You are on page 1of 98

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

All acclamations and appreciation are for almighty Allah, who has given us the privilege to be amongst those who are awarded with superiority by blessing us, with the knowledge and gave us strength to face hurdles and every difficulty in life and also to overcome our problems. Thank to Allah Almighty, may Allah Almighty be pleased with us, Ameen. And all the respect for his last prophet Muhammad (PBUH), who enlighten mankind with the essence of faith in Allah and guiding them the true path of life. Our special thanks and appreciation goes to honorable research supervisor Mr. Noor Sanauddin, lecturer Institute of Social Development Studies, University of Peshawar, for his creative eyes, sensitive heart, encouragement and attractiveness to our thesis. His kind and sympathetic behaviors, support, valuable comments, experts suggestions and scholarly guidance with paved the way for the successful completion of our thesis. We extend our gratitude to the honorable Professor Dr. Sara Safdar Director, Institute of Social Development Studies, University of Peshawar for her encouragement and approval of this thesis. At the end we would like to say thanks to our best friends and roommates Zaiwar Niazi and Qari Jamil khan, who helped us in overcoming this difficult task by their cooperation and wealth worthy suggestions during our thesis report.

Table of Contents
S. No Topic
Acknowledgement Table of contents List of tables Abstract Introduction Refugee Types of refugees Majority identified Refugees Events alienated Refugees Self alienated Refugees Afghan Refugee Why to Pakistan Afghans in Pakistan Historical background of Afghan Refugees influx Afghan Refugees after the departure of Soviet troops What is Repatriation Types of repatriation Role of UNHCR Statement of the problem Objectives of the study Significance of the study Limitations of the study Organization of the study Literature Review in Historical Perspective Of Afghan Refugees Historical background of Afghan Refugees Pakistan Economic and security Concerns Repatriation of Afghan Refugees International community assistance for Afghan Refugees Registration of Afghan Refugees in Pakistan Factors influencing the decision to Repatriate Sustainability of Returns Research Design Title of the study Purpose of the study Scope of the study Universe of the study Methodology Data collection Duration of the study Analysis and interpretation of Data Major Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

Page No i ii iii iv 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 4 6 7 8 10 11

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4 Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Conclusion Recommendation References Interview Schedule and References Interview schedule References

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE # Table -1 Table -2 Table -3 Table -4 Table -5 Table -6 Table -7 Table -8 Table -9 Table -10 Table -11 Table -12 Table -13 Table -14 Table -15 Table -16 Table -17 Table -18 Table -19 Table -20 Table -21 Table -22 Table -23 Table -24 Table -25 Table -26 Table -27 Table -28 Table -29 Table -30 Table -31 Table -32 Table -33 Table -34 TITLE OF THE TABLE Age and Gender of the respondents Ethnic group of the respondents Educational status and level of Qualification Marital status, spouse belongs to, and Number of children Children Admitted in schools, and place of admission Better socialization of children Migration time and stay duration in Pakistan Feelings during and after migration Problem faced at the time of migration and type of problems Satisfaction from accommodation and residential facilities in Pakistan Housing condition in Pakistan and Afghanistan Ability of residential problems solution after repatriation Earning source in Afghanistan Earning source in Pakistan Change in financial condition and type of change Relatives repatriation and the respondents feelings after migration Changing condition in Afghanistan after Soviet Union deportation Considering coalition forces as invaders and withdrawal of them Satisfaction from present government and cause of further stay If not satisfy from present government then type of government Financial ability and suitable condition for repatriation Increase or decrease in daily expenses after repatriation The help that Afghan government should do in repatriation Effects of current security threats in Pakistan on repatriation Reason that hamper repatriation Health and communication facilities in Pakistan and Afghanistan Appeal to the international community especially UNO The steps should be taken by Pakistani government Registration with NADRA and expectation of citizenship Burden on economy of Pakistan The most positive aspect of life in Pakistan The most negative aspect of life in Pakistan The most important reason for repatriation The most important reason that hampers repatriation
PAGE#

38
39 40 41

42
42 43

44 45 46 46 47 48 49 50 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 62 63 64 65 65

ABSTRACT
This study was carried out on Factors Effecting Repatriation Process of Afghan Refugees (A case study of Afghan Refugees camp Nasir Bagh District Peshawar, and Kawga camp at District Buner) in order to see that what kind of factors that effects the repatriation process of Afghan Refugees. The main theme of the study was to find out those factors that hamper the repatriation activity of Afghan Refugees and to know the responses of the Refugees towards their repatriation. For this purpose 80 respondents were selected through purposive sampling and the data was collected through interview schedule. Majority of the Refugees were not ready to go back to their country due to the law and order situation in Afghanistan.
The government of Pakistan should to cease the push-backs and forcible return of Afghan Refugees also the government of Afghanistan and UNO should to make a Master plan and long term policy for the repatriation of these Refugees.

CHAPTER
4

INTRODUCTION

Present research is an effort to explore facts about the problem of Afghan Refugees and to know about the factors which effecting the repatriation, and also to see the response of Afghan Refugees towards their repatriation, whether they want to go back to their country or not. Before going to explain the exact problem of repatriation, we want to explain the term Refugee and circumstances due to which Afghan Refugees rushed into Pakistan.

REFUGEE:
The definition given by the Oxford Dictionary is that a person who has been forced to leave his or her country, home etc for political or religious reason or because there is a war or shortage of food (Oxford Concise Dictionary). According to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, a Refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of their nationality. Before proceeding further with the problem of Afghan Refugees' repatriation, we should better explain different types of Refugees

TYPES OF REFUGEE:
Following are the main types of Refugees.

1.

MAJORITY IDENTIFIED REFUGEES:

It includes those Refugees who may feel loyalty to the nation, their homeland and compatriots, but to the regaining government and its adherent. For example most political Refugees, in their own minds, their return are merely delayed.

2.

EVENTS_ALIENATED REFUGEES :

They react to intolerable forces which push them out__ violence, persecution, occupation, partition of old frontiers (as in the case of India and Pakistan). They become unwanted aliens with the little hope or desire or possibility of return.

3.

SELF ALIENATED REFUGEES:

These Refugees are moved by personal or ideological reasons to alienate themselves beyond a point where they wish to return. Factors related to homeland, displacement and the host country raise analytical difficulties on classifying such types as Refugees, as displaced person or as voluntary immigrants. To say that Refugees are pushed, or pulled towards a host country does not catch the complexity of the immigration process.

In this country, the legal concept of refugees has been gradually formulated, especially between the two world wars, initially by western nations. Two basic statuses (UN convention 1951, UN protocol 1967)to which, by 1981 some ninety nations had extend international protection to Refugees via asylum tutees define the Refugees as a person who owing to a well-founded fear of persecution for reason of race, religion, nationality,

membership of a particular social group or political opinion is put aside by the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country (UN conference, 28 July 1951, article 1). Previous international instruments (during the 1930s) dealt only with specific groups of Refugees; in contrast the 1951 definition has a more general application and includes the critical principles of non-reffoulement which prohibits expulsions or forcible return of the against his will. The 1951 convention does not apply to those Refugees under the care of the UN agencies other then UNHCR (such as Palestinian Refugees with the UN relief and works agency) or to those Refugees who have a status equivalent to the natives of that country in which they get Refugee.

There are many Refugees who fall outside the scope of the convention as presently interpreted (for instance, internally displaced persons and victims of repressive military and economic policies) such that the concept of the Refugees tends to be defined situationly. Thus the definition has also been widened in scope (for example by the pan African conference on Refugees in 1979). No comprehensive Refugee policy defined by law existed in the USA until its Refugees act of 1980, although thousands of Refugees (for example Cubans, Haitians, indo-Chinese) had previously been admitted there. Social as well as legal, whereby Refugees become the wards of the host government is also a significant factor in their treatment by voluntary agencies.

AFGHAN REFUGEES:

In 1979 when revolution came in Afghanistan and soviet troops entered the country, the Refugee flow began as a trickle in April 1978, reaching a peak during the first half of 1981 when an estimated 4,700 crossed the Pakistan border daily. The flow ebbed and surged in response to Soviet offenses, so that by the fall of 1989, the number of Afghan Refugees was estimated at 3.2 million in Pakistan, 2.2. Million in Iran and several hundred thousands resettled in scattered communities throughout the world. Afghans represented the largest single concentration of Refugees in the world on whom an estimated $1 million a day was expended in 1988. Pakistan was the only country, which has been directly effected by the revolution in Afghanistan, because it is playing the role of a vast hearted host for more then 3.2 million Refugees who have been staying here for the last so many years. This long stay of them has caused certain very serious and acute problem for Pakistan.

WHY TO PAKISTAN:
After 1979 as a result of revolution the people of Afghanistan started migration to neighboring countries of Iran and Pakistan. The Refugees who migrated to Iran are less in number than those who came to Pakistan. In Iran they are restricted to camps; in case of Pakistan things are different. The people of Pakistan and Afghanistan are historically, culturally and traditionally rooted into the same moulds from the past thousand years. The main status of Afghan Refugees in Pakistan is derived from Pukhtunwali, the Pukhtun code of honour. Eightyfive percent of Afghan Refugees in Pakistan are Pukhtuns and most of them have taken Refuge in the Pukhtun-inhabited regions of North West Frontier Province [NWFP) and Baluchistan. Both refugee and host populations

share the same language, culture and value system. Rather than simply being accepted according to international humanitarian law, the Afghan Refugees were welcomed as beneficiaries of traditional hospitality, provided by fellow Pukhtuns on the Pakistani side under the strict norms of pukhtunwali; thus the refugees were seeking shelter amongst fellow tribesmen.

Importantly, to a Pukhtun, the Durand Line that separates Afghanistan and Pakistan does not constitute a national border; but divides the Pukhtun region, Pukhtunistan, into two halves. The majority of Afghan Refugees, being Pukhtuns, see themselves as having taken Refugee in another part of their homeland. Both the countries Pakistan and Afghanistan share the longest border, which runs in north-south direction for a distance of about 1500 miles. In the north it starts from the lofty mountains of Hindukush in Chitral district and stretches southward along the mountains upped the Chaghi district in Baluchistan. This whole border which is known as Durand line is dotted with about 240

passes, which connect both the countries. Most of these passes are situated in very ragged and difficult terrain at the height of 10,000-14,000 feet above sees level. From centuries these apparently inaccessible paths have been the gateways for the nomadic peoples of both the countries, who know the art of crossing these valleys.

AFGHANS IN PAKISTAN:
Before proceeding with the thesis it seems rather essential here to introduce the background of Afghan Refugees influx in Pakistan. At present the Afghan Refugees in Pakistan is the single largest group of Refugees in the world. According to Registration programme of Afghan Refugees that began on October 15, 2006, and is being conducted by Pakistans National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA) with the support of UNHCR and the governments Commissionerate for Afghan Refugees till February 15, 2007, 2.15 million Afghan Refugees had registered. This influx has been constantly increasing. The Refugees are sheltered in more than hundred camps primarily in the rural areas of NWFP, Baluchistan and some have even settled in Punjab and Sindh, establishing their own business enterprises near important cities and industrial towns. The government of Pakistan is acting as a coordinator for resettlement, relief, assistance and rehabilitation of the Afghan Refugees with the support of the international communities, primarily through the UN high commissioner for refugees (UNHCR) and the world food program. Despite considerable economic and political costs, the government and the people of Pakistan have extended an impressive welcome to the Afghans. The government of Pakistan estimates that annual relief effort costs some $360

10

million of which it bears nearly half the cost, chief expenditures being for the program, administration, and transportation of relief commodities.

Refugees Pakistanis relations have been surprisingly good, mainly due to the strong common religious beliefs between the endogenous population and the new immigrants. In an effort to minimize social tension and in view of the longer-term needs of population with no immediate prospect of returning home, many relief organizations with the occurrence of the government of Pakistan have expanded their programming to include projects that enhance Refugees self reliance.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF AFGHAN REFUGEES INFLUX:


Afghan Refugees started migration into Pakistan in 1973, when Sardar Muhammad Daud overthrew the Afghan monarchy in a bloodless coup. At that time several hundred dissidents fled from their country, so as to avoid political persecution. With the toppling of Sardar Muhammad Daud by Noor Muhammad Tarakai in April 1978, however a continuous flow of Refugees, started across the border that soon turn into an unending stream as the situation in Afghanistan worsened with the changes in the government.

