including Johann Ncudorffer the Elder. The two scripts continued to influence calligraphy and type design
until the

mid- 20th century, and had a formative influence on


practitioner Rudolf

the

work of eminent

Koch

(opposite).
The fraktur a
letter
ft

always a single-store)

with an enclosed bowl

'

[5

'

\:jjm

*vmtutnti cfttmntm

trcct|ptntufmtt(o8ronet)iu(t
<evrli
'

ewgnatmfecuta fcculomm

snnw
r<>
j"

1*
'

Cso

7"Ht D1PFF.RESCES

between Fraktur
difficult to

WORKSHJ
worksheet

II
a
is

nefmmfcumt)fum$omane
curie*

This portion ol
(above)

and Schwabacher are

2fottttttutta.

define precisely. Both feature the

possibly the oldest

swollen body and pointed Batarde /'and long


well as
s (pp.

tail of

the

surviving example

6mmefolameaape

curved strokes

70 71), as on the bows


/i,

of Fraktur-related lettering. It was


written in about I4("l

of letters
a.

a, b, c, J, e, g,

o, p,

and

Diamond

strokes reminiscent of

Textura letters are a distinctive feature

of the hand, but there


for terminal strokes to

is

tendency
All

by Johannes vom Hagen. who refers to the hand as "Nottula Fraeluranmi" ("broken notes"). It is from this term that the name
"Fraktur"
is

riefrgwmarow mmmaWlauDemtu^So
uema^utotttimmcummtc
.

believed

be curved.

to have been derived.

mefcftm^eibnapamctfr
tiorct fbirimt^acto^ tiattcrat

letters have a rigidly upright aspect.

Generally, the Schwabacher has a broader,

The
thai

tail

of this

p.

an J

more

cursive form than the

of other

letters

on the

Fraktur, and does not have the forked

bottom line
lni\ e

oj text,

may
hand

been added by

ascenders and excessive elaboration of


that hand.

lifter

the book Has printed

Some

of the most striking

versions of Schwabacher

were
first
The
illustrations an<l

penned, centuries after the script


designer Rudolf Koch {opposite). 14

'T%

appeared, bv the calligrapher and

\ersols were

added

after the

the text

had been completed

Fiuktur SlSchwabacher

Matthaus Evangelium
In this German text of the Gospel of St. Matthew from 1921, Rudolf Koch combines the features of Fraktur and Textura Quadrata to the ultimate

degree - the lines of text appear to

have been knitted. Koch classified this style as a version ol Schwabacher. and explained: "The page should seem to be stacked with finished rows of lines.. .especially the space between words must not be broader than that

between

lines."

The

Versals have been

treated in an equally robust manner,


resulting in

two

beautifully designed

pages of text.

In Koch's text, the interlinear space

has virtual!) disappeared, allowing


i

just sufficient

white for ihc eye to


lines Ines

scan along the

hon/ont all} /i

(nptmaptotnunttMtw;
ctmfccuiafcmiomm$imav
i

)i

^tte(itta*(t^ilctutaap^
febat)^ at>(cptuagcftmmn:

mi from Matthaus
i

German

Letter
1

Evangelium The controlled


freedom of Koch's
letterfornis
is

By the earlv

6th century, a further

form of Fraktur and Schwabacher


had developed that has since come to
typify

etafepmagcfmta

t# ai> p&

shown

T*aDiatur^u6tiDi&ot#
najeretmtcgjoue^ttuttato

in this detail from Matthaus Evangelium

German

scripts.

It

featured

"broken" letters created bv the


overlapping ol strokes
(pp.

(above).

Radical in

its

time, such

num^iemanagmriaptc^ m* omimuweu- ?Juema


ria*

wink gave new meaning to the


term "Black Letter" (,>;.. 50-51).

7677).

Used only
areas, this

in

German-speaking
letter
is

broken

frequently

referred to as a
Tin: straight,

"German

Letter".

Ujalmua
att(ccnHtcmu^t)omi
no:iut)ttanu0t)eo)atit

The rejection oj Italian


comprcsscJ
aspect ol the
its

scripts

hanj

betrays

Fraktur and Schwabacher enjoved

Textura origins: even the


t

longer

lives

than any other bastard


in

letter

has an upright form

script in

Europe

the earlv 20th


in

Prayer-book
These pages from the prayer-book of Emperor Maximilian were published by Schonspcrger of

century, half the books printed

iannot?ro:pjcocaipcntti6f^ ttom ciu^ u^ contvfiionc : ct in

Germany

still

featured Fraktur-based

tvpefaccs. This longevity was a direct


result of the

German

rejection of
(pp.

Italic

Nuremberg The Fraktur

in

I. SI

4.

am\ Humanist scripts

90-101).
factors in

type was

designed by Johaim

There were two important


this rcjci lion: lirstlv, the

Neudorffer the Elder,


father

Reformation

of three

caused Protestants in northern

generations of
calligraphers.

The
is

Germany

to reject Italian hands as


it

border decoration
being the work ol
Albrecht Diirer.

a political gesture; secondly,

was

equally outstanding,

widely believed that j


script did not suit

Humanist
text.

German

/S

Gothic Scripts

Fraktur
closer THE UPRIGHT, COMPRESSED letters of Fraktur are50-57)
in

Either of these tin

forms of a can be used

appearance to the Gothic Textura scripts


(pp.

(pp.

than either the Bastard Secretary


(pp.

68-69) or the Batarde


b, g,

72-73). The hairline spikes, such as those on letters


a, are a distinctive feature

h,

and

of Fraktur and do not tend to


letters.

occur on the rounder Schwabacher


about 40
is

The pen angle of

altered only for drawing the pointed descenders.

Tlie ascender can be

drawn

I*

with a single rounded


stroke or with a split serif

'Hie

minim

height

is

about Curl the ascender of the d back to the right to


avoid the
letter lilting

Jive pen widths, with a


further two for ascenders

and

descenders

to the

left

Tlie

pen nib should be

square-cut for drawing

Fraktur

letters

Rounded
letter's

strokes

Despite the Fraktur


upright aspect,

many

strokes are

actually rounded.

Here,

the ascender of the letter

b has been
a

drawn with

curve to echo the

rounded stroke of the bowl. Whether you


choose
straight or
letters

rounded
it is

or

split

or pointed ascenders,

important to be
text.

as

consistent as possible

throughout the
a common feature

f
I

Twist the pen from

40

to near vertical for tin-

descender of the {

Tlie crossbar

is

letter g in both Fraktur and Schwabacher scripts

of the

Spike strokes

Alternatively, the hairline

The

distinctive

can be drawn as a
continuation of the first
stroke (see g, opposite^

Fraktur spikes are

made by extending
one stroke over
previous one.
the

The
there
Tlie spike stroke overlaps the bottom of the rounded stroke of the

more pen more

lifts

are in a letter, the

spikes

bowl

are created.

Tlie tail

of the g can
Fraktur descenders are

finish with a short


hairline,

blob, or
restrained, except

on the

a backward sweep;
alternatively,
it

bottom line of a page of


text,

can be

where additional

looped /see g, right^

flourishes can occur

76

Fk\ktur

ft
(

fcfc
I
Tile final fool

Begin the

1
'^L/

_j

with an

upward

stroke

^L

w
%

%
\D
Tlic

m
n
Either of these two

.J\

m
'./fo^m

of (he

m can
stroke

terminate with a

diamond

is

constructed from

a conjoined u ,uul v

Thefmal

fool

of the n can terminate


with a

i
Alternative o

diamond

stroke

W
l >c

forms ofo can be used

on
Twist the

o
near

the comer of

the nib to

draw

the

hairline tail

of the x

pen from

Use

the corner of

40 to

the nib to

draw the
of the y

vertical for

hairline tail

the descender

of the

Gradually

twist the

pen from 40
descender of the

The
to

third stroke

near verticalfor the

of the z can
alternatively be

penned

in

two

separate strokes

H
Full
r

Halfr

% f
i^*
On
the
s,

Tliis "elephant's

trunk

"

can be used on
b, h, k,

letters

and]

the sequence

Tltis curling hairline


tail

can be altered,
with the top stroke

can be used on
h,

letters

m, and n

drawn second

77

Gothic Scripts

Bastard Capitals
Bastard Capitals
that they

HAVE the same ductus


(pp.

as the

minuscules

accompany

68-77), and are penned with the

same

nib. In

most

instances, they tend to be wide,

expanded

letters.

The

thick stem strokes are often supported by a thin

vertical slash to the right,


in the

and the addition of a diamond stroke


is

centre of the counter

also

common.

Like the bastard

minuscule hands, the capitals were subject to a range of


individual and regional variation. Because of this diversity, the
as a general guide.
77/c

alphabet

shown here should be regarded only

C could

alternatively take

thefirm of the

Basic elements

E foelowj,
without the
is

hut

The pen

angle of

cross

the Bastard Capital

stroke

about 40 or the same as the minuscule that


it

accompanies. The
is about pen widths. The

letter height six

characteristically
letters,

wide
li,

such

as

the

are a direct product

of downward and
horizontal arced

sweeping

strokes.

'

T\ic hairline
vertical

on

the
">

qui

Draw

the hairlines with

be omitted

the comer of the nib

Connecting

hairlines

On

letters

H, M. and
strokes are

.V. hairline

often used to connect

This double stem

is

reminiscent

ot

two main downstrokes.


This hairline should
spring from the right

the Gothic Capital

(pp. 6(1-6 U

edge of the baseline sent

Spurs Weight can be added


CO vertical

Alternatively,

the

Ciiii

be

stems in the

constructed

form of diamondshaped spurs. Each spur can be sharpened with


a short hairline flick.

from a

series

of composite
strokes

Limit the number

of diamond-shaped ur.< /> two 01 three

f
<.

Tlte

upward

linking

hairline stroke of the


|

is

made

with the

"Elephant's trunks"

comer of the nib

The

"elephant's trunk"

so characteristic of the Bastard Secretary (pp.

68-69)

also occurs

on

capital letters

H. K.

L,

and X. Draw the


full

diagonal trunk with


the

width of the

nib, finishing with


a short hairline.

78

Bastard Capitals

m
-^^^
linking $

Alternative

Ampersand

m
Alternative

hi this ampersand the

is

stressed

ampersand

79

i,

-*wy

Cadels

Cadels
THE INVENTION OF the Cadel (Cadeaux) in the early
century
is
1

5th

attributed to Jean Flamel, librarian to the


arts, the

prominent patron of the

Due de

Berry. Flamel used

these large, patterned capitals to inscribe the duke's


in

name

the front of each manuscript.

Cadels were widely used in


(pp.

By the mid- 15th century, northern Europe as single Versals


Cadel

5859), mainly

in vernacular text written in the various

H
letter
is

bastard scripts (pp. 6679).

During the 16th century, they

Despite the apparent complexity of this 16th-

century Cadel, the main structure ot the


easily

appeared in

Italic

text in increasingly elaborate forms.

pennable (pp. 82-83). The fine internal decoration can be drawn with a flexible steel nib.

B Y THE END OF the


77i/-i

6th century,

the Cadel was frequently appearing


Bastard Capital

l*<

letter 1), tfif/j its

looped

as a Versal in printed

form, and the

ascender,
.

is

a useful model

advent of copperplate engraving led


to

for drawing a Cadel

Vpp. 78-79;

more

fanciful elaboration than

was

achievable with a broad -edged pen.


Cadels, capitals,

and minuscules
These letters were penned in the second
HI -v "Hi

This paralleled the development ot the


various Italic and Copperplate hands
(pp.

KJ-l

half of the 15th century, possibly by

94 107), with which the Cadel

was often incorporated.


Interlace patterning

i>

JO ;0

&'J3 >>'/>

%<

the English scribe

Racardus Franciscus. One basic element of the Cadel contained


in the letter

The Cadel
used

differs

from other
it is

capitals

as Versals in that

composed of
drawn with
produces

is

the

7}
."lllllllllll

which has been constructed from


left foot,

interlacing strokes rather than built-up

strokes (pp.
a constant

58 59).

It is

three strokes linked

*->'=>

by

a series

of shorter

pen angle

this

strokes. This linking

thick and thin strokes that create a

vAvv
7

system

is

the key to
letters,

more complex
such
as the

pattern with a continuously changing


direction of line. In this way, substance
is

H (above).

added to an otherwise

skeletal letter.

Interlaced strokes can also be


.

Cadels were generally used


with Basiard scripts: here,
the minuscules resemble a

used to embellish the ascenders on


the top line ol a page of text or the

German
(pp.

cursive

band

74 75)

descenders on the bottom

line.

_J
Flamel's Cadi. is This page from a manuscript belonging to the Due de Berry was written by Jean Flamel in about 409. Although the basic
1

Engraved alphabet
This alphabet of capitals was engraved by Thomas Weston
in l(>S2.

Although the main


of Bastard Capitals

structure ot the letters follows


that
(pp.

Structure of the Cadels

is

relatively

simple, the fact that so

many have
typical

78-79), the basic forms

been used on the same page creates


an impressive overall effect.

have been embellished with Cadel scrolls and interlaces.

81

Gothic Scripts
Cataneo's Cadels These letters B and C are based on the initials of Bernardino Cataneo, writing master at the University of Siena, Italy, between 1544 and 1560. In their original form, they were used with text 96-97). in Rotunda (pp. 86-87) and Italic {pp.

Cadels
THE GREAT VARIETY of existing Cadel examples have been selected alphabet. These
it

models makes

very difficult to

assemble a complete

to represent a

few general

principles.

Although Cadels can look very

Tlw

skeleton

consists

easier than daunting to accomplish, in practice they are often a great deal impressive. you may think and, when used as Versals, they can look very

of a spine and two bowls

The golden

rule

is

to begin at the core of the letter and

work outwards.
a

1.

Begin the

stem of the B with

double stroke,

Letter spine Always begin with the spine

with the inner


stroke leading
into the stroke

of the
is

letter.

Here, the spine

composed of downward diamond strokes and straight vertical strokes. The pen angle
for

of the top bowl.

Next add the

single

stroke of the lower bowl,

both types of strokes

is

leading into a

tail.

between 35 and 45.


1. Establish

the

basic structure

of the Cadel in
pencil before
retracing the
strokes in pen.

CK^\d

The

decorative

flourishes are

added

last

2. Build

up

the

skeletal

form
at

with loops
Use a pencil for the
initial

the top of the

planning of the
letter's structure

bowl and spun


to the
left

of the

stem. Scrolls can be

added

as a final flourish.

TJie top

of the howl
has heen

extended

Vie Cadel

is

decorated
1.

Diamond
A
series

strokes

with delicate flower

To begin

the C,

of diamond
is

and

leafforms

draw the spine and


the top curve in a
single stroke.

strokes

common
the pen

feature of the Cadel


spine.

Move

The bottom
curve can be

downwards

in a

drawn

in the
foot.

controlled, zigzagging

form of a

movement, without
altering the

pen angle. pen angle of 45


give symmetrical

The inner hairline

strokes

and

will

scallops arc similar to those

diamonds.

used in Gothic Capitals


(pp.

60-61)

Maintain a
pen angle of
2. Build

up the
a

45 for a
series

Cadel with

of short,

system of
linked

neat diamonds

diminishing
strokes to create

boxes"

(opposite).

Cadels
Drawing
a

Cadel

A
A
can be built up

This apparently complex

quite quickly in four stages.

Diamonds have

been drawn into the


a constant

legs of the A, so keep pen angle to ensure an even

stroke or to create a change of ornamentation can be used. The patterns shown below have all been created with the pen at a constant angle. Each involves a scries of short strokes that move at 90 to each
in line direction, various types

Cadel ornamentation In order to build up the weight of a main

Jliis patient

involves

series

of

distribution

of thick and thin

strokes.

other in a series of thin and thick "boxes". This simple device can be

four small "boxes",


followed by a line of
three "boxes"

adapted to form increasingly complex patterns.

A
Begin by penning the
letter:

constant pen angle

is

essential in the creation

" of "box patterns

1.

five basic

the

two feet Allow yourself ample space between strokes.

components of the two legs, and top stroke.

Terminal "boxes"
Straight horizontal strokes are

Basic "boxed" strokes

"
is

"Box"
basic
lift),

steps

In this pattern, the


best avoided, so use curved

The
is

basic principle

of the "boxed" stroke

In a principle similar to the

diagonals for the feet of the

A
Build up the legs
letter

use of "boxes" allows


strokes to

that
is

when

the pen

be terminated

line

produced, and

moves sideways, a thin when it moves upwards


produced.

"boxed" stroke

(above

this pattern involves

the

2.

in different directions.

or downwards,

a thick line

"boxes" moving sideways


in steps.

of the

with two

This works best on

complementary upright strokes on either side


of the core diamond
strokes.
rule,

curved strokes and requires


careful planning.

Interlocking loops

As

a general

A series

of interlocking be adapted
at a

the legs should

but unjoined loops can


terminal stroke or

have more weight


than the
feet.

provide an

infill.

