Cultural Issues and Values
Following are various reading texts, passages and articles from a variety of sources. All of them are related to the theme of Cultural Issues and Values. Each of them is followed by a number of comprehension questions of the same kind that may appear in the national exam. So take your time, work on each text, do the different comprehension tasks and train for the exam. Enjoy. A. Alioui.
Culture: Definitions and Comparisons
Read the following definitions of culture taken from different sources: Based on what you already know about culture and on the information you have got from the definitions above,answer these questions: Questions 1- What is culture? 2 List the words that are mentioned in almost all the definitions? 3- What does “ transimitted behaviour” ( def. C ) mean?” 4-What does “ human behaviour” refer to? 5-Is it important to learn about people’s culture? Why?
A- Culture, in the larger sense of the word, refers to all of thelearned characteristics of a people, language, religion, social mores, artistic expressions, beliefs, and values. In some cases a culture can be tied to a geographical region, whereas in other cases a culture exists largely independent of geography.
B- Culture is referred to as being the common beliefs, values, material things, and language shared by a particular group of people and transmitted from generation to generation C-The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. Culture is learned and shared within social groups and is transmitted by nongenetic means. D- The sum of attitudes, customs, and beliefs that distinguishes one group of people from
speech.What values does the statement mention? 2. Issues arise when groups of people believe another group is wrong in their behavior. and artifacts and depends upon the human capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations. from one generation to the next. This is where the term Cultural Issues comes from. We will promote life long learning among students and staff.”
Following is a set of interesting questions and answers. 1.The integrated pattern of human behavior that includes thought. material objects.What role do good values play in society and in the school? 3. Read them and answer the questions that follow: What is a culture? Different cultures have different patterns of behavior/ways and norms of living. In the US. certain aspects of their behaviors may be perceived by US citizens as not healthy (not within the US "norm" of behavior). and art. ritual.What does “ to endorse honesty and integrity mean?” Milestone School Value Statement “We will promote good citizenship and social justice within the school community. However. Each sub-culture has new or different sets of behavior or ways of living that may at times be perceived as wrong.
What does "we" refer to? What does " their" refer to?
Misunderstandings also happen between sub-cultures in our own country. E. Culture is transmitted. Europeans stand approximately 1/2 the distance from another person when talking as opposed to Americans. We endorse honesty and integrity as key foundations to character building. which may make an American feel very uncomfortable. others and property. through language.
.another. institutions. defined as achieving one’s individual potential. action. An example of a foreign culture might be a person coming from China to the United States. for each and every student. A good example is the distance Europeans stand from others when talking. We will approach every situation as a caring community by respecting self. Such as betweenwhite and black Americans. what we generally mean by different cultures are foreign cultures and sub-cultures within our larger US community. we’re not aware of what healthy behavior is for that culture. or between a small US Italian community and a Jewish Community. A Chinese person has patterns of behavior that are normal and healthy in his or her home community. We will facilitate academic success.
