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EssayWriting
Unil | - o"rtnsorsanised
1.1 Small group work the Set this activity,askingstudentsto underline the essaytitlesthat helpedthem identify words in the essaytype. You may need to spend some time clarifyingthe differentessay types in a plenary sessionat the end of the activitv.
Title Usingyour personal exoerience, describea padicularlyinteresting culturalencounter.

At the end of this unit studentsshould be able to: . understand of more about the requirements writingan academicessay; . oroducea clearoutline.

Type
descriptive+ personal expenence

Task 1 Basic principlesof essaywriting


Lead in by askingstudentsto discuss,in pairs,their After a worst and best essay-writingexperience. types of essayand brief round-up,elicitdifferent on write students'suggestions the board.Then ask studentsto comparethe ideason the board with the list in Task 1. Ask studentsto work in small groups,sayingwhat they understand each type to oe.

argumenr What are the main arqumentsfor and aoainst the implementation very of high rates of taxation? How good do you think the author is at creating the charactersin this story? Analysethe characterisation and give examples. The most efficientform of transportis the train. Discuss. + evaluative analvtical

evaluative

Using the statisticsin the analytical+ descriptive accompanying table, write an analyticaldescriotionof the rise in the numberof Britishhouseholds. The European Unionis alreadyfar too big. Discuss. Learning language is a one of the best forms ol educationalactivity.Do you agree? argument

+ evaluative argument

1.2 Small group work Answers: a) introduction b) body c) conclusion

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Task:Teacher'sBook - ModuleI - Elsay Wriling

1.3 Pairwork/smallgrouP work In orderto preparethe way for the task, you could 'model' essay onto card (one per copy a shoft and ask group),cut it up into paragraphs pairlsmall the pairs/groupsto put the pieces into the correct order. The students could then use the essay as a concreteexampleon which to basetheir Encourage 1.3 of discussions Exercise questions. They studentsto make noteson their discussions. in a plenarysessionat the end of the can use these activity in which they feed back to the class. 1.4 Individual work/Pairwork Accordingto the needsof your students,you might need to pre-teachthe following: edit (a piece of writing); source material; to draft (a Piece of writing); proofread (a Piece of writing); paraphrase. and Ask studentsto completethe questionnaire then comparetheir answerswith a partner's.

ldentify

Analyse

Describe

on Comment

in items Examine Describe by to thatbelong detail up. a particular dividing the ldentify calegory. points main Gompare

the the Give main ldentify issues main features, and characteristics givean informed or events. oprnton. Evaluate Exemplify what Show is something like, using exampres.

Discuss

how Assess the Lookat the Describe or elementsmostimportantimpodant main useful of of two or more aspects is. in to things show somethinga something to way, It is likely howtheyare balanced both include i.e., similar. and advantages positive Possibly negative ano the explain nnintc disadvantages; consequences for and of the similarities. against.

ideas Task 3 Brainstorming


Explainto the students that once they have understoodthe essay task that has been set, the next stage is to brainstormideas on the topic of the essay. 3.1 Individualwork Modelfree writingfor your studentson the board, that they should keep their pens/pencils explaining paperat all times and that they shouldwrite on the Tellthem that this is for continuously two minutes. possibleas they are not expectedto edit their ideas but simplywrite whatevercomes into their headson goods by road.When the the topic of transporting studentshavedone this, put them to work in small their texts for similarideasor groups,comparing themes.Havea brief plenarysessionin which you collectsome ideason the board. 3.2 Small group work Lead in by askingstudentsto shut their eyesand picturea lorryin the middleof a town. Elicitwhether the image the students saw was a positiveone, a to medicines a hospital; e.g.,a lorrydelivering with e.g.,a lorrystuck in a traffic-jam one, negative or a more black smoke comingout of its exhaust; the neutralimage.Introduce topic of banninglorries from towns and cities,askingstudentsto think of that comes into their headson this topic anything and then sharingideaswith the rest of their group. Providean OHT and pen for each group if you would likethe studentsto sharetheir ideasin a brief plenaryat the end of the task.