In 1979, his Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin overthrew Noor Muhammad Tarakai. With that change the number of Refugees migrating to Pakistan almost doubled. The situation, for a time became radical, when Babrak Karmal replaced Hafizullah Amin in December 1979. He requested Soviet Union to send some of their troops. After the Russian

11

invasion, the influx of the Refugees started increasing very rapidly. The exodus has to be continued unabated ever since, one million marks was reached in the middle of 1980 and the second million about a year thereafter. The figure at the end of June 1984 stood at more than three million. Afghan Refugees during the first few months of arrival were kept near the border in camps. But no restriction was placed on their movement. As a result a few of them went to Punjab and Karachi, but most of them however, preferred to stay in different parts of NWFP and Baluchistan. The government herself had to shift Refugees camps near major cities with massive increase in their number.

Peshawar is the biggest city as well as the capital of the North West frontier province, and so it serves as the hub of economic and social activities, that why it attracted a large number of Refugees. Today, beside camps in the suburbs of the city they can also be seen in the city proper. Peshawar development authority estimates that half of the total population of the city is of Afghan Refugees. A number of these Refugees have also established their own business and are indulged in different economic activities.

AFGHAN REFUGEES AFTER THE DEPARTURE OF SOVIET TROOPS:


UNHCR estimates that, as of December 2006, perhaps 2.46 million registered and unregistered Afghans are currently living in Pakistan and more than 900,000 in Iran. The Refugees lives in some designated villages grouped into 127 key Refugees clusters, in the northwest frontier province, Baluchistan and Punjab provinces. The majority of these are Pushtuns and the rest are the mixture of Hazaras, Balochis, and other minorities. Two

12

third of the Refugees are women and children. Afghans first fled to neighboring Pakistan after soviet invasion on Afghanistan in 1979.

By the end of that year some 400,000 had crossed the border. Within the first three years, an estimated 2.7 million had entered the Pakistans territory. The exodus continued uninterrupted for several years reaching 3.32 million in 1990.

The departure of the Soviet troops in February 1989 and the collapse of the Kabul regime in April 1992 raised the prospects for the peace and return of the Afghan Refugees. But the divided Mujahideen alliance government, which was instrumental in the defeat of the Soviet troops and the Najibullah regime failed to secure peace. Instead Afghan fragmented into armed faction, plunging Afghanistan into a new crisis.

The rise of Taliban Islamic movement in 1969 did not end the suffering of Afghan Refugees. The Taliban imposed the most rigid religion system not practiced anywhere else in the world.

The present government has a great financial and political support of the western alliances and international community. The government of Afghanistan and a lot number of international NGOS got huge financial aids from the UN member countries in past 8 years, but failed to attract the Refugees from neighbor countries towards their development in different sectors of life.

13

At the earliest sign of piece, Refugees are the first to move into action. Often when a political settlement is tried for a problem, it leads to the displacement by force. Due to the peace settlement of Kosovo and Mozambique the Refugees also became hopeful for their own hazards and started returning back on a massive scale.

WHAT IS REPATRIATION?
Before going to discuss repatriation of Afghan Refugees, it is necessary to explain the meaning of Repatriation. Repatriation means to send or bring somebody back to their own country. Simply stated it means send back the Refugees to their own homeland, when the situation of the country becomes normal. The problem like famine, war or other due to which the Refugees leave their country and take protection in other neighboring country is solved. If the Refugees by their own choice want to repatriate then, then it is called voluntary repatriation. When all settle down then the Refugees are repatriated to their own country. But sometimes the Refugees do not want to repatriate in spite of the fact that their problems are solved.

It is clear that repatriation is a process fraught with difficulties and uncertainties, affecting not only returnees, but also IDPs, stayees and the overall stability and development of the home country. The physical, social and economic risks of

repatriation can be minimized through a comprehensive process of peace-building, encompassing economic aid, political development and nation-building. However, it is still essential that repatriation takes place on an appropriate timescale and at a realistic rate, and most importantly that the decision to repatriate is voluntarily arrived at by each

14

individual Refugee after their own analysis of the situation based on accurate, and ideally first-hand, information. Refugees may choose to repatriate before all conditions are met, or even before the end of the conflict. The decisions of Refugees in this regard should continue to be supported, as is currently UNHCR policy, with the extension of the mandate if necessary. However, if each of the above conditions, including the

acquiescence of individual Refugees, is not met then the repatriation process is likely to become more complex and more dangerous. Forcible or coerced repatriation on the part of host governments or the UNHCR under pressure from donors can threaten the security of Refugees and the peace and stability of home areas. Thus repatriation cannot always be considered an optimum solution. So in this way we can say that there are two types of repatriation. Voluntary repatriation and Forced repatriation

1.

VOLUNTRY REPATRIATION:

When the situation settles down and the Refugees want to go back to their own country then this is called voluntary repatriation.

2.

FORCED REPATRIATION:

When the situation becomes normal and even then the refuse to repatriate to their own country, and the host country force them to leave then such repatriation is called forced repatriation.

15

When the problem of Refugees arises, it does not remain the problem of only two countries__ the country from which the people migrate due to certain reason and the country which hosts the Refugees. But it becomes the concern of the whole world and the organization working under the supervision of UN, like UNHCR, United Nation High Commission for Refugees. Most of the member countries of UN, take interest in the solution of such problem.

The Afghanis became Refugees in Pakistan and Iran when the Soviet troops entered Afghanistan and took control of the area. About 6.2 million Afghanis rushed into Pakistan and Iran. Pakistan hosts million Afghan Refugees, one of the worlds largest and longest staying Refugee groups. The Refugees live in 203 designated villages grouped into 127 key Refugee clusters, in the N.W.F.P, Baluchistan and Punjab provinces.

Present situation of Afghanistan is that the government and the international agencies have provided basic facilities to some extent, which results to accelerate the repatriation process. They are trying their best to give assistance to Refugees and persuade them to return back to their country and restricted them to their own homeland. The role of UNHCR in repatriation of Afghan Refugees is very much important. We will give a brief background of UNHCR.

ROLE OF UNHCR:
UNHCR started working in Afghanistan in 1988 when long-scale repatriation from Pakistan and later from the Islamic republic of Iran became possible following the

16

signing of the Geneva peace accords and subsequent withdrawal of Soviet forces. In 1992, more then 1.6 million Afghan Refugees returned from Pakistan and the Islamic republic of Iran within a period of eight months, since then more then 5 million Afghan Refugees have returned under UNHCR auspices. While the number of returns has dropped significantly in recent years, more then 100,000 Refugees repatriate voluntarily each year. Most returned to rural areas in Afghanistan, where relative peace and stability prevails (UNHCR 1998 GLOBAL REPORT).

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:


Afghan Refugees form a significant part of Pakistani population and have a deep impact on Pakistans socio-political-cultural and economic milieu. They have families settled here, businesses or employment, and better civic amenities. Most Afghan Refugees were in fact born in Pakistan. There is always a group that fears the Afghan regime in power. For these reasons, most Afghans do not plan to repatriate at all. Pakistani authorities are making it harder for Afghan Refugees to live in Pakistan. Camps have been closed, which has made it harder to monitor Refugees activities. There are restrictions on Afghans movement. Law enforcement agencies harass Afghans, especially when investigating terror incidents. In such circumstances, Afghans have to resort to desperate measures, sometimes with tragic results. Afghan children can no longer find admission in many educational institutions, which makes the dark future for these children.

17

The links of Afghans with the security problems in Pakistan cannot be ignored and an emphasis on repatriation of Refugees should therefore be a part of the governments antiterror strategy. Most of the Refugees are willing to repatriate to their country but the unsatisfactory condition of security, employment, education and health facilities in Afghanistan do not allow them to go to Afghanistan. Over the past 20 years the high unemployment rate and the growing resentment over the continuing presence of Afghan Refugees in Pakistan is adding to the general instability of the local community.

So the above information shows that Afghan Refugees in Pakistan are facing different types of problem, which effects repatriation process of these Refugees. Some factors are those, which hamper repatriation process, while some of them are accelerating factors. So we conducted the study, and tried for the determination of those factors, which hamper and accelerate the process of repatriation of Afghan Refugees. We selected two respective camps of Afghan Refugees one of them was Kawga camp and the other was Nasar Bagh.

We used purposive sampling techniques and interview schedule for collecting data, through which we interviewed 80 respondents i.e.40 from each of the above camp.

We found that most of the respondents don't want to go back due to socio-cultural- and .economic problems

18

So in this situation the both governments of Pakistan and Afghanistan should to provide many facilities to the refugees for their repatriation and also to help them through international aid.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:


Main objectives of our study are under 1. To find out the pull and push factors encouraging repatriation of Afghan Refugees. 2. 3. To find out the various factors discouraging the repatriation of Afghan Refugees. To suggest some measures for the successful repatriation of Afghan Refugees. 4. To know the various facilities provided by governments on both side of the border to facilitate the repatriation process

SIGNIFICIANCE OF THE STUDY:


The problem of Afghan Refugees is worsening day by day and creates problems for both the people and government of Pakistan. These Refugees are not ready to go back under the present condition in Afghanistan. The government of Pakistan and Afghanistan fails to satisfy these Refugees for voluntary repatriation. So in present condition it will be very necessary to know about the problem of these Refugees and the condition under which they want to repatriate. So the study of the Refugees problem in repatriation is of great importance.

19

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:


The researchers were faced the following problems during collection of data. Most of the people were uneducated and they were not aware of research purpose and most of them were fearful and were not ready to give information. Due to limited education of the respondents the detailed explanations of the interview questions were needed. Most of the females' respondents were not able to interview due to socio-cultural aspects and Hijab taboo. Some of the respondents were not registered with NADRA, due to which they were fearful to give correct information.

ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY:


Chapter -1 This chapter includes the definition of Refugees, type of Refugees, and also the Afghan Refugees their entrance to Pakistan and the historical background of Afghan Refugees influx. We also discussed Afghan Refugees after the departure of Soviet troops, repatriation, and types of repatriation and the role of UNHCR in repatriation of Afghan Refugees. The present condition of the Refugees and the statement of the problem, objectives of the study, and delimitations and significance of the study are also the part of the first chapter.

20

Chapter -2 In this chapter we discussed the literature review of the problem. Which include historical background of Afghan Refugees, Pakistan economic and security concerns, repatriation of Afghan Refugees, international community assistance for Afghan Refugees, and also the registration of Afghan Refugees, the factors influencing their returns and their sustainability of returns. Chapter -3 It contains the design of the research, which includes title, purpose and scope of the study. The universe and methodology of the study are also the part of this chapter. Chapter -4 This chapter includes collection, classification of data, and establishment of categories and quantitative treatment of data. Chapter -5 Chapter 5 contains major findings of the study and also the conclusion and recommendations of the study. Chapter -6: This chapter is the addition of interview schedule and the references of the study.

21

CHAPTER LITERATURE REVIEW IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF AFGHAN REFUGEES


Afghanistan lies across ancient trade and invasion routes from central Asia into India. This position has been the greatest influence on its history, because the invaders often settled there. Darius I and Alexander the Great were the first to use Afghanistan as the gateway to India. The land is mountainous and arid. Jagged, impassable ranges divide the country and make travel difficult. Due to these physical divisions, the people are extremely provincial, with more loyalty to their specific clan or ethnic group than to a government or a country. The people are Muslims, and extremely religious and conservative. The majority ethnic group is the Pashtun. The Pathans of southeast Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan have a long history of extended family and tribal relations. From very ancient time Pathan tribesmen have been migrating back and forth across what now the Afghan-Pakistan border is commonly known as the Durand line. Before closing the Pak-Afghan border in 1961, approximately 200,000 Afghan nomads crossed the frontier semiannually. In addition to these seasonal, migrants, Pakistan had accepted afghan refugees in 1961, who had fled from the delivery of Daoud regime. In the early 1970s, Pakistan and Iran also accepted the Afghan Refugees, fleeing from famine. However, it was the communist coup in April 1978, followed by Soviet invasion in December 1979, and the subsequent brutal repression of all resistance that accelerated the movement involving a cross section of Afghan classes and interests (History of Afghanistan Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

22

In the first section of this chapter we shall review the earlier circumstances that led the large number of people to flee from their homeland. Then we shall attempt to illustrate the profile of these Refugees in Pakistan their registration. In the reminder of the chapter we shall endeavor to give a sketch of the Pakistan economic and security concerns with these refugees and also sustainability of returns of these Refugees.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF AFGHAN REFUGEES:


Afghan began fleeing their country in April 1978, when the Marxist peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), overthrew the government of Muhammad Daud (who had himself sized power from his cousin Afghan king Zahir Shah in a bloodless coup in 1973).