Remember. but the early US revolutionary leaders modeled their ideas of government after certain Native American nations. Explain the underlined words. anger. we learn early in our lives to accept stereotypes of groups. So instead. rather than ourselves or the specific person. etc. Unfortunately. When we have problems with someone of a different group. instead of being in touch with our actual feelings of hurt.bounds"? What can we learn from other cultures? There is so much to learn everywhere in the universe. Wouldn’t we feel more comfortable if we were all the same? It’s doubtful. or to separate "their" behavior from "my" behavior. that’s how "those people" are. It’s just a fact of life that different cultures have developed. We don’t know that there’s ever been a situation in which all people were the same. rather than the problem.Why do misunderstandings happen between cultures? Why do we use stereotypes? We use stereotypes in part because it’s so hard to take in all of the complicated information about other people in the world. but smaller ones. whether that’s spiritual. or individuals. they supposedly give us a general overview of whole groups of people so we know what to expect and how to act. we don’t always agree with. if we are different enough. the belief will remain that someone did something to us. It’s difficult to spend the amount of time necessary to understand why or in what different ways people behave. It makes us veryjudgmental about others and unfortunately often erroneously so. being slighted. People are individuals and we are all unique even within cultural bounds. In spite of
. the way we work or organize our societies. so many stereotypes are inaccurate and are used as a method of scapegoating. What should we do to understand other people and their cultures? How do stereotypes affect the way we think and feel? Stereotypes eliminate the challenges of understanding people who are different from ourselves. Stereotypes prevent us from identifying the feelings that are really going on inside us. or executive males. What does the writer mean by saying: " People are individuals……. there’s no single culture that seems to have had a corner on all the best ways to be in the world. When we’re stereotyping we get caught up in the issue of that’s what "they do". So stereotypes do get in the way of how we think and feel. or rigidity/closed thinking being within ourselves. We develop stereotypes not just for large cultures. With stereotypes. and develop negative/ugly descriptions (stereotypes). people can be fearful of the differences. dietary. confusion. or like the way another cultures behave because it is different. So people are different from each other. It takes more work to get to know people who are different from us. fear. It’s not well known. And yes. such as police officers. Mexican Americans. and we therefore perceive it as wrong.. we tend to identify the problem as having to do with the group. women. left-out.
Despite the fact the US has been. It’s important to always keep a mental note of that. react to countries/cultures that treat women with even less respect? Where do we draw the line between difference in culture (none of our business). Americans have used their productivity mainly to increase their consumption but partly to increase their free time. How much of that statement is true? Language differences exist within each culture as well as across cultural boundaries. versus women in Saudi Arabia or Kuwait. and to make an effort to help others understand us better. We are very different as individuals. the idea is that different does not mean wrong. There may be more things similar between cultural groups of the same race than across cultures of different races. How much do societies that are a little more progressive. early US intellectual leaders used Native American ideas to plan democracy. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. and they are still held to strict behavior guidelines. There isn’t a simple answer. How does language affect relationships? Different people and different cultures use different words. For example. Cultural differences are more about human development. Jay Leno on the Tonight Show recently joked that a study showed men and women interrupt conversations about the same amount. we have disagreement about the "amount" of oppression we’re willing to let another culture put on women. the oppression of women in the US. but not much more. Men and women also use words differently. 1. there are issues that create tension between cultures.having an overall disrespect for Native Americans. women were just recently given the right to drive cars. and continue to grow as individuals. (like the US).
. and not so much about skin color. One man’s work for one hour in an American factory or farm produces on average twice as much as one hour’s work in Britain. and to ask others for clarification when we’re listening and understanding their language. referring to women as "girls"). even when trying to say similar things. What does "they" refer to? 2. and still is very oppressive to women (through restricting their roles. and as a culture. and our humanity and compassion for people who are oppressed? It’s an ongoing balance to decide how we’re going to view the cultural differences. There is a real problem in how we communicate. except women do so to add support and understanding while men do so to add their own story. We have literally hundreds of cultures in the world. How does languages solve the problem of misunderstanding? What’s a healthy view of cultural differences? It’s actually just an extension of a healthy view of human differences. However. sexual advertising.What does " our " refer to ? Is culture the same as race? Absolutely not. We can learn from others (like Saudi Arabia andKuwait). while we have only a handful of races. Generally.
Read this text and answer the questions that follow: Private Life in America.
2) . CAnswer these questions about the text:
1.Are these sentences true or false? Justify 1. 2. 3) . Americans invite their friends to their homes more than most people in Europe.Americans when they are free concern themselves with their homes and with their activities at home. even the private swimming pool is no longer reserved for the very rich.American kindness towards a new comer is not warm. and round the large cities the houses spread immense distances from the centers.a dream (parag. They are also very interested in each other. One of the first activities at home is making things. A. Parties for children and for grown-ups are constantly occupying the leisure hours. 3. and when a new family moves into a suburban house the neighbors will be calling at once to see if they can help in any way. and very large numbers of them have achieved that ambition. usually with something to drink.In what ways has the problem of personal social barriers been overcome in America? D. There is a strong incentive to spend much free time at home when the home is well-equipped. comfortable and attractive. 2. mending things and working on the car.3) .it ( parag. including England.
