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THE EXCAVATION AND THE CERAMIC ASSEMBLAGE Author(s): R. J. RODDEN, GILLIAN PYKE, PARASKEVI YIOUNI and K. A. WARDLE Reviewed work(s): Source: The British School at Athens. Supplementary Volumes, No. 25, NEA NIKOMEDEIA I: THE EXCAVATION OF AN EARLY NEOLITHIC VILLAGE IN NORTHERN GREECE 1961-1964. THE EXCAVATION AND THE CERAMIC ASSEMBLAGE (1996), pp. iii-xx, 1-212 Published by: British School at Athens Stable URL: . Accessed: 21/08/2012 04:10
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List of Figures List of Tables List of Plates List of Abbreviations Preface,byK. A. Wardle Chapter Introductionand Acknowledgements, R. J. Rodden by 1.1 Preamble 1.2 Characterand Location of the Site 1.3 Aims and Methods of the Excavations Acknowledgements Stratigraphy, Gillian Pyke by 2.1 Introduction 2.2 VerticalAssociations 2.2.1 Group 1 2.2.2 Group 2 2.2.3 Group 3 2.2.4 Group 4 2.2.5 Group 5 2.2.6 Group 6 2.2.7 Group 7 2.2.8 Group 8 2.2.9 Group 9 2.2.10 Summary 2.3 Horizontal Associations 2.3.1 Group 1 and Group 2 2.3.2 Group 3 2.3.3 Group 4 2.3.4 Group 5 2.3.5 Group 6 2.3.6 Group 7 2.3.7 Group 8 2.3.8 Group 9 2.3.9 Summary Structures and Architecture, Gillian Pyke by 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Buildings Walls 3.2.1 Floors 3.2.2 The account of F6/1 3.2.3 Construction 3.2.4 Size and shape of buildings 3.2.5 Settlement 3.2.6 ix xiii xv xvii xix 2 5 6 9 9 16 16 18 20 22 22 24 26 27 29 30 30 30 30 32 32 32 33 33 34 34 39 39 39 39 41 41 42 44 47

Chapter 2

Chapter 3


CONTENTS 3.2.7 Summary 3.3 Features 3.3.1 Pits 3.3.2 Ovens and hearths and granaries 3.3.3 Storage Ditches 3.3.4 The EarlyNeolithic Yiouni Pottery: Technology, Paraskevi by 4.1 Introduction 4.? Methodology examination thematerial of 4.2.1 Macroscopic examination thinsections of 4.2.2 Microscopic of 4.3 Manufacture Vessels 4.3.1 Coiling 4.3.2 Pinching 4.3.3 Mat impressions 4.3.4 Scraping of 4.3.5 Application bases and lugs 4.4 Surface Coating 4.4.1 Red-brown slip 4.4.2 Pinkcoating 4.5 Firing Examination 4.6 Ptrographie Introduction 4.6.1 4.6.2 FabricA 4.6.3 FabricB-i 4.6.4 FabricB-2 4.6.5 FabricC 4.6.6 FabricD 4.6.7 Fabric of 4.6.8 Ptrographie analysis painted pottery of of 4.7 Discussion theResults Ptrographie Analysis of 4.7.1 Diversity fabrics of inclusions clay and 4.7.2 Sourcelocation non-plastic of inclusions 4.7.3 Addition non-plastic of 4.74 Refining clay The EarlyNeolithic Yiouni Pottery: Typology, Paraskevi by 5.1 Introduction of 5.2 Sampling thePlainPottery Treatment 5.3 Surface 5.3.1 Plainpottery 5.3.2 Decoratedpottery of 5.4 Analysis theShapes 5.4.1 Methodology 5.4.2 Neckjars 5.4.3 Hole-mouthed jars 5.4.4 Askoidvessels closedvessels 5.4.5 Slightly rim 5.4.6 Open vesselswith anglefrom 85-900 rim vesselswith anglefrom 5.4.7 Open 60-840 rimanglesmaller than6o 5.4.8 Open vesselswith 48 49 49 50 52 52 55 55 58 59 60 60 60 61 61 62 62 63 63 65 69 71 71 72 73 73 73 74 75 75 76 76 76 78 78 81 81 82 84 84 86 92 92 94 95 95 96 96 97 97

4 Chapter


CONTENTS Handles 5.4.9 Bases 5.4.10 5.4.11 Legs 5.4.12 Comparison of shapes of plain and decorated vessels 5.4.13 Comparison of fabrictypesand quality of paste 5.5 Intra-site Development 5.6 Conclusion The Early NeolithicPottery: FunctionalAnalysis,byParaskeviYiouni 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Estimationof the Number of Pots fromNea Nikomedeia 6.2.1 Recovery rate Rate of production 6.2.2 Functionof Vessels 6.3 6.3.1 Cooking vessels 6.3.2 Storage vessels

vii 97 99 100 101 102 103 104 181 181 181 184 184 186 186 191 195 197 209

Chapter 6

Appendices A The Radiocarbon datingof Nea Nikomedeia (Summaryin Greek), byParaskeviYiouni Bibliography Plates

1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.1 1 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 Map of Macedonia showingthe location of Nea Nikomedeia. Plan of the mound showingthe extentof excavation. A preliminary plan of the 1963 excavationsof the Early Neolithicbuildinglevels at Nea Nikomedeia. Plan showingthe structural groups. recordedat the base of each spit. Plan of the area excavated in 1961: features recordedat the base of spit 1. Plan of the area excavated in 1963/64: features recordedat thebase of spit 2. Plan of the area excavated in 1963/64: features recordedat the base of spit 3 Plan of the area excavated in 1963/64: features and below. Plan of Group 1 by phase. Plan of Group 2 by phase. Plan of Group 3 by phase. Plan of Group 4 by phase. Plan of Group 5 by phase. Plan of Group 6 by phase. Plan of Group 7 by phase. Plan of Group 8 by phase. Plan of Group 9 by phase. used duringthe excavationsat Nea Nikomedeia Grid systems Plan of structural phase 1. Plan of structural phase 2. Plan of structural phase 3. Reconstruction a Nea Nikomedeia house. of Plan of the 1961 excavationshowingthe locationof the two ovens. Plan of the ditches. Nea Nikomedeia. Geological map of the area surrounding relativefrequency burnishedvessels and vessels witha of Plain pottery: surfacecoating. of Relative frequency the different typesof decoratedpottery. of Relative frequency the different typesof impresseddecoration. Neck jars. Neck jars. Neck jars. Closed vessels withrimangle largerthan 115o (hole-mouthed jars). Closed vessels withrimangle largerthan 115o (hole-mouthed jars). Askoid vessels. closed vessels withrimangle from91-11 40. Slightly closed vessels withrimangle from91-11 40. Slightly closed vessels withrimangle from91-1 14o. Slightly closed vessels withrimangle from91-11 40. Slightly Open vessels withrimangle from85-900. Open vessels withrimangle from85-900. Open vessels withrimangle from60-840. Open vessels withrimangle from60-840. Shallow vessels withrimangle from60-840. ix 2 3 10 11 12 13 14 15 18 20 21 23 24 25 27 28 29 31 36 37 38 43 50 53 68 105 105 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120

5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 5.32 5.33 5.34 5-35 5.36 5-37 5.38 5.39 5.40 5.41 5.42 5.43 5.44 5.45 5.46 5.47 5.48 5.49 5.50 5.51 5.52 5.53 5.54 5.55 5.56 5.57 5.58 5.59 5.60 5.61 5.62 5.63 5.64

LIST OF FIGURES Open vessels withrim angle less than 6o. Open vessels withrim angle less than 6o. Ring based vessels. Flat based vessels. Round bottomedvessels (1-3); pedestal bases (4-6). Legs frompolypod vessels (i-6);unpierced lugs (7-9); (12); sherddiscs (13-14). Z-shaped lugs (10-11); spindle-whorl Distribution rim diametersforneckjars. of Distribution rim diametersforclosed vessels withrimangle of largerthan 115o (hole-mouthed jars) Distribution rimdiametersforclosed vessels withrimangle from91-11 40. of Distribution rimdiametersforopen vessels withrimangle from85-900. of Distribution rimdiametersforopen vessels withrimangle from60-840. of Distribution rim diametersforopen vessels withrimangle less than 6o. of Distribution rimdiametersof painted vessels. of Distribution rimdiametersof impressedvessels. of Distribution basal diametersof plain vessels. of Paintedvessels withrimangle largerthan 115o (1-12); Painted neckjar (13). closed paintedvessels withrimangle from91-1 14o. Slightly closed paintedvessels withrimangle from91-1 14o. Slightly closed painted vessels withrimangle from91-1 14o. Slightly closed painted vessels withrimangle from91-1 14o. Slightly closed painted vessels withrimangle from91-1 14o. Slightly closed paintedvessels withrimangle from91-1 14o. Slightly closed paintedvessels withrimangle from91-1 14o. Slightly closed paintedvessels withrimangle from91-1 14o. Slightly Open painted vessels withrimangle from85-900. Open painted vessels withrimangle from85-900. Open paintedvessels withrimangle from85-900. Open paintedvessels withrimangle from85-900 (1-7) and from60-840 (8-14). Open painted vessels withrimangle from60-840. Open paintedvessels withrimangle from60-840. Open painted vessels withrimangle from60-840. Open paintedvessels withrimangle less than 6o. Painted body sherds. Painted base sherds. Applied decoration:sherdswithraised bands. Applied decoration:sherdswithraised bands and blobs. Impresseddecoration:vessels decoratedwithfinger pinchings(1-4); nail impressions (5-8) and instruments finger (9-11). Bases decorated withsharp pointed instrument. Plain pottery: correlation surfacetreatment fabrictypes. of and Plain pottery: correlation surfacetreatment paste quality. of and Relative frequency fabrictypesin plain, impressedand applied pottery. of Relative frequency surfacecoatingin plain, impressedand applied pottery. of Relative frequency fine,medium and coarse vessels in plain, painted, of and applied pottery. impressed Relative frequency vessel shapes in plain, paintedand impressedpottery. of Relative frequency open, closed pots and neckjars in first of and second buildingphases. Relative frequency different of vessel forms fromthe threebuildingphases. 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 130 131 132 134 136 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 152 154 156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 177 178 179 179

LIST OF FIGURES 5.65 5.66 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Relative frequency surfacecoatingin the threebuildingphases. of of Relative frequency fabrictypesin the threebuildingphases. Calculation of the surfacearea of a vessel withrimangle 85-900. Correlationof fabrictypeand vessel form. and vessel form. Correlationof qualityof texture and Correlationof surfacetreatment vessel form. and Correlationof surfacetreatment vessel form.

xi 180 180 183 187 188 189 190

2.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5.1 5.2 6.1 6.2 6.3 35 Depths of the spitsforeach group. 45 Buildingdimensions:phase 1. 46 Buildingdimensions:phase 2. 47 Buildingdimensions:phase 3. List of thinsectionsexamined withthe polarizingmicroscope. 56 Chemical compositionof slips and coatingsof the Nea Nikomedeia vessels, 57 studiedby SEM. at List of sherdsrefired 8ooC for40 minutes. 58 Surfacecolour of the plain vessels fromNea Nikomedeia. 64 84 Sampled excavationsquares fromthe main excavationgridof Nea Nikomedeia (1963 season). on Relative frequency (%) of the lip-types represented the Nea Nikomedeia plain 93 vessels. Averagesurfacearea (cm8),volume (cm3),occurrenceand the diameter/height 183 vessel forms fromNea Nikomedeia. ratioof the different Thicknessof occupationdepositsof the Thessalian siteswithearlydecorated 185 wares. Measurementof the weightof 1 litreof cereals and pulses. 192


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 (a) The plain of Macedonia showingthe low mound of Nea Nikomedeia and the foothills. surrounding ForemanYiannis Papadopoulos (left)withothermembersof the Greek workforce. (b) (a) At workclearingthe site in 1963. (b) Excavation of the same area. mound, taken fromthe north (a) & (b) Aerial views of the easternhalf of the settlement of west, 1963. Structures Groups 1, 2, 5 and 6 are visible on the left;Group 4 is the in excavated structure the centre.(Photographs of courtesy the Greek ArmyAir Corps.) (a) Group 2 Structure squares A6-A8 and B6-B8. 3, (b) Close-up of Group 2 Structure squares A6-A8 and B6-B8. 3, (a) Group 4, fromsouth east. (b) Group 4, fromnortheast. 1 (a) Group 4 Structures and 2, fromeast. 1 the 2 (b) Group 5 showingone wall of Structure (right), cornerof Structure (bottomleft) and Late NeolithicTrench(across centre). 2. (a) Group 6 Structure [b) Group 9 in squares TB1-2 and Tgi-2 withLate NeolithicTrenchin foreground. {a) Miniaturevessel withtracesof pinching. (b) Sherds showingthe methodof base attachment. (a) Thrust lugs'. (b) Red brown slip (crossedpolars 170X). (a) Pink coating(crossedpolars 170X). (b) Pink coating(crossedpolars 42 ox). (a) Fabric A (crossedpolars 170X). (b) Fabric A (crossedpolars 170X). {a) Fabric B-i (crossedpolars 170X). (b) Fabric B-s (crossedpolars 170X). [a) Fabric C (crossedpolars 170X). (b) Fabric D (crossedpolars 170X). (a) Fabric (crossedpolars 170X). (b) Charred plantinclusions(crossed polars 170X). (a) White on Red paintedware. (b) Sherds impressedwithfinger tips. nails. {a) Sherds impressedwithfinger pinchingand finger (b) Sherds impressedwithfinger pinching. (a) Sherds impressedwithfinger pinching. nails. (b) Sherds impressedwithfinger


AAA Am. Anthr. Am. Antiq. BAR BCH BEFG PPL PPS R/W SEM WA W/R American Anthropologist American Antiquity British Archaeological Reports de Bulletin Correspondance Hellnique of Bulletin theExperimental Firing Group of of Bulletin theInstitute Archaeology, of University London Planepolarised light of Society Proceedings thePrehistoric Ware Red on White electron microscope Scanning World Archaeology White Red Ware on