Tlte semi-circular loops interlock

without actually touching

The

lines

of the

serif

Mirror images
This patterning
is

echo those of thefeet

loosely based

on

decorated descender from the

16th-century "Alphabet" of Mary

of Burgundy.

The two

halves of

Keeping a constant pen angle, build up the feet. Changes of line


3.

the ornamentation suggest a

mirror image. This decoration

would work equally well from

a
1.

top line of an ascender.

Begin by folding

a sheet

of of

direction can

now

lightweight layout paper in half- the


fold will represent the centre line

be introduced.

the image. Fold the paper again


right angle to the original fold
will represent the arm.

at a

this

Unfold the
pattern.

Changes of line
direction

Small terminal loops should be drawn


complete; this
to construct
is

paper and
oops,

work out
interlaces

the sequence,

have

easier than trying

and

of half the

been introduced
Finish the

half a loop

Cadel by
terminating the
strokes with

loops

and

hairlines

Tlte balance of thick


strokes in the
left

and

thin

2.

Using the right angle fold

as a

arm

will be

centre line, the arm.

work out the


this
is

strokes for

the exact reverse of those in

When

complete, fold

the right

arm

the paper over the centre line and


repeat the pattern from the see-

4.

Now

add the crossbar, breaking the

strokes as they cross the lines


Finally,

of the

legs.

add the decorative loops and

flourishes.

Any flaws in the become immediately obvious when the pattern is reversed.
through image.
design will

83

Italia*

&_Humanist Scripts
The right halfof the

has a smoother
semi-circular

Rotunda
influence on western THE Gothicand 3th centuries wasEuropeanresisted in one largely
scripts

sweep than
the
left

between

(pp. 86-87;

the tenth

major country - Italy. The clarity of classical inscriptions, still evident throughout the land, the continued use of a wide, rounded hand called the Beneventan, and the retention of the
Caroline Minuscule, were
a formal script that differed in its
all

factors in the
its

emergence of
of the o

Rotunda o
The
roundness
the key to
is

from
It

Gothic contemporaries
as

round, open aspect.

was known

Rotunda.

Rotunda and is reflected in all the bowed letters.


To"1

By the 12th century,


Rotunda
script

the prestige

had developed into

an extremely formal and upright


version of the Caroline Minuscule
(pp.

38-39), with

slightly shorter

ascenders and descenders than


its

parent script.

The hand

noltrn it
.

also

embodied elements of the Beneventan, most notably in the rounded strokes on many
letters. In contrast, straight strokes

blca*ott

mc.iuiu
r.i 111.111.1

were square-cut and

rigidly upright.

legible

hand
Rotunda was bolder

In general, the

than the Caroline Minuscule, but


the rounded strokes and

nutrrtn pirtntr plrmdi in.i fimmii regis filumr


gio:iofifliiiuiii.ira'o:pi\

modest

ascenders and descenders created a clear, legible script that was used
for

hamm coniblanoirfoLi
tomili

handwritten work long after

uu rrrnumuii tlir
f

the introduction of printing.


simplicity of the letterforms

The made
model

ttfprsinrcfjAT.innum nq

qo .inrcp.immuurgo
.

the script equally popular as a


for typefaces, thriving in that
until as late as the
1

form

p.utit rr iiirc^o poltp.irni

8th century.
this

foiV5iiufmro:oic foils X.iluns ct ciunc . fans vi

The many caned strokes, such as

on the

letter o,

helped continue the

Italian tradition oj open,

rounded

scripts

The sauarc baseline foot of the


distinctive characteristic

letter ! is

of the Rotunda

Book of Hours
This small

Book of Hours, produced

in

Bruges in about 1480, shows the evenness and regularity of the Rotunda. The script differs from that used for the Verona Antiphoner (opposite) in one significant respect - the

upturned
in slightly

feet

continuation of the

of the minims. Here, they are a minim strokes, which results


cursive letters than

more

was

usual.

84

ROTtlXDA

Large-scale letters

As

a manuscript hand, the


full

Rotunda was
from very

written in a

range of

sizes,

'"' J WJW.
4irr.cu
rf.
c

small to very large, and was the chosen


script for

some of the
in

largest

known

manuscript books

the world.

When

written on

a large scale, the

letters can have a rigid formality

and the hairline strokes often seem


disproportionately light.

Rotunda Capitals
Accompanying
capitals are written

cofpectii

%tlgar

with the same pen as the minuscules

pl4ll4

(pp.

8889).

double stroke can be used

M
I

for the stem, with a clear gutter

between
into a

S2^
1

strokes. In

some

historical instances, the

Rotunda Capital was developed


.

Versal In others, Gothic or Lombardic

tibt rate mote,p!<ofttc

Versals

were used with Rotunda


feature of all

text script.

A common
letters,
is

Rotunda
capital,

both minuscule and

the sharpness of the cut of the nib,


clear, precise strokes

r . COW.

iterui. ur

6^. 61111c ifi.

which gives

and

fine hairlines. In larger versions,

jnfc'fixuiffic.HuiVX ,

the pen should be clearly lifted after the completion of each stroke, while
in

S>
nucta

smaller versions,
in

manv

strokes can

be drawn

one continuous movement.

jwunu
The Verona An tiphonek
This Aniiphoncr (book of chants and anthems) was written in about 1500 for the monasteries of SS Nazro and Calio in Verona. Italy. This type of book was often
written in a large format to enable several choristers to

These large-scale Rotunda

letters

lack any

cursivejeaturcs: note the angularity with

which the ascenders and straight minim


strokes

have been drawn

Compare the unusual brokenforms of


the strokes on capitals A, C, the more

and E with commonjorm fpp. 88-89;

mpb(cbeofi8 fin 2I504 fum0>e

tare cm

pbUt fin 3of4n fuimrub:f*De locavr con*


4uc4$d fit empbttbeofitfz <p empbttbeo
(is grecee

read

it at the same time. The Rotunda letters have been drawn with considerable precision, with idiosyncrasies arising only in the unusual broken form of the capitals.

metattfo latie3b initio cl tm

77iii

Carolineform ofd features


.

fteriWa e

buc paa pcedebafcvt ie t\ aedget

an upright stem and curved bowl

Rotunda
The
founts of the Venice-based

as a typeface
printer Erhard

re i mcliozi ftarii T>cduceret:z fieri le fertile* redderet*poftca til gmf flit; 1 tf reto fcrrfUb

type used in this dictionary was possibly from the

German

Ratdolt {pp. 90-9 1), who had punches cut for a Rotunda type in I486. This detail shows two different

forms of d: the uncial form and the upright Caroline form - both can be seen in the middle of the sixth line.

t fructuofifluntf empbttbeoticari poffc.rt Cfce Cure em'pbUUhin pn*t 6z empbitbe file qui lt% ofte ?el empbf tbcorfc?

?mctM

85

Italian

SlHuuasist Scripts

The foot of

Rotunda
ROTUNDA
IS

the a could Tlte a


is

characterized

alternatively

by

its

hairline curl

finish with

AN upright, open
and small

letter,

which works well on


characteristic straight
h, are

a sweep

to

the right

..both a large

scale.

The

stem

strokes, such as those

on

letters

b,j, and

constructed with

The square foot is then added in one nib of two wavs. The simplest method is to use the corner of the
the pen held at about 30.
to outline the foot, before filling
it

in

with ink. Alternatively,

be used, which involves turning 30 to the horizontal in one short movement. the pen from Although the latter mav seem more complex, it is probably
the "dual ductus" technique can

b
C

Vie fiat-headed
ascender of the b

can be replaced by
a split ascender

preferable

when drawing

large

Rotunda

letters.

.I

split

ascender can
instead of
the.

be

med

Jlal-headld variety

tC
Alternatively, the

On

large-scale
letters,

Rotunda

the curved stroke


is

drawn separately

from the straight


stroke

can feature an
j

upright stem

If the upright stroke begins

at 30, turn the pen to the

horizontal to create a

flat foot

Complete the sweep

to

the

right in a single stroke

Sweeping strokes

On

letters in

which the stem sweep


is

stroke ends in a right sweep,

such

as

(above), the

usually stroke.

completed in

a single

On
/.

larger letters,

two

fcrossbar

Alternative

I 4& 4

Twist the pen


to the vertical
for the crossbar

of the f

separate strokes are used


(see
b,

and

t,

right).

Key The

letter
o

is the key letter of the Rotunda. The bowls of h, d, g, p, and q closely follow its shape, and its open aspect is also echoed in the c

and

e.

The

first

stroke

is

only slightly

curved, closely following a vertical before sweeping vigorously to the


right.

The second

stroke

is

much
first.

more

semi-circular than the

Theflat-headed

Tlie second

ascender of the h can be replaced by a split ascender

stroke of the

h can be

extended and
the third stroke omitted

Terminating
As an
alternative to the
stroke, letters m. n.

flicks

terminate with a

flick.

sweeping and it can These .ire

severe and rather mechanical: the


stroke
is

simply executed with a pen

angle of 3(1 and without any


directional turn

of the pen.

86

Rotunda

kThe
a

flat-headed
Tlie second stroke

ascender of the k can be replaced by


split

Twist the pen

of the k can be
extended and the

Alternative

'

to

the vertical

ascender

to complete the

third omitted

crossbar

of the

Tlie second leg of the

can finish with a flick

The flat-headed ascender of the

I
Thefinalfoot of the

can be replaced by a

split

ascender

I:

IS'

Alternative

foot
.

can finish

urith a flick

rrwT
Alternative
3

foot

nvt It
Alternative

_vj

Tlie second foot

of the n could
alternatively

terminate

with a flick

foot

iO
Alternatively,
twist from the
1

Drag

the ink with

the comer of the nib to

Tlie second stroke of the o


is

more semi-

make

the

tail

of the x

circular

than the first

diagonal to the
horizontal for
the serif of the

5[?
:

ri
Full
r

f?

77ie uje o/"r/ic

';

half
in

r is

common
text

Rotunda

Half r
Each stroke of the s begins or ends on the central hairline

tx to
Conjoined J and e
Conjoined and o
b

Any

two

letters

with

opposing bows

can be conjoined

Apart from conjoined


letters,

Rotunda

letterforms

are clearly separated

c*

Sequence of

Rotunda
letters

87

Italian

SlHumanist Scripts

Rotunda Capitals
THE STRUCTURE OF the Rotunda Capital
than the minuscule
capitals can
(pp.
is less

clearly defined

86-87). Both single and double stem

be used;

historically, they
{pp.

were often combined with


Vertical

Lombardic Capitals

64-65). The double stem capitals shown


a

hairlines can

here have been taken from

number of sources and should be


all

be added

regarded onlv as guide for individual interpretations. As with the

through the
counter ot

Rotunda minuscules,
strokes and

a "double ductus" applies, with

curved
,

theB

some upright

strokes

drawn with

the

pen

at

30

and

the remaining strokes

drawn with the pen

at the horizontal.

Sweeping curved
establish

stroke* help

a rhythm

The pen
Capital

is

held at

30" for

the

curved strokes of the Rotunda

single

diamond
space

stroke reduces the

volume

oj

in the counter

Diagonal hairlines can be

added

to

the letter 1) fleftj

Counters
The round, open nature
counters.
ot the

Rotunda

Capital tends to produce generous

The expanse

ot

white space
or
a

Tlte stem of
the

can be broken by the addition of spurs.

diamonds, double

hairlines,

combination of these elements.

F can

^F
*

alternatively be

drawn with

double stroke

Square
If the

feet
is

pen

at

30

at the

top of the

stem, the angle should be maintained


for the

whole

stroke, finishing at the

baseline.

To create

the square foot,


to trace
to'join

use the

comer of the nib


of the stem.

along the baseline and up


right side
triangle

the

Fill in this

of white space with

ink.

Tlie feet are outlined

and filed

in with the

corner oj the nib

Alternative form of
In this

stroke

is

form of M. the double in the centre of the letter

and

a large

sweeping stroke has

been incorporated,

The volume
Hackles can be added
to the first

of space in the counter has been reduced by the double hairline.


'The f;ap between the

stem of the

two stem

strokes

should be about halt a pen width

88

Rotunda

Capitals

Turn

the

pen
the

from

horizontal to

30

to

draw

the final stroke

of the

hairline stroke can

be added to the right

Ml

of the stem of the

Turn the pen from 30 to the


horizontal for
the central stroke

of the

BTiira
of the

the

^^*
to

^^^ i^^^N
[fT

horizontal

77ic the the

O and

f\

To form

the
tail

Q hai'e
same
basic

Q, add

to the

form

Tun;

the

pen from

30
to

hairline

to the

stroke can be

horizontal

added
right

to the

draw

the

of the

first

stroke
I

stem of the P

_ of the

A
Tim;
peit

hairline

the

stroke can be

from
to the

added
right

to the

Internal decoration can take the form of hairline cross


strokes

30
to

of the

horizontal

stem of the

and diamonds

draw

the

^^

first stroke

of the

Alternative forms of

O
Any Rotunda
drawn with a
Capital can be

:c*Oi

single rather than

Single stem Rotunda

a double stem; this plainer form


is

best for use in text with

Capital

minuscules (pp.

86-87)

89

Italian <SlH</.i/.i\at Scripts

Humanist Minuscule
The Humanist Minuscule
most
both
influential in
(Littera

Antiqua) and the

Roman

Imperial Capital (pp. 108-109) arc the

our modern

society.

two historical scripts Between them, they give


Humanis Minuscule m
i

us the basic constructions of our capital and lower-case letters,


in

handwritten and typewritten form. In the Humanist


The serifs have
been drawn with
the pen held at

Minuscule, the darker overtones of the Gothic scripts gave way


to the lighter style of the

All

Humanist Minuscule

30

have an upright aspect with clearly defined strokes.


letters

Renaissance

letter. It

would

be

difficult to envisage a

script better suited to the


intellectual ideal: of the age.

bone
The Humanist Minuscule was
essentially a rediscovery of the

utoluntatis rue coronaih. nosilft"

qui em cternam.
dctis

A nDingc domine

meus mconlLeclu (no


C onucrrerc
irtiurorc

mam inc
tie

Caroline Minuscule

(pp.

38-39).
tree

As

a clear,

unambiguous hand,

am .An
a
in ira

from affectation, the Caroline was


considered bv 14th-century scholars,
including the Italian poet Petrarch,
to he in

Online nc

nio ar en as me

nia cotnpias mellflJiferetTina


i

harmony with J

the ideals

domine quomam innrmus Cum (ana


nic rlomini- (iiionuin

of the Renaissance.

lOimnoara innt

Although the Humanist Minuscule

omnia ofla
bata
ci\

meaOt
tn

annua mca rur

was to have

profound and formative

influence on

modern Latin-based
was
initially

nafdc ted

domine n(at|
ct

writing, acceptance of it

ouo|ffloniicrrerc domine

u'lin.u
i

slow.

the script

The widespread popularity of came only after manuscript


it

mam imam
c(l in

l.vlmnn incfac propter

books were superseded by printed


works, and

mi(erieorc{iam

rudm HBuoni.uii non

was adapted

as a

morte qui
<

memor Grtui

ini^fcr

model

for text typefaces, notably by

no uneiu quis onncerurui tibiHa


boraui inonnitu meo lanabo per (u\
I

Nicholas Jenson of Venice after 1470

38 39). It gradually replaced the Rotunda in Italy (pp. 8-1- 85) and the Gothic scripts of Britain and southern Europe as the principal
(pp.

alas noefrs (eclum mriim lacnr

model

lor tvpelaces.

Book or Hours
This
in

Hook of Hours was

written in Bologna

about 1500 for Giovanni II Dcntivoglio. Arguably, the sumptuous decoration and bright colours of the Versals detract from the
dignity of the text script itself
at

The

flat serifs

the heads of the ascenders are the natural


(pp.

product of a horizontally held pen

92-9J).

HllM.WIST MlXUSCUII:

\ote the scrupulous


1

pillo.lnUp.uili

consistent.

ivtth

nhteh these

Adrp^iiw

small ampersand* have been

drawn throughout the

test

lUJmil
f
i

lcdiniUHft.toun ramlicuia
'.

mnromilhone vihroe fuiihi Ar.lnlo


reuuifup
lit* .
t

tu etc

Imam

u mtinbu

lii

trrrjm

vospjflTsno
fdioj

mui corporis < ius de catnr ems <*td


oinbuSCIUS
m-.
I

iracundum proiiocarr

!'!')|'(l

Im

irln, mjtl ,

Itros

(rdrducateillosindifcipdnaet

.-.

he book hoi been

handwritten on vellum

mopitten(36maLcein(ium ftad bcrebn vxon In* ^V.ttuntdtioicu ne vni ,S<iir.inicntiin> Wr iiucnuu,


ti\
,

(ompfionf aomim, Seruiobrdnrdn

miml cjtnjlitmscumtimorr iVtrrmo


rf

infimplKieatecordiivtftnfiaiftK
fcruientes rpufi ho
:

t.9p mi ten dico in cljlifto f\ i


i

Do -non ad oculum

eccicua.Veeutjmen ^tvos
>

finfuli

minibus platentu led vt (rnn chnfli


(

rnuicjuify v .TO rem

(mm iicul \tn

j(

if

ntc.

v(il

[i

ntj

The

Versals are

Roman and

not

baud on lombardk
59J

m df

ex ammo ni

lumdilipat vxor jutem timui vuu

bona volunute fetuientts iicut

domi

Juu_
fey. Apoflolmpntvum os f * btttrrjtti auomoilo muicrm vtiuj

nciVnon hornmibus-fcimtesquonta
C up
f>l>

letterforms fpp. 58

vmdquilm quodcum^t itceat bonum b


recipiet
.

domino, Ctut fetuus Uw

tnflituit

dtmdt ftruos

c* tiommat

vt

Iibu

St. Paul's Epistle

fiUibarentes nontnr
>*d
ir.

m .p+rrnttj
.