Task 2 Analysingthe essay question


2.1 Pairwork This activitycould be tackledin a numberof ways You could accordingto the needsof your students. ask pairs of students to explainthe differencesin meaningbetweenthe instructionwords. you Alternatively, could use the photocopiable grid below,copyingthe largerversion vocabulary on page 72, an givingone card to each studentin your class. Ask each student to read his/hef card and look up any words they are unsureof. Then ask the students to stand up and move around the room, teachingtheir word to anothermemberof the by group,who then reciprocates teachinghis/her havefinishedexplaining, word. When both students the pair swap cards and then each student looks for a new partnerto teach his/herword to.

Task:Teacher'sEook- ModuleI - EssayWdting

5l

Unil ?-o",.insstarted
a group. At the end of this unitstudents will: o be betterequippedto start writingan essay; o understand how to write a thesisstatement; . have ideason how to makethe introduction interesting the reader. for

your ideas Task 4 Organising


BeforesettingExercise 4.1, ask studentsto work in groupsanalysing question.Referthe small the .1.1 students backto Exercises and 2.1 in Unit 1. 4.1 Individualwork Set this activityas individual work, explaining that afterfive minutesthe smallgroupswill re-formto exchangeideas. 4.2 Small group work This activitywill probablygo better if you provide studentswith 41 paperand some post-it notes,one for each idea.This allowsthe groupsto move ideas around,beforefixingtheir positionon the Al paper and connecting the ideastogetherwith arrows. Allow 15-20 minutesfor this step. Eachgroup shouldpresentits essay-poster a plenarysession in at the end of the activityand the essay-posters can then form a wall disolav. questions your studentsmight address Possible are: a) Who suffersfrom traffic congestion? b) What problems are caused by traffic congestion? c) What are the possiblesolutions? d) What are the best solutions? e) Why are thesethe best solutions? f) Whichsolutions are not effective? Whv? lf you feel some peer evaluation would be usefulat this juncture,elicitsome criteriafor feedbackon the plansfrom the group and write these criteriaon the board. Provideeach smallgroup with post-it notes of a different colourto the first set and assignthem the task of workingtogetherto evaluate another smallgroup's plan.Ask each group to chooseone memberto act as a scribewho writesthe group's commentson the oost-it notesand then sticks them onto the relevantolan.

Task 1 What to include


The purposeof this task is to encourage students to selectrelevantinformation to prioritise the and selectedinformation beforeorganising in a logical it way. 1.1 Individualwork/small group work First,ask studentsto evaluate imporlance the the of pointsindividually then ask them to discuss and their ideasin smallgroups.Theremay be some variation answers, in depending the argument on studentswish to pursue. a) | b) U - this could be background information, but should not take up a major part of the c) e) | - the studentsshould be encouraged see to that it is not so much a list that is reouiredas an evaluation thesesolutions. of U/Nl - the studentsshould be encouraged to carry out research find supporting to evidence. They should probablybroadenthe scope of the essaybeyondtheir immediate surroundings. g) | - arguments or againstvarioussolutions for shouldform the main body of the essay. 1.2 Individualwork In orderto helpstudents understand principles the of ordering information, mightbe worth modelling it the first half of an essayon the topic. Elicitwhich of the '1.1 itemsmentioned the list in Exercise would in come first and why (e.9.,definition that the writer so establishes common ground with the reader,etc.). Elicit what would come nextand why, and so on. Thenset the remainder the task as individual of work. Ask studentsto comparetheir answersin pairs.

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Task:Teacher'sBoEk- ModuleI - EssayWriting

gathering Task2 Information


21 Pairwork -ncouragethe pairsto think of types of information To source. help them in this task, draw their to attention the visuals. dependingon availability, Possible answers, nclude: books afticles newspaper journalarticles websites documentaries 2.2 Individualwork for offersthe opportunity studentsto This exercise so and weaknesses, the their strengths evaluate from studentto student. answerswill vary 2.3 Plenary to The plenaryprovidesyou with the opportunity your studentsthe find out which skillsareasworry could providea rationale most and this information work on areasof perceived for some remedial weaKness.