The excavation the GreekEarlyNeolithic of Nea Nikomedeia, of site directed the for British Schoolat Athens Dr. R.J. (Bob)Roddenwith support Professor the of Grahame by in landmark the development Clarkbetween 1961 and 1964, was an important of in one oftheearliest settlements archaeology Greece.It was clearly prehistoric farming in Europe- although not C14 perhaps as earlyas thefirst determinations suggested extensive excavations a settlement in Greece.The collection of and one ofthefirst site of remains paJaeobotanical and faunal was to from conception its samples integral theproject and the studyof the changing an landscapeand environment essential adjunct.The of werealso exemplary thepottery for study early years theensuing drawings, example, in weredonebyDr. David Biernoff accompanied a detailed and included this volume, by Munsell colournumbers thebodyand paintcolourofeachsherd. for including catalogue in The preliminary (1962, 28: 267-88), The reports theProceedings Prehistoric Society ofthe London News(April 11 1964, 564-7; April 18 1964, 604-7) ^d Scientific Illustrated interest continuing and debate.Was American (1965, 212 (4): 83-91) arousedimmediate in Europeor whether it goingto be possibleto determine developed Europeanfarming east?How fardid thesettlement from was imported from further continuity represent in Greece?- one ofRodden'schief interests before activity Epi-palaeolithic preceding was stoneindustries thearea.It is no exaggeration of to theexcavation theearly chipped thatthefullpublication thissitewas amongone of themosteagerly of awaitedin say werefurther Greekarchaeology: whetted theexcellent appetites by publications van by Zeist and Bottemaon the plant remainsand physicalenvironment [ActaBotnica Neerlandica 1971, 20 (5): 524-38). him concentrating the essential Rodden'spoor healthprevented on detailof Sadly, whichmustprecedereasonedpublication, muchmeticulous the study work although was completed. theyearspassed,new discoveries new techniques As and robbedNea Nikomedeiaand its excavatorof the impact of noveltyand to some extentof its but of never sight thegoal offull lost significance, he and hisloyalcolleagues publication whenthiscould be brought about.I am privileged have helped in a smallway to to to of bringthispublication press- at Rodden'srequestand withthe encouragement RobertCook, Professor Professor Colin Renfrew and Dr. Sebastian Payne - and workon the especiallyofJudithRodden.Late in 1991, I was asked to coordinate excavation finds and record a first towards as step publication. in Fundsgranted 1992-3 by theBritish the School at Athens and Academy, British of Cambridge enabled us to support postgraduate a student a year to for University the of and at complete study thestratigraphy architecture thesite,as well as to prepare an interim finds as essential to thespecialist of catalogue prerequisites study thedifferent of We in classes object. wereespecially fortunate Gillian that whograduated Ancient Pyke, in and Archaeology the University Birmingham July 1992, was able to at of History undertake taskand to see it to a successful the as conclusion, demonstrated her by contributionthis to volume. thedifficulties ofgrappling thirty old records with Despite year and understanding stratigraphy an excavationwhich she could see only as the of in theabundant she to a record, hasmanaged produce coherent represented photographic


the on studies be based.In themeantime, can Paraskevi Yiouni picture which remaining had been studying Early Neolithicpottery a Ph.D. dissertation, the for under the of at in of supervision Dr.JohnNandris theInstitute Archaeology London,which placed initsSE European Nea Nikomedeia context. Thesetwoelements, stratigraphy the securely and theEarlyNeolithic form core ofthepresent the volume.Bob Roddenhas, pottery, in ofcourse, considerable assistance interpreting records the where there could provided for be no substitute autopsy, has written introduction and an outthebackground setting to theexcavation recording own thanks his excavation and his to team.Especialthanks are due to RaynaAndrew incorporating thedifferent for all elements preparing and the finalversion thetextcamera-ready. are also grateful Nigel Dodds and Harry of We to for and for Buglass helpwith plansand drawings, toNicolaWardle typing thepottery up and preparing decorated the forpublication. catalogue pottery figures Thisvolume beenprepared an EscomPC using has on AldusPagemaker Microsoft and WordforWindows.The textis set in Baskerville and printed a Hewlett on Packard LaserJet usingPostscript. The secondstageoftheworkhas been to allocategroups finds specialist of for study and we aregrateful theBritish to theBritish SchoolatAthens theInstitute and Academy, forAegeanPrehistory funds in for theseaspectsof thework. granted 1993 to support The secondvolumewillcontain full the finds and finds distribution catalogues prepared GillianPyke, with accounts somecategories finds of of suchas the by together summary stoneand clayobjects. a of ground Rosemary Paynewillcontribute study thenumerous bone tools,one of thelargest SE from Europe,and Antiklea will assemblages Agrafioti her analysisof the chippedstonetoolswhichare potentially important so for present theorigins theNeolithic Greece. in of Nandris preparing account is his understanding John of thevariedrangeofhumanand animalfigurines from siteand Paraskevi the Yiouni willconclude volume the with study Nea Nikomedeia itsGreekandBalkancontext. a of in A consolidated indexfor bothvolumes willalso appearin thissecondvolume. We expectthat willtakeplace oftheburials human further studies and remains (Theya bones(Sebastian advanced Molleson)and animal Payne)butthesearenotyetsufficiently to allowtheform theeventual of to publication be determined. The staff the 17thEphoriaofPrehistoric ClassicalAntiquities, of and based in Pella, havegivenus every assistance encouragement complete various and to the of aspects the I study. can only hope thattheyfeel theirexemplary patiencehas been sufficiently in rewarded this which Bob Roddeninspired towhich many and so publication colleagues have gladlydevoted I their particularly on proudto have been able to assist: extended visit Macedoniain 1969 Bob mademe welcome Verroia to in myfirst study - introduced to Greekcolleagues theEphoria, as he did so manyothers in me and set me on theright track. K. A. W.

Chapteri Introduction
(plates 1-3)

1.1 PREAMBLE Thisvolume describes excavation theEarly the of Neolithic ofNea Nikomedeia, site located mainland Greeceto thesouth theBalkanheartland thegateway and between and roughly of to Europeto thenorth (fig.1.1).In thecontext recent Aegeanand Balkanprehistoric the of radiocarbon levelsat Nea Nikomedeia, studies, excavation theearliest consistently bc millennium (uncalibrated), particularly for specific datedto thesixth was important two becauseofthelargeareaofthevery neolithic settlements reasons. First, exposed and early in in thehouseplansrecovered and secondly theexceptionally (sometimes incompletely); in of animal bonesand smallfinds their largequantities pottery, spatialand stratigraphie context. In successive of morethan1900 squaremetres theEarlyNeolithic of years excavation, were settlements excavated. muchofthis For 'window theprehistoric all remains into past' and thus werestudied recorded, allowing thepossible for future of testing various sampling the and of the techniques questioning future viability 'sondages'or trialtrenches, usual sites.At the timeof the Nea Nikomedeia appliedto multi-period technique prehistoric a question sampling of had for excavations, 1961-4, procedure particular importance the in ofa Tre-pottery neolithic' thebaseofneolithic at mounds Thessaly, Northern recognition Greece. is Nea Nikomedeia justsucha multi-period neolithic settlement mound.Composedof successive ofbroken, deteriorated weathered and remains clayand mud-walled of layers such knownas 'toumbas'(including Nea structures, sitesin Macedoniaare traditionally In Thessaly thesouth, which term siteis nowknown the to such Nikomedeia, by locally). of sitesand features the landscapeare knownas 'magoulas';in the southern Balkans as 'mogila';and in theNearEast (where mud-brick thetraditional is (Bulgaria) building material Hell' theterm is we consider used), Here,indue course, shallfirst generally applied. thecharacter location thesite, importance finally, aimsoftheexcavations. and of its and the


1 Nea Nikomedeia 2 Verroia 3 Thessaloniki

fig..: MapofMacedonia the of showing location NeaNikomedeia. 1.2 CHARACTER AND LOCATION OF THE SITE

The major dimensions the Nea Nikomedeiasettlement of mound are approximately of areaof one-twelfththetotal 22OX nom; theareaexposedtherefore represents roughly settlement 1.2).The archaeological evidence indicates theEarly that Neolithic settlement (fig. extended the'skirt' edgeofthemound. to or The moundatpresent rises mere2.50-1.50 a m above thesurrounding or some 10.50 m abovepresent level (plate 1 a). On sea plain the the from c. site, surrounding slopesfrom south-west, a surface 9.25 m above sea plain levelto thenorth-west themoundand to a contour 8.00 m above sea level.1 of There of are twohighpoints- summits hardly word - thenorthernmost is the as serving the triangulation point for what is both possibly the earliest detailed topographical
1 These are of figures a compilation a GreekMinistry of Agriculture contour map of the area and a detailed topographicalsurveyof the mound undertaken by R. J. Rodden and keyed into the closest national reference pointas of 1963. topographical triangulation



fig. 1.2: Plan of the mound showingthe extentof excavation.

and to of prior thedrainage thePlainofMacedon.The map oftheregion one ofthelatest is of 'toumba' Nea Nikomedeia locatedapproximately kmNorth EastofVerroia, 30o 10.5 in Latitude 36114". themajortown thearea; or EastLongitude 151 22o 40o 41.5",North The subject theenvironment thePlainofMacedonat thetime theEarlyNeolithic of of of of is and of one, occupation Nea Nikomedeia a complex problematic butobviously critical in understanding events thetimeofoccupation. boththeplainand the at As importance sitearein an areaoftectonic as sea-level and,in thelongterm, instabilitywellas ofvarying of climatic no or would,in change, geologist, geomorphologist, palaeobotanist historian take thiscircumstance, 'the present the key to the past' as fixedand forgranted. as Thishaving been said,atthis we Nea juncture can onlydefinitively portray Nikomedeia in relation thePlainofMacedonattheturn thecentury, preceding drainage to of i.e. the of theplainin the 1920's where, least,topography, and marshland historically at lake are documentable. reference The we is available, point havetaken a widely essentially military in of 1910,accurate topographical detailand showing precise the and notso precise map In borders themarshland of Lake to (LakeLudias).2 relation the surrounding Yiannitson
2 Topographical detail of the Plain of Macedon can be found in GreeceIII, G B Admiralty Handbook, Naval Division, 1945, whichcontainsmaps showing Intelligence the area prior to and afterdrainage.


rivers withlargecatchment areas in theVermion and local streams regional rangeand is the courseof the RiverTripotamas. This particularly noteworthy bordering uplands, from uplands the thenenters plainand passesthesite the Verroia behind, passesthrough before into and south-western ofNea Nikomedeia, border of flowing themarshy ill-defined Nea also thelake,'richin wildfowl'. Nikomedeia lay close to thesouth-western border of in theLakeLudiasmarshland.5 while theuplands courses the remained However, unchanged the forthelastfewmillennia, behaviour thesamestreams of the uponentering plainand that thelake/inlet thesea would much of of be moresensitive therelatively changes to small in theland/sealevelsin the Thermaic not minortectonic movement Gulf, to mention the south Yiannitsa Pella. of beneath plainitself and in the in of During 1920's,majorchanges thephysical appearance theplain, thenumber and ethnic of and took composition itsinhabitants in thevillageand other 'place-names' to intoGreeceof hundreds thousands Greekand of place. First happenwas theinflux in orthodox Christians 1922-23 in one of themajorrepatriations modern of speaking On involved part) resettlementGreeks the of native (in history. theplainofMacedon,this to thePontos itis said thedescendants ancient of Greekcolonieson thesouthern and eastern Turkish/Russian shores theBlackSea reputed reachbackto Classicaltimes. of to We namedthesiteafter nearby the nowknown Nea Nikomedeia;4 earliest as the village, boththemoundand thevillage werereferred as Branyiates.5 to mapsshowthat After influx population, enormous the of an of canalization landdrainage and project river oftheplainwas undertaken, in Illustrated London News 1925.The waters of of reported The theMoglenitsa other and rivers thePelles of which were contributors region previously large to Lake Ludias,were diverted intothemajordiversionary canal on theplain; it passes of theplain to join theHaliakmon Riveron the southernmost along thewestern edge borderof theplainand thence intotheThermaic Gulfor GulfofThessaloniki. what At musthave been roughly sametime, the whatremained thelake and streams of draining thesurrounding werechannelled a dendritic into of canalsusedboth plain pattern smaller fordrainage irrigation and before the further thenorth theHaliakmon to of entering gulf route theformer of RiverLudias. by The mound, several metres abovethelevelofthesurrounding wastheobvious lying plain, choiceof road-fill causeways for leadingintotheplainand behindthesiteontohigher To our excavations was done by a forked this ground. judge from heavyearth-moving material downto - butnotbelow - thelevel of the surrounding bulldozer, clearing not to all plain;and fortunately, deep enough remove oftheEarlyNeolithic deposits. Atthetime, finds the cametotheattention Professor of at of Petsas, theEphoria Antiquities forWestern who appreciated their forGreekprehistory Macedonia, possiblesignificance and stopped further destruction themound. thesummer i960, he directed late of In of the Dr. David Clarkeand myself thesite, one deserving to as further investigation. Thorough examination themoundindicated great of the of as promise whatcame to be known the
5 That the to Early Neolithicsite lay in close proximity marshlandsis also reflectedin the extensive importance of reeds in building construction. Nikomedeia was an important city in northwesternmost Turkey:a contenderforthe capital of under Constantineand a major cross-roads for Byzantium

the Roman road systemin Asia Minor. Branyiates, Nea Nikomedeia's previous name, is possibly Bulgarian (afterthe verb 'to defend*)in origin: no surprise, here, for Bulgarian cultivatorsof Turkish being the rule on the 'lower plain' of Macedonia chiftliks as late as the nineteenthcentury.


overa large areaan occupation to neolithic site' exposing 'lower for early belonging thevery Greece. ofmainland 1.3 AIMS AND METHODS OF THE EXCAVATIONS

and of the wereundertaken of The excavations Nea Nikomedeia during summers autumns of the assistance mainly students 1961, 1963 (themainseason)and 1964 with invaluable - mostof whomcame from universities Cambridge Harvard- and of an and of the the of workmen from village Nea teamofGreek and enthusiastic soonrapidly experienced headedby Mr.Yiannis Nikomedeia, (plate 1 b and plate 2). Papadopoulos the was of the the From outset mainthrust theexcavations on thelowersiteand towards in mindthedistribution whilst neolithic structural oftheearlier remains, keeping exposure finds. Towards location small of bonesandtheaccurate and ofcontemporary pottery animal theseendsI think in themain- we weresuccessful. in Waterbolk Modderman the and was usedby Professors The method employed that thelate sites Bandkeramik in the Netherlands of excavation theEarlyNeolithic during had been soil Once the disturbed or 'plough'6 1950's and usingthe same equipment. lowersitea comparatively area,generally or 64 at Nea Nikomedeia's removed, 32 large followed thickness to 20 wouldbe excavated one spit's m2, (approximately cm) at a time, made forthe with Dutchshovels the surface or shaving excavated specially by scraping were to discolorations as atNea Nikomedeia used designed reveal Properly these purpose. remains appear did of and wall-slots, pits.Some structural post-holes theoutlines refuse settlement to theoriginal the to excavation: be precise, twostructures belonging during discovered weregenerally remains Otherstructural had been destroyed fire. that by by and excavation a secondorthird scraping looking of this spit, following technique, scraping culture fill.By in fawn-coloured of forpatterns discoloration an otherwise uniformly which a areas - viewedfrom 6-7 m highladdertower and scraping large excavating abovetosee emerging from area couldbe movedfrom toareaas required itwaspossible at and which wouldbe quiteindecipherable ground of level,or patterns postholes wallslots in if smaller areaswereexposed(plate 3). Over muchof thelowersiteexcavated late of was a scantsinglespit'sthickness area TX and TY 1-12) there 1964 (i.e. 1963-early features thevirgin and between structural the but with which work, thecontrast to deposit reached70 of the defined. Closerin towards centre themound, soilwas clearly deposits fill from in the upperspitswas features in thickness the taskof differentiating and cm it could indeed:interpretation dependuponthetimeofday,whether was cloudy difficult or clearand howlongsincethelastrainor latest scraping. of the usedduring 1963 and 1964 seasonswas basedupona grid The recording system and scraped or Several, morelikely four, 4 4 m squares. squareswouldbe excavated and and by simultaneously thenmapped.The pottery animalbone werecollected these in as classified the laboratory it arrivedfromthe unitsand cleaned and the pottery to The from units laid outforclassification according was excavations. pottery adjacent - to look forjoins,particularly squaresnextto one from reference a standard system meansforcorrelating another thereby and deposits. contemporary providing another yet
6 Since bulldozing,the lower site had been 'shallow-ploughed* draughtanimal methods. by


in located wereclassified thefield, between.7 'Smallfinds' Alas,such joinswerefewandfar notebooks before of into within accuracy cm and entered thefield an beingsentto the laboratory. werefewand farbetween onlythosewhich had been vertical sections and Meaningful weeks longer or revealed natural differences left weather three to for ordinarily stratigraphie in and within culture Thosestudied drawn the fill. wereofbaulksdefining majorintervals had been left Excavation individual of thesitegridand which standing. squaresalways fill facewhereany variation from normal the uniform was notedand a kepta vertical in section drawn thesite-book thesquare.In thelastanalysis, was whatmight for it be - thedemonstrable intersectionone structure another of called'horizontal stratigraphy' by - which enabled successive to one another, building periods be distinguished from together with direction orientation buildings thematerials methods the or of and and usedin their construction. the of and Bycontrast, 196 1 excavations thelowersitewereless effective theexposure ifonly andmapping structural of features mademoredifficult, becausea grid of system 2 x was usedand a muchsmaller area oftheearlier neolithic excavated 2 m squares deposits In atone time. sum, a areawasexcavated, inthesmaller excavated area although large only downto virgin werestructural soil in features defined and mapped,as reported clearly Rodden 1962. As in 1963-64,thepottery animal and bonesfrom 1961 excavations the wereidentified squareand spit.'Smallfinds' however werenotlocatedso precisely as by in the 1963 and 1964 seasonsand theclosest find was by square. spot Immediately adjacent to the 1961 excavationsof the lower site was Area L, a smallsection all in of also excavated comparatively through of thedeposits themound, m in areaandwas excavated . AreaL measured in 20 cm 1961 only5 (unnecessarily) once therather thick overburden disturbed Neolithic of Late was spits deposits removed.8 The pottery smallfinds and from in Area L have notbeen studied detail.Butas in later recordwithdrawings the 'smallfinds' of was keptby the site seasons,a documented The stratigraphie that studies havebeenmadeindicate earlier an neolithic laboratory. deposit, as muchas 1.50 m in thickness, overlain the deposits a muchlaterLate of perhaps by Neolithic the feature whichwas a seriesof concentric of occupation, majorstructural 'defensive' theinnermost which through earlier of cut in the neolithic ditches, deposits the Area L sections. and the other Late Neolithic ditches thesite,werepickedup as at It, intrusive features the of clearly during excavations thelowersite.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS It has been manyyears sincetheexcavation theEarlyNeolithic of settlement ofNea site Nikomedeia began. Despite the intervening it is with great gratitudethat years is and who acknowledgmentmade to thoseindividuals institutions made theexcavations sucha successand stillof contemporary relevance Greekand BalkanEarlyNeolithic to studies.
7 The smaller number of such joins also suggeststhat at 'treadage' and 'scuffage* the timeof occupation played little role in the distribution objects at Nea Nikomedeia. of deep, heavy tractor-drawn ploughingof the top of the mound. 8 This disturbance was due to