Et

vos domini eidem fite illis

i\\o\

rfmitttnfesmma* fcitntesquutYHto

Written in about 1500,


this text
Italic

trmcundtn nan prouocrnt itrmfl

rum (Vve0erdominiiseftinca(i5.n
perfonarum acceptio non eft apuddeu
Otextt to fritres, conforumimim do

combines and Humanist


to
1

hjmc donunn. dotmmor.mfnt (//


:

trtu*'uni

Pothemo

vn

vmutrftvm

hejios

aJ rmUtiafrnfidet hortatur
Ilu ofarditrparrniibus
in

Minuscule hands
dr.ini.itic effect.

inmo ft t n potrntia virtu us ei us


duitevos

*"

- Jj.

vm
i

NUMBBM dei vt pofiitis


r.i

)espite
ert
-

domino. Hoc cmmiullu

iUn adnr r(u


Ius

nlidi a*, diaboli tjuo

the diminutive size of


the letters,

Honora.pjtrem tuum t\ matrrm


:

niam non eft nobis coUudtatio aduer

reproduced
they are

hum

auad ell mandjtumpnmuro

carntm At la noil mem

Ted

*dim

here approximately the

same

size as

written, each character

remains distinct and


clearly legible.

At a
for a

glance, the manuscript

may be mistaken

printed book.

i..

Lii..

In this

margin annotation,

Thi handwriting

the earl\ use o] Arabic

numeral*

is

evident

Petrarch The script developed


if

A small
I

letter

Like the Caroline Minuscule, the

Printed text
Fifteenth-century
text type

by Francesco Petrarch Was probably the first

lumanist Minuscule was an elegant


that

Humanist Minuscule.
This annotation by the poet to his copy of Suctonuis's Lives o) Caesars, was made in about 1370 and clearly demonstrates the degree to which he had adopted the Caroline Minuscule as
a

hand

worked most
is

suceesslullv

was closely modelled on the

on a small scale. This


text (above). In
(pp.
Italy,

evident

in

handwritten letters of the period. The


similarities
this

-Vf-

vltn -n*x yft1


-

the diminutive letters of the Epistles


the

Rotunda

between
(if/oie),
1

typeface

printed after

4Nd.

lor large-scale

84-S3) continued to be used hook work.

and the handwritten Humanist Minuscule of St. Paul's Epistle


(above) are very clear.

ffjl't-ctnt

4^

Versals

and

capitals

model

for his hand.

Versals, so popular with Gothic

The same

sent

scribes,

were also used with the

formation has been


used for both capitals

tp

UJltc

These

Italic letter-,

men
I

lumanist Minuscule, but these were

probably cut by the goldsmith


Francesco Grijjo

and minuscules.

tOI

increasingly modelled on

Roman

UUI Uk/lfVUIlJ Ikltiwuiua Ullllllliuit


!

L xv ,lu 'j?

K'S"

forms

(pp.

)08~109). The use of


openings was

capitals for sentence

ex

cis

qu& manifefte apparent concIudamus,af/


trdAr

ianobisaIibidemonftratis,atquc abipfoadco CoduditcS

now universal. Also derived from Roman forms, the Humanist Capitals
were drawn with the same ductus as the minuscules and were the same
height as the minuscule ascender
(pp.

paquq?aninl^l'S&rshumorern ad fc locoaliV Cms naturan^crrautat. jjjit autem unicuic^ par


:Iicet

ot*

J cncYlireex
ro ^ nutriri

efkEwa fccuHPPnurnorurri qux ipfi lidorum wrporum fubftantiams a quibusetiam


infant
altera tio

98 99).

rigid

adherence to
lines,

ascender and descender

along

con tfngit.

Verum

fiquidem hocita

with clear line separation, helps give an ordered aspect to


a

page

ot text.

9/

Italian

&_Humanist Scripts

Humanist Minuscule
THE Humanist Minuscule
Caroline Minuscule
separate, and
(pp.
is

a direct descendent of the

40-^tI). Letters are clearly defined,


in

open - very close

a
b

%r&
If using a "slanted" pen,

form

to

modern
is

Tlie wedge serif of the

letters,

can be replaced by

the bowl of the

mil

particularly those used as typefaces.

There

no exaggeration

aflat serif

have a diagonal

axis

of ascenders and descenders in the script and interlinear spacing


is

clear

and regular. Humanist Minuscule can be written with a

square-cut "slanted" or an oblique-cut "straight" pen.

The

letters

shown here have been written with a "straight" pen. In both


cases, the letters are upright
a

and usually small pen widths.

in scale,

with

minim height of about

five

The

"Slanted" pen "slanted" pen Humanist Minuscule is based on the early hand of Poggio and
relates quite closely to

Tlie

wedge

cc
serij

of the

can be replaced by

aflat serif

the Caroline Minuscule.


It is

written with a pen

angle of 30-40.
a
is

The

double-storey
distinguishes
Italic
ii.

letter; this
it

from the
is

which

If using a "slanted" pen,


the

a single-storey

bowl of the d

will

letter (pp.

96-97).

have a diagonal axis

"Straight" pen During the latter part


of the 15th century,
there was an increasing

_2

Like the Rotunda


f,

tendency to write the

^J

the Humanist
( ices
Mil

Humanist Minuscule
with a "straight" pen.

Minuscule

not have a

The pen
is

angle for this

shallow

-5-15thin
If using a
"slanted"

and

a greater contrast

between thick and

strokes can be produced.

Wedge serif drawn


'

pen, the boui


Plat serif

in

mi' strokes

Fool drawn with


a "straight"

Foot drawn with


a "slanted"

of the g mil

pen

pen

have a
diagonal axis

Tlie h ran

Serif types

The

script features

two
flat.

types of serifs:

Minim feet When using a


tendency
is

terminate with

"slanted" pen, the

a turned foa

wedge-shaped and
stroke or in
[above).

The wedge

to create a turned foot,

serif is created either in a single

two
flat

separate strokes
is

produced by terminating the minim stroke with a flick to the right.

The

serif

created with

When

using a "straight" pen,

this

a single horizontal stroke.

When
flat

flicking

movement

is

more

difficult.

using a "straight" pen. the

serif

Instead, use the

flat serif,

or finish the
to the

can also be used to terminate upright

stroke with a slight

movement

minims and descenders


/"

(see letters

right along the baseline

and then add

It,

k,

m,

n, p, q,

r,

opposite).

a separate serif to the left.

92

Humanist Minuscule
The wedge
by a
serif of

the k can be replaced


flat serif

!k
Pull the

t
of the
I

Tlte top of the


rise

should

only slightly above


the headline

Tlic

wedge

serif of

tail

along

the

din Be replaced
flat serif

the baseline, or terminate the stroke with aflat serif

by a

m mm V ill: nil w w\m


) 5
If using a "slanted"

o
ml
q
will

pen, the

o win have

a diagonal axis

If using a "slanted"

pen, the bowl of

the p will have a diagonal axis

basic form

of the y

the

same

as the u,

Willi the fourth stroke

z
If using a "slanted" pen,

extended into a

tail

the bond of the

have

tmW

Humanist Minuscule
this form

letters

drawn

u'ilh a

"slanted" pen can lean forward slightly; in


the a,
t,

a diagonal axis

and g

differ

from the

Italic

Ipp.

94-95;

in that they are

unlinked

tr s %s

'Pie first stroke

of the

can

terminate with

a turned foot

"Slanted
letters
77ie
letter
tail

of the

differentiates the

from

its Italic

counterpart

(pp.

96-97;

93

Italia*

&Mumanist Scripts

Italic
IN
ITS BASIC

FORM,

Italic script
is

(Chancery Cursive, Cancellaresca

Italic a

Corsiva, Littera di Brevi)

a cursive offspring of the


it

Humanist

The
with

Italic a,
its fully

Minuscule

(pp.

9091). Over time,


right, spawning,

became

a distinctive

formed bowl,
is

the

earliest

hand
(pp.

in its

own

in turn, the

Copperplate

ancestor of our

modem lowercase letter


a.

102-103). The script was invented in 1420 by Niccolo Niccoli, an Italian scholar who found the Humanist Minuscule
too slow to execute. By 1440, his new,
script
less labour-intensive

Letters general!)

join at the midway

had been adopted as the

official

hand of the Papal Chancery.

point between

the

baieline and the

headline

The four

BASIC characteristics

of Italic that were established by


Niccoli tend to occur naturally

when
'

the Humanist Minuscule


rapidly and with the

is

written

ItV

minimum
there
is

number of pen

lifts:

tendency for the hand to lean to


the right; circles

become more

oval;

Q?3

many

letters

can be written in a single

stroke; and letters are joined to each

other with

connecting stroke.

Changing the a
The character
significantly

altered

most
a,
tall

sMjoltoJionormioOiuifancLo a Quellajclji

by Niccoli was the

rombefp Quale be bend


oonc

QuMchtjiim
abb refsb

which he transformed from a


two-storey letter
storey letter of
right).
(p.

tSl^Aa &jla
(i

o co a da eofi
ItOU'i

92) into a single(above


this
tail.

minim height

r^n

bo tcfjcuijchi h re

w Ia

ufc

His a also tended to follow


an a with a

new form, resembling

re (k) cauarli

Qucllo oMuaoonccllo
pctuw uoua imlu

\ Ajac

The terminals of Italic ascenders and descenders were drawn in one of two
forms: the formata (semi-formal), in

nO imdumulu-

la

nudUm a qiidloiia.illo

uiuuo atoruo I'cn.niiiolonl ivnuclunuclU tu tfltputuota toUih\uc mcutttc tttiklimdlc Ct fdnuqifllucrc a raw ci ulard tuoni
r

which thev were horizontal or wedgeshaped and left-facing, or the corsiva,


in

uc ltd

luii'o

die

lutt'ecui

lumto l ucu*

ct c

ma pnmataM tittup ccr

which thev were rounded and

right-facing (pp. 96-97).

A oh carnc di porcho calda unci di


cKiaro cttcllisluno

Mick
oglio

Butiro frclco

ct

Treatise on Hawking This page from a work by the Italian scholar Francesco Moro was penned in about 1560-70
mainly of alphabets and texts in At the top. in gold, are two lines of Cadels (pp. 80-81). Beneath the blue border are the Italics, fully separated and generously

lt.ol.uo bcllifliraoctncro pcrtrc o


tro Pnlti ct

aua

Ancora W dice

cite

and

consists

\SCEMV>OLOriN

different hands.

spaced.
identifiable

The minuscule hand


ofTextura Quadrata

is

formata,
serifs.

by the wedge-shaped ascender


(pp.

ri.

Four

lines

50-51)
90-91).

follow and,
several lines

below the green border,

there are

of Humanist Minuscule

{pp.

94

Italic

FviUVS INQVAI^TO
V.Akuin avYorh/ lohami
r
l\\

AN MALI
ejl
I

lUtailnrn Mldns'Mtmiiliii?

H mX. vmt yef: clmfttftt myomr-'. Hemeri ejr-H wnc featfu f mc fa V (kufvoetn in Uvro fecvmdo oellt hybrid ait. Np?ii'$ mm
crvit

cmfwn .'Afch

on\

(I

tfiflm
ft

toHaern

itccejcft UctiAtttt'-

-4>i

i/mnluifcivt

N on wjtn'
eir

Urxprt'cvritntn lint onuX;

cvntum

AllUlVtAjl

merit* defcrvytxo

tawhim-tntif-'

mhet

ueron

JplirtBajImillC'-Cjuviibivi
The long ascenders and descenders have

BidcmiyvilliamMtmU't {Kwdjohn^tmp^EricQl^
Stanley CMoni&mvjan'Jjcl

presented a problemfor ihe scribe where

they clash in the interlinear space

In this Italic text, the calligrapher

has

.S. I/'I KXALIA was written by Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius in 1465. Each letter is clearly defined, reminiscent both of the Humanist Minuscule (pp. 90-91) and the earlier Caroline Minuscule (pp. 38-39). The capitals are small and restrained compared with those by Moro (opposite).

This fine

Italic script

included both formata and corsiva


ascenders; this
1

is

the corsiva type

Printing type catalogue


This design from
1

990

is

by the

Norwegian
Haanes.

The influence of type The changing. demands brought about


by the developing printing industry of
the
1

calligrapher Christopher

He

has achieved

harmony

i'rahcWGini?yi\i(Utiuiv

between the capitals and minuscules by reducing the size of the capitals to just above minim height.

5th century had an important

influence

on the

Italic script. In

501

the Venetian printer Aldus Manutius

commissioned goldsmith Francesco


Griffo to design a small
The relative crudity of Morris's
capital letters is
to his

Italic

type

probably owing

(pp.

90-91),

in

which most of the

use of a pointed pen nib

characters were clearly separated.


.

rather than the more suitable

broad-edged nib

-k_
._., ,,! ,ir(Y

From
AiCm.tvfim nii,i!MiflWM foitm

that point, calligraphers

began

to follow the
1

example of type by

Although clearly an
script,

Italic

|UE-rVvH

,..i.l..rUvvl [ft*

separating their penned letters. This


led to a loss of some of the Italic's

Morris's letters are


iiirm' Cflevntt-e

noticeably upright compared

cursive quality and the script quickly

with a classic Italic such as

Francesco Moro's (opposite)

un? C

iijt<i

rtcinei jivooi

reached

its full

maturitv as a carefully
1

crafted text hand. But by the


ii)

550s,
that
it

f'n

Hint' run/ Ileitcom' oris

the complaint from scribes


?

was

William Morris Although Edward


Johnston
regarded
as
is

..

iWt Ulptr iinAooeUAo\eiii

IMmio

had become too slow to write. From


then,
its

-~'0i "*.<*,

'

generally

UrvJr \ouilrw

frrrvnr Histriitnc

decline

was

rapid, eventually

the father of
calligraphy

OrfL,
~m
\
I

SiLc

being used only for text in parenthesis

modern
(pp.

/\rt,- iniifirnd Mfule-i merarrtati


.

and for annotation.

42-43), William

Morris had been


exploring the methods

Iliiminiiifi Uituiil celemitiie \mtvs,

Johnston 's o
For the modern calligrapher,
of inspiration. However,
,

H.iticliim

tlclunUl) hlibuf
iliicfir ttuercul

cur.-rij

Italic

of medieval scribes two


decades before him. This
illuminated
is

script remains a constant source


pir-ini<

work of 1874

VyfrffrlT^V lUcwii pMtW


IttuAirtii ,pit irt
.

much new

an attempt to realize

nomnuMM LJcvriitv

Italic
1

can be traced back not to the

the vision of the Arts and Crafts movement by achieving communion

mU

irwnr et ternt) \tirii>ane fTMiri<Jinn

5th century but to the influence of J


script

the early 20th-century calligrapher

between craftsman and tool {pp. 42-43). But


since a pointed nib rather

Edward Johnston. The

was

subtly modified by his introduction

than

broad-edged pen

has been used to

draw

of two pulled strokes for the o and


related letters, in place of the
original single stroke (pp. 42-43).

the capitals, the attempt


is

only

partially successful.

95

Italian

&_Humanjst Scripts

Italic

The

Italic z

is

always a

singleletter

THE ITALIC HAND


at

is

written with a square-cut "slanted" pen, held

storey

an angle of between 35 and 45. Letters should be written

with the
a single

formata

minimum number of pen lifts - most can be written with stroke. The two traditional examples shown here are and corsiva. Formata letters are distinguished by the wedge
of the stem, corsiva by the swashes to the right of

serif to the left

the stem. Ideally, the o


is

two different types should not be mixed. The


it

the kev letter of the script:

establishes the basic ductus of

the hand, the curve of other letters, and the letter width (below).

Joining strokes

Where

strokes spring
.Ilrtltf

Connecting
MttmsC Itrtiw n
I

from the stem of a letter, such as on h, m, and ii, the stroke should begin about two pen widths below the headline. The bottom curve of the bowl of the d, g, and q meets
the stem stroke about

cftikiK <hould

forward lean of about


'

begin about two

10 or 15".

pen widths short


of the headline

two widths above the


baseline. All

connecting
basic rules.

strokes follow these

A
Ascenders and descenders
lli:>
serif,

tongue can be
is

added when the e


at the

wedge

can be the
the
Tliis serif

same

height as
shorter

end of a word

drawn
strokes,

minims or slightly

in

two

can also be

dubbed
Without
the

a>
'Hie clubbed
corsiva serif
creates bold

crossbar, the f

becomes

the

long form ofs

ascenders
Alternatively,

the descender

Serifs
Serifs

of the gran
terminate with

can be wedge-shaped and left-facing (formata) or

right-facing (corsiva).