Answers: justicesystemfunctionsin a)HOW the criminal my country. by left b)The QUESTIONS unanswered the Big Bang Theory. to MO SOLUTIONS coping with sea-level ") rISES: . education on the effects of sea-levelrises r accurateforecastingof its hazards 4.2 lndividualwork Draw students'attentionto the languageissues signpostingsection: relatedto the essayorganisation subject,e.9.,This essaystarts a) Use of impersonal 'l of... (NOT will start".') definitions by discussing simple,e.9.,This b) Choicebetweenraril//present or then it will discuss... willfirstoutline...and essay it discusses... then Thisessayfirstoutlrnes...and e.9., In the first c) Typicalsentencestructures, phrase+ is defined.(prepositional section,X passivevoice)or The essayfirst definesX' ('The essay' as subject + active voice) Ask studentsto use a variety of structuresto 4.2. completeExercise 4.3 Individualwork Model this task for your students,possiblytaking to views about possiblesolutions the two different problemsof trafficcongestion and showinghow the thesis views would resultin different different your students' and correct Circulate statements. work where necessary. 4.4 Individualwork Returnto the two examplesyou modelledin 4.3 Exercise and show your studentshow the would differdue to statements signposting and Circulate in differences the thesisstatements. correct your students' work where necessary. Examoleanswer: There is growing agreement that the way to control the congestion that ruins our towns and cities is to tax the motorist. Ihis essay will argue for the use of various taxation poticiesto address the traffic congestion problem in Britain, using London and Edinburgh as examples. lt will first evaluate congestion charging as one posslb/e solution, and then discussthe effect of motorway tolls.
lask: Teacher'sEook- ModuleI - EssayWriting

Task 3 Arousinginterest: The introduction


As a lead-into Task 3 you could photocopya to numberof introductions essayson topics with your studentsare familiarand ask them to which givingreasons choosetheir favouriteintroduction, for their choice. 3.1 Individualwork/Pairwork Answer:a) 3.2 IndividualworUpairwork/plenary and correct Whilethe studentsare writing,circulate errorsin their work. At the end of the any language for task, collectsome examplesof first sentences the board.Then ask one of the essaytopics on which first studentsto work rn pairs,drscussing they preferand why. Elicitpreferences sentence and reasonsin a brief PlenarY.

Task 4 Writing a thesis statement


4.1 lndividualwork with the notionof a lf your studentsare unfamiliar idea,you shouldmodel the first example controlling on the board.

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5.1 Smali group,work of You could photocopythe sentences the per smallgroup, introduction onto card, one copy and ask the studentsto work in their groupsto reform the introduction, you Alternatively, could turn this activityinto a runningdictationby cuttingup one copy of the the onto one sentences and blu-tacking sentences Ask studentsto work in wall of your classroom. pairs,one playingthe role of runnerand the other that of scribe.Move a lineof desksto the far end of the classroom oppositethe wall with the sentences on it. Ask the scribesto sit behindthesedesks. to Clearthe otherfurniture the side of the room to provide a clearpath for the runners.Give each scribe five strips of paper to write the five sentences on. Tellthe runners run to the otherend of the to room, read a sentenceand memoriseas much of it and including punctuation, then run the as possible, back to their oartnerand dictate.The scribe notes to The runnerreturns memorise down the dictation. part,and so on. When all the sentences the next have been written down by the scribe,the pair should organisethe five sentencesinto a generalThe specificintroduction. pairswho finishquickest can then comparethe accuracyof theirdictation givenin the coursebook. with the sentences Answers: e), b), a), d), c) 5.2 Pairwork Answers: a) Statementse), b) and a) are generaland give to importantbackgroundinformation help the the readerunderstand contextof the oroblem. b) Statementc) is the thesis statement.The essaywill follow the order outlinedin the thesisstatement and willfocus on evaluating solutions. c) The body of the essay will requireat least six paragraphs sentenced) listsfour direct as The oroblemsand two knock-onoroblems. probablybe organised a as essaywill text. Problem-Solution-Evaluation

5.3 & 5.4 Individualwork/pairwork 5.3 Ask studentsto apply the criteriain Exercise to given in Exercise and make 5.4 the introduction notesin their coursebooks. Answers: Your studentsshould noticethat the thesis failsto explainthe focus of the essay, statement that the essaywill examine though it can be inferred the effectsof GM foods on people'senvironment and theirhealth. 5.5 Individualwork/pairwork Ask Take in and correctthe introductions. students to preparea correctedcopy of their introductions for a peer evaluation sessionin the next class. the Encourage studentsto referback to the criteria listedin Exercise to help with the task of 5.3 the evaluating introductions.