The trickle of refugees accelerated when the Soviet Union invaded in December 1979, ostensibly to restore order to the country as the PDPA became increasingly splintered. While political infighting was certainly a problem, some observers also noted that Afghanistans leadership had begun irking Moscow by making decisions without Soviet approval. The Soviet attempt to subjugate the Afghans was as times particularly brutal, including the alleged use of torture and collective punishment. By the beginning of 1981, some 3.7 million Refugees had fled to Iran and Pakistan Smaller numbers of Refugees continued to flee Afghanistan for the next decade, as the Soviet fought an insurgency mounted by a loosely allied group of Mujahideen, or holy warriors. In 1988, the Soviet Union agreed to withdraw from Afghanistan, and UNHCR and the international assistance community prepared for the massive repatriation of

23

Refugees. Large-scale returns did not begin until 1992; however, than Kabul descended into armed disorder as various Mujahideen factions began fighting for control of the capital and the surrounding area. A new wave of people was displaced (possibly up to a million) a majority of whom remained within Afghanistans borders as internally displaced people (IDPs). After a year long siege, the Taliban took Kabul in1996, and had gained control of most of the country by 1998 (COMMUNISM, REBELLION, AND SOVIET INTERVENTION).

PAKISTANS ECONOMIC AND SECURITY CONCERNS:


With the defeat of the Taliban, the Government of Pakistan began strongly advocating that conditions were appropriate for the return of all Afghans to Afghanistan. The Government of Pakistan appears to have both economic and security concerns about the

24

Afghan population in Pakistan. On the economic level, some Pakistani politicians believe that Afghans are taking jobs that might otherwise go to Pakistanis. Additionally, Afghans are reportedly willing to work for lower wages than Pakistanis, causing some Pakistanis to believe that wage levels are being depressed. Some recent research has shown that several business sectors particularly transport and construction make heavy use of Afghan labor. Economic worries about the Afghan population have become more persistent in recent years, as the overall level of international funding for Refugees in Pakistan has decreased. The census provided more fuel for this concern when it revealed that, despite the record repatriation, millions of Afghans still remain in Pakistan. (CRS Report for Congress Rhoda Margesson) In addition to their economic impact, some Pakistani leaders are concerned that Afghans represent a security risk for Pakistan. These fears concern lawlessness, terrorism, and anti-government activity. There is a perception among many Pakistanis, including government officials, that Afghans are responsible for a great deal of the smuggling of stolen goods, narcotics, and weaponry across Pakistans western border. The so-called smugglers markets on the outskirts of Peshawar and Quetta, for instance, where one can allegedly buy anything from counterfeit passports to heroin to Kalashnikovs, are alleged to be run by Afghans and to flourish because of their proximity to Afghanistan. Pakistani police, in justifying their sweeps through Afghan areas, have cited the imperative to crack down on crime. One of the reasons the smugglers markets have been difficult for Islamabad to deal with is that they exist in the so-called Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), where the central governments writ is weak. Although each of the FATAs seven agencies is ostensibly governed by a political

25

agent appointed by the government in Islamabad, in practice the tribal areas are ruled by traditional Pashtun leaders, exercising a blend of personal decree, Islamic law (sharia), and traditional Pashtun legal practices known collectively as pushtunwali. Despite Islamic proscriptions against drugs and alcohol, the smugglers markets have been an important source of revenue for some FATA leaders, who continue to permit this operation. It is not merely lost economic revenue or local law and order that concerns Pakistani government officials. Many experts and officials believe that the FATA is being used as a staging area for militant activity, some of it directed against coalition forces in neighboring Afghanistan and some against the Pakistani government. This worry has grown more acute in the wake of several assassination attempts against Pakistans President Pervez Musharraf. In light of the difficult to verify but nevertheless oft-stated presumption that Osama bin Laden and other senior members of Al Qaeda are hiding in the mountainous tribal areas of Pakistan, perhaps with the knowledge of local leaders, the governments efforts to gain control over these areas have gained urgency. Security was considered to be one of the reasons behind the government of Pakistan decision to close all of the remaining Refugee camps in the FATA. The government of Pakistan had for at least two years declared its desire to clear out the FATA camps, but only began the operation in summer 2005 when it closed Refugee camps in South Waziristan Agency. Camps in North Waziristan were next with the most recent closures occurring in Bajaur and Kurram agencies in autumn 2005. All told, close to 200,000 Refugees were displaced in the closures, the majority of them electing to repatriate to Afghanistan. The government of Pakistan received some criticism during each closure operation for failing to identify suitable relocation alternatives for Afghans unable to

26

repatriate because they lacked shelter or the means to earn a living in Afghanistan, or other reasons. According to some reports, this resulted in many Afghans crossing the border into Afghanistan without the desire to do so and without adequate preparation, support, or security on either side of the border. According to the terms of the Tripartite Agreement between the Government of Pakistan, the government of Afghanistan and UNHCR, which was signed in March 2002 (and extended several times since), all returns must be voluntary. While there have been isolated reports of forced deportations, most observers believe that the government of Pakistan has largely abided by the agreement. (CRS Report for Congress Rhoda Margesson) On January 17, 2007, Pakistans government announced the pending closure of four Afghan Refugee camps in the border areas, stating it was doing so in order to ensure security. Two camps will reportedly be closed in March 2007 with another two to follow later in the year. The camps are located in the provinces of Balochistan and North West Frontier. Some closures had been announced several years ago, but were postponed until 2007. The move could affect as many as 250,000 Afghan Refugees. The United Nations and other humanitarian organizations have expressed their concerns for the wellbeing of the Refugees affected (The News November 23, 2009).

REPATRIATION OF AFGHAN REFUGEES:


According to congressional research service (CRS) report as (January 26, 2007), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has helped 3.69 million Afghan Refugees return to Afghanistan since March 2002, marking the largest assisted return operation in its history. In addition, more than 1.11 million Refugees have returned

27

to Afghanistan without availing themselves of UNHCRs assistance, bringing the total number of returnees to at least 4.8 million. Despite the massive returns, possibly 3.5 million registered and unregistered Afghans still remain in these two countries of asylum up to 2.46 million in Pakistan and more than 900,000 in Iran making Afghans the second-largest Refugee population in the world. These numbers are far greater than the initial working assumption in 2002 of 3.5 million Refugees; in fact, the total is believed to be more than 8 million (Pakistan Times November 3rd 2008). The United States spent approximately $332.37 million between FY 2002 and FY 2005 on humanitarian assistance to Afghan Refugees and returnees through the Department of States Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM). It continues to provide support to Refugees and returnees. The 110th Congress faces several relevant challenges. The safe and voluntary return of Refugees to Afghanistan is not only a major part of the U.S. reconstruction effort in Afghanistan, but also an important indicator of its success. To the extent that Refugees continue to return, it can be seen that Afghans are taking part in the future of their country. It is becoming more difficult, however, to encourage Refugees to return. Those who were most capable of returning did so in the early years; those who remain have progressively less to return to houses, livelihoods, family in Afghanistan. Furthermore, maintaining the high pace of returns will require greater levels of reintegration assistance to anchor returnees in their homes and help them reestablish their lives in Afghanistan. Security will also be a major factor in population displacement within and across borders (EURASIA INSIGHT AFGHAN REFUGEES RELUCTANT TO LEAVE PAKISTAN).

28

Table # : Refugee returns since March 2002

According to UN report (Nov 19, 2008) U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees Antonio Guterres said, Everyone had agreed Afghanistan faced problems because of insecurity and "limited absorption capacity. In these circumstances it is paramount, the respect for the principle of voluntary repatriation in safety and dignity. Countries playing host to Afghan Refugees should only send them home if they want to go, the head of the U.N. Refugee agency said as insecurity and insufficient sources hampered the reintegration of returnees. Buoyed by international re-engagement in Afghanistan after the fall of the Taliban in late 2001, more than 5 million Afghan Refugees returned home from Pakistan and Iran during the early 2000s, making the largest voluntary repatriation in the history of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).

29

Many were deported, particularly from Iran, and often to protests by the United Nations and aid agencies. There are about 2 million Afghans in Pakistan and 1 million in Iran. Guterres said a commitment from Pakistan and Iran to maintain the "voluntary character of asylum" had to apply worldwide (UN High Commissioner for Refugees Antonio Guterres) The status of Afghan Refugees in Pakistan and Iran has also been somewhat controversial in recent years, as these governments want all Afghan refugees to return to Afghanistan. Officials in Pakistan have become concerned that the concentrations of Afghans in the country pose a security and crime risk, as individuals and goods are smuggled across the border. At the same time, however, many observers argue that Afghan labor migration may be beneficial to both Iran and Pakistan which take advantage of cheap and effective immigrant labor as well as Afghanistan, whose citizens benefit heavily from remittances sent in from abroad. To cut off this source of income for many poor Afghans could have disastrous consequences not only humanitarian, but in the security sphere as well, as more than a million Afghans along the Afghan-Pakistan border are deprived of livelihoods and resort to other means to feed their families. Reportedly, many Afghans cross the border regularly, without documentation, and Islamabad does not appear to have the resources to control this flow. A future challenge will thus be to balance reasonable concerns about security with the importance of Afghanistans labor plans in the regional economies and the forces that drive its migration patterns.

30

INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ASSISSTANCE FOR AFGHAN REFUGEES:


The United States government (USG) has provided humanitarian assistance to Afghan Refugees since the early 1980s. Funding for Afghan Refugees declined rapidly since it peaked after the U.S.-led invasion in October 2001. Almost all assistance has been provided through the Migration and Refugee Assistance (MRA) account, and has been programmed by the Department of States Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM). This funding is used not only for the protection and care of Refugees in countries of asylum, but also for the reintegration of Afghan returnees in Afghanistan.

Table # : USG assistance to Afghan refugees and returnees

Table # presents USG assistance to Afghan Refugees and returnees since the U.S.-led invasion in October 2001. Since the majority of PRM funding is provided to regional projects, it is not possible to provide a breakdown of assistance by country.

31

The majority of PRMs assistance for Afghans is provided to international organizations (IOs), principally UNHCR and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), both of which have been active in Afghanistan since the 1980s. In past years, some funding has also been provided to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), IOM, the U.N. Childrens Fund (UNICEF) and the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). PRM also provides funding directly to non-governmental organizations (NGOs) for targeted projects. Proposals are selected by a panel of PRM experts based on the NGOs track record, the cost-effectiveness of the proposal, and the extent to which the work meets PRMs stated guidelines. (CRS Report for Congress Rhoda Margesson)

32

USG assistance to Afghan Refugees and returnees through PRM is generally intended to meet the most basic humanitarian needs, including food, shelter, protection, water and sanitation, health care, and primary education. In addition, PRM helps support the assisted repatriation of refugees back to Afghanistan. Much of this activity is carried out by PRMs principal IO partners. UNHCR, in addition to managing the massive repatriation operation, also oversees shelter construction and water and sanitation activities in Afghanistan. In Pakistan and Iran, UNHCR is responsible for refugee protection and camp management, including provision of health care, primary education, and adequate water and sanitation to refugees. Many of these activities are actually conducted by international and local NGOs with oversight and funding from UNHCR. UNHCR has also taken on a leading role in the humanitarian response to the South Asia earthquake of October 2005. Although most of the earthquakes victims were not Refugees, because of its experience and assets in Pakistan, UNHCR was designated the lead agency for the camp management cluster, which officially ended on August 31, 2006. (UNHCR Afghanistan Situation Operational Update, September 2006)

Although it has offices in Iran and Pakistan, the ICRC is more active in Afghanistan, where it supports health care, demining, water and sanitation, family reunification, promotion of international humanitarian law, and detention visits. In addition to supporting the activities of IOs, PRM directly funds NGOs to carry out humanitarian projects, such as shelter construction for returnees, Refugee education, skills training for women, and refugee and returnee health care. These projects are designed to complement