Becauseoftheir to indeedthevery existence theexcavations, of importance thesuccess, at theoutset acknowledge it is a particular to thosepeoplewhoseassistance was pleasure the to crucial from beginning theendofthedig.Especial mention must madeofProfessor be his Clarkfor intellectual and SirGrahame guidance advice;ofthelateDr. HughHencken, whosehelp the majorfinancial without of support the UnitedStatesNationalScience would not have been obtained;of Professor Foundation PhotiosPetsas,at the time in the whoseday-to-day Service Western Macedonia, representing GreekArchaeological far his and finally, notleast,of but and year-to-year extended beyond formal duties; help whotookon thesometimes butvitally task Rodden, important mywife, Judith unexciting the ofdirecting excavation laboratory. financialsupportmade the Nea Nikomedeiaprojectpossible. The International of excavations 196 1 weremadepossible 'seed' grants from Crowther-Benyon the Fund, by of and of the Faculty Archaeology Anthropology, University Cambridge, British Academy and theWenner-Gren Foundation Anthropological for Research. The majorexcavation seasonswerein 1963 and 1964.Thiswork, andlaboratory the including laboratory study 1965,was sponsored grants ofthefinds from United the States National Science during by awardedto and administered Harvard for Foundation, by University. Subsequent grants of and thecompletion thestudy recording all categories finds of of from Nea Nikomedeia the weremade by theBritish excavations FordFoundation and Academy, Traineeships the at ofCalifornia Berkeley. University The excavation seasonsat Nea Nikomedeia wereundertaken under auspicesofthe the The would havebeenpossible British SchoolatAthens. work not without administrative the of theSchool and itsDirectors theduration theexcavations of and support throughout laterstudy The GreekArchaeological Serviceprovided and periods. unfailing support I prefer think thevery in of to afforded bothinstitutionsterms of great help by guidance. in and the individuals toacknowledge lateDr. Papadimitriou locally Verroia, Professor and, J. Dr. Photios Dr. and Petsas, KatieRomiopoulou, YiannisTouratsoglou thelate Dr. Maria of the Mr. and,onbehalf theBritish School, Director, Sinclair Hood,theAssistant Siganidou the and Mr. Director, lateDr. PhilipSherrard thesubsequent Director, A. H. S. Megaw. and Lady Clarkand thelateMr.R. F. W. ('Squire')Hutchinson Professor Grahame Sir tooka mostactive and valuable seasons. The main partin the 1961 and 1963 excavation in ofassisting thearchaeological on site inthelaboratory, undertaken or was excavations, part from Harvard and Cambridge the of Universities, efforts all ofwhom by students, mainly a deal to thesuccessoftheproject. contributedvery The namesofthosewho took great in excavation seasonsarelisted below. part theseveral 1961 Savvas (Peterhouse) Antoniou, J. DavidJ. (Trinity) Blackman, Rona (Newnham) Brockbank, Clark, Margaret Charles W. (St.Catherine's) F. Higham, H. Movius, Geoffrey (Harvard) G. (Trinity) Nandris, John RobinE. (King's) Oakley, Colin (St. Renfrew, John's) Whinney, SybilM. (NewHall) 1963 Cathleen (Radcliffe) M. Campbell, M. (NewHall) Chapman, Angela Choderow, Nancy(Radcliffe) Clark, Margaret Ian Clegg, M. I. (Queen's) Cohen,MarkN. (Harvard) (Clare) Cooper, Christopher J. C. Cramm, Leslie (Peterhouse) Andrew (Christ's) M. Fleming, Jones, Margaret


Tom Jones, Lionel (St. Masters, J. John's) C. Nicholas(Peterhouse) Moore, Murray, Georgina (Edinburgh) Petsas, (Thessaloniki) Angeliki Colin (St. Renfrew, John's) von Strachwitz, CountRupert White, Peter(St. J. John's) 1964 Britton, S. (Radcliffe) deceased. Jane David O. (Antioch McNeil, College)

1963 continued

G. SchoolofArt) Poole, Judith (St.Martin's - deceased NoraM. (Radcliffe) Ronhovde, AimeM. (Radcliffe) Wilson, Dr. Yealland, Susan workonly) 1965-1969 (laboratory E. and Mock,Renita (Berkeley UCLA) The Hon. Cressida(University of Ridley, LondonInstitute Archaeology) of Villa,Paola (Berkeley)

Molleson,Theya (Edinburgh)

Mr.YiannisPapadopoulos thevillageof Nea Nikomedeia, of who actedas Foreman, deserves mention his ability co-ordinate workforce forhis quick for to the and particular of He men graspoftherequirements theexcavation. headeda teamofup to twenty from thevillage, whose as of invaluable knowledge farmers thelocalsoilconditions quickly proved in an archaeological context. Thisis also an uniqueopportunity thank 22ndSquadron theGreekArmy to the of Air the officers thepilots, and Nikolas Tountas and Skarzas, Corps, senior Capt.Christos Capt. in of Capt. AndreasKolliopoulos,fortheirassistance takingaerial photographs the excavations a crucial at on stage, namely, the22ndand 24thAugust 1963. Valuablemedicalsupplies weredonated the 1961 seasonby BootsPureDrug Co. for Welcome Co., & Ltd.,theBritish Ltd.,Burroughs DrugHouses Ltd.,CIVA Laboratories & & Ltd.andParke, David & Co. Dr. L. (Gt. Ltd.,Smith Nephew Johnson Johnson Britain) of HealthService in assisted thepreparation Officer, Hawtrey May,University Cambridge ofa listofnecessary medicalsupplies. The personal for but work responsibility important, unpublished, hasbeena considerable burdenovera number years.It was in thiscontext of thatI recently close approached friends a viewtohanding with overpublication an ad hoc to committee Professor comprising LordRenfrew, Professor M. Cook andDr. Sebastian R To satisfaction Payne. myimmense Dr. Kenneth Wardle theresponsibilityover of an archaeologist accepted seeing publication: who probably knowsas muchaboutprehistoric Macedoniaas W. A. Heurtley in his did owntimeseveral generations ago.


Chapter2 Stratigraphy
(plates 4-7) 2.1 INTRODUCTION In viewoftheearly dateofthesiteanditsimportance thehistory human of for settlement inGreece estimate theduration thesite's an of of andthecontinuityoccupation of occupation arevitalconsiderations. establishmenta stratigraphie The of the sequencewas considered in thepresent first of step study thesite. A preliminary ofthestratigraphy published Roddenin 1964 in relation was to by study the 1963 excavation on which Rodden (Rodden1964 c). Thisconcentrated thestructures to The structures assigned theEarlyNeolithic. accompanying oftheEarlyNeolithic plan two eachdivided intotwosubphases. Features considered (fig.2.1) shows building phases, wereomitted tobe Late Neolithic from plan. this In order clarify to further interpretation stratigraphy decidedtogo back this ofthe itwas dataand produce independent to theoriginal an account thephasing. of and The accounts sketch the plansandtheoverall notebooks, site plansin theexcavation siteplanshowed that foundation the trenches couldbe interpreted structures parts as or of and structures thatsome of thefoundation trenches through cut others. The foundation heretermed groups, trenches formed as wherestructures clusters, appearto have been in built succession (fig.2.2). task The first was to establish sequenceofstructures the within eachgroup. The plan of within group each structure a was defined examining siteplansand theaccount the in by notebook each square.The siteplan whichI prepared show the the excavation for to in found each spit(^fig. 2.3,the 1961 excavation; features figs.2.4, 2.5 and 2.6 which in showthefeatures each spitseparately 1963/64) for was usedto find in which out spits thefoundation trenches wereobserved. Wherethesame foundation trench in occurred several itwas necessary determine, to where whether spits the weredug at spits possible, different trench dugto different was was a slopein levels,thefoundation levels,or there theoriginal The vertical between structures a groupwas the of topography. relationship in the one trench through cut another. investigated considering instances which foundation by The secondtask was todetermine horizontal the ofthestructures acrossthe relationship in site.In squares which foundation trenches werefound levelofeach spitwas noted. the This was done usingthesection in the excavation notebooks withthe depths drawings in recorded relationship thesitedatum to m above sea level). (6.85








/^^^ "^^rfll -^^C'


fig. 2.1. A preliminary plan of the 1963 excavationsof theEarly Neolithicbuildinglevels at Nea Nikomedeia.1

1 After Rodden1964 c, 115 fig.2. Storage and refuse Late Neolithicfeatures have been pits and intrusive

omitted thesakeofclarity. for




' ff


CO 4-

V >



^ //




5m / I A

l r /!l

fig. 2.3. Plan of the area excavatedin 1961: features recordedat the base of each spit.2

were were The section that drawings alsousedtocheck theplansofthestructures credible, in different in different in cases wheretheir foundation trenches squares. appeared spits the The depths which spits at the weredugandtheir thickness sometimes explained location in trench ofa foundation trench different in different the beingat spits squares; foundation levels. a consistent excavated different at level,butthespits being in the enabledthecomparison thedepths thespits which earliest of of Thisprocedure wouldappear werefound. washopedthat earliest It the structures structures eachgroup of wouldsupport their to at a similar level,which phase.The belonging thesamebuilding of The whichconsisted less thanthree same was done withthelaterstructures. groups which were to structures investigated see ifit was possibleto identify phasewas missing, it and whether was thesamephasein each case.
2 AfterRodden 1962, facing272, Plate XXXVIII.



3 ci



8 I S

,^. ^ ';
r^ .. (| :_










'- co





*** -



vus .'* ,o I If rC rJl ' vi

~Ja Vi

'S 'S





^2 % CO

* T3




II ''


aj U *





in to the between the The mainproblem encountered attempting establish relationships was that sections full acrossthesitewerenotdrawn becausethe excavation groups during weredealing witha single excavators believedthey phase site,and testpitsdug in each to Therefore onlysections the which wereavailable square gaveno indication thecontrary.5 in whichweresketched theexcavation werethose notebooks theexcavators each of by In several which of had notbeen completed. theareasM5-8, L5-8, K5-8,J5-8, square, it to H5-8 and TX1-6, TY1-6 onlya single was dug,thereforeis notpossible relate spit within these with thestructures absolute groups certainty. 2.2 VERTICAL ASSOCIATIONS

The vertical association the structures of within each individual the groupestablished dimensions shape of each structure. is clearthatduring excavation and It the there was over of in uncertainty thedelineation thehouseplansin somecases.Thisresulted thesite with in mindand thecorners thestructures theoverlaps drawn this of and of plansbeing wallsbeingleft ambiguous. in The information the siteplanswas combined withthewritten accountand sketch in theexcavation in notebooks order assemble fullest to the of plans possibleaccount the structural within eachgroup. sequence 2.2.1 Group 1 This groupof buildings (fig.2.7) appearsin squaresB8-9, C7-10, D7-10 and E7-8. Thereare three in structures this 1 area.Structureis squarewith three overlying complete wallsandpart thefourth. dimensions approximately x 6.50 m. Structureis of Its are 2 7.40 with single a wallandpartoftheadjoining wallspreserved probably rectangular complete and is at least7.40 x 6.80 m. Structureis rectangular one complete and partof with wall 3 thetwoadjoining wallspreserved. dimensions this The of are 8.80 x 7.70 m. building structure 1 The earliest structure thatof E7-8, D7-9, C7-9. The excavation is notebook givesno account thestructural of remains squares and C9. WallA in C8/2 is mentioned for as C7 cleaneddowntobase.Thisimplies itis earlier that than other which the wall being appears in this A as after square.In squareD7/2,Feature is described a wallwith burning. Shortly this feature mentioned, final cm ofthespit dug,suggesting thewallappears is the is that 5 low at and fairly in spit2. In squareD8, wallA appears thebase ofspit2. It was sectioned, thissectionis labelled in the excavation notebookas 'spit 3', lendingweight the to that is In is distinction interpretation thestructure theearliest. squareD9 there a definite the between lowerwall', 1 and toStructure the'upper which runs wall', belonging diagonally across and belongs a later it to structure. excavation The notebook account also states that the'lowerwall' continues joins PitC in squareC9. The sketch and forE8/2 in the plan excavation notebook shows that wallsofStructurebelongto this rather the 1 thanspit spit 1, which moreconsistent thegeneral is with in ofthestructuretheother appearance squares.



in notebook these that wallswouldlineup with those D8/ of It is alsonoted theexcavation A hardwhite which c. 5 cm thick observed was within angleofthewalls, the 2. layer may be thefloor.

lies of The secondstructure thisgroup in squaresD8-10, C8-10, B8-9. The excavation the of 2 account thewallsin D9/2 showthat wall ofStructure was namedthe notebook in as at wall'.It was interpreted thetimeofexcavation beinghigher thespit(and 'upper 1, was labelledthe'lowerwall'.The thanthewallofStructure which was therefore later) of consistent appearance the'upperwall' in bothspit 1 and spit 2 in the siteplans of the of and D 10 supports interpretationStructure as laterthanStructure 2 1, squaresDg in notebook for twowallsare firmly spit 2. In theexcavation theother entry although trench does appearon is of but squareD 10 there no description structures thefoundation in of the wall'ofsquareD9 is notshown thesketch spit of a sketch spit2. Similarly, 'upper of 1 in theexcavation notebook does appearin thesketch spit2. Thereis no structural but notebook. for account squaresCio, B8 and Bg in theexcavation 1 In comparing plansof Structures and 2 it is clearthattheyhave verydifferent the Structure is significantly thanStructure although and 2 1, orientations, that exactly larger lies is to how muchlarger impossible tellbecause the southeast wall probably in the area. unexcavated

in of is The latest structure this D8-g, C8-g and B8-g. Thereis no group found squares in of notebook squares D8 and Cg. In thesketch for account theexcavation structural C8, of as a B8/2thewallofStructureis indicated having hardwhite whilethat Structure fill, 3 in of trench fill. of 2 had theusualculture Similarly, thesketch Bg/i,thefill thefoundation while ofa nearby that as of ofStructureis described consisting hardyellow-white material, 3 that This supports interpretation boththesewalls the was trench a softer greymaterial. In as of to thesamestructure. thesketch Dg/2 thewallofStructure is indicated 3 belong bothappearin thesame spit.The thatof Structure ('upperwall'),although 2 overlying acrosssquaresD8, Dg, of trench of running inconsistency theappearance thefoundation thesection and C10 in bothspits1 and 2 can be partly D7~Dg in which Cg explained by but thetopofspit1 is at thesamelevel, thebase ofspit1 in squareDg is about8 cmlower the the that squareD 8, so that foundation of trench couldappeartowards base ofspit than 1 in squareDg butat thetopofspit2 in squareD8. The sameis true squares andBg, of B8 notebook. and is confirmed thesection from excavation the by drawings wallsofthis structure safely identified, itmaybe that second can but the be Onlythree excavation was obscured thevarious which short wasnotnotedduring wall or among pits the It wall, appearat thatend of thestructure. is possiblethatthesepitsrepresent final a wall. Similarly wall the whichcouldhave been simply line ofpostssupporting light a and thestructure couldhave had one open end. It seemslikely mayneverhave existed wallsarelostat thesamepoint, marks end ofthese that thetwoparallel as this the walls. in Thisinterpretation 2.7) agrees general terms with Rodden's 2.1 above) (fig. plan (fig. in in which identifies he several structures this the building phasesand assigns three group in a comparable way.