Unil

3 - rhe body theessay or

At the end of this unit studentswill: r have a clear idea how to structurethe main paft of an academic essay; o know how to plan and write effectiveparagraphs.

Task 1 Paragraph organisation


1.1 Individualwork/plenary Answers: a) true b)false c) true are figuresand statistics d)false - examples, Thereare threetypes of supportingmaterial. othertypes too, dependingon your discipline. opinionsgiven in e.9., paraphrasing/quoting authoritative sources e) false- as noted above,supportcan be given but throughquotingother authorities, you carl also paraphrase f) true

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fask: Teacher'sBook- ModuleB - EssayWriling

1.2 lndividualwork Answer: 1 The first episodein the Coca-Colastory is an in imporlantpart of the rise of capitalism the United Siates of America.Towards the end of century,Americagradually the nineteenth began to transform itself from a nation of industrialised society. farmersto a city-based, was epitomised by revolution The industrial and new communications the arrivaland This produceda new spreadof the railways. American a kind of capitalism, distinctive varietywherethe ethos centredfirmlyon the struggle. The immigrant imageof individual was on its wav. world of US business One of the most importantchangesthat successwas population helpedbusiness growth.The Americanpopulation almost 1880and 1910,a doubledin sizebetween from largepart of which was new immigrants Eurooeand the rest of the world. Success came from ambitionand hard work and anybodycould make largeamountsof money providedthey worked hard enough.Helpedby flockedto the successof some, immigrants the USA. By 1890,therewere alreadyover and 4,000Americanmillionaires Andrew who had made a fortunefrom Carnegie, the railways and iron and steel,was spreading "Gospelof Wealth". to Therewere, however,some disadvantages In the new businessenvironment. many parts of the USA,therewas more than an element of the Wild West. Conmen,thievesand came to the new towns that were swindlers lookingfor suitablevictims.A appearing, was that Coke second majordisadvantage patentmedicineand only a was originally produced about two oer cent of the medicines - most inventors and ever becamewell-known Thirdly,although failed miserably. salesmen largeprofitscould be made from all kinds of many of which often cost almost medicines, nothingto produce,by the late 1880sthe market for medicineswas alreadysaturated. Patent medicines,therefore,were not an easy areato break into. commercial

Another importantaspect of the siory is that the world of medicinewas not advancedat American this time. Nineteenth-century nor doctorswere not numerous, were they were still to be very good (anaesthetics inventedand some of the primitivemethods were used by the medicalprofession patientsthan they terrifying, killingmore This was the reasonwhy many people saved). the turnedto alternative remedies, so-called patentmedicines, solvetheir health to problems.By the end of the century,there were thousandsof cures on offer for every from the common cold to imaginable ailment, extensive malaria, of which required all and public places in advertising newspapers to promotetheir superiorvaluesover their competitors. that many To conclude,it is not surprising would-be tycoons were attractedby the rising numbersof consumers, and that the field of patent medicineswas an attractivestafting pointfor some. In 1869,Dr John Pemberton, a Georgiapharmacist,had moved to Atlanta searching make his foftuneby the discovery to perfectpatentcure. In 1886,afterlong of the yearsof research, finallylaunched new his he invention. was into this very crowdedanc lt marketthat Coca-Colawas over-competitive product. to emergeas a highlysuccessful

Task 2 Linkingwords and phrases


2.1 Individualwork Answers: Firstly= The first episode Secondly= One of the most imporlantchanges some Thirdly= Therewere, however, disadvantages = Fourthly Anotherimportantaspect = FinallY To conclude 2.2 Individualwork/pairwork Answers: Showingsimilarity in the same way Comparing contrasting on the other hand or Adding something equally important; another important aspect Givingreasons Showing cause and effect - as a result; therefore Givingan example- as shown by; for instance; like
Book - ModuleI - EssayWriling Task:Teacher's

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the answersto the question,

,,

in to ask students add to the linkers each "t,.ilO

work 4.2,4,3 & 4.4 Pairwork/individual 4.2, the task in Exercise Afterthe discussion remainingtwo exercisescould be set for homework.

Task 3 The topic sentenceand supportingsentences


3.1 Pairwork Answer: c) 3.2 Small group work Answer: ExampleA is a better-formedparagraph becauseit developsthe idea stated in the topic ln sentence. contrast,ExampleB tends to digressfrom the topic sentencestatement into an (challenges incomingfamilies) for humanrightsof incomers. argumentabout the 3.3 Individualwork Responseshere will vary. lt is a good idea to take this work in and check it.

