IP Women Insights on the Peace Process

Presented by: Froilyn Tenorio-Mendoza Advocacy Specialist: IPDEV

Who are the IP Women in the ARMM or in the propose establishment of BAG. (distinct role) Lets examine peace in the lives of IP Women esp. in the most conflict affected areas Available laws both regional, national & international that will be useful for IP women when crafting the BBL. Our calls Our clear messages

Lanao del Sur (Wao, Bumbaran, Balabagan : Ilyanen, Tiguhanun, Manobo, Batanes Subanen, Matigsalog, Higaonon, Talaandig, Umayamnun Kalagan,

IPs in the ARMM
Maguindanao: Téduray Lambangian, Dulangan Manobo & Blaan

Population: Lumad/IP in Maguindanao in ARMM
Out of the 23 barangays of Upi municipality, 15 barangays are permamently dominated by Teduray. All the 11 barangays of South Upi municipality are predominantly inhabited by Teduray Barangay Kuya, Sitio Benuan, Dakeluwan and Brgy Pilar in sitio Brawarbatew and Brgy. Pandan in sitio Kebenesan in South Upi is a stronghold of Lambangian tribe. Barangays Tubak, in Ampatuan San Jose in South Upi is permamently settled by Dulangan Manobo. Upland portions of Datu Unsay, Datu Hofer, Guindolongan, Datu Saudi, Talayan, Sharif Aguak, Ampatuan & Datu Abdulah Sangki is part of the Firis Complex traditional area of the Teduray and Dulangan Manobo one of the sacred ground of the Teduray called “ Batew” is found.

Distinct Roles of IP Women in the ARMM
“Kefeduwan Libun” - Arbiter – who resolves cases of murder, theft, public scandal, petty quarrels, infidelity, slander, land grabbing, domestic abuse & rape. “Fanday” - Birth attendant Officiator of rituals “Libun Bliyan”- healer Farmer Wife, and, Mother (with an average of 7-12 children)


In spite of their respective (personal and family) concerns IP women embrace the role of a kefeduwan libun even if it means exhausting personal and family resources, time, money and property; In order to settle conflict in the traditional and peaceful way many of the IP women in the ARMM inherit their capacity and knowledge as arbiters from their parents and elders who have carried out the same customary roles as a prime social responsibility before them.

Let us examine peace in the lives of indigenous women in the ARMM:
First, the current ARMM is a product of the GRP-MNLF peace compact of 1996 with RA 9054, a law for the expanded ARMM (amended RA 6734). Now, in preparation for another peace compact, RA 9054 is under review by the appointed members of the Regional Legislative Assembly (RLA) but the use of “indigenous peoples,” or “tribal peoples” referring to the Lumad or indigenous peoples in the ARMM is opposed by some members of the RLA In the same manner, in the GPH-MILF peace negotiations the use of “indigenous peoples” referring to the Lumad in the ARMM is unacceptable. For 15 years of IPRA we have not felt its implementation in the ARMM.

The entry of FAB & its implication to the lives of the IP in the so called area where the BAG shall be established
I. Establishment of the Bangsamoro One: #5. The freedom of choice of other Indigenous peoples shall be respected. III. Powers Two: #6. The customary rights and traditions of indigenous peoples shall be taken into consideration in the formation of the Bangsamoro’s Justice system. This may include the recognition of indigenous processes as alternative modes of dispute resolution. VI. Basic Rights Three: #3. Indigenous peoples rights shall be respected. 6. Basic Rights Right of women to meaningful political aspiration and protection from all forms of violence against women

•Since 1970, more than 10,000 Teduray families from 4 Barangays in the Firis Complex have fled due to armed confrontation between the ILAGA and the Moro (Blackshirt).
Mt. Firis Complex

•In 1996, the MILF established camp in the area and declared it as one of their Satellite Camps during peace negotiations.

•In 2000, President Estrada declared war against the MILF and overran the camp, the Teduray fled once more •In 2011, BIFF under Amelil Umbra Kato renamed it to Camp Ohmar (including Barangay Ahan covering sitio Firis, Urok Meringen, Limfongo now Datu Hofer) •To date, the Teduray have not reclaimed their homeland and have no permanent place to live in.

“Camp Ohmar”

Due to armed conflicts, IP women in the ARMM especially in the conflict-affected areas find it hard to establish permanent houses and more secure communities.