E7 M WallA


MV /

Wall Upper

I Feature I V^ A/1 '1

Wall Upper

ti D7



9! ''



C8 ^^

11 {jf'


1 [^X] Structure
0 1 2 3 4 5m | ^H I Structure 2 Structure 3

fig. 2.7. Plan of Group 1 by phase.

Thisgroup covers B6-8, A5-8 andO6-7. Thereappeartobe atleasttwostructures squares as of (fig.2.8),butthesiteplansare confused to thesequenceand layout thesebuildings. 1 Structure is a rectangular all It wallsof whichare preserved. measures building, four size 2 1, 6.48 approximately x 6.80 m. Structureis ofa similar andshapetoStructure with Its all four wallspreserved. dimensions 5.92 x 7. 12 m. Structure(plate4) is probably are 3 A wallspreserved, with possible one a entrance. short length squareand has twoadjoining ofa third wallis preserved. is possible It that remainder this the of walland theadjoining If no trench found, was werecomposed a light of stakebarrier. wall,ofwhich foundation

2.2.2 Group 2



thepostholesin squares to a A6, B6 and B7 are taken represent less substantial the wall, measures structure 4.20 approximately x 4.70 m. In hisinterim in the of (Rodden1964 c) Roddeninterprets group terms a single report to structure Structure as a feature the of 3 relating theEarlyNeolithic, clearly regarding and it. LateNeolithic therefore of trenches he omitting The remaining complex foundation as structure divided intoa largesquarecentral unevenly compartment interprets a single This form structure also of is flanked twosmaller rectangular compartments. complex by seenin group4/2. 1 the The ground by plansof Structures and 2 wereestablished examining areas of in spit 1, as shownincompletely the siteplans.This survey was originally on burning the and to of of undertaken investigate nature thedestruction thestructures thepossible that but when wasdiscovered no consistent it of location ovensandhearths, wasabandoned keywas used on thesiteplans. the which couldbe safely identified Whentheareasofburning using siteplansand the showed planof the entries weredrawn on a planofthesite, out notebook excavation they fire. which apparently was of thelater thetwooverlying structures, by destroyed

was The earliest structure locatedin squares A6-7 and B6-7. The westwallwas notwell The and narrow fragmentary. eastwallis alsofragmentary and defined excavation, is very by confusion over the There was evidently withnarrowsectionsin the northern part. as this walland that Structure whentheplansweredrawn, the of between 3 relationship the as one. wallis shown overlying later earlier structure 2 farther in squaresA6-8, B6-8 and O7. It is east The secondstructure appearedslightly and in to structure. ofthenorth south Parts similar size,shapeand orientation theearlier to it wallslie overthoseofStructure and theplansshowthat was difficult distinguish 1, excavation. the between twoduring in wallscan clearly be was Thisstructure located squares A7-8 and O6-7. Twoand a half a marked a pairofposts. Halfofthewallopposite one identified, with possible doorway by and that angleofthewallchanges thepoint at is the this also preserved, it seemspossible trench lost,to becomea light is form postwall,which of also forms where foundation the wall.This is represented theground on holes.The wall theadjacent plan as post/stake of which wholly is the composed a postwall,is opposite onlysolidwall ofthestructure. in that was The siteplansindicate thestructure found spit1.



/[B6 /

B7 /S')y > /

B8 -I

(/ ^s
0 1 2 . 3 4 | 5m j |


' Staicture 1 k'l

Structure 2 H Structure 3 ^BB

Oo |


fig.2.8. PlanofGroup2 by phase. 2.2.3 Group 3 in of This group (fig. 2.9) consists a pair of structures squaresE00-E2, D00-D2 and Coohave been completely revealed by excavation.Both seem C2. Neitherof these structures 1 withsides measuring to have been located in spits 2/3. Structure may be rectangular cornerin square Coo is correct. southern Its wall lies 9.00 m and 6.80 m, if the tentative withinthe unexcavatedarea. Structure is rectangular. From the two virtually 2 complete walls the dimensionsof the buildingare 10.90 x 7.50 m.

This structure appears in squares Do, Di, Coo and possibly Ci and C2. From the site thisstructure 2. appears to be lyingunderStructure Althoughthereare no sketches plans this the accountsforsquaresCoo, C 1 and D 1 regarding structure, information or structural in the excavationnotebooksforsquaresDo and Coo suggests thatthisstructure appears in In theaccountof D0/3 thereis a clear sketch the angle of thewall of Structure of 1, spit3. and and mentionis made of the clearingof wall 1 in spit3. In C1/3 thereis a description sketchof Wall A. The wall is described as 'plaster/clay lined', and thiswas shown by a sectionof the foundation trench takenon the C0-C1 line. The structure consistsof two definite walls,whichjoin in the cornerlocated in square Do. Anotherpossible corneris tentatively markedat the end of the wall passing through into an area whichwas not excavated. It seems Co and Coo, whichleads off squares Do, feasiblethatthewall located in C 1-2 is theone running parallelto wall Do-Coo, the only It is unfortunate the squares Ao-Aoo that drawbackbeing thatit appears excessively long. and Bo-Boo were not excavated as thesemighthave clarified problem.It is clear that the some explanationis necessary thepresenceofthisfoundation for as trench it appears to be



at thesame generallevel as the definite walls ofStructure Rodden omitsthisfoundation 1. his plan (fig. 2.1). trench from

This is located in squares E00-E2, D 1-2 and C00-C1. There are threewalls fairly clearly 1 whichthesiteplans indicateare overlying Structure. The finalwall is probably preserved, located in the unexcavatedarea bordering Coo-Eoo. There are no structural accountsor sketches squaresDi, D2, Ei or E2. In the sketch for of C1/2, Wall A of Structure is shown as havinga whitish 2 clay fill.The sketchof E0/2 shows a wall whichis said to be a continuation thatof square Eoo and is recorded as of 2 havingbeen cleared. There is no accountofEoo but thewall of Structure did appear on the sketchof spit 2. Structure appears in the sketchof thebase of spit 2, withthe added 2 trenchtracesline up withthose of Ci, but were too faintto be note thatthe foundation indicatedon the siteplan. For square Coo, thefoundation trench Structure appear on of 2 in spit 2, althoughit also the sketchof spit 1. It appears thatthisstructure appears mainly appears in spit 1 towardsthe easternside of the site. The siteplans show thatthewall ofStructure whichlies in Coo, Co and Ci appears in 2 several spits.The section drawingsin the excavation notebook show thatthe structure could appear in the base of square C00/1 and the top of square C0/2 and, allowingfor some inaccuracyin the drawingand some tiltof the building,could also appear in Co/2 of and C1/3. An estimate + 40 cm at the east end and + 30-35 cm at the west end would thisapparentdisparity. explain

/ /

td / '






// /'/WaUA


/ COO I ^f^Wa"A//if3 ^Ay ^^

CO^xl ^r^




L- I * *





F33 Structure. k ' 1 2 QH Structure


fig. 2.9. Plan of Group 3 by phase.


GILLIAN PYKE 2.2.4 Group 4

This group (fig. 2.10, plates 5, 6 a) forms largestarea of thesite,coveringsquares H6, the of G6, F5-8, E4-8, D4-8 and C4-8. The main problemwiththeinterpretation thisgroup 1 is thatthe foundation trenchof Structures and 2 were all foundin the same spit,spit 2. This means thatthe site plans do not give a clear indicationof whetherany phasingwas clear at the timeof excavation.The interpretation givenby the excavatorappears to be a view of the evidence thatremains(Rodden 1964 c). logical 1 Structure is a large square buildingwhichmeasures 1 1.80 x 13.60 m. Structure is a 2 withtwointernal east-westpartitions. dimensions at least Its are largerectangular building 10.90 x 9.10 m. Verylittleof Structure3 was uncovered duringthe excavation,so its and it is not possible to estimate size. The cornerof a structure its was shape is unknown, also foundin squares D3-4/1, whichmightsuggest possible fourth a buildingphase.

This structure located in squares F7-8, E5 and E8, D5-8 and C5-7. The foundation is trenches difficult tracebut form largesquarishbuildingwhose northwestern are to a corner lies in the unexcavatedarea.

This structure locatedin squaresF6-7, E4 and E7 and D4-7. It partly is overliestheearlier structure. This structure divided into threecompartments two crosswalls running was by east-west.The jumbled southern foundation trenchmay be the resultof its havingbeen reut.

This structure 1 appears in squaresH6, G6 and F5. It overliesbothStructure and Structure 2 and appears in spit 1, therefore leading to the conclusionthatit is thelatestconstruction of thisgroup. One wall has been preservedto itsfullextent, withone cornerand a short stretch theperpendicular of wall visiblein square F5. The oppositecorneris lostdue to the whichcutsthrough structure thatpointin squares the at presenceoftheLate Neolithicditch H6-G6. The sectionofbuildingin squares D4-5 have not been consideredby Rodden but may belong to the same phase as the cornerwhichis visiblein square F5, as it overliesboth of themain structures. is also possible thatthisstructure It a represents fourth buildingphase. has Verylittleof the structure been preservedso it is impossibleto judge its size or shape. 2.2.5 Group 5 This group(fig.2.1 1,plate 6 b)lies in squaresH6-8 and G6-8. It consists twostructures, of whicheach appear to have two compartments. 1 Structure is a rectangular structure witha north-south It 2 partition. is at least 3.80 x 6.80 m. Structure is represented only a by corner of the building,so it is only possible to determinethatit was partitioned. The to interpretation given below agrees withthatof Rodden who assignsboth structures the second buildingphase (Rodden 1964 c).




















D6 M


C4 1


C6 hs xj Structure 1




I ^^B

2 | Structure Structure 3

fig. 2.1O. Plan of Group 4 by phase.



This is located in squares H6-8 and G7-8. It has twolong parallelwalls,whilethe eastern end of the northwall is lost beneaththe unexcavatedarea. The western side wall appears in square H6 and a parallelinternal wall (G7) marksthepartition the structure. of Partsof these two walls are obscured by the laterdiggingof the Late Neolithicditch,but thereis sufficient of lies remaining thesewalls to assume thatthesouthwestcornerof thestructure in square G6. The buildingoverlying 1 Structure can be seen in square G8. This consists a cornerand of shortstretches the two walls leading offit. This structure of also appears to have internal divisionsof unequal size, althoughit is not possible to determine how many as partof the remainsin the unexcavatedarea and no further in traceswere identified squares building F7-8.

0 1 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 l=j 5m

' ^

StructureI Structure 2

fig. 2.11. Plan of Group 5 by phase.

2.2.6 Group 6 This is formed threebuildings, one of whichhas two compartments by (fig. 2.12, plate 7 The groupcoverssquares M5-8, L5-8, K5~8,J6-8, TY1-2, and TX1-3. Structure is 1 a). but probablysquare withdimensions at least 5.90 x 7.80 m. Structure is of 2 fragmentary withan internalnorth-south It rectangular partition. measures at least 15.00 x 6.80 m. Structure is a fragmentary a substantial structure, 3 rectangular part of whichlies outside the excavated area. It measuresat least 10.20 7.90 m. In squares L4-5 and M5 is the possible cornerof a structure. Accordingto the siteplan thislies beneathStructure indicating thattheremay in facthave been fourstructures in 2, thisarea. Unfortunately plan is not clear enoughforcertainty. the











F 3



^~^l (7

/ J ^^^



/ K8

^^^^ j Stmc.ure 1

0 1 2 3

J6 1
4 5m





fig. 2.12. Plan of Group 6 by phase.


in of Thislies in squaresM6-8, L6 and L8, and K6-8. The entire length thewall lying both corners atleast ofthetwoperpendicular and half M6-K6 hasbeenrecovered, including traceoftheopposite wallwas found, which locatedin squareL8. is walls.Onlya faint

in is The secondstructurelocated squares divided M5, L5-8, K5-8 andJ6-7. It is clearly which at a slight intotwocompartments, lie The western ofthe angleto each other. part A structure labelled'house 1' in theexcavation was wellpreserved. and notebook, is very wall of theeastern section couldmarkan entrance, it gap in thesouth although is fairly wall narrow 1 m). Mostofthesouthern ofthis was (< partofthebuilding identified during and wall. wall to excavation, thegreater ofthenorthern The eastern appears degenerate part into largestraggling a feature which seemstocover probable the of foundation position this trench.

2 (PLATE )



The fragmentary remainsof thisbuildingappear in squares M7, L7-8, K7-8, TY1-2 and From the site plans it is clear thatthis structure overliesboth Structure1 and TX2-3. Structure Partsof one shortfoundation trenchcan be tracedin squares L7-8 and K7, 2. wherethere a corner. is The longfoundation trench whichjoins at thispointis fragmentary, in and onlyidentified some places. This foundation trench was not observedin squareJ8 but may have continuedinto the unexcavated area to the east. The longer foundation remainsin K7-8, is located in squares TY1-2 trench, running parallel to the fragmentary In contrast and TX2-3. withthe other,the foundation trenchwas well preserved, which would probablyforma cornerwiththe shortwall (L7-8, K7) in square M8. Rodden sees Structure1 of this group as belongingto his first buildingphase of the 2 (Rodden 1964 c). BothStructures and 3 are assignedto thesecondbuilding EarlyNeolithic thisphase. 2 phase, withStructure earlierthanStructure within 3 2.2.7 Group 7 in squares TY2-8 and TX3-7. It consistsof threestructures, Group 7 (fig. 2.13) appears one ofwhichhas compartments. ofthesestructures All werefoundin spit 1. These seem to be alignedon generally same axis and overlap each other. further the A wall, alignedwith the partition walls of thesestructures located in squares TY5-6 and TX6-7, whichmay is be partof a fourth structure.

This is seen in squares TY2-4 and TX3-4. The southernfoundationtrench,running fromsquare TY2 to TX4, is the most completeand has both corners diagonallythrough intact. From thesecorners, foundation trenches diagonally, run in parallelwitheach other, a generally northeast direction intotheunexcavatedarea. Towardsthesouthern foundation and parallelwithit,is a narrower wall whichseparatesoffa small section trench, partition of the building, whichthereis no visibleentrance. to structure 2 This buildingis located in squares TY3 and TY5 and TX4-5. From the site plans, this structure overliesthatofTY2-4/TX3-4 (Structure As in thecase oftheearlierstructure, 1). the southfoundation trench(TY3-4) is virtually complete,withonly the westerncorner obscuredby thecutting a Late Neolithicditch.A short of foundation portionofthewestern trenchis present;no doubt the rest lies in the unexcavated area. Most of the eastern foundation trench(TX4-5, TY5) survives, both corners.A small portionof the including northern foundation trench visiblebut it is likelythatit is obscuredby a latertrench. is structure 3 The lateststructure thisgroupis sitedin squaresTY5-8 and TX5-6. The orientation of of thisbuildingis similarto thatof the earliertwo. The west and southfoundation trenches are almost complete and cornerin square TX6. The far cornerof the west foundation trenchis visiblein square TY5 and the east cornerof the southand minimalpart of east



can Thisstructure trenches also be identified; rest notbeen excavated. the has foundation in squareTY5. Structure overlies 2

TY2/^ ^^

TY3 '^

V4 ^/^

TY6 ^^r^





TX4 /

TX5 | [''j

TX6 | Structure 1
Structure 2





Structure 3

fig.2.13: PlanofGroup7 byphase. 2.2.8 Group 8

in of structures squares and twooverlapping Thisgroup(fig.2.14) consists one separate 1 of to its andTY7-9. Toolittle Structurewasfound estimate shapeanddimensions. TX7-9 with dimensions 4.08 x 4.48 m. Onlya corner of Structurewas a smallsquarebuilding 2 which a possiblepartition, a stakebarrier has and ofStructure was found, 3 joiningthe which about9.20 and 3.40 m in length. corner a possible are The of endsofthetwowalls, is fourth structurelocatedin squareTYg.

the between twostructures the which The siteplan does notclarify relationship appearin trenches the cross TY7-8 and TX7-9. The linesmarking edgesofthefoundation squares in manner. that As each other an unlikely locatedin squaresTX7-8 partofthestructure in that is of structure.consists twonarrow It mainly spit2,itis likely this theearlier appears in which form corner squareTX8. trenches a foundation

This is located in squaresTY7-8 and TX7-9. Its appearancein spit 1 leads to its as the of and trenches preserved foundation are interpretation later thetwo.The north west



their extent, three thefour full and of to almost corners accounted The south are for. east the was area. This structure, theearlier like corner notwithin excavated consists of one, narrow foundation trenches. Whether an accident preservation, design, north of or the by wallseemssetapart from twoadjoining its wallsand does notactually makecontact with In them. squareTX7 there a short is section wallwhich of does notjoin thestructure but thatthis is a trench, aligns withthe west foundation givingrise to the possibility structure. compartmented not either theprevious of in this because two, is included thegroup Although overlapping in ofitsproximity them. wasfound squares to It andTX9, in spit1,which indicates TY8-9 1, that is possibly it later than Structure although is notnecessarily case as only this the one in was excavated thesesquares. The one visiblecorner in TX9. Boththese spit appears wallsappeartoterminate no evidence corners, shorter with of the foundation trench ending in 9 witha posthole.This couldindicate presence a doorway couldsimply the of or marktheend ofthewall ofa windbreakor animalpen. The presence a line ofpost of holesrunning between endsofthetwofoundation the in trenches TY8-9 might unrelated be to thestructure, couldbe interpreted a fence but as to form third the wallofan designed structure. irregular triangular

/ [




// ,s>

[' 0 ' 1 ' 2 ' 3 4 ' ==^ 5m ' ^H

m Structure1 2 j Structure ' Structure 3


fig. 2.14. Plan of Group 8 by phase.