On

letters b, d, h, k,

and

in the

a swash

Step-by-step o

alphabet

(ni;/ir),

both formata and corsiva types are shown.

(above

left)

Alternatively, the

second foot of the

can tenninale with a flick

_Jabove

left)

1.

To

create the o in

2. Maintaining the

3.

Push the pen


in arc,

a single stroke, use

an

40 pen angle, curve


the stroke

towards the headline

angle of 40. Begin just

downwards
the

an

meeting the top

below the headline and push the pen upwards


to the headline, before

towards the baseline,


before

curve just below the


headline. Alternatively,

moving along

baseline and beginning

draw the

letter in

two

curving

down

to the

left.

to curve upwards.

strokes (opposite).

96

Italic

Formata form ^mt


offe

k
Corsiva

bt
JLl
^/ ^y
can be
strokes

tt

form of

11 :ma
/
Formata form of/
Corsiva form of/
Tlie legs of the

%M
The first Tl,efirst
the f/jf
Itllt* //fee

stroke

of

1\

'

v ran begin, mm fegm,


tiiti 11 the u, titllt twWi

%V J'

<?

len/ge serif

drawn as separate

TTTTJ

14?
m/m/
'

%'
of
i

Tlie Vie first stroke

~~

l/ic the

w can begin,
serif

-f*--

like the u, with

a wedge

jQZ& a
Alternatively, the

can be drawn

in a single stroke ^opposite,)

irvzz _)2_3
Ml Ml ^*7
M
3

MB?"
.

The second stroke of the into p can be extended in the stem and the thir third
stroke omitted.

Alternatively, the

y ran if

constntcted from the basic

form of a, with the addition

a
Y
5
w~jfi
2

-^
from
Conjoined
letters

ofajescender

Thefirst and
of the
z

third

trokes

can be

replaced by a single stroke


right to left

do

not appear in
script

Italic

and

ligatures

are limited to the


letters s

and

Italic

ampersands can be

decorated with flourishes

TJ

S-t ligature

Ampersand

91

ITM.IAS Si.HuM.iMsr Scripts

Humanist
Humanist
Minuscule
well as Capitals (pp.
(pp.
1

&

Italic

Capitals
Roman
Imperial

CAPITALS ARE closely modelled on

10-1 19) and can be used with the Caroline


(pp.

A
B

-"

4011) and Foundational Hand


(pp.

4445),

as

with Humanist Minuscules


likelv to

92-93).

A pen angle of
on

50

is

most

produce

letters

with a similar stroke weight

to the stone-cut

Roman

originals. Italic Capitals are based

the

Humanist letterforms but have


are various possible serif

a distinctive forVard lean.

There

formations (below), and any

of these can be used on either type of capital.

/^^'l
f
'
[ :

Twist the pen


the vertical

to

to

draw the
the

serif of

Humanist and

y
Italic

(ire left

'."--_

for alternative

Capitals should never

methods)

exceed the equivalent

of two minims

in height

Italic

Capitals lean to the

right at the

the minuscules Ipp.

same angle as 96-97)

%
is

Pen nibs The same pen

nib should be used for capitals as

used

for the minuscules that they

accompany. The
at a slightly

serifs

can be drawn with the pen

shallower

angle than that used for the main stem strokes.

1
Arm
Draw
serifs

Twist the pen


the vertical

to

Alternative serifs
Alternatively, the top
left serif

draw the

top

serif

of C and F and the top curves of C. G, and S in a single


the anus

can

of the

(see left

simply be the beginning ot the stem


stroke and the right serif can be

for alternative methods)

stroke and. if desired, build up the

two

serifs

with the corner of the nib.

created with a slight flick to the

left.

Inner

Basic foot serif


Create the basic foot serif

Bracketed serif
Alternatively, finish the

Inner

fillet
is

third option

to

draw

Tlte letter J can drop


'

below the

baselint

by extending the stem to the left and finishing


with a baseline stroke.

stem stroke with a sweep


to the right and add the
left serif separately.

the basic foot serif (left)

and add the inner

fillet

with a short curve.

98

Humanist

&^ Italic Capitals

Tiie top
the

ami

of

can be

KAlternativ
arm

drawn with a
straight stroke

T
2_

I
Trie second
Tlie first diagonal

N lH w:w
2
4
Tlie third

Mi
o

'

stroke of the

of the

V am

be a

M can be
straight

straight stroke

Viefirst

and

third

stroke

of the

strokes
the

can be

of

can

straight

be straight

aia

IF

Tlie first diagonal stroke

of the

can be straight

Italic

Capitals should be

slightly shorter

than the

ascender height of the

minuscule

Italic

Capitals

Tlie first alternative

Twist the pen to the


vertical to

shows bracketed

serifs

draw

the
(see
for

serif of the

opposite

and bottom of the letter, and the second shows a straight stem and straight amis
at the top

Two

alternative

alternative methods)

forms of E

99

Il.MI.W ScHlJMANIST SCRIPTS

Italic

Swash Capitals
is

A
in
(pp.

Swash Capital

a flamboyant letter that traditionally served


Italic
It

a similar function in
(pp.

text to that of the coloured Versal

Gothic text

58-59).

should never be used to write


Italic
is

a complete

word, but can be combined with standard

Capitals

9899), The Swash Capital's characteristic showiness

created

by the extension of stem strokes above or below the capital line and
the extension of bowls and horizontal strokes to the
left

of the stem.

These extended strokes terminate with a swash

or, alternatively,

can be looped like Copperplate Capitals (pp. 106-107).

Ttw stem has been


extended shove the bowl
the letter to form a
oj

swash

When
left

a swash

Is

added
the
letter

holh to the top

and

of the stem, the

Balance the

gains a particularly

top swash

flamboyant appearance

of the

over the

sweep of
the arc

Theiwash
is

to

the

left

of the stem

a natural continuation of the rounded stroke of the bowl

To draw
Italic

Swash

Left swashes

Capitals, use
the

When

creating a swash
letter,

same pen

from the bowl of a


such as [hat of the
is

as for Italic
it

B or

R.

minuscules
ipp.

important that the swash


a natural extension of the

96-97;

is

bowl

stroke, with the

pen

pulled in a sweeping

Top swashes
The stem can be extended
upwards and pulled
to the right in the

movement. The
the alphabet

letters in

{right)

show

the swashes added as


separate strokes.

manner ot
Italic

a corsiva
(pp.

ascender on the
96-97).

minuscule

move downwards
slightly,

and

lift

Looped terminals
This clubbed, looped terminal can be used as an alternative to the swash in
finishing the

Formal arm

serifs
seril

This formal type ot


construction,
it

provides an

elegant contrast to the flourishes. In


closely imitates the
serif

stem stroke.

It

works
stem

particularly well
letter

on
/

a single P.

brush-drawn Imperial Capital


(pp.

such

as

an

or

Create the
right.

110-1

19).

On

reaching the end

loop by crossing back over the stem

and pulling the stroke out to the

of the arm. begin to twist the pen from 30 to the vertical.

100

Italic

Swash

Capitals

T
The
final stroke

of the L can drop


below the baseline

WW
*w *%
The
tail

Tlte second stroke

of the

is

draitii

just below the


baseline

w
5
IS

of the

X extends belott
the baseline

and

terminates with

a swash

Tlte tail of the

looped

and

extends
Tlte foot of the

to the
letter

right

of the

can be omitted

Tlte tail

ofZ

extends

below the baseline and


terminates with a swash
lite foot

on the

stem of the

R
This simple upright form

can be omitted

The stem of this


upright form
features a

ofE
serif
1,

can he adapted for

ofB

letters 15,

D,

F,

H,

I,

K,

wedge

R, and

T
Swash
Capitals, such as
Italic

Upright

this

B and

E, can replace

Capitals fpp.

98-99)

in Italic text

Alternative

Alternative

101

A
Post-Renaissance Scripts

. .

Copperplate
ALTHOUGH THE ITALIC script began
life as a

quickly

.penned, cursive version of the Humanist Minuscule, by the beginning of the 1 6th century it had become a formal script in its own right with a correspondingly
slower ductus
(pp.

9495). In 1574, an instruction manual


that

for Italic script

was printed from text


a

had been

engraved on sheets of copper with


as a burin.

pointed tool

known
Copperplate Capital B
The stem ojihe
Copperplate Capital
usually terminates

The hand developed for this new engraving method, combined with the narrower pen and slanted
emergence of a new handwritten
The
time,

Although written to the sariie stroke thickness as the minims, Copperplate


Capitals tend to be relatively large
(pp.

writing angle that scribes had begun to favour, led to the


script:

with a blob

106-107).

The

degree of

expansion or contraction should

Copperplate.

closely

echo

that

of the minim.

principal innovation of the


that, for the first

Copperplate was
all

the letters in a
it

word were
and practical

linked,

making

a fast

hand to write. Bv the mid- 18th


century,
it

was the established

script
>

of commerce,

replacing the various

L/m vvr //;< mS,m\


'.

///s A//.'//v/r/.i

//w

7/t

,.'//,

bastard hands that had previously been

^y////. $mc/a

J//4-'///: ///////y/zy ////*J//y

m?o.

used for

much

business and vernacular


(pp.
1

work

in

Europe

6679).
1

Throughout the

7th and

8th

V^xjMaMJ^ //<' /////Ay. //'.M-.hr/r.i

//>///

nv//r;,

centuries, Copperplate writing also

acquired the status of an art form


suitable for gentle folk,

^^

///)//'/<//// uW/,i

/// tY/i/Af
/;w.i/.<

///'Y/V/J

////'Y.--

who

used
.

the impressive script for both private

{>/// //,"./ ,// /v//,;,/////,

/////'//

/<y.

///vr>

and business correspondence.


Eventually, Copperplate replaced

Humanist hands - including the Italic itself ^ altogether.


the
This Universal Penman This version of an instructional text by Samuel Vaux is from 77ie Universal Penman, a celebrated

2/

volume of engraved work by the calligrapher and engraver George Bickham. Published in 1743. the book epitomized the elegant writing manuals of
the 18th century.

The engraved

letters,

written

with very few /Let, t/t*<

Y/c test /it&*Y o-}oi,*-ai_ Zos/c*' Scy^f,'

e&c

of the tool, closely follow pen-drawn Copperplate letterforms.


lifts

Walpurcis Night
?7jl %!.

/i<iiC-r^/tUi.f'rt/y/c'^//C />*. ' f-/Y

&

OutCC

c*..tY

<vry/c*-,'

This handwritten text of a poem by the artist Richard Dadd dates from about 1840. The letters closely follow the approved "school" hand of
the period: the
relatively large

/ r. ? ce * &/e*

/* <v/S

/*

Jf""

CC c/< /'/' StJ^t

minims are small, ascenders are and unlooped, and the hand is

written at the very steep angle ot nearly 40.

102

Copperpi.mi:

i/twi/. ///.ic (///(> uotH*-/ta///re (/re //et'erue//ara/ea,mt*'//ir /////(/////(/ /rorutu-****

//(/. i //// >//(////

aim / 71 '/,; ///'/'(/-//(////re, /// n '///e/i *///?/('//// GOcndu > v/( v


/('/(/(//

(//(/////////or^

/,/

/Ac ///(/(///(/ ('//////// (Vie// /(///,

(>///ere/,//// //'//////ce ////c/c////ee /c /Ac *_,-.

*J/'/////////./ o/trf/h -/'J, /'(/e/'//.i///e?////////(////(e/e /.I //(///(///// /(/

r/ee//// t^y//// /////((/ _^


.

The Universal Penman


This engraving of an instructional

by W. Kippax George Bickham's


text

is

also

from

Universal

Penman. Notice the looped and unlooped forms of ascenders used; on the third line, the word "which" includes both types.

"Command
In

of hand

order to maintain their status as teachers.


the
1

8th-century writing masters often


The
strokes cross each

produced a series of virtuoso calligraphic performances that were each known as "striking" or "command of hand", in which increasingly complex baroque flourishes were produced without the removal of pen from
paper. This ornate

other at the most

acme

Copperplate in education

angle possible

The adoption
to varying sties,

of

Copperplate script
rapidly, a

work

is

one such example.

The

loops,

drawn

would

occurred remarkably

have been carefully planned in advance

phenomenon owing partly


in In the past,

to die role

Copperplate workshop
-

education of the writing master.


writing
skills

.-

In letterpress printing, the raised

had been

surface of the type

is

inked and
is

taught by university academics, but,

impressed on to paper. In copperplate


(intaglio) printing, this process

by the

late

7th century, increasing

reversed. Ink

is

applied to the

literacy
is

and the demands of business

inscribed surface and


face

wiped from the


paper

of the

plate.

Dampened

created the need for a teacher

who

then pressed onto the plate, picking

taught writing exclusively. Examples

up the ink from the


engraving,

recesses. In this

we

can see the paper

of writing masters'

work were

being forced onto the plate, while. in the background, printed sheets are drying on the racks.

reproduced by copperplate
engraving, and schoolbook manuals

began to supersede the elegant


writing manuals
The calligraphcr has
broken with Copperplate
convention by looping
the letter
<\

such as The

Universal

Penman - that had

previously been widely favoured.

Technical skill

By the
David Harris
production of Copperplate script from type was a very limiting process -joins did not fully connect and ascenders and descenders were atrophied. This 1984 design for a Copperplate typeface shows smoothly linked letters that are very close in form to the engraved script.
In the past, the

9th century, Copperplate was

the standard school hand in Europe

and the United States of America, and students were judged


as

much

on writing technique

as the content

of their work. This emphasis on


technical skill lasted well into the

20th century, when the Copperplate

pen was usurped by the


pen, typewriter, and

ball-point

word

processor.

103

Post-Renaissance Scripts

Copperplate
THIS ELEGANT SCRIPT is probably the most
Most
pen
lifts

cursive of all hands.

letters can

be written

between

letters.

one stroke and there are few Minims can be slightly compressed and
in

the characteristic loops of the ascenders

and descenders can be


effects are often achieved

drawn cither open or enclosed. The best

bv using compressed minims with enclosed loops. The fine lines of the burin engraving (pp. 102-103) are difficult to replicate with
a steel nib but,

with practice, impressive results can be achieved.

Theforward
Copperplate
about

lean of the
letter is

30"
The
ascender

Tool

selection

of the

is

Always use a pointed nib for Copperplate


letters.

not looped

flexible

drawing nib or purpose made Copperplate nib


will ensure the best

The howl of the d is enclosed

variation ot thick

and

thin strokes.

77/f top loop cf the f


is

enclosed

When

strokes overlap, keep the

pen angle

Tiie lower loop of the

as close to

90

as the script will allow

(can

alternatively he
to

drawn

the right oj the stem

Adjusting the pressure The pressure is adjusted twice on the


average

minim
it

stroke.

Begin with

a Ttie bowl of the

gende pressure to produce


increase
the centre of the
it

a fine line.

to thicken the stroke at

is

enclosed

again

ac

minim, then relax the bottom ol the stroke.

Avoid

joining

letters close to

The

looped
of the

the baselin

ascender

Linking
Link

letters

h can be open
possible.
is

letters

wherever

or enclosed

ensuring that the link

as

high up

the stem as is practicable. Do not join letters near their base.

Try

to leave

a neat

triangle

of space
letter

between each

Internal spaces

The

loop of the

Once you have decided whether to use compressed or expanded minims,


make
sure each counter contains the
inter-

j is enclosed

same amount of space. The


letter space

should be approximately
half the internal space.

104

Copperplate

Vie
the

top loop of

can be

open or enclosed

The

top loop of the v

can be open or enclosed

Vie two
the

loops of

w are enclosed

Vie item of the p


often rises above

minim

height

Tfie bowl the

of
Is

Vie

loop of they

is

enclosed

usually open

Tlie

bowl of the
is

enclosed

Vie final
the z
is

loop of

enclosed

Vie

full r

has two

looped strokes
Letterjorms can be slightly

Vie small

top

modified to accommodate the


connecting strokes

loop oj the halfv

can be open

Full

Half r

Copperplate
as

is

written with

few pen

lifts

as possible:
trrilten

Vie

s is

the only
letter in

this

word can be
lift C

with

Copperplate

This form of (is the most


formal and restrained of
all

only one pen


crossbar of the

-for

the

the alphabet with

no

natural linking stroke

possible options

105

Post-Renaissance Scripts

Copperplate Capitals

A
is

A MONGST THE MORE


this tip

useful practical advice offered in the


(pp.

Copperplate manuals of the 19th century

102-103)

Carstairs:
tip

from writing masters James Lewis and Joseph "The writing hand should be lightly supported by the
little

of the

finger

and the forearm free to move

in a circular

movement". This can very helpfully be applied to the drawing of Copperplate Capitals, a script in which the precise control
of pressure

on the pen

is

central to the execution of each letter.