Unil 4-ru,nmariesand
conclusions
At the end of this unit the studentswill: . havea clear idea of how to finishan academic conclusion. essaywith a successful

Task 1 Restatingthe thesis


1.1 Pairwork Answers:
Original lack ol consequences travellers major point discussed Synonym insufficient impact

an Task 4 Organising essay


4.1 Individual work/pairwork/small group work
Paragraph begins Topic Order 4

commuters
matn Tocus explored

the world of Another importantaspect of medicine the story is that the world of medicinewas not advancedat this time. Therewere, however,some to disadvantages the new business environment. To conclude, is not it surprisingthat many would-be tycoons were attractedby the rising numbersof consumers and that the field of patent medicineswas an attractive starting point for some.

disadvantages 3 to the business environment the field of patent medicines was an attractiveone for would-be rycoons

1.2 Individualwork/pairwork answer: Possible this essayhas arguedthat In conclusion, in investment Britain'spublic insufficient transport system has had a negativeimpact on commutersin this country.

the concluding Task 2 Organising paragraph


2.1 Individual work/pairwork and Ask studentsto do this task individually then compare answerswith a partner. Answer: b), a), d), c), e)

population One of the most important changesthat helped business growth success was population growth. The first eoisode in the Coca- the rise of Cola story is an importantpart capitalism of the rise of capitalismin the United States of America.

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Task:Teacher'sBook - ModuleB - EssayWriling

Task 3 Finishwith a clear statement


3.1 Pairwork answers: Possible a) Fastfood and its impact on healthin Britain. title = Discussthe impactof fast Possible food on healthin Britain. the b) In a similarvein to the introduction, plays a role conclusionstates that fast food dietaryhabits.The in Britons'unhealthy that adds the idea,however, conclusion of consumption fast food is an increased effect of changes in lifestyleand it is these of the that underlie development an Britain. unhealthy increasingly 3.2 Individualwork This activitycould be set for homework. 3.3 Pairwork answers: Possible Advantages: of You know the destination your essay. Your conclusionmatchesvour thesisstatement. Disadvantages: As you are writing,you may changeyour argument.lf you forgetto changeyour it conclusion, will not match your thesis statement.

1.1 & 1.2 Individualwork/pairwork Answers:


Feature Use of contractions isn't,don't, eIc. Use of fillers Well,...er eIc. Use of passive votce Informal/spoken Formal/written examples examples contractions u s e o ,e . 9 . , which'd used,e.9.,weL um,...er active voice preferred, e.9.,you could look at how human beings adapt themselvesto the environment, that's human full forms used, e.9., which, would not used more frequent, e.9., two main branches may be distinguished

lmpersonal and objective

Non-useof personal pronouns, e.9.,/,' the readeris not mentioned Use of personal p r o n o u n se . 9 . ,/ , fhrnk;addresses listeneras you Uses intonation e.9.,some sorf of mix of physical and social sciences Uses a clauseto expressan idea, e.9.,how they interact together

Personal and subjective

Punctuation lmprecise ranguage

Uses punctuation
Avoids imprecision

Task 4 Lecturerexpectations
4.1 lndividualwork This activitycould be set for homework.lt might form the basisof a tutorialif thesefeaturein your course.
Conciseness

Prefersconcise forms,e.9.,noun phrasesfor an idea,e.g. the interrelationof these features

Unil 5-n""oemicstyte
and register
At the end of this unit studentswill: . be more familiarwith the language essaysand of able to identifysome of the featuresof academic style; . have practisedusingformal,objectivelanguage.

1.3Pairwork Answers: a)l s)l b)F h)l c) F i) F d)r j) | e)F k)l f ) I D F

Task 1 Formalor informal register?


Lead in by focusingthe students'attentionon the visuals and eliciiingthe differencesbetweenthe formaland informalsituation.

Task 2 Gautiouslanguage
2.1 lndividualwork Answer: Hedginglanguage
Task:Teacher'rBook- MotluleB - EssayWriling

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Hedging feature hedgingverbs,e.9., appear to be

Example to Some colleges...aopear have... This would seemto be... Erlichman's findingssuggest . . . t h i s o u l ds e e mt o b e . . . w The surveytends to indicate that... This would seemto be... . . . t h i sm a y b e t r u e . . . the amountof independent s t u d ym i g h tb e . . .

appear to have large numbers of international students. It could be arguedthat, insteadof coming here,international studentsshouldstudy in their own country.