STRATIGRAPHY 2.2.9 Group g


a but Thisis notreally group a single structure which in thesquares lies TB1-2 and Tgiwithtwopartition wallsforming a 2 (fig.2.15, plate 7 b). It was probably rectangular corridor aroundtwoof thesides.It was at least 4.00 x 2.00 m. The siteplans showa in number ditches thisarea,in squaresTBi and Tgi-2, which siteplansindicate of the Neolithic. siteplansalso showthat structureoverlying The to theEarly the is these belong and therefore mustpost date them.The sequenceof the ditches indicates that ditches, wereseveral successive The central there ditch overlies boththeone lying ofit east phases. ditches paralleland may are (TBi-Tgi) and theone to itswest(TB2-Tg2).The earlier or tothesameperiod, coulddenote The structure built was over belong separate episodes. ditch itswestern and boththecentral neighbour. Parts three theouter of of foundation trenches thestructure discovered of were during and there wereinterior wallsparallel thewest to excavation, thesiteplansalso showthat trenches. western and southfoundation The interior foundation trench also appearsto havetwoadjoining holeswhich positioned are from centre of post roughly equidistant the thewall and thetwoends.Thissuggests their that was to support wall.The the purpose southern exterior is fragmentary onlya short wall and section thefoundation of in trench in TB. The western was identified, exterior wall is apparently Tg2 possibly continuing truncated thelaterdigging a largepit,and no traceof thefoundation of trench was by located thesouthern ofthis on side feature. eastern The exterior foundation trench missing, is buttheadjoining foundation trenches and appearto endin a roughly parallel position the oftheunderlying trench unusually is at this Thissuggests itis not that edge straight point. theoriginal that in but edgeofthetrench was detected excavation, theedgeoftheeastern foundation trench.


?#1I >S TB2


Tgi .

1 af

1 1'^n Structure

Ditch Early
Late Ditch

fig.2.15. PlanofGroup9 by phase.



2.2. 10 Summary whichhad Examinationoftheoverallsiteplan showed thatthereweregroupsofstructures been builtin successionin specificareas. These groupscontainedbetween one and three in withthe possibility a fourth groups4, 7, 8 and 9. The establishment of clear structures, size and complexity, allowsconclusions be drawnabouttheir to oftheplans ofthestructures whichis the subjectoflaterdiscussion(see Chapter 3).



of withineach group,it is possible to Followingthe definition the plans of the structures between all the structures the site.The factthatseveral of the on investigate relationship thattheremighthave been threephases of the groupsconsistof threestructures suggests of occupation.The location of the earlieststructure each group at a similarlevel would supportthistheory. of The relationship the structures acrossthesiteis based on thematching of horizontally the artificial spitsin whichthebuildingremainswerefound.Due to thefactthatthedepths of thefoundation trench were not recorded,it is necessaryto relyon theplans of each spit in to register whichspitthe foundation trenches appeared. The factthatit was the base of the spitthatwas planned mustbe borne in mind. Due to the constraints the recorded of in data, it was onlypossible to relatethe structures a generalway. 2.3.1 Group 1 and Group 2 The sections O7-A7-B7 (along gridline 7 forsquares O7, A7 and B7, see fig. 2.16 for the grid systemsused), B9-C9-D9 and B8-C8-D8-E8 were examined to relate the structures groups 1 and 2. Althoughthe sectionsacross group 1 do not provide the of information betweenthe twogroups,it appears that necessaryto make certaincorrelations the spitsin these two areas were dug to roughlythe same totallevel, and therefore is it to assume thatspit 1 and spit 2 were the same approximatedepth.In thiscase justifiable in the three structures each group relate to the same threebuildingphases as thereis as to wherein the spitsthesestructures 1 were found.Structure occurs towards agreement thebase of spit2 and appears more in thisspitthanin spit 1; Structure lies at the base of 2 3 spit 1 and the top of spit 2 and therefore appears in both spits;Structure is foundalmost in spit 1. entirely 2.3.2 Group 3 1 Group 3 was relatedto groups 1 and 2 by examiningsectionEo-Do-Co. Structure of in thisgroup lies primarily spit 3, but also appears in spit 2, probablytowardsthe base. This places itwithin rangec. + 12-24 cm above sitedatum, the approximately corresponding to spit 2 in the othertwo groups.This suggests thatit may belong to the same building phase. The second structure appears mainlyin spit2 but also in spit 1 in one area. This concurs withthe stratigraphie 2 positionof Structure in both groups 1 and 2. The location of the




4 5


I LXI r-r-1



. . .




' 2345

I 1 d

3 4 5


Grid system the 1961 excavation(after for Yiouni 1991, Fig. 3.5).

'^'' 0



j I



J M I I I 1 I I I l~t~
000 00 I 1 1 1 j 1 1 1 1 1



5 6


T~~^ 8 9 10

_ _ _J "" ~~



Grid system the 1963/64 excavation for fig. 2.16: Grid systems used duringthe excavationsat Nea Nikomedeia.



at group 3 structure + 24-45 cm would generally overlapwithspit2 and thelowestpartof 1 in groups 1 and 2. This confirms thatStructure in all thesegroupsbelongs to the 2 spit same buildingphase. In group 3 thereare two structures, ratherthan the threefoundin 1 and 2. Fromthe sectionsit appears thatno structure builtwhichcorresponds was groups of withthe lateststructure the groups 1 and 2 (Structure 3/spit1). 2.3.3 Group 4 of The relationship thegroup4 structures thoseofgroups1-3 could notbe established and fromthe D5-E5-F5 section.Section D4-E4-F4 showed thatspit 1 was not excavated in all areas in thisgroup,as therewas a greatdifference surfaceheight.For example, in in withthe level of the base of spit 1 in square E5 the surfaceof the plough soil corresponds the square D5, and therefore singlespitthatwas dug in square E5 was labelled spitV by the excavatoras its surfacelevel correspondswiththe base of spit 1 in square D5. The excavationnotebookmakes it clear thatthisis the situation squares E4, E5, and E6. In in square F6, spit 1 is describedas being takendown to the level of spitV in E6. 1 As bothstructures and 2 occurin spit2, itis notpossibleto statetheir exactrelationship in withthe corresponding structures groups 1-3. However,it is possible to statethatas the 1 range 0-42 cm matchesthe range of those of Structures and 2 in all thesegroups,they probablybelong to the same buildingphases. In the same way,thepositionof Structure 3 in spit 1, approximately matching spit 1 oftheothergroups,indicatesthatitbelongs to the same buildingphase. 2.3.4 Group 5 in The two structures thisgroupappear in squares G6-8 and H6-8, an area in whichonly one spit was excavated. As the section diagramsin the excavation notebook were not that completed,and the mostinformation any of themcontainis the depth of the plough on between this soil, it is not possible to make conclusiveobservations the relationship group and the otherson the site. However, it is noticeable thatthe surfaceof spit 1 in + from 37-45 cm above sitedatum)corresponds withthesurface of squares G6-8 (varying spit 2 in the othergroups,and thatof squares H6-8 withthatofspit 1. It seems likelythat thesestructures correspondwithphases 1 and 2. 2.3.5 Group 6 The threestructures thisgroup are located in squaresJ6-8, K4-8, L4-8, M5-8, TX2-3 of and TY1-3, which is also an area in which a single spit was excavated. It seems likely, relateto the threestructural however,thatthesethreestructures phases. Again thereis the same situation the concerning sectiondiagramsin the excavationnotebook. In squares J6-8 thebase oftheploughsoil can lie at a heightofas much as + 68 cm or as little + 42 cm, but averagesat about + 60 cm. In squares K6-8 the highest as level of the base of plough soil is at + 50 cm, while the lowestis at + 35 cm, the average in thiscase level of the base of the plough soil in squares L6-8 is being around + 40 cm. The highest + 46 cm, while the lowestis + 28 cm, the average seems to be around + 35 cm, but the level does fluctuate greatdeal in thesesquares.The sectiondrawings squares TX2-3 a for



are muchmoredetailedand showthelevelsofboththesurface and base ofspit1. However, + thesurface spit 1 rangesfrom 26-50 cm,whichmustbe keptin mind even thoughthe of consistent + 14-16 cm. at average level is about + 40 cm, while the lower level is fairly There are no section drawingsfor square TYi. There is a single complete drawingfor of square TY2, and anothershowingthe top surface spit i/base of plough soil. The single sectionforTY3 also shows onlythetop ofspit 1/base ofplough soil. In thisarea, fromthe limitedinformation of available,it seems thattheupper surface spit 1 variesbetween+ 40 cm and + 14 cm and a tentative can be given as + 30 cm. The lower level, where average recorded,variesfrom18 cm above sitedatumto 2 cm, witha possible average at around In spite of the lack of information these squares,the levels forthisspit do show a for withthoseof theothergroups,allowingthestructures within thisgroup generalagreement to be provisionally consideredin termsof the same phasingas has been demonstrated for groups 1-4. 2.3.6 Group 7 This groupofthree structures appearsin an area whereonlya singlespitwas excavated, also but the correspondence the threestructural to phases can be implied. In the section diagramsfor TX3-7 in the excavation notebook only the base of the plough soil is indicated.This variesbetween 0-45 cm, but a generaltrendtowardsabout + 25 cm is distinguishable. recording sectionsis more completeforsquares TY2-8, The of but stillshows a greatdeal of variation the spit 1 surfaceheight(+ 42 cm to - 04 cm), in withthe averagelyingat + 18 cm. The poorlyrecordedbase heightof spit 1 lies between 2-28 cm. This, however,may give an unrealistic view of the depthof the spitas it would thatit was therefore whereasin factit could be anything to 40 2 cm thick, appear only up cm thick.The factthatthe upper surfaceof the spithas in some cases been recorded at - 04 cm but thelowestvalue recordedforthebase ofthe spitis + 2 cm indicatesthatthere be some inconsistency, this be due to thelack ofdetailedrecording may although maysimply of thebase ofspit 1. In comparisonwiththe othergroups,the sectionshows thatspit 1 lies at a fairly low level,comparablewithspit2 in group4 and in group 2, and spit3 in group 3. However it is comparable with the values given for the TY squares of group 6, therefore possibly a indicating trendnot onlyofthespitbeing at a lowerlevel,but theplough soil is also at a lowerlevel,indicating slope betweentheTX and TY squares.This means thatthewhole a sectionappears at a lower level thanin othergroups. 2.3.7 Group 8 A single spit was dug in squares TX7. Again, the section diagramsgive an incomplete record of the spits.In squares TY8 and TXg the findslist in the excavation notebook shows that 2 spitswere excavated but theydo not appear on the section diagrams.For squares TX7-8 only the base of the plough soil is indicated.In the TX squares thereis a limitedrangeof values forthebase of theplough soil, themostfrequently recordedlevels lie between 10-30 cm, averagingat + 20 cm. The base of spit 1 is recorded in only one sectiondrawing(TX9-TX8) and thehighest level recordedis + 02 cm, while thelowestis
10 cm.



- 04 cm;thesection shows that average around 02 cm.In squares the is TY7-9 onlythe on The heights for soil base oftheplough is shown thesection drawings. given thebase of from soil theplough vary 6-20 cm. 2.3.8 Group 9 of were The single structure group9 is locatedin squaresTB1-2 and Tgi-2. Five spits in in forsquaresTgi-2 are limited thatfor excavated thisarea. The section drawings in drawn and thelevelsare ruledin, squareTgi onlypartof thesquarehas thesection in ofthespits. a schematic Thereis little variation thelevelsof representation suggesting in In and thesurfaces bases ofthespits thesediagrams. thecase ofsquareTB 1 onlythe base ofspits2 and 3 are shown. Thereis no information concerning 1. Thereis no spit information available squareTB2 as thesection for werenotcompleted. drawings in in in The single structure this was with group located spit2, which agrees broadterms thelevel of the singlespitin whichthestructures locatedin groups7 and 8. The are in ditches werefound spit which ata much is in lower levelthan spit which structures 3, any have occurred. Theseditches weremarked being as in Neolithic thesiteplansbytheexcavator on Early whenrecently thestructural Dr. Roddenfelt the that 1964. However, discussing sequence, of associated with group9 structure theEarlyNeolithic the to was assignment theditches notcertain.4 It is difficult correlate group9 structure thegeneral to the with on phasing thesite.The fact that does notappearin thefirst mayarguethat does notbelongto thevery it it spit latest level and in thefirst building phase,whichtendsto appearat a higher spit.The thepresence thethreeditches, of whichare is, interpretation however, complicated by there twophasesof ditchactivity, are these If, apparently EarlyNeolithic. as suspected, with first phasesofbuilding the two construction therest thesite. over of maycorrespond Thiswouldsuggest thestructure group9 does in fact that of belongto thefinal building in and itsappearance spit2 is due to thedepth colluvial of from slopes the phase, deposit ofthemoundwhich had accumulated topofthis on area. 2.3.9 Summary The present there werethree consistent study suggests building phasesofEarlyNeolithic of thesite.The structures theearliest of in occupation phase (fig.2.17) werefound the lower ofspit2 andwerealsolocated spit3 in somecases,in areasin which spit in this part was dug.The secondphase (fig.2.18) contains structures whichappearedin theupper ofspit2 and thelowerpartofspit1,whilethose thethird of of part phaseand thetraces thepossible fourth in spit1. phase (fig.2.19) appearsolely G. P.

4 Rodden

1993 pers. comm.