33

the activity of the IOs. In keeping with humanitarian practice, PRM does not single out Refugees and returnees alone for assistance. Most PRM-funded projects also benefit host communities as well as the target population. At the same time, the international community must honor the principle of burden sharing and provide relief assistance to states hosting large numbers of Refugees. Assistance to Pakistan and Iran should aim at empowering Afghan Refugees so that they will gain skills necessary both to contribute to their host societies and later to use those skills to earn an income upon return home. Additionally, developed countries must expand their resettlement programs, taking in more Afghan Refugees from Iran and Pakistan on an annual basis. Resettlement of Afghan Refugees in the developed countries will go a long way in helping rebuild and develop Afghanistan. Resilience and high achievement motivation that characterize most Refugees will quickly enable resettled Afghan families to adapt into their new societies, taking advantage of social and economic opportunities there to establish themselves and to continue supporting their relatives at home, as well as in Pakistan and Iran. In the long run, most resettled Afghans will have gained wealth and higher education which they would certainly use to invest in Afghanistan, as we know from the return of many wealthy Afghans and technocrats who have made significant contributions to Afghanistans reconstruction since 2002. (CRS Report for Congress Rhoda Margesson)

REGISTERATION PAKISTAN:

OF

AFGHAN

REFUGEES

IN

34

In order to gather more information on Afghans in Pakistan, and ultimately to sort out those who have legitimate protection concerns from others, the government conducted a census in February and March 2005 that has become the basis for the registration program developed with UNHCR and the government of Afghanistan. Registration of Afghans began on October 15, 2006, and is being conducted by Pakistans National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA) with the support of UNHCR and the governments Commissionerate for Afghan Refugees. To encourage Afghans to come forward for the registration, those who are registered are given a new identity document entitling them to live and work in Pakistan for three years till 2010 A.D, which is now extended further for 2013 A.D. The validity period of the documentation is still being negotiated among UNHCR, the government of Pakistan, and the government of Afghanistan. Initially, only those Afghans counted in the census (about 2.5 million) could register, but in December 2006, the list was expanded to include all Afghans who could show documented evidence as proof that they were living in Pakistan at the time the census was conducted. The idea was to provide for a transition period during which Afghans may reconnect with Afghanistan and ultimately return home. As of January17, 2007, 1.5 million had registered. The registration was supposed to end on December 31 but has been extended twice the first time until January 19, 2007, and then again to February 2, 2007. (IRIN 23 November 2009)

FACTORS

INFLUENCING

THE

DECISION

TO

REPATRIATE:

35

Afghans have always maintained that they will return home. Indeed, great difficulties were endured in order to repatriate. The main factor preventing the full and complete repatriation of Afghan Refugees is the continued warfare between various factions in Afghanistan. Mostly, Refugees have only repatriated when they find that kinship, tribal ties and political allegiance to strong warlords guarantee them an acceptable level of stability and protection. Hence, the returnees relationship to the home area and those who rule is a key factor in his repatriation; even the decision to repatriate is taken when the home warlord has given consent. Being an agricultural economy, land tenure in Afghanistan is a crucial factor for the survival and security of repatriating Refugees. The war caused massive population displacement and traditional social structures were upset throughout the country. Traditional landlords and small landowners fled Afghanistan and, in their absence, those people left in the area took over their land; in most cases (Refugee Policy Group, 1992,). Agriculture has been severely damaged by war; levels of production of major crops have declined, i.e. wheat by one-third, cotton production has halved and sugar beet is no longer produced. This has led to food shortages. Unavailability of pesticides and damage to irrigation systems were the main factors for reducing agricultural production there. Most of the irrigational infrastructure in Afghanistan has been destroyed during the war. Damage by fighting and neglect has severely reduced the effective means of all irrigation systems (UNOCA, 1988) repair and maintenance will require great efforts, including some capital. Irrigation is the key to agriculture and will require attention from the Government of Afghanistan plus some international help, if peace can be established, for the system to be fully repaired. Thus, agricultural output cannot be foreseen to increase at any substantial rate in the near

36

future, and this is one of the main factors influencing the decisionmaking of Refugees to return, and will continue to be so, at least in the short term. Health services in Afghanistan are also of very low standard and few of the population can be adequately served, despite the efforts to restore health care, which are underway. Education is another important factor influencing Refugees deciding whether to repatriate. Most Refugee children are enrolled in either Pakistani or Afghan Refugee schools and have good prospects of gaining at least some basic education. Then, there is the case of a large number of Refugees with a wide range of jobs and businesses. Some of these will not be inclined to leave their livelihoods and return to Afghanistan. Those with business interests tied to Pakistan would not want to go back unless the markets are thriving.

(Afghan Refugees in Pakistan Push Come to Shove HRCP April 2009).

SUSTAINABILITY OF RETURNS:
Even after four years of exceptionally high refugee return numbers, the population of Afghan Refugees in Pakistan and Iran remains the second-highest in the world. If recent returnees also central to PRMs mandate are added to this number, Afghans represent by far the largest population of refugees and returnees in the world. Funding for Afghan Refugees has, however, diminished both overall and as a percentage of PRMs total annual budget since FY2002. The United States thus faces the challenge of maintaining its crucial assistance in this area of the world despite competing priorities. This challenge may become even more difficult in the near future, because maintaining the successful repatriation program is likely to become more, not less, expensive as time

37

goes on. This is because the Refugees remaining in Pakistan and Iran have fewer resources in and ties to Afghanistan than those who returned earlier. They have also, on average, spent far more time outside of Afghanistan than earlier returnees. As time goes on, it becomes increasingly more difficult and expensive to encourage remaining Refugees to voluntarily return to Afghanistan. Thus, as funding is declining, its importance may be increasing. A related issue may be whether Pakistan and Iran would be receptive to encouragement to grant citizenship to Afghans who do not want to return to Afghanistan.

Another factor influencing the success of the repatriation program is the sustainability of previous returns to Afghanistan that is, the degree to which returnees are being adequately anchored in their communities, whether they are receiving health care, education, and opportunities to make a living. Integration of returnees increasingly is examined in both studies and reports and getting the attention of policymakers. The success of the repatriation program thus depends on the success of the overall reconstruction effort in Afghanistan, including the extent to which returned Refugees (and IDPs) are integrated into reconstruction efforts. There is already evidence that many Afghan returnees do not remain in Afghanistan; traffic across the Pakistani border in particular in both directions is heavy. To a certain extent, and as noted above, this is a historical pattern that pre-dates not only the repatriation program but the Refugee crisis as well. A cause for concern may emerge, however, if it is concluded that many of the Afghans crossing back into Pakistan are doing so because they could not sustain themselves in Afghanistan. A renewed outward flow of Afghans, in addition to signaling

38

the possible inadequacies of the reconstruction effort in Afghanistan, could increase tensions with host countries. Both the government of Pakistan and the government of Iran, indicate some possible (IRIN Dominica 15 Marzo 2009). According to Human rights commission of Pakistan (HRCP) press release (24 June 2009) the repatriation of registered Afghan Refugees from Pakistan does not meet the required standard of voluntarism deemed mandatory by international Refugee law. The report entitled Push Comes to Shove whose publication coincided with the World Refugee Day, June 20 studies the trends and patterns of repatriation of Afghan Refugees through 2007 and 2008 to determine whether the process was voluntary. The study conducted by HRCPs Peshawar chapter says that even though many Afghan Refugees in Pakistan signed up for repatriation, large numbers did so not because they thought that it was safe to return, but because they believed they had no choice in the matter. Refugees interviewed from camps slated for closure spoke of harassment by police, lack of security, basic infrastructure, education, health and livelihood opportunities in Afghanistan as the main reason for their hesitation to return. All Afghan Refugees registered in Pakistan were required to leave by the end of 2009. Those living in camps slated for closure could opt to relocate to another camp. An overwhelming majority of Refugees declined relocation to another camp, not because they were keen to return to Afghanistan but said they would not want to be uprooted again when the December 2009 deadline arrived. That deadline has now been extended to 2012.

39

According to the report, outside the camps slated for closure, an environment of persecution and intimidation was created by checking movement of Refugees and harassment at the hands of police. In camps, houses were razed and businesses locked, often resulting in confrontation between the authorities and the Refugees. Repatriation may be the preferred solution for all concerned but adhering to the principle of voluntarism must not be ignored and the needs of Refugees with additional vulnerabilities must be considered, the report said. Any attempt to repatriate Afghan Refugees must take into account their willingness to return and the conditions back home, especially security and shelter, it added.

40

CHAPTER RESEARCH DESIGN:

TITLE OF THE STUDY:


The title of the study is FACTORS EFFECTING REPATRIATION PROCESS OF AFGHAN REFUGEES.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:


The main purpose of the study is to find out those factors which effecting repatriation process of Afghan refugees from Pakistan.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY:


The repatriation of afghan refugees is the burning issue nowadays in Pakistan. There is struggle to solve this problem. UNO also takes interest in repatriation of afghan refugees. But the main problem of these refugees is that they do not want to go back an under what condition they will return to their homeland. If we find out those factors which effects repatriation process of these refugees, then we hope this problem can easily be solved.

UNIVERSE OF THE STUDY:


The study is confined to a refugees camp named Kawga camp located in district Buner, on Buner-Swabi road consist of about 700 hundred homes and about 9000 population that

41

covers an area of 930 acres of land. The camp had opened for the refugees in 1980 and most of its residential are living there, since that time. The second place selected as universe for our data collection was Nasar Bagh refugees located along with canal road possessing about 16000 populations and about 1150 homes.

METHODOLOGY:
Every researcher in social sciences depends upon certain tools of data collection through which a social scientist obtains a body of reliable facts for analysis. As a researcher we used the following methods.

a)SAMPLING:
For collecting the relevant data, the purposive sampling techniques were adopted (used) by researcher from total area.

b)

SAMPLE SIZE:

The sample size was 80 and for our research purposes we pick them gradually from Kawga camp and Nasar Bagh. From Kawga camp we selected 40 samples through out 19000 populations, and similarly 40 selected from Nasar Bagh out of 16000 of the total population. In this way we choose 80 samples from Nasar Bagh and Kawga camp. The following table shows this division:

42

S1 S2

Kawga camp Nasar Bagh

40 40

Sample size=80 S=S1+S2 S=40+40 S=80

(c) TOOLS OF DATA COLLECTION:


Keeping in view time limitation and awareness array the respondents towards the subject the researchers have implemented interview schedule for the collection of the relevant information.

(d) PRE TESTING:


Pre testing is the method of testing the nature of questions in interview schedule before the collection of actual data. By this method the mistake in interviews or questions are detected. Before collecting actual data five interviews schedule were prepared to test the nature of questions in the interview schedule. Some changes were made and the necessary addition and subtraction were made.

DATA COLLECTION:
After pre testing the relevant information were collected from the respondents.

43

DATA ANALYSIS:
After collecting the relevant information through interview schedule the study was passed through classification, tabulation, finding/conclusion and suggestions.

DURATION OF THE STUDY:


Four months duration was given for the study, which was completed during the estimated time.

44

Chapter 4:

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA:

Analysis in social research means the preparation of social phenomenon into their constituent parts and an examination of these parts in relation to each other in their social context. Analysis is a continuous process. It begins long before the collection of data comes to an end and in rudimentary forms enters into the every phase of research study, observation, collection and classification of data, establishment of categories and quantitative treatment of data. In this chapter we have presented the data in the form of simple tables for the interpretation and analysis with the scientific method to get the result. Table # 1: Age and Gender of the respondents Gender Frequency Percentage Male Frequency Percentage 12 15 14 17.5 17 21.25 24 30 67 83.75 Female Frequency Percentage 1 1.25 2 2.5 2 2.5 8 10 13 16.25

Age Age

20_30 14 17.5 31_40 16 20 41_50 18 22.5 Above 50 32 40 Total 80 100 Source: Survey Data

The above table indicates Age and Gender of the respondents. The data collected mostly from aged person and more male members were selected as compared to female members, because it is difficult in Pashtun community to interview a female member due to social norms of freely meeting with an unknown male member.