As of July 14, 2011, an armed group burned the houses & ransacked all their raised chicken, peanuts & other agricultural products that resulted to the displacement of 67 Teduray families in Sitio Kewagib , Barangay Romonggaob in South Upi in Maguindanao. Until now they have not been able to return to their places of origin


Just recently when the BIFF launched simultaneous attacks against army detachments in different areas of Maguindanao the lives of poor indigenous women were again put to risk when they were trapped in Hill 224 a gateway to Mt. Firis and Sitio Sanyag were hostage without food and water

Unified Statement of Non-Islamized NonIndigenous Peoples in the ARMM
Mt. Firis is Sacred Ground We, the Indigenous Peoples of the ARMM, particularly the Téduray, Lambangian and Dulangan Manobo, who are directly affected by the recurring cycles of violence in the Mt Firis Complex call upon one and all to hear our plea; That the recent armed conflict between the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters and the Armed Forces of the Philippines as we all know has done indescribable harm not only upon each other but most especially to the peace-loving non-Islamized Indigenous Peoples of the Mt. Firis Complex; That this is not the only violent incident in recent history that has marred the land of our ancestors;

That the suffering brought about by displacements is another blow to the efforts of many people including the government to attain peace, genuine reform and development; That we are grateful for the government and other kind-hearted sectors that have provided relief assistance to displaced persons; But the situation is more complex than just being addressed in a temporary manner like the provision of food, medicines and shelter. In the face of all this, let it also be known to one and all that since time immemorial, Indigenous Peoples like the Téduray, Lambangian, and Dulangan Manobo have lived peacefully in the mountains of the Daguma Range where Mt Firis is located.

Mt Firis holds among these peoples a revered history that has been handed down the generations through oral tradition; That this is where Lagey Firis practiced his tribal spiritual leadership; That Lagey Firis ascended onto heaven without dying (demniyat) from an exact spot known as Batew; That Gogon Ignacio was the last Chieftain at Batew a foot Mt Firis, the sacred ground of the Teduray and Lambangian; That since then, we, the non-Islamized Indigenous Peoples regularly visited the place for pilgrimage and spiritual nourishment.

But on the evening of July 27, 2000, many of us had to leave Mt Firis after armed men claimed the land to establish their camp. Shortly after, several municipalities were carved out from its surrounding land; and many non-IPs have titled portions of the land under their names.

Environmental Degradation
On top of the displacements brought about by armed conflicts… The Teduray Lambangian and Dulangan Manobo also experience displacement from floods due to massive logging and unstable ecosystems caused by agro-industrial plantations, and mining agroactivities.

Gender Issues: Health
Ten leading causes needing medical attention/hospital admission of women and children (2012 Data from South Upi Municipal Hosp.) PCAP/Pneumonia 2. Acute Gastro Enteritis especially during rainy season 3. Gastritis (ulcer) 4. Malaria 5. Wounds 6. Typhoid fever 7. Instestinal parasites (children) 8. Sepsis (new born) 9. Miscarriage or abortion (prevalent in the 1st trimester) Of Pregnancies

Gender Issues: Health
1. Lack of Health Care facilities Brgy. Rifao North Upi Maguindanao In one of the FGD conducted all the women give birth at home and seek the help of a traditional birth attendant called “fanday/temabang” and “bliyan” or healer concerning their ailments they only decide to go to hospital if their patient is already serious. South Upi Mun. Hosp. – 15 kms. away Datu Blah Sinsuat District Hosp. – 32 kms. away Common ailments: malaria, skin diseases at tae tae naman sa mga bata .Sa mga kababaihan masakit ang likod over-fatigue at nahihilo insomia at “lemuwa” o TB sa mga matatanda.

Gender Issues: Education High Illiteracy Rate The Case of Sitio Benuan Brgy Kuya So. Upi 85% of the population “no-read-no-write” Three were able to reach college level Half of the 157 enrollees (all grades) last 2012 were drop-outs during harvest time (September-October) because they prefer to help their parents in the farm. If you are a girl-child then you are to take care of your younger sister/brother.

Barangay Rifao, North Upi, Maguindanao
50% men & women (Population___) do not knew how to read and write • Four went to college (one employed as a • teacher aide, two are unemployed, one became an OFW) • The rest have reached grade IV. • During PTCA meeting they could hardly write their name in the attendance sheet that’s is why the teacher is usually the one writing for them it is very hard for them to affix their signature they often do thumb mark. • During election 85 % need an assistor and so when election comes politicians are hiring assistors.