Use of modal verbs

This would seemto be a misapplication of policy. government To a certain extent,this may be true. Erlichman's findingssuggestthat the amount of independent study might be directly relatedto higherperformance levels. Evidence indicates that inflation probably will not rise next year. The surveytends to indicate that English schoolchildren apparently in favourof are not learning more foreignlanguages. Thereare undoubtedly situations wherethis would seem to be the only possiblesolution.

Qualifyingexpressions It could be arguedthat... To a certainextent,... Evidence indicates that... Adjectivesand adverbs ...inflation probablynot will nse. . English schoolchildren are apparently in favour... not There are undoubtedly where... situations solution. ...theonly possible

Set exoressions

Task 3 Registerin use


3.1 & 3.2 Individual work/pairwork Ask students to work through the task, compare with a partnerand then look at the original text in Unit 3, Exercise together. 2.1 Possible answers: A massivechange - one which reallyhelped business- was more oeople arrivingin the USA Therewere two times as many people who got here between 1880 and 191 and lots of them 0 came from all sorts of differentplaces like Europe. lf ypy wanted to be successfu/ you had to work really hard: however, ypu could get ich quickly if you did this. Lots of immigrants made it and becauseof this,lots more wannabe millionaires turned up ln fhe US. By 1890, America maybe had around 4,000 millionaires. One of the best was Andrew Carnegie, who Wt rich through trains and iron and sfee/. Hrs message was called the "Gospel of Wealth".

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Tark: leacher's Book- ModuleI - EssayWriling

3.3 Pairwork/individual work Ask studentsto work in pairsto identify and placeswhere hedging language inappropriate would be appropriate. Model answer: A further kind of useful alternative fuel is electricity. At present, this would not seem to be a very efficient fuel, because the technology is somewhat limited; however, it may be argued that recent advances in the production of electric cars could make this a reality in the future. Cars powered with electricity tend to releaselittle or no emissions,so fo maximise this benefit it would be advisable to encourage consumers to switch to buying electric cars. Changing consumer preferences may take some time.

2.2 P airworklsmal I group work/plenary Possible answers:


Redrafting: things to work on: paragrapns Gonsiderations r the right structure r each paragraphhas a main idea o paragraphsare in the right order . . . . articles sentencegrammar word order accuratelink words

grammar

length of essay

respectthe instructions accurateuse of technical


IETMS

vocabulary
argumenl

Unil

for E - or,oetines thefuture

At the end of this unit the studentswill: . understand editingand redrafting processes the in essaywriting; o havea clearerunderstanding what lecturers of from a pieceof academicwriting. expect

o evidence supportsthe claim made in a paragrapn e the mainclaimssupport the thesis statement r the thesis statementis echoed by the summary in sentence the conclusion o the argumentis relevant to the questionset . accuratequotations . accurateparaphrasing o adeouateand accurate referencing . accuratebibliography . impersonal, objective IOne o formalvocabulary, e.9., latinate o full forms r avoidscolloouialisms language and idiomatic

sources

Task 1 Thingsto remember


1.1lndividualwork to will Answers varyfromstudent student.
formal style

Task 2 Redrafting
2.1 Plenary Answers: a) probablya minimumof two of b) . relevance the answerto the title; . logicalorganisation ideas; of . substantiation claims; of o accurateparaphrasing; . adequatereferencing and bibliography; r accuratelanguage.

Task 3 How to get a better mark


3.1 Pairwork Ask studentsto discussin pairsthe answersto this task. Answers:

c),0
3.2 IndividualworUplenary Ask studentsto make a note of their own examples. Then elicitsome of these in a brief plenarysession.