45

The first portion of the table shows that out of 80 respondents 17.5% were in the range of 20_30 years of age, 20% respondents were in the range of 31_40, and 22.5% were in the range of 41_50 years of age, while above 50 years respondents were 40%. Further portion of the table shows the Gender of the respondents. There were 15% males and 1.25% females at the range of 20_30years of age. At the range of 31_40 there were 17.5% males and 2.5% females. The males at the range of 41_50 were 21.25% and 2.5% were females, while males were 30% and 10% females above 50 years of age. Majority of the respondents that is 22.5% and 40% were above age 40 and 50 years respectively And at the gender base the male were in majority and containing 83.75% out of 100%, who provided us information. Table # 2: Ethnic group of the respondents

Ethnicity Ethnic group Pashtun Non Pashtun Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 70 10 80 Percentage 87.5 12.5 100

Mostly Afghan refugees in Pakistan consist of two great ethnic groups of which one is the pashtun and the other one is the Persian, but majority of them consist of pashtuns. The above table indicates the ethnic groups of Pashtun and Non Pashtun, of the respondents. It shows that 87.5% were Pashtuns, and the rest 12.5% of them were Non Pashtuns respondents who provide us information. From the above information we can concluded that most of the respondents i.e. 87.5% were Pashtuns, who provided us information. 46

Table# 3:

Educational status and level of Qualification Educational status and level of Qualification

Educational status

Level of qualification Frequency 4 8 9 15 36 Percentage 11.11 22.22 25 41.67 100

Educational status Frequency Percentage Level of Qualification Primary Literate 36 45 Middle Matric Illiterate 44 55 College & university Total 80 100 Total Source: Survey Data

The above table indicates educational status and level of qualification of the respondents. The first portion of the table shows that 45% of the respondents were literate, but the remaining 55% were illiterate respondents. Further portion of the table shows that out of 36 literate respondents, 11.11% were educated only at Primary level, and the respondents passed the Middle, were 22.22%. While the Matric level respondents were 25%, But the College and University level respondents were 41.67%. It is to be concluded that more than a half that is 55% were illiterate respondents, while in literate respondents college and university qualified respondents were more then all other level of education.

47

Table # 4:

Marital status, spouse belongs to and Number of children.

Marital status Response Married

Spouse belongs Percentage Response Nil 94.2 0-3 4_6 5.8 7_9 Above 9 100 Total

No of children Frequency 6 17 16 10 20 69 Percentage 8.7 24.6 23.2 14.5 29 100

Percentage Response 86.25 Afghanistan Pakistan Total

Unmarried 13.75 Total 100

Source: Survey Data The statistic in the above table indicates the marital status and Spouse of the respondents belongs to Afghanistan or Pakistan and number of children of the respondents. The first portion of the table shows that 86.25% percent were married respondents and the rest of them that is 13.75% were unmarried. The second portion of the table give us information about place to which spouse belongs, which shows that 94.2% of the spouses belongs to Afghanistan of the married respondents and the rest of them, that is 5.8% belongs to Pakistan. The next portion of the table indicates that 8.7% married respondents having no children, while 24.6% are the respondents, who have the children in the range 0_3. But 23.2% exist in the range 4_6 children. 14.5% of the respondents exist in the range of 7_9 children, while 29% of the respondents having children more then 9. From the above information it is to be concluded that married respondents were more then those of unmarried respondents i.e.86.25%. And most of the married respondents spouses (94.2%) belong to Afghanistan. And the numbers of those respondents were more then all other categories who have more then 9 children i.e. 29%.

48

Table # 5:

children Admitted in schools, and place of admission

Children admitted in schools Children in schools Frequency Admitted 43 Not admitted 20 Total 63 Source: Survey Data Percentage 68.25 31.75 100

Place of admission Place of admission Pakistan Afghanistan Total Frequency 43 0 43 Percentage 100 0 100

This tables gives us information about children admitted in schools or not, and the place of their admission. The first portion of the table shows that 68.25% respondents were admitted their children in schools and the rest 31.75% respondents had not admitted their children in schools. The next half of the table describes 100% of the respondents, children admitted in Pakistani institution to get education. From the above statistics we can concluded that the refugees gives comparatively more attention on their children education as compared of their own education. Most of them i.e. (68.25%) took admission to their children in schools and 100% of them are admitted their children in educational institutions of Pakistan, which also shows the advancement of Pakistani education as compared to Afghanistan.

49

Table# 6:

Better socialization of children

Better Socialization of children Responses Afghanistan Pakistan Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 18 45 63 Percentage 28.6 71.4 100

The table indicates the responses of the respondents who have children, about place of better socialization for their children. Out of 63 respondents 71.4% considered Pakistan a suitable place for their children better socialization, while the rest 28.6% of the interviewed respondents preferred Afghanistan for their children better socialization. It is to be concluded that most of the respondents i.e. 71.4% considering Pakistan to be a good place for their children better socialization.

50

Table# 7:

Migration Time & Stay duration in Pakistan Migration Time & Stay duration in Pakistan

Migration Time Responses Frequency Before invasion 8 After invasion 72 Total 80 Source: Survey Data

Stay duration in Pakistan Percentage Response Frequency Percentage 10 1_10 years 5 6.25 90 11_20 years 21 26.25 Above 20years 54 67.5 100 Total 80 100

Mostly Afghan refugees entered Pakistan after Soviet Union invasion on Afghanistan and generally most of these refugees have been spent more then 20 years span in Pakistan. The statistics in the above table indicates first migration time and the stay duration in Pakistan. The first part of the table shows that only 10% of the respondents came to Pakistan before the Soviet invasion and the rest 90% of the respondents came after the Soviet Union invasion. The second part of the table shows that 6.25% respondents have passed 1_10 years in Pakistan, while 26.25% respondents have passed 11_20 years duration in Pakistan. But 67.5% were among those respondents who have spent more then 20 years of life in Pakistan. It is concluded from the above information that most of the refugees i.e.90% entered Pakistan after the Soviet Union invasion on Afghanistan. The information also shows that most of them have spent above 20 years of life in Pakistan.

51

Table # 8:

Feelings during and after migration

Feelings during and after migration Feelings during migration Feelings after migration Responses Frequency Percentage Happy Unhappy Mix feelings Happy 27 33.75 27 (33.75%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) Unhappy 48 60 34 (42.5%) 8 (10%) 6 (7.5%) Mix feelings 5 6.25 3 (3.75%) 1 (1.25%) 1(1.25%) Total 80 100 64 (78.0%) 9 (11.25%) 7 (8.75%) Source: Survey Data Migration from one country to another country due to some external aggression or political reasons brings different type of miseries and problems to the refugees. The refugee when leaving their native land and enters to the new area, passing from a series of different type of feelings of happiness and unhappiness. We tried to know about the feelings of Afghan refugees at the time when they first entered to Pakistan, of which 33.75% of the respondents were happy and 60% of them were unhappy and some 6.25% were entered with mix feelings. But at present out of 33.75% of happy respondents all are happy, while from 60% unhappy respondents 42.5% became happy and 10% are still unhappy and 7.5% exists with mix feelings. Also from6.25% respondents who had mixed feelings now 3.75% became happy1.25% unhappy and also 1.25% is still living with mix feelings. It is to be concluded that at the time of first arrival of these respondents a major portion of 60% were unhappy, when they first entered to Pakistan, but at present 78% of the respondents living happily in Pakistan, which show a fall in the graph of unhappy respondents from 60% to 11.25%.

52

Table # 9:

Problems faced at the time of migration and type of problems

Problems faced during migration and type of problem Problems faced Type of problems Frequency Percentage Type of problem Frequency Residential problem 20 55 68.75 Financial problem 16 Food & shelter problem 10 25 31.25 Political & social problem 4 Other 5 80 100 Total 55 Source: Survey Data

Response Yes No Total

Percentage 36.3 29.1 18.2 7.3 9.1 100

When the refugees going out from their native land and leaving their homes, neighbours, and other facilities of daily life, then they facing different types of problems. Afghan refugees when first entered to Pakistan also faced different type of problems. According to the above statistics 68.75% respondents faced different types of problems. 36.3% of respondents were faced residential problems, 29.1 percent of them were faced financial problems, the respondents who faced food and shelter problems were 18.2%, and 7.3% were those who faced political and social problems, while 9.1% were faced other types of the mentioned problems. It may be concluded that 68.75% Afghan refugees had faced different types of problems, of which the residential problem and financial problems were on the top.

53

Table # 10: Satisfaction from accommodation and residential facilities in Pakistan

Satisfaction from accommodation and residential facilities in Pakistan Satisfied from accommodation Response Frequency Percentage Yes 57 71.25 No 23 28.75 Total 80 100 Source: Survey Data Satisfied from residential facilities Response Frequency Percentage Yes 55 68.75 No 25 31.25 Total 80 100

There may be different type of problems to which a refugee facing. One of the most important of these problems is the accommodation or residential problem, which is one of the basic needs for passing a normal life. The afghan refugees living in different areas of Pakistan are facing different types of problems. Although most of the interviewed respondents i.e. 71.25%, were satisfied from their accommodation, and 68.75% were satisfied from their residential facilities. But only 28.7% respondents were not satisfied from accommodation and 31.25% from residential facilities. It has been concluded that 71.25% and 68.75% of Afghan refugees living in Pakistan are satisfied to some extent from their accommodation and residential facilities respectively.

54

Table # 11:

Housing condition in Pakistan and Afghanistan

Housing condition in Pakistan and Afghanistan Housing condition in Pakistan Response Frequency Percentage Rented 38 47.5 Owned 42 52.5 Total 80 100 Response Frequency Percentage Kacha 53 66.25 Pakka 27 33.75 Total 80 100 Source: Survey Data Housing condition in Afghanistan Response Frequency Percentage Intact Damaged/ Destroyed Total 7 73 80 8.75 91.25 100

Mostly Afghan refugees in Pakistan living in refugee camps, but a considerable number of them are also living in urban areas of different cities of the country. The refugees in camps living in kacha buildings but their owned homes, on the other hand the refugees living in urban areas living in pakka buildings, but most of them are rented. There are 47.5% of the respondents in the table, with rented homes but 52.5% having their own homes. Most of these refugees i.e. 66.25% are living in Kacha homes but only 33.75% of them passing their lives in Pakka buildings. The house condition of these refugees in Afghanistan is also very important, and a pull factor in repatriation of these refugees. The respondents with damaged home in Afghanistan consist 91.25% of the total respondents, but the remaining 8.75% respondents only, having intact homes there. It is to be concluded that about half (52.5%) of the interviewed people living in rented homes, and about half (47.5%) of them are living in their own houses. The respondents with Kacha homes consists 2/3 portion (66.25%) of the total. It is also noted that most of these respondents (91.25%) are having a damaged home in their own country.

55

Table # 12: Ability of residential problems solution after repatriation without government aid

Ability of residential problems solution after repatriation without government aid Able to solve residential problems Yes No Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 20 60 80 Percentage 25 75 100

Residential problem after repatriation to these refugees is also a problem of great importance, the solution of which is to be played a vital role in repatriation of these refugees. Afghan government and the international agencies tried to help repatriated refugees in residential and financial fields. But this aid is not enough to fulfill all of their basic needs. After which the refugee is compelled to solve their own problems by their own without government aid. The table shows that only 25% of the total interviewed respondents have shown their ability to solve their residential problems, but still a great portion (75%) of them have no such ability to reconstruct their homes in Afghanistan without government aid. It is to be concluded from the above information that (75%) of the respondents have not such ability to reconstruct their homes without government aid.

56

Table # 13:

Earning source in Afghanistan

Earning source in Afghanistan Earning source Business Agriculture Government servant Private servant Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 13 46 9 12 80 Percentage 16.25 57.5 11.25 15 100

Afghanistan is an underdeveloped country and most of its population main profession is agriculture. There is no heavy industrial system to promote the life of the common people. Mostly the common people earns their livelihood through small scale business, farming or through government or private service. The respondents who had their own business were 16.25%. But the percentage of small scale farmers among interviewed respondents was 57.5% more then all other profession. Only 11.25% of the respondents were working in governmental offices and 15% of them had developed their own business. It is to be concluded that more then a half i.e. 57.5% of the total interviewed respondents were working in the agricultural sectors in Afghanistan.

57

Table # 13:

Earning source in Pakistan

Earning source in Pakistan Earning source Teacher Labor Farmer Shopkeeper Businessman Driver Other Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 7 16 21 10 14 9 3 80 Percentage 8.75 20 26.25 12.5 24.5 4.25 3.75 100

Afghan refugees when came to Pakistan and found a freedom of business and occupation here, they got the benefit of this freedom, and they started working in different sectors. Some of them developed their own business, but someone occupied the professions like teaching, shop keeping, Driving, Farming and other type of works. Among the interviewed respondents 8.75% were the teachers, the common labors were 20%, but the farmer consist 26.25% of them. 12.5% were those who opened their own shops and the businessmen were24.5% of the total interviewed respondents. The drivers consist 4.25% of the total, while 3.75% of the respondents working in other fields not mentioned here. It is to be concluded that a considerable number of respondents i.e.24.5% had developed their own business and also 12.5% opened their own shops, which shows better condition of them as compared to Afghanistan.