As

a general rule, the

thick stroke should not

continue into the curve;

avoid

this

happening

by

controlling the

pen

f /
g
_,

pressure

^~\

g g g

'

Increase the

pressure at
this

point

Decrease the
pressure at this point

/
Incorrect S This S shows
look
if

Correct S

how

the letter will

To draw
not

the

correctly, begin the


it

the pressure

on

the pen

is

stroke with light pressure, increasing

meticulously controlled.

The

stroke

when

reaching the

italic

slope angle.

should only increase in weight


following the angle of the
italic

when
slope.

Decrease the pressure

when moving

away from the

italic

slope angle.

Loops
Loops should balance over the
upright axis and,

Crossing strokes
As
a rule, thin strokes

can cross both

when used

spirally,

thick strokes and other thin strokes.

should diminish proportionately,


rather like a snail's shell.

However,

thick strokes should never


strokes.

be crossed with other thick

Capitals

and minuscules
Never use Copperplate Capitals to write a whole word. Where several
capitals

All the loops should


closely relate to each

other in proportion

have to be used,
plan

such

as for initials,

the letters very carefully.

When
a

used to begin
(pp.

word

104-1 OS).

the features of the

When
Here, the
tail

Copperplate Capital
can be adapted to

of the L

terminating a
stroke, finish with

has been elongated and

complement the
minuscules.

lowered

to

complement

hairline or apply pressure

the minuscule letters

on the pen

to

leave a blob

106

Copperplate Capitals

Arabic numerals harmonize with Copperplate


scripts better

than

Roman

numerals

107

Roman &.Late Roman

Scripts

Imperial Capitals
The Imperial Capital (Capitalis Monumentalis) monuments of
was the
letter
The proportions ofDiirer's
letter

are

based on a subdivided square, with the


serifs

used on the

based on compass-drawn

circles

Ancient

Rome

to proclaim the might of the

Dt RBR

'S

CLASSICAL

Roman Empire, and is indisputably the most stately of all scripts. The earliest examples of
mature Imperial letter date from the first century B.C., and some of the finest models are
a

The

and rediscovery of antique letters was a matter ot


analysis

great industry for Renaissance


scholars Capital,

and artists. This Imperial drawn by Albrecht

inscribed on the base of the Trajan

Column

in

Diirer in 1525. demonstrates the widespread belief that the key to understanding classical letters lay in geometric dissection.

Rome
(pp.

These stone-cut letters were carved directlv on top of brush-drawn forms


(opposite).

110-111), their proportions dictated

\
'

bv the natural

movement
serifs

of the hand.

ETATElVfWi
:

Capital letters with

had
The frequency oj the
occurrence of
text

uwi:.;' ii--/"v "tV: vei- n-'.vin/i Haei EXT1 fXrCMI'ET QVEMT! N'
:
' .

been written by the Greeks from the fourth century B.C.. However, it was
only

in latin

NFE..IX'
-

-.
;

provides a distinct

h\[

,WS

EM

when

the

Romans developed
it

design advantage, with the


tail gracefully

springy, broad-edged brush


hairs of the red sable that

from the

descending

IS FVIS

v
\

TinVfrw^'i
-V.T

IRAir
{-.

below the baseline

(CA'AN

became
serifs

ME&TE ESEi
>NfLEI

technically possible to

draw

and
The regulation of space
between
letters, words,

other letter parts quickly and with


precision.
natural

When
in

used within the


this tool

and

lines

was of primary

concern to the

Roman

scribe

compass of the hand,

proved crucial

determining the
itself

In this inscription

Detail from the Via Aim'ia Monument on the Via Appia Monument.
is

shape of the Imperial Capital

the interlinear space

equal to about halt the


the spacing any tighter.

height of a
as
it is

letter.

Were

A keyJunction
In a society

with

high degree of

ease

on the Arch of Constantine (opposite), the of horizontal scan would be reduced and the letters would become jumbled.

literacy but

without the benefit of

the printed word,

Roman

scribes
Compare the
inter-letter spaces

and signwriters performed key


functions. Although what remains

of

the eleventh line with those o/ the


twelfth to see

how

the spaces have

of their

work

is

fragmentary,

we do

been compressed to accommodate


the allocation of test

know, from one small painted section


of an election poster in Pompeii, that

- by

simplifying

some

strokes

the

Via

Ai'i'iA

Monument
proportions of the
the Via Appia.
letters

Imperial Capital was adapted from


the prestige letters of state for use
in

The beautiful monument in

on

this

Rome, compare

everyday documentation.

very favourably with those on the base of the Trajan Column (opposite). Such a large amount of text would have required considerable

The Imperial Capital has proved to be the most enduring ot all scripts. Over 2,000 years after it was first used, its form remains virtually
unchanged,
as the capital letters in

forward planning. The initial allocation of words to each line may have been calculated

the tvpe print of this

book

testify.

on a wax tablet or slate, before working rules were drawn to letter height on the marble. Once the position of the letters was marked in chalk between the rules, the letters were painted with a brush. Only then were the words actually carved into the stone.

108

Impi.rim Capitals

SENA71 s|^01>VlVSO\/E-!IOMAM \: \,N\ilinl\ INHIVAEI .NT Ira an ^ w v.'. m^ "\X\y^^ M-AXIiVU. v lKirvPOTX\ \m\V\ ICOSVIT \ PINIS API Mil \R\NPVM A \NT.\l \\
n
1

i!

The Trajan Column


This inscription on the base ot the Trajan Column in Rome, cut in A. I). 1 12-3, is 2.74
metres (9 feet) wide and 1.15 metres (3 feet 9 inches) high. The inscription, commemorating the battles of Trajan against Germany and Dacia,
begins with the phrase
'.S

77ie fetters

on

(/if

ion /inc are


]

The

letter A. like the

Father Catich
Since the Renaissance, Imperial
Capital letters have been studied,
analyzed, improved, and recreated by

//.5 centimetres (4

inches)

and M. /wi

a pointed

high, reducing to 9.6


centimetres (3

apex, a jorm oj Imperial

inches) on

Capital more difficult to


construct than the

ihe bottom line

probably

indicating the relative

common
headed

seriled or flatletter (p.


I 1

".Si-.V.-i 7

'S

POP] ZVS

importance oj the words

1)

countless scholars and calligraphers.

yi liliOMA.W '("The Senate and People of Rome"). The letters were originally coloured red so that they would stand out from the
background. Words are separated by a medial inter-point and the horizontal stroke over
certain letters indicates their use as numerals.

However,
The Arch op Const an
This
ways,
i

it is

only through the

ini

monument
it

years after the

some 211(1 Trajan Column (above). In some


dates

from

A.D, 315.

pioneering work of a

modern

scholar,

the late Father E.M. Catich, that

we

marks the degeneration ot Rome, since many of the statues and reliefs on the column have been scavenged from earlier work. The
letters are

can

now

fully

understand the ductus

of the hand. His analysis ot


letter construction

Roman

square-cut

in

shallow

relict.

was demonstrated

The words

"SI IN

QYI

Hl).\l -\N'\'s' /,,,

A TVS POPVLVS Aiuii'iif


f'.-.vi

Originally, the grooves

would have housed

bronze

letters
still

- the

circular fixing holes can


letter.

on 19

letters of the alphabet in his

"S.P.Q.R."iinJ relegated to the second

line

be seen inside each

definitive

work, The Origin of the Serif, published in 1968. These methods


all

are interpreted for

26

letters in

the following pages (pp. 110-119).

Spontaneous

letters

The

great strength and beauty of

the Imperial Capital lies in the tact


that the letters can

be written with

spontaneity, the tool and hand

determining the form, and one

letter

part relating naturally to the next.


In

much modern work,


letters

excessive

pre-planning can have the effect of

making the
"the

appear laboured.
in

However, the methods explained

following pages will enable the

modern scribe to work in the same way as his or her Roman forebears
and produce spontaneous
for our
letters

own

lime.

109

Romas &_Late Romas

Scripts

Imperial Capitals: Brush Strokes


IN
ORDER TO RECREATE authentic Imperial
fine

Capitals,

it is

essential to use a
hairs,

broad-edged brush. This should be made from sable or synthetic

mahhtick

is

useful for

which are

enough to create

a sharp clean edge

when

wet. Imperial

keeping the hand clear of


the writing surface

Capitals are constructed either

or from a

from "pulled" or "manipulated" strokes, combination of both. In both types of stroke, die angle between

the brush and the

work
letter.

surface

is

equally as important as the angle ol the


differences in

brush edge on the

When drawing letters with a brush,


many

stroke thickness are created by

factors, including changes in

rhythm
Brush movement
for "pulled" strokes

and tempo, and the increase or decrease of pressure on the tool. This
sensitivity
is

generally

most apparent on "manipulated" strokes

(opposite).

With

the hand resting

directly

on the work

The
The

basic "pulled" stroke


"pulled" stroke
is

surface, the

movement
will

used in the majority of Imperial


basic "pulled" stroke
is

movement of about

of the brush
stroke

be very
or

Capital letter strokes.


vertical

The

the

five or six centimetres

small for a "pulled"

stem stroke. For this, the hand moves only slightly, with the index finger drawn towards the palm of the hand,
causing the brush to be pulled downwards.

Out' inches) can be achieved with the


resting

- about two

hand

three centimetres (one

on

a mahhtick

With the right on the left hand or on a mahlstick,


inch).

hand
the

resting

The index finger


should he positioned

movement

can be

increased.

on the ferrule of
the brush

3. Continue pulling the brash

4.

On

letters B,

D, E,

downwards, slighdy reducing the pressure as you reach the centre of the stem - this will
give the stroke a slight waist.
Increase the pressure again

and L. the
stroke
the
is

vertical stem

continued into

bottom horizontal
In these instances,

arm.

the angle of the brush

and. at the bottom of the stem,

begin to

lift

the brush while

edge on the letter should be about 30.


Adjust the brush angle

moving

to the right.
to

30 for the
1.

addition of a

Begin the stroke with the brush


angle to the surface.

thicker stroke to the right

at a fairly flat

Gently edge the brush to the right and begin the downward

sweep of the

stroke.

2.

As you move downwards

into the stem, gradually pull the brush towards the palm

of your hand,

until

it is

almost upright.

Other "pulled" strokes The brush is held in a similar way on curved strokes as on vertical
strokes, but instead ot

Letters

A, M. and
<

always begin with


Basic
"pulled"
stroke

pointed apex

drawing the brush towards


the

palm of the hand, the


in a

hand moves
circular

semiThe
centre stroke
is

movement to the right or left. To make this movement smooth and


easy, the angle

of the S

both

of the
5.

"pulled"

and
Letters

brash edge on the letter

sweeping

should be about

M, N,

V, and

W have
upwards

a diagonal stroke

Small semicircular

that turns

sweeps
P,

at the baseline

occur

on B,

and P.

110

Imperial Capitals:

Brush Strokes

The "manipulated" stroke To draw "manipulated"' strokes,


you need
possible,

Top

left serif

on

T and Z

to

be able to

twirl the
this

brush through 180.

To make

hold the brush between


finger with an

thumb and index

angle of about 90 between the

brush and the work surface.

"Manipulated" strokes are used to create the four main types of serifs
Imperial Capitals: the top
left serifs

in

and arms of letters


right);

Tand
F,

Z (above
T
1.

the top

serifs that

terminate the

arms of letters C, ,
(right);

the

bottom
and

serifs

G, S, and and anus and the

Begin the top

left serif

on the

2. Twirl the brush to 30 to create

3.

Without adjusting the angle of the


letter,

of C, E,

L,

(below);

T and Z by bringing
downwards

the brush

the

left serif, slightly

increasing the

brush edge on the

move

the

bottom left Although the top strokes of C.


S,

serif of the S (below

right).

in a short stroke.

pressure as the brush twirls.

brush horizontally to create the arm.

and

G are curved,

the principle

remains the same as for the straight


top arms of the

Cand
L,

P.

For the

Top
S,

right serif

on C, E, F, G,

Rotate the brush, pivoting


it

F-inisli
left

the

arm with

the

bottom arms of E.
is

and Z. the brush

and

at the top right

cower

comer

oj the brush

positioned so that the angle ot the

edge on the letter is about 150. The strokes of the top serifs are known as
"forward" and those of the bottom
serifs as

"reverse".
is

The bottom
in that the

serit

Tlie angle

of the S

unique

brush

of the brush
edge on the
letter is

begins rather than ends at the serif tip.

30

1.

To

create the top right serif


7',

2. Continue

moving

the brush

3.

Continue

to rotate the brush


until the

of C, E, F, G, S, and

hold the

horizontally, maintaining the angle of

its left

comer

edge
it

is

on 90 to
lifting

brush in an upright position and

30

until the

brush approaches the end


this point,

the arm. Finally,


slightly

move

downwards

begin the horizontal stroke with

of the ami. At

begin to

Bottom arm and


serif

right

the brush edge

on the

letter at 30.

rotate the brush

on

its

right

comer.

the

and "edge off', gently brush from the surface.

on C, E, L, and

Z
Bottom on 5
serif

Tlie angle of
the brush edge

Tlie angle of
the brush edge

oh the
about

letter is

on the
about

letter is

ISO"

150"

1.

To create

the bottom ami and right


L,

2.

On

reaching the end of the stroke,

1.

The bottom
letter.

serif

of the S
left

is

the

2. Twirl the brush to 30 and curve to

serif on

C, E,

and Z, begin with the

twirl the brush to the vertical,

then

only bottom

serif

on the
at

side

the right and upwards.


for the
first

Work

carefully,

angle of the brush edge


at

on the

letter

move upwards and edge


on the
left

off, finishing

of a
serif,

Begin

the tip of the

part

of the stroke

will

be

about 150, and

move

to the right.

corner of the brush.

moving

the brush

downwards.

obscured by vour hand.

and curved "manipulated" strokes


Straight
Curved "fonvard"
"Forward" stroke used
on the top and centre
stroke used

Fonvard"

stroke

on the top

preceded by a serif

curve of

C, G, and S
Curved
"reverse"

on

T and Z

arms of the

and F

Cun't'd "reverse " stroke

stroke used on the

beginning at the

tip

bottom cume

ofC

of the

on S

"Reverse" stroke used on the


bottom ami o/E, L, and

111

Roman &_Late Roman

Scripts

Imperial Capitals: Construction


THE 26 CHARACTERS constructed in the following pages are based on the Rome
included
in
1

9 letters

die inscription on the base of the Trajan


letters,

Column

in

(pp.

108-109).

The two Greek-derived


remaining three

V and Z, are based on other

Roman

sources, and the


as such, are

letters, J, U,

and W, are modern characters, which,


Origin of the Serif. Each letter

open

to individual interpretation. In principle, the letters adhere to the ductus described

by Father E.M. Catich

in his

book The

is

individually

demonstrated bv stroke sequence and brush angle. The pressure on the brush and
the speed
at

which the strokes are drawn

will vary

from the brush

of

one calligrapher
Tilt' first

stroke

the
is

to another, and the

rhythm

that suits

you best will be acquired with practice.

key

to

the letter

drawn in pink

Five stem
widths

Six

sum

Seven

stent

Nine

stent

Nine stem
widths

Ten

stent

widths

widths

widths

widths

It is

that the

between stem width and stem height - of the Trajan


relationship
letter
is
1
1
:

EBXANM T FPZCOW TDRQ^ GU


9.

One

stent width

Colour coding
letter has

Each

been constructed from


stroke, purple the

a series of colour-coded strokes: pink


indicates the
first

5 stem

second, green the third, and yellow

widths

the fourth.

The

frequently changing

brush angles are represented by a

series

of white

lines across the stroke.

Letter weight

generally assumed

weight - the

Letter proportions

Tlw

is

created

front

two

Is joined

10:1.
1

balance

with a crossbar

of

is

generally

considered acceptable.

although the actual


letter

weight

is

about 9.5:1.

Tltc

fillet

between the

serif and stent

of an

imperial Capital can he


slightlyJuliet than this

JC Y

HV

When

writing a series of Imperial Capitals,

it is

essential to

know

the relative width of one Impenal

Capital to another.
serifs

The width of a
in

letter- including

is

measured
in

stem widths. The apparent


straight

discrepancy

weight between rounded and

letters is optical:

rounder
our

letters

appear lighter than

straight ones.

To

modem
is

eyes, this can be

displeasing and the effect

"corrected" by the

addition of extra weight to the curved strokes.

Arguably, the original weight differences give the


Imperial inscriptions a
that

more
formal

natural

achieved

in

more

rhythm than modern work.

Arabic numerals

Numerals
Although Arabic numerals were not
introduced into Europe until the
13th century, avoiding their use in

favour of

Roman
in

numerals can be an

1234567890
Stroke order
for

incumbrance
a similar

modern

calligraphy.

Arabic numerals can be

drawn using

numerals

ductus to the imperial

Capital letters and can be contained

within the capital height.


usually a

The

is

narrow numeral, but


it

if
j

used singly,

can be

made

wider,
I Iff).

resembling a

letter

(p.