3. 3) . 1) . Most people have an ambition to own house in a little piece of ground.chiefly (parag. Once an American has reached his home he is interested in working to improve it and in making it as pleasant as possible.What do the underlined words in the text refer to? 1. 4. bringing it home in the car and storing it in the deep-freeze. In this sense America is much like England than it is like the rest of Europe. 4) Globalization
What is Globalization? What are the advantages of globalization? What are the drawbacks of Globalization? What effects does Globalization have on culture? Such questions are among many
.Having a house of one’s own means nothing to Americans. The problem of personal social barriers has been overcome very much more successfully than in any part of Europe. 2. and in most parts there are at least three programs to choose from. 4.Read the text and find words that mean almost the same as: 1. Even the modern American woman is accustomed to buying all her food in weekly visits to the supermarkets.Why do the Americans try to improve and make their home pleasant? 2. Apart from that there is television.When free.attractive (parag. Americans spend much of their time outdoors.continuously ( parag. In their new suburbs Americans are extremely friendly and hospitable.that (parag.their ( parag. 4) B.
Globalization creates new markets and wealth. even as it causes widespread suffering. Money. Reading text: Globalization Over many centuries. The following text gives you a clear idea about what Globalization means. transportation. technology and raw materials move ever more swiftly across national borders. global economy but it has also given rise to important global initiatives for change. However. political. disorder. and unrest. As a result. It is common to discuss the phenomenon in highly generalized terms. The globalized world sweeps away regulation and undermines local and national politics. show understanding. Read it and do the comprehension tasks that follow. a number of questions may be raised about what drives the process. Along with products and finances.html
Expressing Lack of Understanding and Asking for Clarification:
One of the most obvious and logic consequences resulting from the difference between cultures is «misunderstanding and lack of understanding between people speaking different languages". just as the consolidation of the nation state swept away local economies. dialects. and social movements are forming at the international level. and economic changes. there are different ways to check for understanding. Cases of Globalization explore the various manifestations of interconnectedness in the world.org/globalization. The great financial crisis of 2008-09 has revealed the dangers of an unstable. Multinational corporations manufacture products in many countries and sell to consumers around the world. economies. but globalization's impacts are often best understood at the local level. laws. and computer technology have given the process new impetus and made the world more interdependent than ever. Recently. cultures and political forms. deregulated. how it changes politics.globalpolicy. The following chart
. The term globalization encompasses a range of social. In English. ideas and cultures circulate more freely.other questions about Globalization. http://www. and how it affects global institutions like the UN. Unprecedented changes in communications. the pace of global integration has dramatically increased. ask for clarification and express lack of understanding. noting how globalization affects real people and places. Globalization expands and accelerates the exchange of ideas and commodities over vast distances. human societies across the globe have established progressively closer contacts. It is both a source of repression and a catalyst for global movements of social justice and emancipation.
please? I'm not sure I get what me? alright! you mean. Asking for clarification Do you mean that. Go through the chat carefully and do the exercise that follows:
Checking for understanding Do you know what I mean?
Expressing lack of understanding. Could you be more explicit? I don’t understand exactly what you mean. mean. Would you mind explaining Are you following that a little more. I didn't catch your first/last idea about. please? I can see what you I don't quite follow you.? (I'm sorry. please? this. What are you trying to say? I don't get it.. Could you explain that Are you with me (so more fully.
Do you know what I I got/ get it. I'm not following you..
.. am saying? Do you understand? I understand. please? I got your idea. What was that again? far)? Have you got it? Any questions? I know what you mean Could you tell us a bit more I’m not sure I’m getting about that.
Could you go over it again.contains a number of English language functions mentione above..) I don't understand What do you mean?