Exploitation & Marginalization of their Indigenous Culture

Right to Safe and Clean Water : Water: The source of water of the IP’s come from rivers and springs they have to hike 1-2 kms. just to have drinking 1water and when rainy seasons come drinking is not possible water-borne diseases is very high. water-

Poverty is prevalent in IP communities in ARMM as people commonly engaged in shifting “slash and burn” cultivation or cane slasher or tapasero. Income derived from farming is approximately P1,000 – 2,000 a year. The situation becomes worse when crops are attacked/eaten by rodents or destroyed by adverse climatic conditions. Most IP’s in the ARMM could not afford even the things that are considered as basic necessities. When asked about their most valued belonging, the IP women in the ARMM enumerated the “kaldero” or casserole, plates, spoon and fork, “galunan” or plastic water container, glass, blanket, the few clothing they have and things that most in mainstream society take for granted.

Precious Asset
In the remotest Barangay of South Upi, community members share a “molded” frying pan – this pan was hammered and shaped from the cover of a large can or drum that fell from a cargo truck that was merely passing through their village. This can cover is now considered an important asset of the community and the villagers especially the women take their turns in using it.

Cultural Assimilation:

Internal Migration:

Young IP women in the ARMM & even married women leave their villages to find jobs as domestic helpers in urban centers like Cotabato City & Manila some of them are victims of maltreatment by their employer.

It is believed that there are Blaan women settled in the municipality of Datu Paglas but they no longer identify themselves as Blaan because they were already assimilated into the dominant Moro tribe.

Dulangan Manobo in Tubak, Ampatuan, Maguindanao
• •

BMFDT- Baye Menubo Fenagayunan Diya Tubak No CADT yet

Conversion of their ancestral domain to agro-industrial plantations for mangoes, Arabica coffee, rambutan & mangoesteen by Consunji logging company that permamently settled in the area through an Industrial Forest Management Application for 50 years. Only a small portion of their domain is left for the use of the Dulangan Manobo. Human Rights violations such as the murder of their leaders have been committed against leaders who resist the IFMA or defend their homeland. Women at an early age (12-14) are married off and they could do nothing even if it is against their will because according to them it is their culture

And on December 3, 2012 before the year ended 100 Dulangan Manobo household were strife in Sitio Sunal in San Jose South Upi Maguindanao by Commander Dawtin of the MILF.

Cultural Issues: (early & arranged marriages) Reaksyon ng Malaman na Mag-aasawa na: Hindi maintindihan ang mga pangyayari Hindi malaman ang gagawin (nag-iiyak, hinimatay) Lumayas ng bahay Pero natuloy pa rin ang pag-aasawa kahit ayaw

Related Laws protecting the Rights of Indigenous Women in the ARMM
MMAA 241- An act to Recognized, Respect, Protect and promotes the rights and governance ,justice systems, and customary laws of the Indigenous Peoples/ Tribal Peoples of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Section 4. The Rights and Role of IP •Ensure participation of indigenous women and facilitate the formulation, incorporation and Women. The respective Indigenous implementation of programs to meet the needs Political Structures, pursuant to Rule on the important and distinct role of indigenous III, Part I, Section 2 this IRR, shall women such as IP women arbiters, traditional birth attendants, healers/ritualist to conflict recognize, respect, protect and management and resolution. promote the rights of indigenous •Review customary practices of imposing women. It shall: conditions that are highly unfavourable and disadvantageous to women as a means of settling disputes on VAWC cases and other heinous crimes, such as the amicable settlement of rape in IP communities, through massive awareness and education campaign. * Provide opportunities for IP women and girls to develop leadership skills and ensure their significant participation in the strengthening of their tribal governance.

Libun kefeduwan (tribal women arbiter) An IP women performing and settling conflict or “tiyawan” many IP women “tiyawan” acquire this skills and knowledge from their ancestors or they belong to the so called “Tufo “Tufo kefeduwan” kefeduwan”
UNSCR 1325 adopted and guarantee the protection special participation of women in the peace process and their significant contribution to peace and security

Temabang Enga o libun Fanday- siya ay Fandaytagapagtanggol ng buhay ng babae at sanggol karamihan sa kanila ay minana ang kanilang kaalaman sa kanilang mga ninuno habang ang iba naman ay nakakuha ng pag aaral sa mga health providers TemabangTemabang- tagapagtanggol TabangenTabangen- Ina at sanggol na dapat tulungan

Magna Carta of Women RA 9710 arta Rights and Empowerment “women’s right to health”