STRATIGRAPHY Table. 2.1. Depths of the spits for each group. Spit 1 (cm) Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 +68 - +40? +62 - +40 (square D8) +60 - +34 +78 - +45 +65 - +42 +45 - ? (G squares) +60 - ? (H squares) +60 - ? (J squares) +40 - ? (K squares) +35 - ? (L squares) +40 - +15 (TX squares) +30 - +10 (TY squares) +25 - ? (TX squares) +18 - 16 (TY squares) +20 - 02 (TX squares) +13 -? ( squares) +33 - +20 (Tgi - west) +35 - +15 (Tg1 - east) +36 - +20 (Tg2 - west) +32 - +18 (Tg2 - east) ? - ? (TB squares) Spit 2 (cm) +40 - +20 (base 20) +34 - +04 +45 - +24 +42 - 00 Spit 3 (cm) +24 - +1 2 -


Group 7 Group 8 Group 9

+20 - +15 (Tgi - west) +15 - -5 (Tg1 - east) +20 - +15 (Tg2 - west) +18 - +08 (Tg2 - east) ? - -06 (TB squares)

+15 - 04 +15 - 5 +15 - 02 +08 - -05 -06 - -27 (Tgi - west) (Tg1 - east) (Tg2 - west) (Tg2 - east) (TB squares)




* I







v' VA


a I


4? Hf J



V '

' "'


3 Chapter Structures Architecture and

3.1 INTRODUCTION in of The buildings features thesiteare onlybriefly and described Rodden'spreliminary of (Rodden1962) and survey thePlainofMacedon (Rodden1964 c). A detailed report remainsand otherfeatures therefore is crucialto the studyof all the architectural ofthesite.Thustheexcavation notebooks the 1963 and 1964 seasons for understanding reference building to and thesiteplanswereused as a sourceto compile materials every and features. notebooks of as wereexcavated and The excavation provide descriptions features they a The representations siteplans were on therefore not represent complete do account. hencethesemaynot directly correlate each spitwas completely drawnafter excavated, inthenotebooks. most comes the The detailed information from notebooks with descriptions is based on these. this ofthe 1963 and 1964 seasonsand therefore account primarily and stake-holes on thesiteplans,whichrecordthe Foundation trenches, post appear in materials. site The cases,butdo notdescribe building planat thebase ofeach spit most valuableinformation to thewidthand the depthof the as provide plans do, however, In in trenches. addition, thereare references post and stake-holes the to foundation which also appearon thegeneral oftheexcavated area.These excavation notebook, plan remains. assumed thetime excavation be structural at of to wereclearly 3.2 BUILDINGS A total 24 recognisable structures found were the at of during excavations Nea Nikomedeia. which showed as discoloured Thesewerelocatedas foundation trenches post-holes and up one possible the were or areas.In all cases,with exception, structures rectangular square. with Several styles ground plansandconstruction arerepresented, no onestyle characterising a particular phase. 3.2.1 Walls The physical evidence thewallsofstructures for consists of trenches. principally foundation carbon'were also Post-holes stake-holes, and 'rubble'and 'structural material, building found.




The remains of walls on the site of Nea Nikomedeia appear consistently foundation as in referred as 'wall-slots' theexcavationnotebookand whichare often to described trenches, as 'white'or 'plastered'.For example, the wall at E6 1.00 x 0.50 m in spit 1 of square E7, is reported beinga 'whitewall'. The wallsofsquareC2 in spit2 are described plastered/ as as whitewalls,as is wall A of square C4, and a wall in square D4. The foundation trenches were probablyfairly deep so thatthewalls were stableand the but thereis no evidence to suggestthattheywere as much as a roofcould be supported, believed.1 The foundation trenches wereoften associated yardin depthas Rodden originally withpost-holes.Rodden statesthatthe foundation trenches foundin the 1961 excavation were "roughlyU-shaped [in profile]and average a widthof 60 cm. Down the centreof each wall-slot were driveninto the subsoil at regularmetreto posts (8-20 cm in diameter) metre-and-a-half a sturdy framework thedriedmud walls" (Rodden for intervals, providing 1962, 269).

Rodden states"Socketsforat leasttwosturdy buttress postswere notedon theinsideofthe wall [ofgroup3/2],evidently support to cross-beams" (Rodden 1962, 270). The sketch long ofsquare C1/2 showsfoundation A trench withwhitish plan clayfilland a possiblebuttress is labelled.

in There are references post and stake-holes the excavation notebook,and theyalso to appear on thegeneralplan of the excavated area. As manymore post-holes appear on the siteplans thanare described, seemsthatthey it wereonlynotedin theexcavationnotebooks ifthey wereplaster lined.Examples oftheseare FeatureC in squareA3/1,whichis recorded as a 'plasterpost-hole',and FeatureA in square B4 which was a plasterlined post-hole noted to continuethroughspits 2 and 3. The post-holeswere assumed at the time of excavationto be structural remains. Rodden notes that"The rectangular of arrangement post-holesuncovered outside the north wall oftheprincipalstructure [group3/2] describesa subsidiary ... timber enclosure. In plan, it is not unlikean open-endedsquare: two of the sides were builtof freestanding rows of posts (m-p and p-u), the thirdside incorporatedthe existingnorthwall of the house. The post-holes and were sunkup to 65 cm into varyfromc. 20-30 cm in diameter, the sub-soil.To judge fromthe size and depth of the post-holes, surround the musthave been a sturdy and fairly structure" (Rodden 1962, 270). permanent Post-holes filled withburnt material were also recorded.These includeseveralpost-holes whichappear on thesiteplan ofsquareB6 and werefilled with burnt rubble.The description of square O7/1 notes a possible plaster-lined post-hole(FeatureA) and two stake-holes (Features and C) withsootyfill.
1 In reference to the structuresexcavated in 1961, Rodden describesthe foundation trenches cutting as "34into virginsubsoil* (Rodden 1962, 269). 50 centimetres In a later report he states that the foundationtrenches were "a yard or so deep, evidently to ensure that the heave or by the buildings would not be affected frost by wetness of the waterfront soil** (Rodden 1965, 97). The climateof Macedonia at thattimewas probably not such that frostheave would be a consideration,and it seems would be builton extremelywet unlikelythata structure ground.



'rubble' and other building material There are severalreferences thepresenceofbubble' in pitsclose to foundation to trenches, whichwere presumably filledas a resultof buildingcollapse. This 'rubble' was originally as the or but interpreted representing clayplaster daub ofwall tumble, subsequentevidence fromthe experimental of a similar house suggests thatsuch rubble can also come burning fromthe ceiling(Bankoff and Winter1979). The excavationnotebookaccountforspit1 mentions 'rubble'from walls and possibly the of some of the structures. These sometimeshave 'wattleimpressions', such as in ceilings where a piece of buildingmaterialwith 'wattleimpression'was found in square D9/1, debris(unlocated)and at D8 2.00 x 3.75 m (Feature However,itis not clear whatthese A). referto. The presence of rubble would suggestthatmudbrickor stone were descriptions used forbuilding, whichwas not the case at Nea Nikomedeia.The initialobservation that of clay withwattleimpressions the weavingof branches)were preserved lumps (implying of appears to have been revisedas Rodden's laterdescription the construction techniques does not include the use of wattleand daub (Rodden 1964 a). In the entry spit 1 in square TXg, fragments burntbricksare recorded as being for of foundin theLate NeolithicTrench. second 'brick'was reported be foundat C5 3.80 x A to m in square C6/2. Mudbrickmighthave been used in the Late Neolithicat Nea 3.80 have survivedit is impossibleto be certain. Nikomedeia,but as no structures 'structural carbon' It seems thattheterm'structural carbon'was applied to charcoaland represents remains the of posts whichwere burntwhen the structures were destroyed fire.Several samples of by thismaterialwere taken in spits 1, 2 and 3. Rodden says that"Carbonized remains of wood indicatethattheframes thehouses were made ofoak", presumably thebasis of of on thesesamples (Rodden 1965, 84). 3.2.2 Floors The presence of floorswithinthe Nea Nikomedeia structures attested areas of hard is by whiteclay. An example of thisis a platform hard clay which was noted as a possible of floorin square A5/1. In the second sketchplan of square A6/2 therewas a floorof hard whiteclay withyellowishdiscoloration. There is at least one instanceof a floorconstructed pebbles and clay, includinga of in yellowplasterand pebble floorin square B4/1 whichappears in a sketch the excavation notebook.No floorswere foundin spit 3. 3.2.3 The Account of F6/1 There is a longerdescription theexcavationnotebookofthe structural in remainsfoundin F6/1. The factthatthereis an unusuallylong account of the excavation of this square It square suggeststhatthe excavatorregardedthe discoveriesas particularly important. seems likelythatthe accountwas written while the excavationwas in progress;in places thedescription confusing theexact locationofthefeatures is and being describedand their witheach otheruncertain. relationship



which sealed an oven and It appearsthata largesection collapsed of wallwas found, five found a floor on someobjects, Thefigurines apparently were surface, including figurines. in of which associated somewaywith base ofa possible is the oven.The remains thewall called'chaff-like which that wereconsistently material' 'chaff or tumble', suggests theclay of chaff The description 'large of usedtocoatthewallswasmixedwith lumps redtemper. which resulted blackchaff-filled material' indicate thewallfragments burnt, that were might if refers to the from destruction thebuilding. is notclear,however, thedescription of It Another burnt material. walldebris partoftheoven,which or wouldcontain description ofan areaofheavily burnt locatedat F5 3.20 x 1.00 m,was material, lumpsof'chaff-like' two as wall.Belowthelargeredlumps werefound piecesofwhat interpreted a collapsed was possibly base ofa clayoven. the that The location burnt wall debrissuggests thewall in givenforthe area of heavily into of of to 4/1,as thewallappears havefallen theinterior the question maybe that group are rather thanoutside Thismeansthat ovenand thesmallfinds probably it. the building with associated group4/1. 3.2.4 Construction evidence found to construction the It is possible suggest methods from architectural during wereusedin boththebuilding excavation. Roddenproposes that sametechniques the the of is (Rodden 1964 a), and there a diagram a hypothetical periodswhichhe identified inoneofhispreliminary examination structure 3.1) (fig. (Rodden 1965).Thepresent reports oftheevidence this The appearsin the supports interpretation. samekindofinformation in materials and excavation notebooks on siteplansfor and eachspit, continuity indicating techniques. Foundation trenches weredugfor wallsofeach structure. Sometimes the onlypartofa was foundation trench found was that 6/3);insomecasesitseems there no foundation (group trench thewallwassimply and into constructed sinking (group by posts directly theground framework "a Posts weresunk downthecentre thefoundation trenches form sturdy to of in ofvertical timbers oak)" (Rodden1964 a, 564). Thiscan be seen clearly the (probably were north wallofgroup3/2and thesouth cross wallofgroup4/2.Buttresses sometimes to the beamsfor roof the added,possibly support cross (Rodden1962).Thesecan be seen as post-holes of closetothefoundation trench theinside thestructure as on on (such placed thecross wallsofgroup4/2). of of to According Roddenthemainpartofthewall consisted "stalks reedsor rushes, in abouta centimetre diameter, the between posts"(Rodden1964 a, 564). This standing which are 'wattle viewmaybe basedon thepiecesof'building with material' impressions' These in infact havehadreedimpressions. recorded theexcavation which notebooks, may with was "completed reedswouldhave formed continuous of the surface thewall,which theplastering mudontobothouter inner of and surfaces" (Rodden1964 a, 564). Thisclay
2 Rodden suggeststhat,in order to keep the walls dry, *The foundationtrenchesfor the walls were dug to an unusual depth and eitherpacked withdry,permeable soil, which was left or, more commonly,lined withclay-marl, in to dryto cement-hardness the sun beforethe walls were built.** (Rodden 1964 a, 564). A more likelyinterpretation is thatthe clay (?) liningwas forstability.




fig. 3.1: Reconstruction a Nea Nikomedeiahouse.3 of

couldhave been derived from material the from foundation the or trenches, pitsmight havebeendugas a source. is also suggested "claymixedwith It that chaff" sometimes was usedto coatthewalls(Rodden1964 a, 564) probably to the'chaff-like due material' and 'chaff tumble' wall in mentioned theexcavation notebook for entry squareF6/1. The useofwoodandreeds Nea Nikomedeia probably totheir at was due localavailability. The presence reedsclosetothesettlement of that suggests thelocal environment have may beenmarshy. is probable It that oak that usedfor framework thewallscame the was the of from different a source from reedsas they the soil. growon drier The floors weremadeofcompacted or claywith In reference to clay pebbles. particular theOriginal 'shrine" the (group4/1),Roddendescribes flooras being"made of mud,
3 After Rodden 1965, 87.



which ontoa 'matting' broad-leaved had been plastered of marsh or grasses reedslaid on there of theclaysubsoil" (Rodden1964a, 564). Unfortunately, is no mention thediscovery in theexcavation ofanyorganic notebooks. 'matting' for of of was the No evidence theconstructiontheroofs thestructures discovered during As rainfall necessitates houseshaving so excavation. Clarkpoints heavy out, roofs, pitched wouldrunoff thattherainwater rather thancome in through roof(Clark 1952). In the to Roddensuggests "in order keep thewallsdry... it to addition thisconsideration, that that thebuildings roofs ... had which werefairly with also seemsprobable steeply pitched, wide eaves" (Rodden1964 a, 564). Clay housemodelsfound sitesin Greeceand the at suchas at Porodin an unprovenanced from and find Rumania showthat Balkans, pitched wereused (Theocharis roofs 1973). It is probablethatthetechnique roofconstruction similar thatused forthe of was to wallsin the use of a woodenframework reeds.Bankoff Winter and and note thatthe that of thebuilding they used fortheir was daubed (Bankoff ceiling burning experiment the and Winter used to waterproof insulate roofsof the and 1979). Clay was probably at structuresNea Nikomedeia. 3.2.5 Size and Shape of Buildings if The size and shape of thebuildings investigated phase to try establish any was to by if It were noticeable. was hoped thatit would be possibleto determine any patterns in between phasesrepresented the trends thedevelopment thesettlement. of differences

of all structural The first buildings, ofwhich phasehad a mixture squareand rectangular trenches. of therectangular structures internal had Two are represented foundation by offset theeastofa possible the to entrance, Group5/1 had a partition dividing partitions. The exact one into structure a squareroomto theeastand a morerectangular to thewest. trench thewestern and ends is becausethewestfoundation size ofthestructureuncertain north south and foundation trenches werenotwithin excavated the area.The other ofthe in a narrow 7/1)was partitioned sucha wayas to create very rectangular example(group and a muchlarger northern room.The exact shape of thebuilding is southern room, in A break thefoundation trench about midpoint at an entrance. unknown. its mayrepresent The size of the buildingof thisphase (table. 3.1) was fairly the uniform, average the of wallsbut omitting dimensions being 8.37 x 6.66 m, taking lengths thecomplete unusual The thoseofgroup4/1 due to their 4/1)was very (group length. squarestructure but than theother The all preserved considerably larger phase1 buildings. difference poorly in size suggests itmayhave had a specialfunction, that as possibly a communal building. The buildings this of orientated east-west. phaseare generally




Table. 3.1: Building dimensions: phase 1.



Dimensions(m) (n/s e/w) () = preserved length 7.41x6.51 6.48 6.8 8.99x6.82 11.78x13.64 6.82 (P) x 3.75 (P) 5.89 () 7.75 (P) 8.68 7.13 (P) -

Trench Width (averagem) 0.47 0.40 0.51 0.44 0.54 0.46 0.47 -

Area m2


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

square rectangle rectangle square rectangle square unknown unknown no structure

48.43 44.06 61.31 160.68 >25-58 >45^5 >6i.89 -

clear stakeholes shape irregular difficult trace to partitioned difficult trace to partitioned


in There are bothsquare and rectangular structures thisphase (table. 3.2), severalofwhich There are examples of partitions have partitions. whichdivide the structure rooms of into sizes and of those which divide the structure into a small rectangular room and a equal much largerroom. In the case of group 4/2 thereappear to be two partitions, following at Rodden's reconstruction thetimeofexcavation(Rodden 1964 c). It is possible,however, werein facttwostructures:largesquarebuilding, a laterrectangular a thatthere and building withitsshorter east and westwalls overlying those of thelargerstructure. structure The rectangular mustpostdatethesquare one, as therectangular innerstructure area of thelargerstructure) many obvious post-holes has within foundation the trench. (or Ifwe are dealingwithtwostructures, visiblepost-holes thelaterrectangular the of structure must penetratethe earlierfoundation as trenchcould not be cut trench, the foundation the without them. through post-holes destroying As was the case in phase 1, the lengthsof the walls are fairly consistent when theyare full Once again,theexceptionis thegroup4 structure. thesize If preservedto their extent. ofthebuildingindicatesa special function, thenthismustbe trueofgroup4/2, whichmay have been builtto replace group4/1 and therefore the same function. had The orientation of the buildingsof thisphase is generally east-west.


GILLIAN PYKE Table. 3.2: Buildingdimensions: phase 2.