Task:Teacher'rBook - ModuleI - EssayWriling

E9

Marking criteria ideas generallynot made clear and often smallrange irrelevant; weak paragraphs; of vocabulary;grammaticalstructureis verv limited ideas generallyclear but not always very relevant;some lack of paragraphing; limited range of vocabulary;limited grammaticalstructureat times or lacks any satisfactoryorganisation developmentof ideas;vocabularyuse use of very weak; unsatisfactory generally failsto grammatical structure; meet the requiredpass standard clear excellenttext organisation; ideas; paragraphs with well-expressed wide range of vocabulary;good use of grammaticalstructure good text organisation with generally relevantideas;adequaterangeof vocabularyand grammaticalstructure

Mark (%) 40-49

50-59

Answers: Paragraph 1 Topic sentence key words: Urban = overcrowding has becomea global phenomenon Support examples and evidence: Riseof = megacities around20 millionpopulation impoftanttrend in last 20 years,e.9., New York Paragraph2 Topic sentence key words: Reasonsfor growth:economicsecurity-r megacities' imorovedsocialconditions Support examples and evidence:Cities WW developas economiccentres,e.9., post-2"d Sydney,Sao Paulo+ Frankfutt; megacities: Tokyo- expandedin linewith the city's economicgrowth Paragraph3 Topic sentence key words: No. 1 problem = to countries poverty+ inability developing of densityin cities cope with high population Support examples and evidence: Rural) live in shantytowns on edge of urban migration: livingconditions; unsanitary city. Problems: infectious diseases.Vaccessto healthcare + education Paragraph4 Topic sentence key words: Two main outside both relocateurban population solutions: cities. '1"'solution Support examples and evidence: housing e.g.,Shanghai resettlement, resettlementproject - successful) social + economicbenefitsBUT not addressproblemof urbansprawl. Paragraph5 Topic sentence key words: 2"dsolution = relocationof employersto rural areas Suppoft examples and evidence:e.9., sites in ruralareasbecomebusiness brownfield parks- successful Canada& UK BUT: in by 1) requireslong-terminvestment government as peoplewill only relocateif have better transPoft etc. housing,education, , accordingto 2) threatto ruralenvironment environmentalists.

30-39

70+

60-69

T a s k 4 A m o d e le s s a y
4.1 lndividualwork Answers: Essay title: Discussthe problemsassociated possible and evaluate with urbanovercrowding solutions. 4.2 lndividualwork/pairwork Ask studentsto work throughthe questionson their own and then comparetheir answerswith a paftner's. Answers: a) The writer arousesinterestin the reader by of the underlining globalnatureand actuality the problem. b) The purpose of this essay is to identify to solutions some of these problemsof urban their and attemptto evaluate overcrowding feasibility. 4.3 Individualwork After students This task lends itselfto homework. they should haveworked on the task individually, noteswith a Partner. compare

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Task:Teacher'rBook - ModuleE - EssayWriling

4.4Paiworn Answers: &2 a) paragraphsl b) paragraphs4&5 3 c) paragraph 4.5 Pairwork Answers:


a) suggestionthat long-termmeasureswould benefitthe lives of all city dwellers about the type of solutionsthat b) generalises work well, i.e.,long-termones would 4.6 Individual work/Pairwork examples Ask studentsto work alone,underlining compare of assertivelanguagefirst. They should with a partnerand then work as a pair, adding cautious languageto the text. Answers will vary from pair to pair. lf you have a large class, you could give half the pairs a photocopy on OHT of the first half of the text, and half a photocopy on OHT of the second half of the text. When each pair has identifiedoverly assertivelanguageand rewrittenusing cautious languageon the OHT, the pairs could be asked to presenttheir new versionto the class, explaining why the changeswere made.

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Task 5 Write an essay outline


5.1 Individualwork as Thistask couldbe set for homework studQnts in out fromcarrying research orderto wouldbenefit theirclaims. substanliate 5.2 Smallgroup work plansin small theiroutline to Ask students present to the othergroupmembers groups.Encourage givenin givefeedback usingthe set of criteria Task5.

fark: leacher'r Book- Module.E Ertly Wrlllng

7l

issues the the features,ldentify main in by Give main Examinedetail an andgive informed or the characteristics up. dividing ldentify points. opinion. events. main

is what something how Assess important Show Look themost at Describe main the examples. is, using or useful somethinglt like, aspects of of elementstwoor moreimportant to both is ina how things show they something balanced likely include to and i.e., and Possibly way, advantages positive negative are similar. forand points. disadvantages; the explain against. of the consequences similarities.

Tesk: T:*hrr'r

Eook - ModulpI - Erray Wrlilng