112

Imperial Capitals: Construction

A
Flat-hcadcd

Imperial Capital A Although most Roman As were flatheaded, all of the As on the Trajan inscription {pp. 108- 1119) are pointed.

When
In

building the pointed

serif, it

is

essential to

draw the apex


is

first.

You

will

modem

uvrk, the crossbar

notice that a small gap the


first

left

between
letters, this

of the

lends to be positioned

and

the second strokes.

lower than this

Historically,

on stone-cut

gap could be eradicated with


. v

chisel.

For the brush-drawn


the gap can be
it is

letter,

left

^^
hi post-Renaissance times, an
i

as

or

it

can

be, filled

in

with the brush.

Edge

ofj

the

serif

77/c third stroke of the


alternatively he

A can
stroke

hater serif was included on the


right leg

of the

omitted i"

A - this is modem work

with the tip of


the brush

drawn as a
first

continuation of the

The
is

right axis

of the

arc

above the horizontal

The second ami


strokes

third

of the li dm be combined in it single


sweeping stroke

Imperial Capital

B
between the stem
is

On

the

li.

the

fillet

and curve of the lower bowl


occurs on the brush-drawn

an

important characteristic, which only


letter.
It

will

only occur at the bottom of the stem,

never

at

the top.

The

top bowl

is

always

bottom and the joining stroke always above the stem's centre. The bottom bowl can alternatively be
smaller than the

constructed with a single sweep.

Imhi the brush from the horizontal


to .10 iiinl

more along

the baseline

Twist the brush from .10


to

90

to

draw

the top

serif of the

Imperial Capital

C
strokes of the

The top and bottom

C are
The
axis of tin
is

pulled out horizontally and

do

Tum
draw

the brush over

and

twist

not curve inwards. The two serifed anus are very similar in construction
to those

the arc

below

from 150 to the

vertical to

on the

/:'

(p.

14).

which

horizontal

the bottom serif

should be used

as a

model. The only

difference

is

that the

anus on the

are curved, not straight.

Remember

to turn the brush over to 150 for

the

bottom

stroke.

113

Roman SlLate Roman

Scripts

1'ull the stroke to the right

before

commencing the

arc

Imperial Capital As on the letter B {p. I 13), the stem and rounded stroke of the D are
connected with a fillet. This is always at the bottom of the letter - never
at the top.

The width of the


problem
in

letter

presents a

connecting

the baseline stroke to the bowl. In


anticipating this, the Trajan Kribe

sloped the stem slightly to the right.


In

modern

usage, the stem

is

upright.

the brush from the horizontal


to

30 and pull

it

along the

baseline as far as possible

Tlie

is

constructed from

Twist the brush from

the stem

and foot of the

30

to

90

to create

the top serif

Imperial Capitals E, F, and


In

The Origin of the

Serif,

Catich

regards the

E as
is

the key letter in

determining the form ol the Imperial


letter.

This

owing

to the fact that

the length of the top arm and the


size

and form of the

serif are naairal

strokes

in Catich's words, "the

most

satisfyingly natural stroke the

brush makes". Therefore the

E is
start

an ideal

letter

with which to

aming

the brush technique.


in the foot,

The

F is created
without the

same way

as
is

E but
made

while the

up of the stem and

foot of the

To

create the lop serif of the

G, 90

pull

the stroke horizontally to the right


before twisting

from 30

to

Imperial Capital

G
/ (p.

For practical purposes, the G is the C (p. / 13) combined with the upper
half of the stem of the
IIS).

The

top serif is a manipulated stroke

similar to the top

arm of E

{above).

114

Imperial Capitals: Construction

Imperial
Capitals H,
J, /

and J
arc very

The H,
As
the
a
/

I.

and

alike in their basic form.

modern

letterfonn.

can be partly your


invention - for
tail

own

instance, the

can be

extended and edged off


with
a fine hairline stroke.
/ is

The

the basis for

all

the

serifed. in the

stemmed

letters

hand.

The

is

constructed from two h.

I
Tltis

The

tail

of the] can sweep


left

out further to the

ami

is

similar to

the right fork of the


(p.

US)

Imperial Capital The ami and leg ol the K conned to the stem with a point. It is acceptable to leave a small gap between arm and leg juncture and the stem. This is
preferable to connecting the leg to a

point on the length of the arm. Alter the angle ot the brush on the third
stroke to finish at the horizontal.

Turn

the hntsh to the


off'

horizontal before edging

The apex must he drawn


first to

mate

the angle for

The pointed

is

in

the doumstroke

hamiony with
(p.

the

A
116j

l\i)amlN(p.

Imperial Capital Although more commonlv


flat-topped, the pointed

is

used on the Trajan

inscription.

The

first

and

second strokes of the A7 are


always the thickest, and the
third

and fourth always the and


last

thinnest. In classic usage,

the

first

legs incline

inwards, but never as steeply


as the

inner

V (p.

IIS).

Hi

Roman &Jate Roman

Capitals

Draw

the

apex of

the Idler

first

The gap between the serif and the top of


the second stroke can

Imperial Capital The 6rst and last legs of


the

N are slightly thinner

than the diagonal stroke;


in

he

filled after the letter


is

completed

are often

modern work, they drawn as thinly


of the

as the crossbar
(p.
1 13).

curve at

Note the slight the bottom of

the diagonal, caused by

sweeping the brush from


the diagonal to the vertical.

The

N can be drawn either

flat-topped or serifed.

Vie

O and Q are slightly


circle

narrower than a perfect

Imperial Capitals

Oand Q
The same ductus
the
is

used for

bowl of the
letter
letter
is

Q as for the

key
left

each

stress of below centre and above centre right,

O. The

creating a diagonal axis that


is

compatible with the

natural

The
well

tail

sweep of the wrist. of the Q sweeps

below the baseline


in Latin text,

and, because of its frequent

occurrence

attractively breaks the

formality of an otherwise
bilinear script.

Construct the
a

Q by adding
O
Slightly turn the brush to

tail to the letter

horizontal on the

tail

of the

before edging oft

The
The
basic form

axis of the

of

arc

is

above the

the letter

is

the

horizontal

same as

the

^opposite,)

Imperial Capital

The curved

stroke of

Although the bowl of the P appears to be smaller than that on the corresponding letter R, they are, in fact, the same size.

the lower bowl does

The

illusion

is

caused by the absence

not join the stem

of the connecting stroke to the stem of the P, In modern usage, a connecting bar is often added, and
in

type

it

nearly always

is.

The bowl
line.

finishes just

below the centre

116

Imperial Capitals: Construction

The The bowl of the


same size
as

axis of the arc

is

above

the horizontal

is

the
I'

mat of the

(opposite^

Imperial Capital

It

The R,
is a

together with the

E (p.

114),

useful letter

on which

to practise

brush-drawn Imperials because it contains more elements of other letters than any other character. The juncture of the
Tiie tail of the

continues
line

an imaginary diagonal

bowl and connecting stroke is indicator of the brush-drawn

a valuable

origins

of

across the letter that begins


at the lop serif

the script. This has systematically been

removed by

scribes in an attempt to
letter.

'"improve" the

The

tail is

very

satisfying stroke to draw,


a gradual
tail

producing

thickening.of the

near the baseline.

Flatten the brush 10 the

horizontal before edging off

Twist the brush from


to

30

90

to complete the serif

Imperial Capital S The curved strokes of the S often


present a rather

awesome
the
.S"

prospect to the

beginner. In

fact,
/

once the

E has been

mastered
difficult.

(/).

14),

S should not prove


has a forward lean,

The

Trajan

Commence
tip

at the

which
of the

slightly interferes

with the flow of


the only part

of serif, twist the

the script.

The

tail

serif

is

brush backwards,

letter that
It is

may

require additional

and pull

it

along

practice.

the only
tip first,

ami

serif that

is

the baseline

constructed

and aggravated
first

by the hand obscuring the


For
this reason,
tail
it is

stroke.

essential to

draw

\
Each arm
is

the

of the

serif as the

second stroke.

while the hand "remembers" where


the
first

stroke finished.

the

same length
arms of the

as the

E and

F(p. 114;

The

right

exactly the

arm of the T same as the

is

top

arm of the.

E (p.

14)

Imperial Capital

T T
is

The

cross stroke ot the

an extremely

elegant shape with subtle changes of

angle between

serifs,

and

a gradual

swelling of the arm leading into and

away from the serifs. The arm starts with a slight downwards movement
with the edge of the brush twisting

back to

3(1

before

moving along

the

arm and

finishing at 9(1.

On

an

inscription, the initial juncture

would be

filled in

by the

chisel.

Ill

Roman

S^Latf.

Roman

Scripts

Imperial Capital

In Latin, the character


I '

was used to represent

both V and In medieval


I

V sounds.
scripts, the

'often took the form

of a U: by about the 14th


century the two
letters

were

differentiated and
It is a

used separately.
as to

matter of personal opinion

what extent the

Imperial Capital script

should be adapted. to
languages other than Latin.

The bottom

serif of the

At

the

end of the second

stroke.

am
tlie

be omitted, with the

sweep the brush

to the right

and

curve sweeping up to meet


right vertical stroke

edge off with a fine stroke

Imperial Capital

V
I

The
the

first

stroke of the

'begins in

same way

as a vertical stroke

and

finishes

with the apex of an M. The


is

change of brush angle


the slight turn
Slightly twist the brush to
at

reflected in

the bottom of the

finish at the angle of the

second stroke

The 'can end in a flat base when used with flat-headed .-1. M. and iV, but make sure this base is no
stroke.
I

wider than the thin stroke.

can / The made narrower by


replacing
lite

Imperial
Capital

W
1

crossed

The

letter II 'first

centre strokes with a single pointed

appeared in the

Ith

apex

century. In principle.

composed of s. which can either cross one


it is

two

another or join
a single

in

apex

in the
letter.

centre of the

118

Imperial Capitals: Construction

The

top v -shape oj the

should be slightly smaller


than the bottom one

Imperial Capital

X
as

The
a

letter

X appears with relative


10.

frequency in Latin inscriptions, used

numeral to represent

The

slope
/I

There

is

no

is

more

inclined than that of the

serif on the
right inner leg

and

ideally, the

top I'-shape should be

smaller than the bottom one to

make
serif

of the

the letter optically correct - balanced

and not top heavy. There

is

no

on the

right inner leg.

Internal serifs can

be included on the

two arms of the

Imperial Capital Y The letter V was used by the Romans for words of Greek derivation, and it
appears only occasionally in Latin
inscriptions.

This construction

is

based on

Greek

inscription ot
It is

the letter Upsilon.

also correct

to include an inner serif, as


letter

on

the

X (above).

Twist the brush

to

30 and move

horizontally to create the top stroke of the

Tlic second stroke

is

Imperial Capital

thicker than most diagonal strokes in the script

The

is

an interesting construction,

which combines the top arm of the Tand the bottom ami of the , separated by an awkward diagonal stroke - awkward in the sense that a
the brush over
to

Turn

and

twist

stroke

moving

to the
1 13).

left is

naturally
a thin

from 150

90 to draw

the

thin (see A, p.

However,

bottom stroke

stroke

would make

the letter appear

inordinately light, and so the brush


is

held near to the horizontal to

create a thick diagonal.

119

Script Rf.ff.rfsce

Chart

Script Reference Chart


Imperial
(

'.ipit.lls

ABC

Rustic

R< IM \N

& Late Roman


Scripts

Uiui.il

Square
Capitals

Halt" Uncial

Insular

Insular & N A IIONAL Scripts

Majuscule
Insular

Minuscule
Caroline
INI

CAROl

&

Eari v

Minuscule
Early

Gothic
Scripts

Gothic

Textura

Quadra ta
Textura
Prescisus

GothicCapitals

Lombardic
Capitals

Gothic
Si R.IPTS

ll.i~t.nd

Secretary

Bastard
Capitals

Batarde

Fraktur

Rotunda
I I

\1

IAN

&

Rotunda
Capitals

ll'MANIM

S( HII' IS

Humanist Minuscule
Italic

Humanist
Capitals

Copperplate PostKtNAISSANl
I

Si

hums
Copperplate
Capitals

Script Riiua \ci Chart

Glossary
Capital letter See majuscule.
line

"Elephant's trunk" A broad, sweeping stroke that hangs from the


ascenders in certain bastard scripts,

Glossary
Ampersand
word "and".

Capital line The writing


to

which upper-case
capital line
is

letters rise.

such

as the English Bastard Secretary.

The The
character

often slightly
line.

& denoting the


A
style

lower than the ascender

Expanded
lettering in

letter

style

of

which the

characters

Capsa

container for storing

and
than

inter-letter spaces are


is

wider

Anthropomorphic decoration
letter

of

scrolls.

usual.

decoration that incorporates imagery of


forms.

human

Compressed
lettering in
tip

letter

style

of

Hairlines are drawn with the


corner

Filigree
in

Elaborate decoration
lines.

which the

characters

of the pen

nib

and

often

the form of fine, curved

Apex The
Arch

pointed

of a

letter, as in

A.

and inter-letter spaces are narrower than is usual.

taper from a thicker stroke

Fillet
filled

The name

given to the
a stroke

The
a
It

portion of a lower-case letter

angle that

is

formed between

and

formed by
stem, as in

curved stroke springing from the

Conjoined

term used to describe

letters

its serif.

and

n.

that are joined together.

Floriated

Decorated with images of flowers.


leaf of a manuscript. Also refers to the

Arm A
at

horizontal stroke touching the letter


as in
/:'

Copperplate

An

extremely slanted script with

onlv one end.

and

/'.

distinctive flourishes that

developed from

letter

Folio

engraving on thin plates

page number. Fret patterns

Ascender
letter, as in

The upper
/>.

of copper.

stem of a lower-case
d,

Ornamental designs

that can

and

/.'.

Counter
within

Any

space

be used to form the border of a page or can be

a letter, either fully

woven
are

into the text.

The

simplest

fret patterns

Ascender
upper

line

or

partially enclosed.

composed

solely ol straight lines.

writing line to
steins

which the of letters rise.


Imperial

Crossbar
letter, as in

The
on
a
I

Gilding

The

application of gold leaf to the

horizontal stroke

writing surface.

Axis

In

Roman
is

and H. Also

Capitals, this

the

known

as

the "bar".

Gothic

scripts

The

generic term for hands


12(1(1

imaginary line that passes

written between about

and 1500.
a

through the thickest points

of a

letter.

Also

known

as

Cross stroke A horizontal mark essential


Cadets arc ornate Gothic Capital

Gouache
of chalk

the "stress" of the

letter.

to the letter,
letters

made

either

to achieve an

Watercolour mixed with opaque effect.

type

that were originally used with bastard tea scripts

from
to

left

to right or right

Baseline
line

The

writing

left,

such as on the
/:'.
/'.

Hairline
decorate

fine line used to link letters,


fill

on which the main bodv of the letter sits.


Cursive
Bastard script A Gothic script of mixed Textura and cursive elements.
Bilinear
that
is

letters

and

V.

terminate strokes,
letters.

large counters,

and

rapid form of writing, using

elements such as linking and loops.

Half r A form of the letter the which is provided by the previous


r.

spine of
letter.

The term used


lines.

to describe a script

luxe A term used to describe the highest grade of manuscript writing.

De

Headline
point of descenders -

The

written between, and adhering to.

two

a letter

line to which the uppermost - excluding its ascenders or

imaginary writing

Descender
/),

The lower stems of letters such

as

rises.

Also

known

as

the "waistline".

q,

and J.
line

Black Letter

See Textura.

Descender

The
rest.

line

on which

a letter's

"Hierarchy of scripts" The name given to the code of practice whereby different scripts

Bookhand
in

The generic term for scripts used books before the age of printing. Bookhands include Uncial and Caroline Minuscule.

descender should

Display capitals
words of a
text

Decorated

capitals

used in the introductory

word or
as versals.

I'Lolto

(ipnormio

e.

iuifando a Oucllaj
ft)

Bowl

The curved stroke attached to the letter stem that creates an enclosed space (counter), as in letters />, d. and.i;. Also known as "bow".
Bracketed serif
fillet

but not singly

romptfle,

Qualchc pcna

Quatchchifk
coji

Downstroke
directed

stroke that

is

oo ne
rno/i
re

ISc^da jA-Jia
(i

o co a da

abbrefib

downwards.

boteffe i/ijcbittrc ft) uoicjJija.rU

ufa

type of serif that forms


a letter.

with the stroke of

Ductus
and

The

direction and order of


letter.

k)cauaiii Quelle
Italic script
is

aflfticeoon

l/o o

n\tc

the strokes used to construct a

Built-up letters
filled,

Letters that are outlined


a

or constructed

section at a time.

Ear A

characterized by linked letters

small stroke that projects from the

with a distinctiveforward slant

top of the letter g.

Burin

pointed tool used in copperplate

engraving.