58

Table # 14: Change in financial condition and Type of change in financial condition Change in financial condition and type of change Change in financial condition Response Frequency Percentage Yes 62 77.5 No 18 22.5 Total 80 100 Source: Survey Data Type of change in financial condition Response Frequency Percentage Improved 51 82.26 Worsened 11 17.74 Total 62 100

Generally financial condition changes along with migration. Same was the case of afghan refugees, who start to involve their selves in different type of financial tasks, getting the benefit of the occupation and business freedom in Pakistan to the afghan refugees. Among the interviewed respondents 77.5% were those who showed change in financial condition after migration to Pakistan, but only 22.5% showed no change in their financial condition after migration to Pakistan. Improvement in financial condition showed by 82%, but the rest (17.74%) respondents were those who showed worsened financial condition after migration. From the above information it is concluded that among 77.5% of respondents who showed changed financial condition, were most i.e.82.26% of those respondents who showed improvement in their financial condition after migration to Pakistan.

59

Table # 15: Respondents relative's repatriation, their satisfaction after repatriation and respondent's feelings after their repatriation. Respondent's relatives repatriation, their satisfaction after repatriation and respondent's feelings after their repatriation. Feelings of repatriated relatives Response F P Response F P Yes 59 73.75 Satisfied 19 32.2 No 21 26.25 Unsatisfied 40 67.8 Total 80 100 Total 59 100 Source: Survey Data Relatives repatriation Denotations: F=Frequency Respondents feelings after relatives repatriation Response F P Happy to live here 52 88.14 Not happy here 7 11.86 Total 59 100

P=Percentage

After Soviet Union deportation from Afghanistan, a lot number of refugees went back to their own country and left back some of relatives in Pakistan. 73.75% of the total interviewed respondents showed that some of their relatives repatriated to Afghanistan, but only 26.25% of them shows that they have no repatriated relatives in Afghanistan. Among the respondents who had repatriated relatives 32.2% shows that their repatriated relatives satisfied there in Afghanistan after their repatriation but the rest 67.8% shows that their repatriated relatives did not satisfied there. There are 88.14% respondents who happy to live here without their relatives here, but 11.86% of them showed that they are not happy to live here after their relatives repatriation. It has been concluded that most (73.75%) of the interviewed respondents have some repatriated relatives in Afghanistan and most of the respondents 67.8% showed that their relatives are not happy in Afghanistan after repatriation, but 88.14% were those respondents who were happy to live here after their relatives repatriation to Afghanistan.

60

Table # 16: changing condition of Afghanistan after soviet troops deportation

changing condition of Afghanistan after soviet troops deportation Changing condition Better Worsened Uncertain Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 11 64 5 80 Percentage 13.75 80 6.25 100

After the Soviet Union deportation Afghan Mujahideen took the Afghan government after which but failed to govern the government activities, after which Taliban came to the front and took Afghan government. After five years of ruling the alliance forces came to Afghanistan in 2002. But there have been shown very less development after Soviet Union deportation in the life of a common Afghan citizen, and the situation of the country is not satisfactory for its citizens. The table shows that only 13.75% of the respondents have shown better condition of Afghanistan after the Soviet Union deportation, but 80% of the respondents have shown worsened situation of the country. 6.25% of the interviewed respondents have shown uncertain response about the changing condition in Afghanistan after the Soviet Union deportation. From the above information it is concluded that most i.e. 80% of the interviewed respondents showed worsened condition in Afghanistan after the Soviet Union deportation.

61

Table # 17: Considering coalition forces as invaders in Afghanistan and withdrawal of the coalition forces.

Considering coalition forces as invaders and withdrawal of the coalition forces. Considering coalition forces invaders Responses Frequency Percentage Yes 64 80 No 16 20 Total 80 100 Source: Survey Data Withdrawal of coalition forces Responses Frequency Percentage Yes 71 88.75 No 9 11.25 Total 80 100

The coalition forces came to Afghanistan in 2001 and took Kabul regime from Taliban. Hamid Karzi selected as president of Afghanistan, and the coalition forces remained in Afghanistan for an unknown period. Most of the Afghan citizens considered coalition force as invaders and want their withdrawal as Soviet Union forces. The table shows that 80% of the interviewed respondents considering coalition forces as invaders, while only 20% of them considering them international forces. 88.75% of the respondents want the withdrawal of these forces from Afghanistan while 11.25% wants the presence of the coalition forces in Afghanistan. It is to be concluded that 80% of the respondents considering coalition forces as invaders in Afghanistan and 88.75% of the respondents wants the withdrawal of these forces from Afghanistan.

62

Table # 18: Satisfaction from present Government of Afghanistan and causes for stay here in case of satisfaction from present government

Satisfaction from present Government and further stay causes Satisfaction from present Government Response Frequency Percentage Satisfied Unsatisfied Total 29 51 80 Source: Survey Data When the coalition forces entered Afghanistan they prepared a democratic state (only by name) for the people of Afghanistan. And Hamid Karzai selected as president of Afghanistan. The present government of Afghanistan is very less independent and most of the decisions are still taking by these forces. Most of Afghans are not in a state to consider the present government as real Afghan government. The data shows that only 36.25% of the interviewed respondent are satisfied from the present government, while 63.75% of them unsatisfied. Among those respondents who satisfied from the present government 65.5% were those who points out civil war as problem for their repatriation, while 13.8% considered unemployment as basic problem in their repatriation. 6.9% of the interviewed respondents show shelter and 13.8% show multiple problems to them in repatriation. It has been concluded from the above information that most of the respondents i.e. 63.75% were not satisfied from the present government and 65.5% shows civil war in Afghanistan a great problem for their repatriation. 36.25 63.75 100 Causes for further stay here Response Frequency Percentage Civil war 19 65.5 Unemployment 4 13.8 Drought 0 0 Shelter 2 6.9 Multiple 4 13.8 Total 29 100

63

Table # 19: if not satisfied from the present Government, then type of Government

If not satisfied from the present Government, then type of Government Response Democratic Dictatorship Islamic Sharia Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 20 8 23 51 Percentage 39.2 15.7 45.1 100

Before the Soviet Union invasion mostly the state affairs of Afghanistan government was governed by a dictator. There were no interventions of the common people in government selection for their selves. But the coalition forces established a democratic state for the first time in Afghanistan, but the table number 18 shows that most of the respondents were unsatisfied from the present government and most of them looking it to be a state of foreign forces. The above table shows that 39.2% of the interviewed respondents were in favorite of a real democratic state in Afghanistan. While 15.7% of them wanted a government that should be governed by a dictator. But there were 45.1% those respondents whose responses were for an Islamic Sharia state in Afghanistan. From the above information it is concluded that those respondents were less i.e.39.2% who wanted a democratic state for Afghanistan as compared to 45.1% of the respondents who were in favorite of an Islamic Sharia state that should be in Afghanistan

64

Table # 20: Financial ability for repatriation and suitable conditions for repatriation

Financial ability and suitable conditions for repatriation Financial ability for repatriation Response Frequency Percentage Yes No Total 23 57 80 28.75 71.25 100 Suitable conditions for repatriation Response Frequency Health facilities 0 Educational facilities 2 Peace 28 Shelter 1 Multiple 49 Total 80

Percentage 0 2.5 35 1.25 61.25 100

Source: Survey Data Repatriation of the refugees is a very expensive operation, which needs a lot number of money to be in hands of the repatriating person. But most of the afghan refugees having a very poor condition of life and can not be able to afford repatriation expenses. Along with finance suitable condition in Afghanistan for repatriation also plays a vital role in repatriation. The statistics in the table shows that 71.25% of the total interviewed respondents do not had the financial ability for their repatriation, but only 28.75% had this. The other portion of the table shows that 2.5% wants educational facilities, 35% want to be peace in Afghanistan and 61.25% wants that there will be all these facilities in Afghanistan for them after repatriation. It is to be concluded that 71.25% of the total interviewed respondents have no financial ability for their repatriation. On the other hand 35% points out peace to be suitable condition for repatriation while 61.25% points out multiple facilities that should be provided for a suitable repatriation.

65

Table # 21: Increase or decrease in daily expenses after repatriation

Increase or decrease in expenses Response Expenses will be increased Expenses will be decreased Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 55 25 80 Percentage 68.75 31.25 100

Some of the refugees are of the opinion that due to inflation in Afghanistan their daily expenses may be increased after repatriation. The above table shows that 68.75% of the interviewed respondents were of the opinion that there daily expenses may be increased after repatriation to Afghanistan, while the rest 31.25% of the respondents were on the view that there will no or very less increase in daily expenses after repatriation to their country. It is to be concluded in the light of above information that more then 2/3 of the total interviewed respondents i.e.68.75% were of the opinion that there daily expenses may be increased after repatriation to Afghanistan.

66

Table # 22: The help that Afghan Government should do in repatriation

The help that Afghan Government should do in repatriation Type of help To give shelter To stop war with other groups Any other Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 18 58 4 80 Percentage 22.5 72.5 5 100

The Afghanistan government and a number of international agencies always make their efforts to provide basic facilities for the refugees. But the facilities provided for the refugees are not acceptable for most of them. Most of them want to be peace in Afghanistan and they may have a shelter for their own. The statistic in the above table shows that 22.5% of the interviewed respondents preferred shelter facility to be provided for them in Afghanistan. While most of them i.e. 72.5% of them were among those who wanted to be peace in Afghanistan and the Afghan government should stop war with other groups and reconciliation program should start. It is to be concluded that most of the respondents i.e. 72.5% were of the opinion that the Afghanistan government should stop war with other groups.

67

Table # 23: Effects of current security threats in Pakistan on repatriation

Effect of current security threats on repatriation Interest in repatriation Increased Decreased No Effect Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 39 4 37 80 Percentage 48.75 5 46.25 100

Pakistan is also suffering from bad condition of security. The security problem to the government and to the people of Pakistan is of great importance. After the target killing, bomb blasting or any other terrorist type activities mostly Afghan refugees becomes the prey of the Pakistani police and intelligence agencies. Thus some of the refugees face different type of problems due to the current security threats in Pakistan. The table shows that 48.75% of the interviewed respondents were of the opinion that their interest has been increased in repatriation due to the current security position in Pakistan, while 46.25% were those who showed no effect of the current security threats on them. From the above information it is to be concluded that about half of the interviewed respondents i.e. 48.75% were those, whose interest has been increased in repatriation due the current security position in Pakistan

68

Table # 24:

Reasons that hampers repatriation

Reasons that hampers repatriation Type of reason War Unemployment Health problem Educational problem Residential problem Food problem Multiple Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 22 4 1 0 0 0 53 80 Percentage 27.5 5 1.25 0 0 0 66.25 100

Repatriation of Afghan refugees is a difficult task for both Afghan and Pakistani governments, and can create a number of problems, especially to Afghanistan. There may be some problems to the refugees before or after repatriation, the solution of which will be necessary for successful repatriation of the refugees. The table shows that 27.5% of the interviewed respondents that war in Afghanistan is the great problem in their repatriation, while 5% of them have shown unemployment in Afghanistan are the problem which hampers their repatriation. 1.25% points out health problem while 2/3 i.e.66.25% of the interviewed respondents showed multiple problems include war, unemployment, health, education, residential and food problems etc. It is to be concluded that 27.5% of the respondent considered war to be the main problem in their repatriation while 66.25% showed multiple problems of security, education, health, residence and food problems.

69

Table # 25: Change in health facilities in Afghanistan and comparison of health and Communication facilities of Afghanistan and Pakistan Change in health facilities in Afghanistan and comparison of health and Communication facilities Change in health facilities in Afghanistan Response Yes No Total Good health facilities here as compared Afghanistan Frequenc Frequency Response Percentage y 27(33.75%) Yes 68 85 53(66.25%) No 12 15 80 (100%) Total 80 100 Source: Survey Data Good communication facilities here as compared Afghanistan Response Frequency Percentage Yes No Total 65 15 80 81.25 18.75 100

Due to suffering in war with Russia and after civil war the whole infrastructural system of Afghanistan destroyed, due to which most of its residential faced different types of problems. It will be the problem of health, communication, education and other type of problems. The present Afghan government tried to solve the health, communication and education problem of its citizens but still its citizens are unsatisfied from these facilities. There are 33.75% those respondents who feels change in health system in Afghanistan, while 2/3 i.e. 66.25% are those who feels no change and developments in health facilities in Afghanistan. 85% of the refugees were of the opinion that they receiving good health facilities as compared to Afghanistan, while only 15% were not agreed to this. Along with health facilities 81.25% of the respondents showed that also they receiving good health facilities as compared to Afghanistan, while 18.75% were not agree with receiving good communication facilities here as compared to Afghanistan. It is to be concluded that 2/3 i.e. 66.25% respondents showed no change in health facilities in Afghanistan, and also 85% and 81.25% were of the opinion that they receiving good health and communication facilities here as compared to Afghanistan.