Libun Gemamak Basa - Babaeng lider na namumuno sa ispiritwal na aspeto o pananampalataya ng mga katutubo maaring siya ay isang mangagamut, nagmangagamut, nag-aaral ng kultura, kultura, pagsasaka at kalikasan na sinasabing may angking kapangyarihan. kapangyarihan. (IPRA Article V Section 26 Rights and Recognition, Preservation of Cultural Integrity and Identity

(IPRA Article

V Section 26 Rights and Recognition, Preservation of Cultural Integrity and Identity

Communal ownership-Source of income land and environment ownershipsource of all kinds of income and all are entitled to properties even animals, human beings and all things in land is treated as mother of all mothers because this is where human beings gets its milk from day to day (Basic principle of ownership of all basic sources of living among indigenous peoples) TamukTamuk- means property
RA 9710 or the Magna Carta of Women Chapter IV rights and empowerment of marginalized sectors chapter 3 customary rights of indigenous women on land “equal rights to women to the enjoyment use and management of land, water and other natural resources within their communities or ancestral domain Rule V under RA 9710 access control, benefits and fruits shall be recognized in circumstances private ownership is not possible such as ancestral domain claim. Property rights under customary law shall be respected unless they are not discriminatory to women.

Girl children shall be protected from all forms of abuse and exploitation Sec 30 of RA 9710 IRR ,MMAA 287 or the GAD Code of ARMM & Convention on the right of a child Practice of early and arrange marriage among young Teduray women & girls data can be provided by TLWOI base on its baseline research conducted in 2010 on the impact of early & arrange marriages in the 5 baranggays of North Upi and 8 baranggays of South Upi found to be strongly practicing early and arranges marriages

Women in especially difficult circumstances for purpose of this act women in especially difficulty circumstances (WEDC) shall refer to victims and survivors of sexual and physical abuse, illegal recruitment, prostitution, trafficking, armed conflict, women in detention victims and survivors of rape and incest and such other related circumstances which have incapacitated them functionally. LGU are therefore mandated to deliver necessary services and intervention to WEDC under their respective jurisdiction. RA 9710 Magna Carta of Women

Habang iginagalang nito ang impluwensya ng mga kultura at paniniwala o tradisyon upang pagbawalan ang mga kababaihan sa kanilang karapatan inuutusan ng CEDAW ang mga state party na baguhin ang ganitong mga stereotyping na nagsasantabi sa kababaihan at naglalagay sa kanya sa kapahamakan

Contentious issue rape and other forms of violence against women settle amicably as part of customary processes

Mga dapat na gagawin 1. Pagkilala ng BG sa distinct identity & rights ng IP batay sa mga batas pang rehiyon (ARMM) national (IPRA) at UNDRIP at iba pang UN charters para sa mga katutubo, katutubo, Tarsila na nagpapatunay sa ugnayan nina Mamalu at Tabunaway. Tabunaway. 2. Maipamahagi na ang mga lupaing ninuno ng mga katutubo batay sa tradisyunal na kasunduan ni Mamalo at Tabunaway . 3. Pagpatupad ng customary law pagpapatawag ng mga pulong o tribal congress kasama na ang installation at confirmation of tribal titles , customary justice system at pag repaso na rin sa mga kultura at tradisyon na minsan nag lalagay sa kababaihang IP sa mas dis adavantage na posisyon. posisyon. 4. papel ng kababaihan at kabataang katutubo sa pagpatupad at pagpaunlad ng tribal self governance. 5, mapag kukunang pag babahagi (resources sharing) malinaw na palisiya sa pamamahala at pagamit ng likas na yaman sa loob ng teritorial domain ng katutubo “umun” tax system ng katutubong pamayanan. umun” pamayanan. 6. Depensa – kung ang bangsa moro ay may police dapat suportahan din ano ang konteksto ng IP para sa pagpanatili sa kaayusan at seguridad sa loob ng teritorial domain ng bangsa moro. moro. 7. development at rehabilitation – pagsasadokumento ng mga HRV ng magkabilang panig. panig. Mabigyan ng hustisya ang biktima ng gyera at pagtukoy sa mga lugar sa loob ng lupaing ninuno ng mga katutubo para mabigyan ng katugunan. katugunan.

What is clear about the Indigenous Women in the propose establishment of BAG is that we have our own Distinct Rights as IP women that must be respected and protected; we want to govern ourselves within our ancestral domain in accordance with our customary laws where our rights as Indigenous women are equally protected and respected.

Fiyo Bagi MEUYAG!