Edge off A term


ornate Gothic capital letter

used with reference to

Cadel

An

brush-drawn letters to describe the technique of removing the edge of the brush from the
writing surface, with the
left

strict

appearing in the same manuscript adhere to a order of use: the most regal hand is used
for the titles

and important
first

details,

the next most

constructed from a series of interlacing pen strokes

corner

lifted last.

formal script for the

sentence, and so on.


to describe initial

written with the

minimum number ol pen


The

lilts.

Edge on The
Capital height
(capital) letter.

height of a majuscule

technique of gradually placing edge of the brush onto the surface, with the right corner touching the surface first.
the
full

Historiated
letters that are

The term used


text.

decorated with the

human

figures

described in the

122

Glossary
Illumination
Originally, the term referred

Movable type

Individual letters

made from

Stipple

To

engrave, paint, or write in dots.

only to gilded decoration, but it is now used to dcs< nbe .my form of text decoration.

metal that can be inked and printed in any order.

"Straight" pen

A pen

with the nib cut

Palaeography
Insular
Originating from the Latin

The

study of the history of

obliquely to the shaft, facilitating the drawing of

word

for

handwriting and documents.

an upright stem.
it

When

positioned horizontally,

"island", this

term

is

applied by palaeographers

will

produce

a greater contrast in thick

and

to indicate a shared culture

between Ireland and

Papyrus

The

earliest

form of paper, made

thin strokes, an effect

known

as

"shading".

northern Britain, free from Continental influence.

Stroke
Interlace

Any

straight

form of decoration
of

in

which

lines

or curved line that


has been painted.

weave

in

and out

each other.

penned or

Inter-letter space
characters.

The

space between

Tail asey-rig
that

diagonal line

connects to the

Interlinear gloss
interlinear space

Words
text or

written in the
text to

letter at
a

one end,
y.

as

of the main
a

provide

3=

cj;\::r^

in

Q and

commentary on the
contents.

translation ot

its

Terminal
that
a serif.

stroke

does not end with

Interlinear space
baseline
ot

The space between the of one line of text and the headline the line below it. A Humanist
style ot

Text

script

script

Italic

writing

in

which

the oval-shaped, linked letters slant to the right.

t
,-t

J
manuscript
is

that

is

particularly

"

suitable for pages


text,

of

owing

to

its

a book

or

document written by hand

clarity

and lack of

Leading minim minim of a letter,


Letterform
Ligature

The name given


as in

to the

first

decoration. Also

known

as

and

n.

from the stem of the papyrus

plant.

"body

text" or "text hand".

The shape of a

letter.

Parchment
mammalian

writing surface

made from
or goatskin.
the
tail

Textura
this
is

skin, usually sheepskin

the

From the Latin word for "woven", name given to a style of Gothic script

The

linking of letters by one or

characterized by dense, compressed characters

more

strokes.

Quill

writing implement

made from
as

and minimal interlinear space.

or wing feather of a bird, such

turkey or goose.

Thorn

sign

The Anglo-Saxon

sign resembling

Reed pen

writing tool

made from

a y that

was used

to represent the "th"

sound.

hollow-stemmed marsh

plant.

Uncial

tx bo
Where the bowls
letters

Roman

The

Latin alphabet.

The term
letter.

is

also

ascenders.

A late Roman script with rudimentary The name means "inch high".
See majuscule.
type of writing surface

used to describe any plain, upright

Upper
Rubricated
or within
a

case

Originating from the Latin

word

ruber for "red", this describes letters in a

heading

Vellum
calfskin.

made from

of letters are combined, tbe


/,'

passage of text that are coloured red.

are referred

J>

",

enjoined"

Rune Any
Link The stroke that connects the top and bottom ot the minuscule ?.
alphabet.

letter in the

ancient Germanic

Versal

built-up ornamental capital letter

The

characters contain

no curved

used to open verses and paragraphs.

strokes and very

tew horizontal

strokes.

Loop

The enclosed
ini>.

space in an ascender or

Sable
the
tail

very fine pointed brush,

made from

descender, as

hairs

of the

sable, a dark-furred arctic

mammal.

Lower

case

See minuscule
Serif

short, decorative stroke used to finish oil


letter.

Majuscule
letters are ot

bilinear script in

which the

the stroke of a

Many
serif

different types exist,

equal height.

capital letter.

including the bracketed

and the wedge

sent.

Manuscript A handwritten book or document pre-dating the invention ot Can be abbreviated to "MS".

printing.

Skate The technique of gently pulling the wet ink from one stroke to create another stroke,
often a hairline.

RS
Decorative abbreviated strokes known as
"serifs"

can be drawn in a variety of different

styles

Minim A downstroke that body height of the script. Minim

is

as

tall

as the

"Slanted" pen
position of the nib

A
is

right angles to the shaft.

pen with the nib cut at Held at an angle, the


"slanted" to the stem.

Waistline

See headline.
relationship of a letter's nib width

Weight The
to
its

height The height of a minuscule letter, excluding the ascender and descender. Also known as "x height" or "body height".

height.

Spur

small projection offa

main

stroke.

Word
Stem
The main
vertical stroke ot a letter.
It

space

The amount of space between

words.

Minuscule

Any

non-capital

scripts contain letters

letter. Minuscule of uneven height because

can be drawn

of the ascenders and descenders.

at an angle for a slanted script, and can be the main diagonal stroke of the letter, as in and Z.

Zoomorphic decoration A

style

of decoration

incorporating imagery of animal forms.

123

Bibliography

Bibliography
The Decorated
Letter, J.J.G.

Alexander/Thames and Hudson. London, 1978

The Winchester 1993

Bible,

Clare Donovan/British Library, Winchester Cathedral.

Manuscripts hi Oxford
la

- R. II'. Hunt Memorial Mare and B.C. Barker-Benfield/Bodleian


to Writing,

Exhibition, Edited

Library, Ox-ford,

by A.C. de 1980
British

Eyewitness Guide
Library,

Karen Brookfield/Dorling Kindersley.

London, 1993

The Golden Age of English Manuscript Painting 1200-1500, Richard Marks and Nigel Morgan/Book Club Associates. London, 1981
Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts, Michelle
P.

Brown/British Library. London," 1991

Book of Scripts, Alfred Fairbank/Penguin Books. London, 1949

Writing,

David Diringer/Thames and Hudson, London, 1962


RudolfKoch, Johannes Stauda Vedag Kassel. 1984

Das

Schreib-Biichlein von

Thesauro de
Nattali

Scrittorio

1535,

Ugo

da Carpi, introduction by Esther Potter/

and Maurice, London, 1968

Writing and Illuminating and Lettering,

Edward Johnston,

originally published

1906, reprinted by A.

&

C. Black.London. 1983 and


Laetitia

English Handwriting 1400- 1500, Jean F. Preston

Yeandle/State

University.

New

York, 1992
to

Guide to Western Historical Scripts from Antiquity Brown/British Library, 1990


.4.

1600, Michelle P.

The Booh ofKclls, Selected and introduced bv Peter Brown/Thames and Hudson, 1980 The Lindisfame Gospels, Janet Backhouse/Phaidon, Oxford. 1981
77ic Universal

Publications Inc..

Penman, Engraved bv Ceorge Bickham. 1743/Dover New York. 1954

The Art of Calligraphy, Western Europe and America, Joyce Irene Whalley/ Blooinsbury Books. London. 1980 The Story of Writing, Donald Jackson/Studio
Vista. 1981

Medieval Calligraphy, Its History and Technique, Associated Publishers Ltd.. London, 1980
Calligraphy:

Marc Drogin/George

Prior

Hie Art

of

Written Forms,

Donald M. Anderson/Dover

Publications Inc.,

New

York, 1992
Caller)'. St.

The Origin of the Serif Edward M. Catich/Catich


University, Iowa, 1968
Masters of the

Ambrose

Italic Letter,

Kathryn A. Atkins/Penguin

Press.

London. 1988

The
Inc.,

Italic

Calligraphy Handbook, Carolyn Knudsen/Steinmer House Publishers Maryland. 1985

Calligraphy, Inspiration, Innovation

and Communication, David Harris/Anava.

London, 1991
Books of Hours and
Lettering
their

Owners, John Harthain/Thamcs and Hudson. 1977

Old and New, Translated bv Dr. W.E. Walz/Batsford. London.

c.1930
Ornamental Alphabets and
Celtic
Initials,

Alison Harding/Thames and Hudson. 1983

Knolwork, lain Bain/Constable. London. 1986

124

Index

Brown, Denis,

11, 31

8-13
diamond,
letter

Ind ex
A
Adam
and Eve, 67

H
anatomy, 6
Haanes, Christopher, 95
hackle, letter anatomy, 6

brushes, 14

Diirer, Albrecht, 75,

108

Durham

Gospels, 30

Hagen, Johannes von, 74


hairline, letter

c
Cadeaux
history
see

anatomy, 6 anatomy, 6

Cadels
Eadfrith, Bishop,
ear, letter

hairline

tail,

letter

Alcuin of York, 9, 38

Cadels, 59, 94

Half Uncial:

Anglo-Saxon minuscules,
history

and development, 9
anatomy, 6

practical,

and development, 81 823

30

and the Caroline Minuscule,


38-39, 40
history and development, 8,
9,

anatomy, 6

Arabic numerals, 107, 112


arch, letter

Cambrensis, Giraldus, 31
Cancellaresca Corsica see Italic
capital letter, letter

Early Gothic:
history and development, 9,

12

Arch of Constantine, 109


Artificial Uncial:

anatomy, 6

capital line, letter

anatomy, 6

46-7 practical, 48-9


12,

Halliday, Peter, 17

handmade

papers, 14,

47

and development, 24-5 practical, 26-7


history

Capitalis Monumentalis see

Echternach Gospels, 30
English Bastard Secretary see

Harris, David, 103

Imperial Capitals
Capitalis Quadrata see

headline, letter anatomy, 6

Arts

and Crafts movement, 42,

Square

Bastard Secretary

95
ascender:
letter

Capitals

English Caroline Minuscule,

Henry of Blois, Bishop, 46 Henry VIII, King of England,


hierarchy of scripts, 16
Historia Ecclcsiastica,

51

Caroline Minuscule, 16, 35, 84,

42
Etruscan alphabet, 8

anatomy, 6

90
Early Gothic and, 46, 47

35

height, 7

Exeter Book, 35
9,

horizontal foot, letter anatomy, 6

ascender

line, letter

anatomy, 6

history
12,

Aubert, David, 71

and development, 38-9


40-1
106

Humanist
practical,

Capitals, 91

98-9
50,

Augustine,

St.,

24

practical, 7,

Humanist Minuscule,
fibre-tipped pens, 14
history
13,

94

Carstairs, Joseph,

Catich, E.M., 109, 112

Flamel, Jean, 81
flourish, letter

and development, 11, 90-1

B
baseline, letter

Chancery, 66

anatomy, 6

practical,

92-3

anatomy, 6

Bastard Capitals, practical,


bastard scripts,
1

78-9

Chancery Cursive see Italic Charlemagne, Emperor, 9, 38


Chichester Cathedral, 51
Citeaux, 47
Cockerel!, Sidney, 43

foot, letter

anatomy, 6

Foundational Hand:
history

and development,

0,

Bastard Secretary:
history

42-3
practical,

Imperial Capitals, 7, 16,

90

and development, 13,

44-5

brush strokes,

1 1

0-1

66-7
practical,

68-9
13,

Codex Amiatiuus, 24, 25 Codex Vaticanus 3256, 20-1


Coefrid, Abbot, 24

fountain pens, 14
Fraktur, 67
history and development, 13,

construction, 112-19
history
13,

Batarde, 7, 11
history

and development,

Columba,

St.,

34

74-5
practical,

In

and development, 108-9 Proverbia Salamonis, 34

8,

70-1
practical,

"Command
72-3

of hand", 103

76-7

inner-letter space, letter anatomy,

Copperplate, 10
history and development, 11,

Franciscus, Ricardus, 81
Froissart,Jean, 71
Froissart Chronicle,

6
Insular Display Capitals, history

Bede, Venerable, 34

Beneventan Minuscule, history and development, 9, 12, 84


Bentivoglio, Giovanni
II,

102-3 practical, 104-5


13,

70-1

and development, 13
Insular Majuscule:

90

Copperplate Capitals,
practical,

history

and development,

12,

Bernard,
Berry,

St.,

47

106-7
Gellone Sacramentary, 63

29-31
practical,

Due

de, 81

Corbie, 9
counter, letter anatomy, 6
cross stroke, letter
crossbar, letter

32-3

Bickham, George, 102-3 Black Letter see Textura


Quadrata, Textura Prescisus

German
history

calligraphic revival,

Insular Minuscule:

anatomy, 6

and development, 13
Letter see Fraktur

history
12,

and development,

9,

anatomy, 6

German

Bobbio, 9

Cultural Decomposition, 31

Gill, Eric,

43

34-5 practical, 36-7


insular scripts, 9

body

height, letter anatomy, 6


St.,

Cursive Half Uncial, history

Gothic Capitals, 10
history and development,

Bonaventura,

66

and development, 12
curved stroke,
letter

interlaced patterning, 81
inter-letter space, letter

Book of Durrow, 30 Book of Hours, 70, 84, 90 Book of Kells, 29-31


bow,
bowl,
letter letter

anatomy, 6

58-9
practical,

60-1

anatomy, 6

anatomy, 6 anatomy, 6 anatomy,

D
Dadd, Richard, 102 descender, letter anatomy, 6
descender
line, letter

Gothic

scripts, history

and

interlinear space, letter

anatomy,

development,

9,

10

6
Iona,

Grandval Bible, 38-9

34
9

bracketed

serif, letter

6
British calligraphic revival,

anatomy, 6

Greek scripts, 8 Greek Uncial, history and


development, 12
GrifTo, Francesco, 91,

Irish scripts,
Italic:

detachable nibs, 14, 15

history

and development,

13,

history and development, 12

development of Western

script.

95

94-5 125

tpwrn

lumw urvfnf t:p v


it2J
1

*<

pfrv

fll

mrtiMjwm* abut m nmftompi

j* nun mmte
prtnpf ftrtmitf mtrt

iignfamotfm mnmi

jnimfrDonownomsnur:
iii.i

'H

V4M
|?<r.M-:U*
.

^=*EW Sv*- .*

1 .w*. *\'fi<^wr uar Ait

Vw""i-:-'
w/mm****
*'!* A*

w**M vtwl5<M

NwnK wrifnuf
t-rniritf i<f/i<M

f<tjfv * v*

(t itv/fcS.iWtn

n&

fowKj ow/k-m

/<*W

itiig

mftmqncf

mMm

ftvrihtnti fiint

m ama ftfhtnunt
CDuumpunf
tr'ftftua

mrftilamfh mttfejmmf
iniHsnitfitQiiRoium rocmn

kJPitfltsintripnariji

biwuiaftunfua totmnum

'

'

fTlftUH

:li;/i ij/*

^\ottwnrwttitmrutn

i.VtjihnAmf tmJt b< '-> sw


roihiflciiic bitiic joi.iik
* ft-

'

' :'

ftti

:.-,

urn

cirt

f&tti

, s? /:Mvrrrrrt?rfK > t-\>j/Ar^/ji <*,


:

MwqMrovjl--

"."

3nt(i;< fi.Vni b' vno Itcfr mi fr& DMfMiMi'ir ion iviti 'it s? "&" mt unntKUffl vntr fcinicfr i" una ficbbtt gh< holArn Ytnfc tnoil ti'Ui on tuftsin wfitnf .illc a** 5?i8fr ti .illc oCimr wtainf bc*:ii*ii &ntt
biftiw

abnr

womc

Cw ght Mt TWiiir
kun

np^h-^flmwiei

oypib.irlifcfn

i />fc brfMtif

ia ljM ft*fl h< liWn ?fi< bo;rn attun fiiirfi unit


-

.ittfco
g<ici(tVirtW

mitt
ioIi

Ot.

LeBhcntr

mcjijhoii ft ttntv vnfen wiflrn rtfr. I.itni &-.ir ff ft-mf wm^nniittn f.m -h B"itJ; B"l*?i 'P'i'Cti Ijji^/rn nnft- omc bchiilpcii (in effct nx\r dr m'
iH-

iw

fro

oitr

rn^*

ftwni ^,c'Wfftr^>.tr

m.!li- iv. 0/iftut

ittfim

011

wxlr

ftiiozim n-iUirti/.rii amtrtjrn >Vo fiP fttr sbfbnr .-m ptn< gJirdftn. rahr(i'ihi rtflc; rtw tpmC h> n-nr; itWirttiflf /ic bbf wi tmfrr tlnl) mghrf

gmmtn 2>*

^-

ijwrt:

mini h'niuni
Jtl< mi((iittatoi

mii Ci1in|Hw

A
(ittm
/jti

...f

t^ic'm-mjlicii

cwUi Vol

JptfljeJiic nfrtuc Jlics

i^uijr Iv

hk M<

T<^<im
Mrtmti^m

mnnN^'*^lr^tciiiWti

i'i)|iumtviti

m<mn

ptqktltKn tniuva

^crtnditii tiifimi nwif?fl *' tfcftinfitx TT.^i

mrmm
'5.