70

Table # 26: Appeal to the international community especially UNO

Appeal to international community Response To stop war Economic aid To provide employment To provide education facilities To provide health facilities To provide residential facilities Multiple Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 25 1 0 0 1 0 53 80 Percentage 31.25 1.25 0 0 1.25 0 66.25 100

The international community consumes a lot of money every year for the welfare of refugees throughout the world and trying to help refugees in problems solution. United Nation Highest Commissioner for Refugees has been appointed for this purpose. The UNO especially UNHCR is very active in helping Afghan refugees repatriation and trying to solve some of the main problems face by these refugees in repatriation. But still many Afghans want a big share of the international community in their problems solution. The table shows that 31.35% of the respondents requested from international community to help in stopping war in Afghanistan, while 1.2% of them want economic aid and the same respondents want health facilities to be provided in Afghanistan by the UNO. While 2/3 i.e.66.25% of the respondents wants help of UNO in many sectors such as security, health, education, financial, residential, and employment. It is to be concluded that 2/3 i.e. 66.25% of the interviewed respondents were of the opinion that the UNO should help in multiple fields like security, education, health, residence, and employment.

71

Table #27:

The steps that should be taken by Pakistani Government

Steps should be taken by Pakistani government Type of health Help in stopping civil war To help us till war end To provide finance for repatriation To provide transport facilities To rise their problem on international level Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 28 43 5 1 3 80 Percentage 35 53.75 6.25 1.25 3.75 100

The governments and peoples of Pakistan and Afghanistan have very close, political, social, and financial relation. And the condition of one country could influence the condition in other country. Pakistan helped Afghan refugees throughout Afghan war and provide them every type of freedom. The table shows that 35% of the respondents were expected from the government of Pakistan to help in stopping civil war in Afghanistan, while 53.75% were of the opinion to help and remain them till war end. 6.25% were those who wanted finance for repatriation, 1.25% transport facilities while 3.75% wanted to raise their problem on international level. From the above information it is to be concluded that more then a half (53.75%) of the respondents were those who wanted from the government of Pakistan to raise their problem by international level.

72

Table #28: Registration with NADRA office and expectation of giving citizenship in Pakistan

Registration and expectation of citizenship Registration with NADRA Response Frequency Percentage Yes 66 82.5 No 14 17.5 Total 80 100 Source: Survey Data Expectation of citizenship Response Frequency Percentage Yes 55 68.75 No 25 31.25 Total 80 100

The Afghan refugees in Pakistan registered on October 15, 2006, and are being conducted by Pakistans National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA) with the support of UNHCR and the governments Commissionerate for Afghan Refugees. They were given Afghan citizens cards but most of them expecting from the government of Pakistan to give them Pakistani citizenship. The table shows that 82.5% of the total interviewed respondents were those who were registered with NADRA, but 17.5% of them were not registered. The second portion of the table shows that 68.75% of the respondents expected from the government of Pakistan to accept them as the citizens of Pakistan, while 31.25% did not have this expectation. It is to be concluded that most (82.5%) of the total respondents had been registered with the NADRA office and 68.75% of the respondents expected from the government of Pakistan to accept them as Pakistani citizens.

73

Table #29:

Burden on economy of Pakistan

Burden on economy Response Yes No Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 21 59 80 Percentage 26.25 73.75 100

Pakistan is an under developing country and most of its population are still suffering from the problem of unemployment. On the other hand Afghan refugees also a great burden on the local people, and most of them have occupied positions that should be occupy by local people. But these refugees mostly do not agree to accept their selves a burden on the economy of Pakistan. The above table shows that only 26.25% of the total interviewed respondents were those who were accepting to be a burden on the economy of local people and country. While about (73.75%) of the respondents were not ready to accept their selves a burden on the economy of Pakistan. From the above information it is to be concluded that about (73.75%) of the total interviewed respondents were those who were not ready to accept their selves a burden on the economy of Pakistan.

74

Table # 30:

The most positive aspect of life in Pakistan

Most positive aspect of life in Pakistan Response Brotherly attitude of civilians Employment freedom in Pakistan Freedom of education and health facilities Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 58 16 6 80 Percentage 72.5 20 7.5 100

The people of Afghanistan and Pakistan have a chapter of very long historical relations. During Afghan war with Soviet Union the government and the peoples of Pakistan helped Afghan refugees to a great extent. The people of Pakistan were very sincere towards Afghan refugees. The above table shows the most positive aspect of life of afghan refugees in Pakistan. The information shows that 72.5% of the respondents were those who were very happy from the attitude of Pakistan. While 20% were thankful from government in case of employment freedom, but 7.5% were also thankful from the government in case of education and health facilities. It is to be concluded that the local peoples attitude towards Afghan refugees had selected by 72.5% of the respondents to be the most positive aspect of their life in Pakistan.

75

Table #31:

The most negative aspect of life in Pakistan

Most negative aspects of life in Pakistan Response Police attitude No negative aspect Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 28 52 80 Percentage 35 65 100

During bad security condition and mostly when bomb blast takes place the official authorities mostly targeting Afghan refugees. The table shows that 35% of the interviewed respondents have shown police attitude towards Afghan refugees is the most negative aspects of their life in Pakistan. But 65% of the respondents have showed no negative aspects of life in Pakistan. It is concluded from the above information that 2/3 (65%) of the total interviewed respondents have shown no negative aspect of life in Pakistan.

76

Table #32:

The most important reason for repatriation

Most important reason for repatriation Response To reconstruct my home and land To serve for the native land Current law and order situation in Pakistan No response Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 19 22 10 29 80 Percentage 23.75 27.5 12.5 36.25 100

A large number of Afghan refugees have been repatriated after Soviet Union deportation from Afghanistan. There are many reasons which are of great importance to the respondent and due to which the refugees wants to go back to their own country. The above table shows that 23.75% of the respondents were of the opinion that they want to reconstruct home and land in Afghanistan. While 27.5% were those who had the idea to serve for the native land. While the current law and order situation in Pakistan also made 12.5% ready for repatriation. From the above information it is concluded that 50.80% were those respondents who wanted to serve for their native land and to rebuild home and land.

77

Table #33:

The most important reason which hamper repatriation

Most important reason which hampers repatriation Response Lack of security and law and order situation in Afghanistan Unemployment in Afghanistan Presence of Coalition force Total Source: Survey Data Frequency 58 18 4 80 Percentage 72.5 22.5 5 100

There are different types of problems which hamper the repatriation of the Afghan refugees, but some of them are of great importance the solution of which will be necessary for the repatriation of Afghan refugees. The table shows that 72.5% of the interviewed respondents were of the opinion that lack of security and law and order situation in Afghanistan is one of big reasons that hamper their repatriation. While 22.5% of them were those who point out the unemployment a great reason which hampers their repatriation but 5% showed that the presence of coalition forces is a big factor which hampers repatriation. It is to be concluded that most (72.5%) of the interviewed respondents were of the opinion of those who considered security and law and order situation in Afghanistan the main hampering source in their repatriation.

78

CHAPTER V MAJOR FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

In this study Factors effecting repatriation of Afghan Refugees is to find out those factors which effecting repatriation of Afghan Refugees. Afghan Refugees are a burning issue in Pakistan nowadays. Through this study we tried to find out those conditions under which Afghan Refugees want to go back.

A.MAJOR FINDINGS OF THE STUDY:


The major findings of the study are following. 1) From our study we found that 83.75% of the respondents were male (Table #1)

2) According to study result 62.5% of them were above 40 years of age. (Table #1) 3) The result shows that 87.5% of our study respondents were Pashtun. (Table #2) 4) More then a half i.e. 55% were illiterate respondents. (Table #3) 5) Among literate respondents 41.67% of the respondents were college and university level. (Table #3) 6) The study shows that 86.25% of the total respondents were married respondents. (Table #4) 7) We found that the spouses of 94.2% married respondents were belonging to Afghanistan. (Table #4) 8) The result shows that 29% of the respondents were those who had more then 9 children. (Table #4)

79

9) 68.25% of the respondents were those who had admitted their children in schools for getting education. (Table #5) 10) 100% of the admitted children were getting education in Pakistan. (Table #5) 11) 71.4% of the parents considered Pakistan to be a place for their children better socialization (Table #6) 12) About 90% of the respondents had migrated to Pakistan after Soviet Union invasion. (Table #7) 13) 67.5% of them have been passed more then 20 years of life in Pakistan. (Table #7) 14) The respondents who were unhappy at the time of migration consist 60% of total. (Table #8) 15) 64% of the respondents were happy from present life in Pakistan. (Table #8) 16) There were 68.75% of those respondents who have faced problems at the time of migration. (Table #9) 17) Among those who were faced problems, 36.3% were those who had residential problems and 29.1% were having financial problems. (Table #9) 18) 71% of respondents were satisfied from accommodation in Pakistan and 68.75% were also satisfied from residential facilities in Pakistan. (Table #10) 19) The houses in Afghanistan of the 91.25% were to be shown destroyed by the respondents. (Table #10) 20) Those who have their own houses in Pakistan were 52.5%, while rented houses respondents were to consist 47.5%. (Table #11) 21) 66.25% of the respondents were those who living in Kacha homes while 33.75% of the respondents were those who living in Pakka buildings. (Table #11)

80

22) There were 75% those respondents who have no financial ability for repatriation. (Table #12) 23) 57.5% of the respondents were farmers in Afghanistan before migration to Pakistan. (Table #13) 24) 24.5% were those respondents who have their own business in Pakistan. (Table #14) 25) The percentages of those respondents who have shown change in economic condition after repatriation were 77.5%. (Table #15) 26) 82.26% were those who have been improved their economic condition. (Table#15) 27) 37.75% of the respondents had some of their repatriated relatives. (Table #16) 28) They showed that 67.8% of their relatives are unsatisfied after repatriation. (Table #16) 29) 88.14% of them were happy to live here after their relatives repatriation to Afghanistan. (Table #16) 30) 80% of the respondents were those who have shown worsened situation in Afghanistan after Soviet Union deportation. (Table #17) 31)80% of the interviewed respondents were those who consider coalition forces as invader forces in Afghanistan. (Table #18) 32) 88.75% of them wanted the withdrawal of the coalition forces from Afghanistan. (Table #18) 33) There were 63.75% of those respondents who were unsatisfied from the present government of Afghanistan (Table #19) 34) Among unsatisfied respondents from the present government of Afghanistan 45.1% were those respondents who want to be an Islamic Sharia state in Afghanistan.

81

(Table #20) 35) Among satisfied respondents from the present government of Afghanistan 65.5% were those who point out civil war to be a big problem in their repatriation. (Table #19) 36) 71.25% of the interviewed respondents were those who have no financial ability for their repatriation. (Table #21) 37) There were 68.75% those respondents who were of the opinion that their daily expenses may be increased after repatriation. (Table #22) 38) 72.5% of the respondents were those who answered that good help of Afghanistan government in repatriation of Afghan refugees is to stop war with other groups in the country. (Table #23) 39) The percentage of those who showed that there interest have increased in repatriation due to the current security threat were 48.75%. (Table #24) 40) There were 27.5% of those respondents who were of the opinion that war in Afghanistan is the great problem in repatriation while 66.25% have shown multiple problems such as security, residential, health, education and food and shelter problem. (Table #25) 41) Among the interviewed respondents 66.25% were those who pointed out no change in health facilities in Afghanistan. (Table #26) 42) We found that 85% and 81.25% of the respondents were of the opinion that they are receiving good health and communication facilities here as compared to Afghanistan respectively. (Table #26)

82

43) 31.25% of the respondents were those who wanted from UNO to help in stopping civil war in Afghanistan while 66.25% requested of multiple helps such as security, health, education, residence, employment, and economic aid. (Table #27) 44) There were 53.75% of those respondents who wanted from the government of Pakistan to help them till war end in Afghanistan. (Table #28) 45) The percentage of registered respondents with NADRA of Pakistan is 82.5%. (Table #29) 46) 68.75% were those respondents who had the expectation from the government of Pakistan to accept them as their citizens. (Table #29) 47) Mostly i.e. 73.75% of the interviewed respondents were not agreeing to consider their selves to be a burden on the economy of Pakistan. (Table #30) 48) The brotherly attitude of the people of Pakistan towards them tick marked by 72.5% of respondents to be a positive aspects of their life in Pakistan. (Table #31) 49) From our study we found that 65% of the respondents showed no negative aspect of their life in Pakistan. (Table #32) 50) 23.75% of the respondents were of the opinion that patriotism is the factor which playing a vital role in repatriation. (Table #33) 51) The most important hampering factor to repatriation was security condition in Afghanistan pointed out by 72.5% of the interviewed respondents. (Table #34)

83

CONCLUSION:
From our field study we come to the conclusion that the problem of repatriation of Afghan Refugees is a critical one and it is worsening day by day because of different reasons in which civil war presence of coalition forces, unemployment and drought are on top. Most of the Refugees are willing to go their country, but they are forced by different conditions to stay till the situation in their country settles down.