Dimensions (m) (n/s e/w) (P) = preserved length

Trench Width m) (average 0.45 0.62 48 5 0.55 0.48 0.47 0.25 -



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

unknown 7.44 () 6.82 (P) rectangle 5.92x7.12 rectangle 10.85 7.50 () rectangle 10.85 () 9.05 unknown rectangle 15.04 () 6.76 8.43x6.08 square 4.08x4.48 square no structure-

>574 42.15 >8i.s8 >989 M01.67 51-*5 18.28 -

complete wall 3 walls partition corner, partition partition

were foundwhichbelonged to phase 3 (table. 3.3). Two of thesewere Only six structures one was a square structure one possiblya square structure. othertwo and The rectangular, in lie partially the unexcavatedarea, and theirshape is impossibleto assess. The structures groups 1 and 2 and possiblythoseofgroup 8 appear to be builtusing of two construction trench and post-holetechniquewas used for techniques.The foundation mostofthebuilding, thefoundation but trench absentforat leastone ofthewalls in each is case. The presence of a series of posts along the line where a foundation trenchwould be thatsimplypostswere used on theirown without trenches. the expected suggests This featureappears forthe first time duringthisphase. It is not certainwhetherthis a change in buildingtechnique,perhaps reflecting thatthe foundation represents simply trenches were no longer consideredas important, a change in the use of part of the or buildingor thewhole building. The interpretation structure of group 8/3 in termsof a post-walled buildingis tentative, but theline ofpitsor post-holes betweentheends ofthetwowalls givestheimpression that thebuildingwas triangular withtwo sturdy walls- withfoundation trenches and a less substantial crosswall. The trench could indicatethat leadingout of theapex of thetriangle thebuildingwas partitioned, forthe stalling animals.The buildingsofphase 3, of possibly like those of the earlierphases, are orientated east-west.


STRUCTURES AND ARCHITECTURE Table. 3.3: Buildingdimensions: phase 3.




Dimensions(m) (n/s e/w) (P) = preserved length 8.84x7.74 4.19x4.74 10.23 (P) x 7-91 () 7.04x8.22 9.15 3.35 4.03 () 2.02 (P)

Trench Width (averagem) 0.45 0.19 49 0.50 0.34 0.34

Area m2


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

rectangle square none unknown none rectangle unknown unknown unknown

68.42 19.86 >8o.92 57.87 30.65 >8.i4

post wall? post wall? no structure traces no structure post wall? corner unknown partition

3.2.6 Settlement estimation thesize ofthesettlement terms thetotal of in of number structures of Any per and thetotal number inhabitants phasecan onlybe tentative based on of and phase per the information available from excavated the area.However, establishedprovisional a having and examined structureseachphase, might possible estimate the of it be to the stratigraphy actualpopulation Nea Nikomedeia. of Considerations as variable such of the of communal density occupation, presence possible thepossibility structures empty uncertainties theareacovered of and about buildings, lying must the of in by thesettlement be bornein mindwhenassessing number structures each thesepoints, theexcavated if area is approximately phase.Havingconsidered 1690 m2 and thetotal moundarea 24,200m2, then excavated the area accounts around8% of for themound. It was decidedto includethepossiblecommunal in structures thetotalof excavated structuresitis unknown many as how suchstructures might within settlement. there be the In phase 1, theeight structures theexcavated of areawouldimply total one hundred a of fortheentire In phase 2 there site. wouldalso be one hundred structures in phase 3 and there wouldbe seventy five. When estimating population the settlement each phase,it is important the of for to remember theprocedure necessarily that is based on a guessaboutthenumber people of knowwhether structures the housednuclear, extended another or perhouse.We cannot variant a family on It to estimate thefloor on area group. is possible base thepopulation within structure a which Whitelaw estimates 10 m2in his at required each individual, by of studies that (Whitelaw study EarlyMinoanMyrtos 1981). Cross-cultural suggest each household consisted 4-6 individuals. of



in The average floor areaperstructure phase is approximately m2, which 67 givesan of6-7 peopleperstructure, is comparable Whitelaw's which to estimate, average considering theunusual ofgroup4/1. Ifthis size structure omitted was from calculations, the the then number peopleperstructure of wouldbe 5. The population thewholesettlement of might havenumbered from area ofeach structureabout68 is 500-700. In phase 2 theaverage which very is similar theestimate phase 1. Thisgivesa similar to for total m2, population in the The areaofeach structure phase3 is 44 m2, for settlement. average a of giving total If in structure.there were75 structuresthesettlement, there then wouldbe 4-5 peopleper a population 300-75. of 3.2.7 Summary The stratigraphie three investigation, usingthe availableevidence, tentatively suggests The lackofevidence anyoccupation for theMiddleNeolithic stratigraphie phases. during indicates thatthere musthave been a breakin occupation between Earlyajid Late the Neolithic periods. The three hererepresent theEarlyNeolithic of phasesrecognised only occupation the in siteand appeartofollow relatively succession. in swift Thereis no breakor change the or thesmallfinds. pottery sequence(Yiouni1991) Thereis no archive evidence abandonment for between structural the phases,suchas thedevelopment a humic of a darkband within archaeological the layer, represented by deposits.4 in Fromtheaccounts theexcavation notebooks theplans,thestructures and appearto in sucha waythat was difficult define wallsofeach individual it to the structure. overlap Thissuggests they that wereat a similar level there little was time for stratigraphie and that theaccumulation debris of before another structure built. was Fromtheamount burnt of material thatwas found, is possibleto deduce thatseveralstructures have been it may The fact that there suchnoticeable is of which destroyed fire. by clustering thebuildings overlie each other, yetavoidthestructures other and of that was a groups, suggests there in of awareness thesiting structures. of degree spatial An interpretation sitebased on thehypothesis a succession buildings ofthe of of which wereoccupied overa relatively period time supported thebuilding short of is by techniques. The plansofthestructures thethree over with phasesare fairly homogeneous, variations functional variation within structure the (suchas theuse ofpartitions) possibly reflecting doesnotshowup in thearchaeological or The (which record) simply personal preference. use offoundation trenches pis wallswas ubiquitous and theEarlyNeolithic throughout andwas supplemented thepossible ofwallswhich nothavefoundation use did trenches by in phase 3. in The variation thesizeofstructuresnotgreat, thepresence an unusually is but of large mustbe explained. structure The first structures group 4 are bothconsiderably two of
4 In his reports,Rodden appears uncertain preliminary on this point as in one report he states "... there are neithermarkedstrati graphicalbreaks in the accumulation * of deposit nor obvious changes in the material culture. (Rodden, 1964 a, 564), while in a later article he states

"[the]two buildingperiods ... are separated in places by a deposit of what appears to be the beginningof a humus soil, so that the second building period evidently representsa reoccupation of the site aftera period of abandonment." (Rodden, 1965, 96).



thantheir This had contemporaries. maybe becausethebuilding a specialfunction, larger as suchas a 'shrine', is suggested Rodden(1964 a and 1964 b). It is also possibleto by other such houseforeldersor other specialfunctions as a meeting suggest specialgroups or thehouseofa chief. It is notpossibleto determine size of theEarlyNeolithic the settlement each during of found within excavated the 1 and 2 is area from phase.The number structures phases consistent. suggests thesize ofthesettlement This that remained relatively approximately thesame.On thebasisofthesurviving in the was evidence, settlement 25% smaller phase Roddenoriginally believed that earlier his was a smaller settlement than 3, although phase hislater(Rodden1965). 3.3 FEATURES reference building to ovensand claylinedpitsforevery materials, Every spitacrossthe wholesitewas gathered from excavation the notebooks the 1963 and 1964 seasons for and the siteplans. The information from thesesourceswas comparedwithRodden's in ofthefeatures thepreliminary descriptions reports. 3.3.1 Pits The preliminary described above concentrated claylinedpits, theseappear on as survey in from descriptionstheexcavation the notebook be a definite to Thismay, however, group. be a false and couldhavebeenusedfor variety functions. a of impression, theclaylinedpits The purpose theuse ofclayin thelining these is notcertain. of of pits A further ofall thepits, all theavailable information theexcavation from survey noting notebooks thesiteplanswas attempted, thehopeofdistinguishing usedfor and with those rubbish orother andthus estimate whether distribution a disposal, storage, purposes pattern ofeachtype was apparent. account thepitsin each squareusually The of tooktheform of brief observations thetexture colourofthefill; all pitsweredescribed no on and not and weretaken. Some pitshad drawn sections their were samples showing shape,butas these after pithad been completely the excavated couldnotbe used to obtain produced they information the regarding fill. The overallsiteplan showedthatthe pitswere scattered acrossthe site, randomly sometimes foundation trenches. There were no concentrations pits of cutting through associated with structures. frequency pitsappears decrease The of to towards the particular eastern side of thesite,and there fewclose to theditches theeastern are at limit the of excavated area. In some cases thepitscut through foundation the trenches structures thelatest of of Thesemight a product theactivity Late Neolithic be of of phaseofoccupation. people.Pit A in squareD9 wasidentified thetime excavation beingofLateNeolithic at of as date,but itis unclear whether is based on thecharacter objects pottery this of or in found thepitor due that cutsthrough foundation it the trench. simply to thefact Sections someofthepitsweredrawn, someofthosecompleted of and the during 196 1 excavation Roddensuggests thethree that appearin the 1962 preliminary report. largest which wererelatively shallow and flat wereoriginally as a sourceof used bottomed, pits, and rubbish clayforwallconstruction laterforstorage (Rodden1962). He also identifies



fill Thesehad a dark composed which weredeep andirregular rounded with bottoms. pits, he wereabsent from storage which the ash and charcoal, ofwhich all ofanimal bones, pits, clean. sayswererelatively 3.3.2 Ovens and Hearths At the timeof excavation, distinctions between ovens,whichare roofedconstructions, have no constructed which unroofed are constructions cooking and areas,which hearths, wouldhavebeen difficult make. to element, In his 1962 report, Roddendescribes whatthe two'ovens'foundin 1962 probably in set lookedlike (fig.3.2) "... open on top,roughly cylindrical form, in or on a basin outofthesub-soil" (Rodden1962,270-1). scooped



- ; I -'
' r v.

/ /

*s,- 0/,'

5m /

I Y /l


fig. 3.2. Plan of the 1961 excavationshowingthe locationof the two ovens.



to the He continues describe material from which ovenwas made"Thefragments the of in wallfound theoven debris weremade ofbaked claywitha largeadmixture oven of Besides wallfragments partly the straw vegetable and the ovenscontained temper. collapsed but little burnt and rubble, very ash charcoal" (Rodden1962,271). that there no detailed is of of Despitethefact description thesefeatures thetwoovens in found 1961 in the sitenotebook, theirexcavation clearly provideda greatdeal of information thesize,shapeand construction ovensused at Nea Nikomedeia. about of of The problem the accurate of is description features also highlighted Rodden's by in found the 1963 excavation. states account hearths of He that filled basins, "Clay-lined with ashesandcarbonized inside .. . structures Rodden's two wood,werefound [of building of cerealgrains scattered aroundone ofthesebasins phase 2]. The discovery carbonized that basinsused forparching mayhave been hearth suggests they grain- a procedure in in climate order prevent from to it (Rodden1964 a, necessary a temperate germinating" 564) It is unclear from account this which in structure hearths these werefound as there no is in theexcavation notebook thesefeatures. of Roddensubsequently description Clearly, between ovensand hearths, thepreliminary but in accounts theexcavation distinguished do notebooks notdo so. Possibleovensand hearths werefoundin spits 1, 2 and 3, although majority the of notebook entries concern in 1. The entries theexcavation notebook notalways are spit clearas to thesize,shape and exactlocationof thefeature henceit is beingdescribed, to reconstruct what theyare describing, as a definite impossible exactly especially identification notbe made. The presence burning, could of charcoaland some kindof material as the of building maybe interpreted indicating presence an oven,butmayalso result from preservation building the of materials such as postsand plaster due to the destruction a building fire. of by Ovens' wereidentified the of areasand structural material. The through presence burnt excavation notebookrecordsthe presenceof severalOvens', some of whichare also on of werefound represented thesiteplans.Roddennotesthepresence two'ovens'which in thefirst seasonofexcavation, which located are between twostructures, maybe the and associated withthem(fig.3.1) (Rodden 1962). These do not appearon theoverallsite plan. The excavation a possibleoven is described the excavation of in notebook for entry of squareF6/1,butdoes not appearon a plan. It mayhave been locatedin thecorner structure A Oven' (according thespit1 to 4/1.In squareB8/1,Feature is a possible group in sketch theexcavation in of notebook) thecorner group2/2.It appearstobe a pitwhich waslinedwith burnt brown material which have Thereis another mayoriginally beenclay. between 2/2and group1/2. 'oven',in spit1 in thesamesquare(Feature located B), group This'oven'was similarly lined.No structural remains mentioned either are in case,which that identification as Ovens'maybe incorrect. excavator The notes suggests theprovisional that 'cooking the area' (previously in unmentioned) this squarewas demolished, although itis notclearwhatform 'cooking this area' took. Hearthsare not specifically mentioned. Areas of burning also recordedin the are excavation and extent thesiteplans.As areasofburning on could notebooks, to a limited be whena notewaswritten thesite on to only identified plan,itwasnotpossible determine thesizeor shapeoftheburnt area.An example this Feature in squareD4/2,which of is



in is described the excavation notebook consisting an 'area of earthburnedredas of with flecks charcoal'. of Some discoloration thesurrounding blackearth brown of under border' notedon thesurface. feature also saidto contain was The was the'white fragments and on The presence charcoal, of 'burnt of burnt plaster', rested a 'clayey greydeposit'. andgeneral that wasan oven, as thedimensions the but of plaster burning suggest this may feature notavailable itdoesnotappearon a site are and suchan interpretation remains plan, hypothetical. 3.3.3 Storage and Granaries reference a storage in theexcavation to which in square is Thereis a single notebook, jar in It waslocatedatB6 1.00m x 0.75 m andconsisted fragments a burnt with of area B7/0. burnt daub and charcoal to theoutside them. of there no indication is However, adhering features specifically storage used for ofanyarchitectural purposes. in have mentioned theexcavation No granaries beenspecifically notebooks. presence The ofcarbonized on that of was grain thesiteindicates storage grain undertaken. 3.3.4 Ditches The mainditches thesite(fig.3.3) are those on on at lying thefareastoftheexcavation, theedgeofthemound. to thepottery objects and associated with these ditches, According wereidentified belonging theLate Neolithic as to It they phaseofoccupation.5 is possible in someoftheditches from EarlyNeolithic are the The are that period.6 ditches question narrow lies of thosewhichappearas twoparallel overwhich thesinglestructure ditches, witha widerditch acrossthem, cut locatedin squaresTB1-2 and Tgi-2. This group9, far certain. is, interpretationhowever, from G. P.

5 Rodden

1993 pers. comm.

6 Rodden

1993 pers. comm.