Mai m

tvi/ifrfti (A'/Irc

uP.'n\fhfimi$ n jftimmribul

hue

Vufk. n/J g&HlnKf jAhtmk: vnP^wiik'


{luiOfslift
.,.,

,t

vnSrtfLnmi in^i

touonm < />* ^<*T ViiVhAi tr^i^- tnViW

P Oiii'i i!<fltiif-,v/'u* rpnrgif'ie/iim

DfnifKmihe rr^Bikmc

"S^iinHcnntRc (V:iW

~,..0...

^. C?JC

f\ti tntfrim i/r ..... <....

^mtVitf
S*

>

^*

JT./L

...ft..

Index
967 98-9
Capitals,

practical,
Italic Italic

manuscript sources, 7

Capitals, practical,

Manutius, Aldus, 95
Matth&us Evangelium, 75

Q
Quadrata
see

Textura Quadrata,

10,

94

Textura Quadrata

Early Gothic and, 46, 47


history

Swash

quill pens, 7,

14-15

and development,

2,

practical,

100-1

Maximilian, Emperor, 75
Meditations on the Life of
Christ,

50-1
practical,

52-3
anatomy, 6
108-9, 112

66

J
Jarrow, 25, 29 Jenson, Nicholas, 38, 90

Mercian prayer-book, 34
Merovingian
script,

R
Ramsey
Psalter,

tongue,
tools, 7,

letter

42-3

14-15
8,

Ratdolt, Erhard, 85

Trajan Column,
Treatise on

Jerome,

St.,

24, 31

Metz Pontifical, 50 minim height, letter anatomy, 6


Minuscules:
letter

reed pen, 14

Hawking, 94

Rochester Priory, 46

Trewhiddle, 35
turned foot,
letter

Johnson, Edward, 11, 42-5, 95

Roman
history

Imperial Capital, 7

anatomy, 6

anatomy, 6

and development, 8
scripts, history

development, 8

K
Kane Medieval Manuscript, 66 Kippax, W., 103 Koch, Rudolf, 11,74-5

Roman

and

origin,

24 47

development, 8

Moralia

in Job,

u
Uncials:

Romanising Uncial of the


Canterbury
Style,

Moro, Francesco, 94
Morris, William, 43, 95

25

Rotunda:
history and development,
1 1

N
Larisch,

12,

84-5 86-7

and development, 8, 12,24-5 practical, 26-7 The Universal Penman, 1 02-3


history
9,

Rudolf von,

11

Neudorffer, Johann the Elder,

practical,

upper-case

letter, letter

Late Caroline see Early

74,75

Gothic
Late Uncial, 25

New Roman
nibs,

Rotunda 88-9
Runic

Capitals, practical,

anatomy, 6

Cursive, history
Capitals, history

and development, 12

and

left-handed calligraphy, 7

14-15

development, 13
Rustic Capitals, 8
history and development, 13,
Vaast, St., 59

Lethaby,

W.R., 42
anatomy, 7
103
see

Niccoli, Niccolo, 94

V
Vatican Basilicanus, 38

letter height, letter

16-17

letterpress printing,
Lettre

Boutguignonne

o
Old
English see Textura

practical,

18-19

Vaux, Samuel, 102


vellum, 7, 14

Batarde
Lewis, James, 106
ligature, letter

Quadrata

La Vengeance de
71
history

la

Mort

Ihesa,

anatomy, 6

Old Roman Cursive,


and development,
1

Lindisfarne,

29-31,34

St Ambrose, De
d',

Misteriis

I,

46

Lindisfarne Gospels, 29-31


link, letter
Litlera

Orgemont, Guillaume

51

St. Paul's Epistle, 91 St.

anatomy, 6
see

Ormesby

Psalter,

55

Vaast Bible, 59

Verona Antiphoner, 84-5 Versals, history and development, 58-9


Vespasian Psalter, 25
Via Appia
Virgil,

Anliqua

Humanist

San Sebastiano, Rome, 20


Saturnalia,

Minuscule
Liltera di

95

Monument, 108

Breva see

Italic

Schwabacher, 50, 67
papers, 14
history

16,21

Liuera Uncialis see Uncial

and development,

Visigothic Minuscule, history

Lombardic
history
13,

Capitals,

88

handmade, 47
Papyrus, 17

76-7
Sherbourne, Bishop, 51
"slanted" pens, 15
sources, 7

and development,

9,

12

and development, 62-3

parchment,
Patrick, St.,

7, 14,

20

practical,

64-5
anatomy, 6

29
anatomy,
6, 7

Lowe, Nicholas, 66
lower counter,
lower-case
letter
letter, letter

pattern books, 59

spring-loaded pens, 14

w
waistline, letter

anatomy, 6

pen angle, pen width,

letter letter

Square Capitals:
history

Walpurgis Night, 102


8,

anatomy, 6

and development,

Waters, Sheila, 39

anatomy, 6
Luttrell Psalter,

Petrarch, Francesco, 90, 91

13,20-1
practical,

55

Philip the

Good, Duke of
scripts,

22-3

Luxeuil, 9

Burgundy, 71
Phoenician
Phoenix,
Pliny, 10
1

stem, letter anatomy, 6

Wearmouth, 25, 29 wedge serif, letter anatomy, Weston, Thomas, 81


whetstones, 15

Luxeuil Minuscule, history

"straight" pens, 15

and development, 12

stroke sequence, 7

Winchester Bible, 46, 62

swash, letter anatomy, 6

Windmill

Psalter,

10,55

M
Macrobius, Ambrosius

Pointed Minuscule, 34
Poligny family, 70
Prescisus see Textura Prescisus
printing,

T
Tara brooch, 30
Textura Prescisus, 10, 50
history

Theodosius, 95
majuscule, letter anatomy, 6

103
see
,

X
x-height, letter anatomy, 6
x-line, letter

Proto-Gothic
Pugin,

Early Gothic

manipulated strokes,

1 1

A.W.N. 62

and development, 55

anatomy, 6

127

Acknowledgments
College. Dublin p30:
tl:

Acknowledgments
PICTURE CREDITS
Even'
effort has

T.ira

Brooch. National
tr /detail):

Museum

of

Ireland. Dublin: b.

Lindisfanie
t:

Pages 74-75: Fraktur & Schwabacher p74: d (detail): MS Lat 2 F384 v. Berlin.
Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin

Cospels F29

COTT

Nero

DIV
b:

f29,

BL p31:

MS

Pretiliischer Kulturbesitz
b:

COTT
been made to
trace the copyright

Nero DIV f5v, BL: Denis Brown. 1993

Cultural Decomposition,

landschrirtenabteiluug

pp74-75:

MS 64/35v
p75:
r,

eV
r

36r. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Mil lichen


(detail):

Rudolf Koch. Gospel of St. Matthew. 1921.

holders and

apologize in advance tor any would be pleased to unintentional omissions. insert the appropriate acknowledgment in any

we

Pages 34-35: Insular Minuscule


p34:

Offeiibach/Klingspor-Museum der Stadt Offenbach

We

Subsequent edition

ot* this

publication.

Andy Williams: a /detail): Bedes Commentary- on the Book of Proverbs. MS 819 folio 29/BO: kr, hcl /detail), b (detail): Royal 2 Axx fl7 Prayer-hook. English Mercian, lil p35:
tr:

Lindisfanie Priory, photo:

am Main
Pages 80-81: Cadels
p80: D54/107 &380 Page de Garde. BN p81: /: MS Ashmolean 789 fol. 4v/BO; tr: Initial Letter, Speedball Textbook 1952. Ross F. George; br: An example ot
tine initials

Key:

I:

top b: bottom

c:

centre

r,

right

/:

left

/detail),

til,

bcl /detail):

Historia Ecclesiastica Genii


I

Anglorum

COTT TIB CI

f5v. BL;
1

bcr.

Vie
84b.

Spirit

Abbreviations: AA: Ancient Art and Architecture Collection BL: By Permission of the British Library, London BN: C Cliche Bibliotheque Nationale de France. Paris

of Men

1.71- end. Widsith,

1.1-13

fol

from a book by Thomas Weston


F.

in 1682.

Reproduced by Permission of the Dean and


Chapter of Exeter

Speedball Textbook 1952. Ross

George

BO: The

Bodleian Library. Oxford

IK: Ikona.

Rome

Pages 38-39: Caroline Minuscule


p38:
b:
I

VA: By Courtesy of the Hoard of Trustees of the Victoria and Albert Museum. London
Jacket: Calligraphy by Carol

Arch.

S. Pietro

D182

fol.

159v. Bascicicaims
tl:

D1S2
tl:

!59v/Foto Biblioteca Vaticana/IK p39:

Kemp back

jacket:

Sally-Anne Reason: lr: Cloud Conceptionsfrom Above, 1st verse. Sheila Waters: b: Moatiev C.randval Bible

f.27r Verona Antiphoner. mid- 5th century, VA p85: /: L.2384-I9IO f.203r Epistle Book. Italian Book of Hours. VA; h: Sheet of printed Rotunda. Author's own copy-

p84:

Pages 84-85: Rotunda b: MS. L. 4929- 866


1

Worksheet. Author's own copy: tr. Harl 2904 06, BL: re (detail): R-eid MS 64 f. 33, VA: />; Historia Ecclesiastics Gem's Anglomm, COTT

Add 4213

f 73. BL:

lr.

ADD/MS

10546 f 25 B-26, BL

Pages 90-91: Humanist Minuscule


p90:
b:

Reid

TlbCUfSv.
Pages 2-3
p2: Rcid
14th

1(1

Pages 42-43: Foundational Hand p42: hi: I /detail): Harl 2904 201v, lil p43:
Worksheet. Author's

f96v-97r,
tl:

VA:

MS 64 VA p91: MS LI721-I921 MS 186 fol 2lr. The Rector and


t:

c.

Fellows of Exeter College. Oxford;

b:

Petrarch's

own

copy:

tr:

Photograph of

Annotation. Author's

own copy

MS. 64 f. 33, VA p3: Met? Pontifical, early century. MS. 298X1 38v/FitzwiUiam Museum.

Edward Johnston. 1 lolbiirne Museum and Crafts Study Centre, Bath: b: Edward Johnston's Winchester Formal Writing Sheet C.778. Holburnc Museum and
Crafts Study Centre. Bath

Pages 94-95:
p94:
Page.
h:

Italic

MS

LI 485- 1946 Francesco Moro: Alphabet


tl:

University of Cambridge

VA

p95:

Skrirt Katalog.

Christopher Haanes.
f.l

Oslo;

lr /detail):

MS

LI 769- 952
1

I3r.

VA;

b:

Lat

Pages 4-5 pp4-5: Add 42130 201 v

Pages 46-47: Early Gothic


(detail).

Class E38. William Morris manuscript.


hr:

BO

BL

p46:

r.

Winchester Bible,
.\/.>m/r.r in Job.

A A:

C)07 6Bvl. BL
173.

p47: W:

Lib

XVII-XXXV. MS
tr:

Pages 102-103: Copperplate


p102:
Inc..
.,

Pages 6-7: Introduction p6: //: Beams of Liebana. Spain,


in the

lb 41. Bibliotheque
c. 122(1.

Municipale de Dijon;
Inc..

The

b: 77lf L'liit'ersal

Penman. Dover Publications


it:

Scriptorium

Paper Maker, Dover Publications

New York

New York

pl03:

I.

Tower of the Monastery of Tavara. The Pierpont Morgan Library. New York. M.429. f.lS3
Pages 8-11: The Development of Western Script r: Terracotta Marker, inscribed with Oscan script.
Italy.

Dover Publications
Pages 50-51: Textura Quadrata
p50: p51:
(>:

Inc..

New
b:

The Universal Penman, York; i7: Copperplate


Copperplate typeface

Met/
I

Pontifical, Early

Nth

century.

MS

298

workshop. Fotomas Index: design. David larris


I

I'l38v/Fitzwilliaiii
t,

Museum.
I

University of Cambridge
I

p8:

/detail):

Chichester Cathedral,

lenry VIII

Pages 108-109: Imperial Capitals


pl()8:
/:

The

Trustees of the British

Museum. London:
ot the

(Bishop Sherbourne asking

lenry VIII to confirm the

Lettering from

On

the Just

Shaping of Letters,
Inc..

b /detail):

Inscription

on the Base
p9:
f:

Traiana. Monti.

Rome/IK

Colonna Charlemagne with


'':

charter for Chichester Cathedral).


h:

Fotomas Index:

Albreclu Diirer. Dover Publications


It,

New

York:

MS

Raw]

liturg.e.

40

fol

40v/BO

Alcuin.

Mary Evans

Picture Library;

Msc.

I'atr.

f.lv. Staatsbibliothek

f.lv-2.

Bamberg plO: /detail): M 102. The Pierpont Morgan Library. New York: '>:
t

Pages 54-55: Textura Prescisus


p54: judgement of Solomon.
Library,
File Pierpont

Appian Way: Inscription, De Luca, Rome IK pl09: t: Inscription on the Base of Colonna Traiana. Monti. Rome/IK; b: The Arch
c /detail):

Morgan
l54r/BO

of Constantine. De Luca. Rome/IK

Frontispiece of translation of Pliny's Natural History.

1473. Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziaii.i. Florence pi


t:

I:

Add

York. M.I02. f.lv-2 p55: 42130 201v, BL; a MS Douce 366

New

cl /detail):

fol

Pages 124-127: Bibliography


pl24:
/

Ms.Lat 9474.

BN: k

Phoenix. Denis

Brown. 1993

(detail):

Pages 16-17: Rustic Capitals

p P 16-17:
\ 'ergilius

lr, I

/detail),

/detail):
1

VAT 3867

f.3v,

Pages 58-59: Gothic Capitals & Versals MS 2981. Sets of Capitals. Magdalene College, Cambridge p59: //. MS 55 G vol3 F52V. Bible of St.
p58:
Vaast. Bibliotheque Municipale d'Arras;
r (detail):

Cambridge
Kulturbesitz

& Index MS 2981. Magdalene College, pl26: MS Lat 2 f384 v. Berlin.


- Handschriftenabteilung

Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Pretiliischer

Romanus
be:

Ecloga
c:

& 4,

Biblioteca
fo].62r,

MS
Special photography: Michael Dunning: p6: fi Peter Hayinan: pl7: bl

Apostolica Vatican.! IK:

Ms. Bodl. 218.

2981. Sets of Capitals. Magdalene College.

BO

pl7:

Peter lialhday. Quotation from Virgil:

Eclogue VII. 43 x 31.5 cm, 1983, black ink on cream paper, translation by the scribe

MS.83-1972 fir. Fitzwilliam Museum. University of Cambridge


Cambridge;
Id:

Pages 62-63: Lombardic Capitals

Author's acknowledgments:

Pages 20-21: Square Capitals p20: I,: The Parchment Maker. Dover Publications
Inc..

p62:

/detail):

AAp63:

Winchester Bible, E/ekiel, 12th century, Latin 12048 flv.BN

To my
and the
help
1

wife Nancy

who

untiringly typed and

corrected

my

manuscript pages.
the

To

Miss Pemberton
Liz

New

staff of the

Bodleian Library for their kind

York:

c:

Inscription at San Sebastiano/IK

pp20-21:

b /detail): Pontificia
/:

Archeologia Sacra IK p21:

Commissione de Pontilicia Commissione

de Archeologia Sacra/IK

Pages 66-67: Bastard Secretary p66: a: Kane Medieval MS 21 folio 6r, Grcnvillc Kane Collection of Medieval Manuscripts, Manuscripts )ivision, )epartnient ot Rare Books and
I

beyond

call

of duty, and to

Brown and
stopped
finally

ouise Candlish of Dorling Kindersley


straying too
fir

who

me

from the chosen path. And

to family

and

friends
last

who

have also suffered

a little

with

me

over the

years.

Pages 24-25: Uncial & Artificial Uncial p24: r: MS E Museo 100 t7v/BO; b: Ceolfrid Bible. AA p25: t. b /detail): COTT VESP Al 30v-3l. BL Pages 28-31: Insular Majuscule p28: The Book of Rolls MS 58 fol. 40v, The Board
of Trinity College, Dublin p29: In /detail): The Book of Kells MS 58 fol. I79v, The Board of Trinity

Special Collections, Princeton University

ibraries:

W: E

Mus 35 f 98/BO p67: English Genesis, Bodley 596 f2r/BO

MS

Dorling Kindersley would

like to thank:

lanos Marftv and Sally-Anne Reason lor their

artworks: Richard Bird for the index: Jane Carter.

Pages 70-71: Batardc p70: b: MS Douce 267 f.36r/BO p71:

t,

c (detail):

lean Froissart's Chronicle. 14th century, BL: W:

Stephen Croucher. and Mark Johnson Davies for design assistance; Lol lenderson and Helen Castle for editorial assistance: Jo. Simon. Liz. and Louise for
I

Roy

16 Gill

IX.

Bl

their hands:

and to Morag Hislop

for all her help.

128