According to them our houses in Afghanistan are completely destroyed our business are completely ruined. Education and health facilities are not of the type to satisfy a common man.

How can we do there and in these thorough situations where there is no guarantee for our lives, shelter and food the Refugees said in response to our different questions.

Most of the Refugees consider coalition forces as invaders in Afghanistan after Soviet Union invasion and most of the Refugees were not agree to go back in the presence of coalition forces in Afghanistan.

The international community spent a lot of money in Afghanistan every year, but there is very less facilities that provided for the repatriated refugees in Afghanistan.

From out field experience we find out that Afghan Refugees in majority are satisfied from living in Pakistan. They established business here and working as local people. So

84

they do not want to go back in the present situation, because most of them were unsatisfied from the present security condition and present government of Afghanistan and most of them were of the opinion that there should be an Islamic Sharia state in Afghanistan.

Most of the Refugees improved their economic condition through doing different type of occupations in Pakistan and a lot number of them do not want to finish their present business and go to the country where there are very less job opportunities.

Most of them were satisfied from accommodation and residential facilities in Pakistan provided to them and they were of the opinion that they are receiving good health and communication facilities here as compared to Afghanistan.

A lot number of the Refugees were very impressed and were very happy from the local people attitude toward Afghan Refugees and they wanted to pass the rest of life also with them, while some of the refugees were to complain from the attitude of police in Pakistan with Afghan Refugees.

Most of the respondents have no financial ability for their repatriation and most have no ability to solve their residential problems after repatriation without government aid and also some of them were of the opinion that there must be heavy international aid for their repatriation.

85

They were appealing from international community to help in many sectors like security, health, education, residential facilities and also employment facilities in Afghanistan and also from the government of Pakistan they requested to help them till war end in Afghanistan. Pakistani government when fails to find any aid from international community, now applying the method of forced repatriation, because Afghan Refugees have become a big burden on Pakistan. In our opinion this forced repatriation will create more complexities both for Refugees as well as for the government of Pakistan and Afghanistan.

So the ultimate guarantee for large-scale voluntary repatriation of Afghan Refugees is the restoration of national protection through a stable government in Afghanistan. That would allow for the return of most, if not all, Refugees and would enable them to reintegrate in safety and with dignity. National protection is based on the rule of law and respect. For basic human rights of all Afghans, irrespective of their ethnicity religious affiliation, professional background or gender. Particular attention must be paid to the conditions of return of the educated, professional strata of Afghan society. The reestablishment of civil society and the reconstruction of the economy require substantial investment in development and rehabilitation after 20 years of conflict.

B.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
Based n the research and findings on the factors effecting repatriation activity of Afghan refugees in the research area, the following recommendations are made by the researcher.

86

1) As soon as possible the factors hinder in the way of repatriation should be eradicated and provided facilities alternative to these factors. 2) A survey is required to contact Afghan Refugees and to know their wish about their repatriation. 3) The government of Pakistan should to cease the push-backs and forcible return of Afghan Refugees. 4) The government of Pakistan should also to cease all harassment, bribery, and imprisonment by Pakistani and tribal police of undocumented non-criminal Afghan Refugees. And also efforts should make by Pakistani government for raising the Refugee problem on international level. 5) Once conditions are appropriate for repatriation under conditions of safety and dignity, and with full respect for refugees human rights, institute a voluntary repatriation program in accordance with international standards. 6) There must be full cooperation of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in providing protection to Refugees. 7) A vital role can be performed by UNO. UNO should take it seriously and contact both the Afghanistan and Pakistani governments to solve the Afghan Refugees problems. 8) The government of Afghanistan should to make a master plan and long term policy for the repatriation of these Refugees.

87

CHAPTER VI

INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR DATA COLLECTION ON THE TOPIC FACTORS EFFECTING REPATRIATION ACTIVITY OF AFGHAN REFUGEES
Questions:
1. 2. a) b) c) d) Respondent no ____. Age of the respondent (in years):

20-30 31-40 41-50 Above 50 3. b) a) b) Gender: a) Female Pakhtoons Non pakhtoons 5. Educational status: a)Literate b) a) c) d) a) Illiterate Primary b) Middle Matrics College and university In Afghanistan 6. If literate, then level of qualification? 4. Ethnic group: Male

7. Where you were born?

88

b) 8. Marital status: a)

In Pakistan Married

b) Unmarried 9. If married, then your spouse belongs to. a) Afghanistan b) Pakistan 10. If married then no of children. a) b) c) d) e) above 9 11. Are your children admitted in schools? a) Yes b) a) b) No In Pakistan In Afghanistan 12. If yes then where they are admitted? Nil 0-3 4-6 7-9

13. What do you think whether the Afghanistan or in Pakistan Socialization of your children is in better condition? a) b) a) b) After 15. For how long have you been living in Pakistan? a) b) c) 1-10 years 11-20years Above 20 years Afghanistan In Pakistan 14. Did you come here before or after the soviet invasion? Before

16. What were your feelings when you migrate to Pakistan?

89

a) b) c) a)

Happy Unhappy Uncertain

17. Are you happy from the attitude of the people of Pakistan towards Afghan Refugees? Yes b) No 18. Have you faced any trouble when you migrate to here? a) Yes b) No 19. If yes, then what kind of problem you faced when you first migrate to Pakistan? a) Residential problem b) Financial problem c) d) e) a) b) a) b) Yes No 21. What is your house condition in Afghanistan? Intact Damaged/destroyed Food and shelter problem Political and social problem Other

20. Are you satisfied from the accommodation in Pakistan?

22. What is your house condition here in Pakistan? a) i. ii. b) i. ii. Pakka Kacha Owned Rented

23. Are you satisfy from the residential facilities here?

90

a)Yes b) No repatriation? a) b) a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) e) f) Driver g) Other Business Agriculture Government servant Private Servant Teacher Labor Farmer Shopkeeper Businessmen Yes No 24. Would you be able to solve your residential problem without government aid after

25. What was your earning source in Afghanistan?

26. What is your earning source in Pakistan?

27. Have your financial condition been changed due to your migration? a) b) a) b) c) Yes No Economic condition been improved Economic condition been worsted No effect 29. Did you enter Pakistan with the feeling that you will return back to your homeland after the war? a)Yes b) No

28. If yes, then specify that

91

30. Have some of your relatives been repatriated after the soviet forces departed? a) Yes b) a) Yes b) No 32. What is the opinion of your those relatives who have been repatriated? a) b) c) departed? a) b) Better Worse c) Any other Satisfied Unsatisfied Uncertain No 31. If yes then, are you happy to live here alone?

33. What do you think about the changing condition of Afghanistan when soviet troops

34. Are the new developments in Afghanistan attracting you towards repatriation? a) b) a) b) a) b) a) b) a) No 38. Are you satisfied from the present government in Afghanistan? Yes No 39. If you are satisfied from the present government, then why you are still here? Civil war No Yes No Yes 36. Do you want the withdrawal of the coalition forces before repatriation? Yes

35. Do you considering the coalition forces as invaders in Afghanistan?

92

b) c) d) e)

Unemployment Drought Shelter Multiple 40. If no then, what type of government and to whom do you want to establish in Afghanistan.

a) b) c) a)

Democratic Dictatorship Islamic sharia 41. Do you have the financial ability, to support your family repatriation expenses? Yes b) No

42. Under what condition would you like to go back? a) b) c) d) e) a) b) a) b) c) repatriate? a) b) c) Interest in repatriation has increased Still want to live in Pakistan No effect Health facilities Educational facilities Peace Shelter Multiple Yes No To give shelter Stop war with other groups Any other 46. What is the effect of the current security threats in Pakistan on your willingness to

43. Do you think that daily expenses will be increased after repatriation?

44. What afghan government should do in repatriation process?

93

47. Can you frequently move to your country? a) b) a) b) c) d) e) War Unemployment Health and education problem Residential problem multiple Yes No 48. If yes, then why do you not go back to your country completely?

49. What are the reasons you do not want to go back? a) b) c) d) e) f) War Unemployment Health problem Education problem Residential problem Food problem g) a)Yes b) a) b) a) a) a) b) c) No 56. What is your appeal to the world especially to UNO? To stop war Economic aid To provide employment No 52. Do you have good communication facilities here as compared to Afghanistan? Yes No Yes 51. Do you receiving good health facilities here as compared to Afghanistan? Multiple 50. Do you observe any change in the health facilities provided in Afghanistan?

94

d) e) f) g)

To provide education facilities To provide health facilities To provide residential facilities Multiple

57. What do you think that what type of steps should be taken by Pakistani government in repatriation of afghan refugees? a) b) c) d) e) Help in stopping civil war To help us till war end To provide finance for repatriation To provide transport facilities To rise their problems on International level. a) b) citizenship? a) b) a) b) Yes No 60. Do you think that you are a burden on Pakistan economy? Yes No 61. The most positive aspects of your life in Pakistan: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------62. The most negative aspects of your life in Pakistan: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------63: The (one) most important reason you want to repatriate: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Yes No

58. Have you been registered with the NADRA office of Pakistan as an afghan citizen?

59. Do you have the expectation from the government of Pakistan to give you

95

64: The (one) most important reason you do not want to repatriate: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

96

REFERENCES
1. UNOCA, WPF: Geneva. (1991) Afghan Refugees, Current Status and Future Prospectus, Report for Congress January 26, 2007. Retrieved on 11 October 2009 from<http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33851.pdf> 2. REFUGEE POLICY GROUP (1992) Afghanistan: trends and prospects for refugee repatriation, Geneva and Washington. 3. UNHCR. (2006). Afghanistan Situation Operational Update, September 15, 2009 from <http://www.unhcr.org/451a47ec2.html> 4. The Daily Pakistan Times. (2008). Retrieved on September 14, 2009 from <http://www.pak-times.com/2008/11/03/afghan-returnee-numbers-this-year-top 276000-%e2%80%93-un-refugee-agency/2284828/> 5. Margesson, Rhoda. (2007). Afghan Refugees current status and future prospectus, Report for Congress, January 26, 2007. Retrieved on October 02, 2009 from <http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33851.pdf> 6. COMMUNISM, REBELLION, AND SOVIET INTERVENTION <http://countrystudies.us/afghanistan/29.htm> 7. Vickipedia. Afghanistan History, Retrieved on November 04, 2009 from <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Afghanistan> 8. Human rights watch. Afghanistan Iran and Pakistan vol. 14 No 2 Feb 2002 Retrieved on October 15, 2009 from <http://www.hrw.org/legacy/reports/2002/pakistan/pakistan0202.pdf> Retrieved

97

9. Abubakar Siddique (2007). AFGHAN REFUGEES RELUCTANT TO LEAVE PAKISTAN EURASIA INSIGHT, 26 March 2007. Retrieved on 22 October 2009 From,<http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/eav032607.shtml> 10. Concise Dictionary Oxford (2000), Retrieved on 4 October 2009 from, <http://www.askoxford.com/dictionaries/?view=uk> 11. The News November 23, 2009 <http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=5705> 12. UNHCRUN, (2008). High Commissioner for Refugees Antonio Guterres voices concern over displaced and refugees in Pakistan. Retrived on 12 October 2009, from,<http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=79774342725> 13. IRIN (2009).Registration open to more Afghan refugees. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, 23 November 2009 Retrieved on 2 November 2009 from, <http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?reportid=62969> 14. HRCP (2009) Afghan Refugees in Pakistan Push Come to Shove. Human Rights commission of Pakistan April 2009. Retrieved from, <http://www.hrcp-web.org/Publications/RRefugees.pdf> 15. Dominica 15 Marzo (2009).Afghanistan limited scope to absorb more refugees IRIN 2009 Retrieved from <http://www.afgana.org/showart.php? id=456&rubrica=218>

98