^*- 1







1 1


and with other Neolithic CeramicMaterials Analysis Comparison

(plates 8-14)

4 Chapter The EarlyNeolithic Pottery: Technology

4.1 INTRODUCTION Information the technologyof the Nea Nikomedeia vessels was obtained by three on and a retiring test. methods:macroscopicexamination, microscopicanalysis, of During macroscopic examinationthe fabricsused for the manufacture the vessels intodifferent on thebasis ofcolourand hardnessofclay,theamount, wereseparated groups inclusions.Sherdswere carefully examined forany marksleft typeand size of non-plastic the manufacturing and forinformation the method of attachment on from of techniques of lugs and bases. Cross sectionsand surfaces vesselswere examined in orderto ascertain conditions. thefiring A numberof sherdswere selectedforfurther of analysisat the Institute Archaeology, College, London. The following University analyseswere undertaken: ptrographie study of fifty fourthinsections(table 4.1) and analysisof five thinsectionswith the scanning electronmicroscope(table 4.2). The aim behind the ptrographieexamination was to confirminformation the on of and to relateto provenance technology vessels obtainedby macroscopicexamination, studies(see section4.7.2). The sizes,shapesand proportions non-plastic of inclusions present in the clay matrixof ceramicscan be determined fromcut sections(1 mm thick)viewed under a polarisingmicroscope.Two typesof lightare used for the examinationof thin sections: withcrossedpolars(XP). Mineralsand ceramic (PPL) and light plane polarisedlight in substancesexhibita numberofproperties both typesof lightthatare characteristic and allow theiridentification. the Nea Nikomedeiamaterialthinsectionswere takenfrom For all fabricgroupsdistinguished macroscopicexamination. The major categoriesof nonby and on was obtained plasticinclusionswere identified much information clay preparation inclusions.The presence and natureof by examiningthe size and contourof non-plastic surfacecoatingswas investigated. By usinga detailedgeologicalmap ofthearea, theauthorwas able to compare thenonplasticinclusionspresentin the clays,withthe local rock outcrops.This comparisongave information the availability the non-plastic on of inclusionsin the surrounding area. The ofred-brown sherdswas themain objectiveforthe scanningelectron composition slipped 55
examination: Ptrographie Miaoscopic examination: examination: Macroscopic


PARASKEVI YIOUNI Table 4. 1: list of thinsectionsexaminedwiththe polarizing microscope.1

Reference D4/2, R13 D4/2, R32 A3/3, R16 1/3, R23 D0/1, R18 C3/1, B21 B4/2, R5 L8/1, B31 B4/1 C6/1 C9/1, Ri D4/1, R11 A3/3, R2 K5/1, R16 D0/1, R23 C9/1, R35 M5/1, R25 K5/1, R5 D4/2, R45 G8/1, R7 A5/2, R12 C10/1, R67 D0/1, Ri D6/2, R15 C7/1, R27 C00/2, B19 G8/1, R33 A6/2, B7 D2/2, Rio D0/2 B3 B9/3, B2 C10/1, P25 D4/2, R13 G8/1, P3 D4/2, P2 A3/3> P5 C10/1, Pi C5/2, P22 M7/i,P4 Decoration Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Impressed Impressed Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain Impressed Impressed Plain Plain Plain Plain Plain plain Plain Plain Plain Treatment Slipped Slipped Slipped Slipped Slipped Uncoated Slipped Uncoated Uncoated Uncoated Slipped Slipped Slipped Slipped Uncoated Slipped Slipped Slipped Slipped Slipped Slipped Slipped Slipped Slipped Slipped Uncoated Slipped Uncoated Slipped Uncoated Uncoated Coated Slipped Coated Coated Coated Coated Coated Coated Munsell Colour 2.5YR 4/6 2.5YR 4/6 2.5YR 4/6 5YR 4/4 2.5YR 6/6 10YR 6/3 2.5YR 3/6 10YR 6/3 ioyr 6/3 7.5YR7/4 5YR 4/6 2.5YR 6/6 2.5YR 4/6 2.5YR 6/6 5YR 4/6 5YR 3/4 5YR 5/4 2.5YR 4/4 2.5YR 4/6 2.5YR 5/4 2.5YR 4/8 5YR 3/3 2.5YR 4/4 2.5YR 3/3 2.5YR 4/6 7.5YR6/4 2.5YR 6/6 7.5YR6/2 2.5YR 4/6 7.5YR6/4 7-5 7/4 10R 4/6 2.5YR 6/6 10R 5/6 7.5R 5/6 7.5R 5/6 10R 5/6 10R 5/4 1or 5/6 Fabric A A A A A A A A A A B-i B-i B-i B-i B-i B-i B-i B-i B-i B-i B-i B-i B-i B-i B-i B-2 B-2 B-2 B-2 B-2 C C C C C C C C C

1 Keyto tables 4. 1 and 4.3: Reference: Excavation followed number, square/spit by the number given to sherds during macroscopic examination Red; P: Pink;B: Beige); (R: Decoration: Plain/ Decorated sherd;

Treatment:Surface Treatment- Slipped/Coated/ Uncoated; Munsell Colour:Munsell Soil ColourChartnotations of theexterior surface; Fabric: Fabric as in 4.4.6. types, described section

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC POTTERY: TECHNOLOGY Table 4.1 continued D 10/2,Pi 9 K5/1,P24 1/3,P8 F7/1,P6 J6/1, R3 A2/3,R49 B9/2,R45 B6/1,P3 B9/3,R12 E7/1,R3 B3/1,R12 A1/3,B4 B2/1,B33 F4/1,Bi7 C3/2,B22 Plain Plain Plain Impressed Plain Plain Plain Plain Applied Impressed Impressed Plain Plain Plain Plain Coated Coated Coated Coated Uncoated Uncoated Uncoated Coated Uncoated Uncoated Uncoated Uncoated Uncoated Uncoated Uncoated 10R5/4 7.5R5/6 10R5/6 10R4/6 4/6 2.5YR 4/8 2.5YR 5YR4/6 7.5R5/4 6/6 2.5YR 5YR4/6 2.5YR 5/6 10YR 6/3 10YR 7/3 7.5R7/4 10YR 6/3 C C C C D D D D D D D


Table 4.2: Chemical composition slips and coatingsof the Nea Nikomedeia vessels,studiedby of SEM. % Oxide ist


Samples 3rd




AI203 Na2oi 21 Mgioi Caioi Fe2O3 Mmo2 Cr2O3 T1102 Cuioi S 101
205 Ci 102

18.032 .649 2.464 0.666 !-572 7679 .102 .148 .479 .000 .115
.ooo .000

21.073 1.038 4.308 1.086 1-P7^3 9.106 .181 .168 .699 .026 .080
.000 .028

18.922 1394 3.770 !-795 2.820 7-39 .230 .000 .736 -255 .150
.000 .279

18.247 .88 3.651 1-33 2.005 8.191 .171 .129 .920 .000 .115
.000 .743

14497 3.565 4297

20.071 .558







of in (an 1, Keyto samples explanation thedatagivencan be found footnote above): ist Red slip(Reference: Colour:2.5YR6/6; Fabric:B-i). D4/1, R11; Munsell Red micaceous (Reference: 2nd Colour:2.5YR6/6; Fabric: slip K5/1, R16; Munsell B-i). Brown (Reference: Colour:5YR3/4; Fabric:B-i). 3rd slip C9/1, R35; Munsell 4th (Reference: B-i). Clay matrix K5/1, R16; Fabric: Pinkcoatedsherd Colour: ior 4/6; Fabric:C). (Reference: C10/1, P25; Munsell 5th



electron is usedtogaininformation microscope analysis. Scanning microscopy a technique materials. excellence the The of on themicrotopographythesurface a widerangeof of of electrons each at the of and imageis built by observing intensity emitted back-scattered up of whilescanning beamoverthesurface. chemical the The composition thematerial point A from back-scattered the wererefired can be deduced electrons. number sherds of (table test out at The conditions, 8oo C for minutes. refiring was carried 40 4.3),under oxidizing in order establish Brown and to whether pinkcoating applied the was before after or firing. in their reaction firing underoxidizing red-brown sherds werealso refired, checking for conditions.

Table4.3:List sherds of refired 8ooCfor minutes.2 at 40

Reference A3/3,R16 D4/2, R45 G8/1, P3 M7/1, P4 B9/3, R12 Decoration Plain Plain Plain Plain Applied Treatment Slipped Slipped Coated Coated Uncoated Munsell Colour 2.5YR 4/6 2.5YR 4/6 ior 5/6 ior 5/6 2-5** 6/6 Fabric A B-i C C D

In in ThisChapter be separated three can into followed part parts. thefirst themethod is The themacroscopic microscopic and oftheceramic material described. second analysis and surface with description manufacturing the of coatings techniques, partis concerned usedforthe The third the of ofthevessels. starts with presentation thefabrics firing part of the of whichquestions manufacture thevessels, concerning origin thenonfollowing In of addition temper refining theclayarediscussed. eachsection, of and inclusions, plastic from Greeksitesand sitesofthe of other a comparative description technological aspects of is Neolithic theBalkanPeninsula included.5 Early 4.2 METHODOLOGY material from Nea Nikomedeia involved twoseasonsof fieldwork Studyof theceramic is wherethematerial stored. at theVerroia and Museum, (four fivemonths respectively) Achilleion from following was also examined: the sites The EarlyNeolithic (Larisa pottery I Nessonis and Soufli (VolosMuseum), (LarisaMuseum), Museum), Magoulitsa Magoula II Nessonis (VolosMuseum), (Anza) Museum), (Fiorina Anzabegovo Servia-Varythimidis from Veluska of as andVrsnik (Stipand SkopjeMuseums), wellas a selection wholevessels and Porodin (Bitola Museum).
2 For an explanation of the headings used in TABLE 4.3 see n. 1, above. Early Neolithic sites of the Balkans see Nandris 1971; 1977, fig.4. 3 For

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC POTTERY: TECHNOLOGY 4.2.1 Macroscopic Examination of the Material


During macroscopic examination of the material at the Verroia Museum the followingform was completed for each sherd. of 1. Registration sherd: Excavation square/spit; Ware category:red/pink/beige/applied/impressed; Numberof sherd: each sherdwas given an individualnumber. sectionwas drawn foreach sherd; 2. Shape: Drawing: a right-hand Rim/basediameter:it was calculatedby adjustingthe sherd to a set of concentric circles(the radiuswas increasing0.5cm). The Munsell Soil Colour Chart notations of both interiorand 3. Surfacecolour: exterior surfaceswere recorded. Hardness: the surfacewas scratchedwith nail/glass/steel 4. Fabric: point; The colour of sub-surface was recorded; Frequencyof inclusions:sparse/common/abundant; Size of inclusions: very small (not visible with the naked eye)/ medium(smallerthan 1 mm)/large (largerthan 1 mm); well sorted/ill-assorted; Sorting: Identification inclusions:the following of typesof inclusionswere identified duringthe field-work: inclusions. theothertypes For calcite/quartz/mica/shell/grog/plant of inclusionstheircolour and shape was recorded.Finally,the reactionof the fabricwithdilutehydrochloric acid was recorded. Presence/absence black core in the cross-section; of 5. Firing: Presence/absence firing of clouds on the exteriorsurface/interior surface/base. 6. Surfacecoating: Present/absent; Area covered: all surface/upper part; cover; Quality of coverage: adequate/poor/wash-like Mica particles:few/many/absent; Traces forthe methodof applicationof coating:wiping/pouring/ dipping; The same information recordedforboth exterior was and interior surfaces. Area covered withlustre:whole surface/upper 7. Burnishing: part; Quality of lustre:good/medium/poor; Direction of burnishingstrokes: horizontal/diagonal/vertical/ absent; The same information recordedforboth exterior was and interior surfaces. 8. Decoration: Apart fromthe descriptionof the different types of decoration, and applied decorationwere drawn. typical examplesofimpressed All sherds were examined for any traces of the primary 9. Manufacture: and themethodsused fortheapplication manufacturing techniques of bases and lugs.



4.2.2 Microscopic Examination of Thin Sections In examining sectionsa fairly the simpleprocedurewas followed.The colour of thematrix in plane polarizinglight(PPL) and the numberof voids were noted. Differences colour in betweencore and surface were also briefly noted. In examiningthe inclusions the aim was to note the major classes with a general withpercentagecharts such as per totalfabric usingobservational percentage comparisons are used in sedimentary studies.For all classes of inclusionsthe identification made was with a note as to its relativeabundance, size, angularity and sphericity. The lattertwo Rods (Adams, qualities were judged using the guide given in the Atlas of Sedimentary Mackenzie and Guilford1984). was given to the technologicaldata thatcan be ascertainedfromthe Special attention examinationof thinsections.In more detail,thefollowing aspectswere examined: In 1. The processesinvolvedin the preparation the clay body priorto manufacture. of orderto investigate this,therelativeamountas well as the shape and size of rock, were examined. mineral,argillaceousand organicinclusions, of 2. The method used in the manufacture ceramics.In order to investigate this,the ofvoids,their orientation well as theorientation non-plastic as of inclusions presence were recorded (see Rye 1976, 1981; Woods 1982 b, 1984-5). The characteristics surfacetreatments seen of as 3. The natureof surfacetreatments. under the microscope,were recorded.



The vessels fromNea Nikomedeia were carefully hence marks of the primary finished, wereusuallyobliterated subsequenttreatment. Fromthelarge manufacturing techniques by a smallnumberofsherdshave suchmarks.Apartfromtwominiature sample studied, only vesselswhichwerefired without beingscraped,marksofprimary manufacturing techniques to are restricted the interiorsurfaceof the vessels. Sherds with freshbreaks can give information the manufacturing on of techniquesused, and on the method of attachment lateradditions suchas bases and lugs.Macroscopicexamination shownthattwoprimary has manufacturing techniqueswere used: coilingand pinching. 4.3.1 Coiling The majority coilingmarksare foundon rimsherds(20 sherds);only one base and one of sherd withlug are included in the sample. In all cases two or threesuperimposed body coils, 10-20 mm wide, were visible on the interiorsurface of the sherd. Coils were connected to one another, i.e. no traces of division between the coils were thoroughly visible. This is attested the rarity sherdswithhorizontalfracture of by along the smooth of coils. In all, only two such sherdshave been found. junction Coil buildingmay be detectedin thinsections, most obvious signsbeingjoin voids the frominadequate bonding (Woods 1982 b, photo 22). Orientationof inclusions resulting of (Woods 1984-5). Despite thecareful may also be indicative themanufacturing techniques examinationof the thinsections,coil joins were not present, nor was the orientation of inclusionsdiagnostic.



Evidence thatpinchingwas used as a primary manufacturing techniquecomes fromtwo vessels.Both vesselswere leftunscraped,so thattheirsurfaces miniature beige, unslipped of are markedwithadjacent grooves (plate 8 0). In one of them,impressions finger nails wall. Since the pots were not properlyfinished, are visible on the interior were less they One ofthemwas crackedvertically intotwoparts;one exterior adapted to standthefiring. and one interior. vesselswere theonlyexampleswithpinching marks Despite thefactthattheseminiature it seems probable thatpinching,a simple and fastmanufacturing technique,was more tracescan be explained by the fact widelyused. The paucityof sherdswithmanufacturing thatpinchingmarksare more easily obliterated thanthoseleftby coiling(Shepard 1956, 184). researchhas shown thatpinchingis a widespreadmethod,used forthe Ethnographic manufacture whole pots or forthe modellingof the lower part of largervessels; the of upper partbeing made by coiling(Rye 1981, 70]. It seems thata similarprocesswas used This is suggested thefactthatcoilingmarkswere found by theNea Nikomedeiapotters. by withthe 20 rimsherdswhichhad such marks. onlyin one base sherd,in contrast fromothersiteshas shown thatboth coiling and Technologicalanalysisof the pottery of pinchingwere known,and were mainlyused in combinationforthe manufacture the Neolithicvessels. Among the siteswhere the combinationtechniquewas used forvessel manufacture Early NeolithicSesklo (Wijnen 1981), Middle NeolithicSesklo (Kotsakis are Middle Neolithic Lerna and Franchthi (Vitelli1974). It shouldbe pointedouthowever 1981), thatas faras coilingis concerned,two different In techniquescan be distinguished. Nea Nikomedeiapotters wereplacingthecoils one on top oftheother. The same techniquehas been used by thepotters Vrsnik,* thepotters theMiddle Neolithic of and of East Macedonian sites(Yiouni 1994). In the othertechniquethe coils were placed not on top of,but next to each other. This technique was used in Earlyand Middle Neolithic Sesklo,Middle Neolithic Lerna and Franchthi and in Middle NeolithicMakri in Thrace (Yiouni 1994). 4.3.3 Mat Impressions A numberof the Nea Nikomedeia bases have mat impressions theirexterior on surface. These impressionscould have been made when the finished vessels were leftto dry on mats.Alternatively, matscould have been used forsupporting rotating vases, such and the in orderto facilitate their (Vitelli1984, 119; Rye 1981, 63). This is because when building a pot becomes too large to be shaped in the potter'shands,it has to be set on a surface. Porous surfaces, such as mats,are preferable because when a pot is rotatedagainsta hard and plane, itsbottomis weakened by friction may crackor bend. Similarmat impressions have been foundat a numberof sites:Early NeolithicServia (Wijnen 1979), Anzabegovo the (Anza) I & II (Gimbutas1976, fig.64), in sitesfrom Veluska-Porodin complex (Simoska and Sanev 1976, figs.59 & 58), at Sitagroi(Renfrew1973, fig. 122) and Makri (Yiouni 1994)

4 Observation of the author.



are smooth. marks had the After primary the Scraping building finished, potswerescraped in onlya fewsherds. Theseareseries parallel of sometimes lines, forming adjacent present is of with different orientation. marks, scraping recognized Despitetherarity these groups thickness thevessels' of walls.Potswerescraped of and bythequality contour theuniform witha scraping formed dragging whentheywerestill grains by plastic: drag-marks, grit tools canbe donewith are toolon a hardclaysurface, absent. smooth-edged such Scraping orwith toothed a or toolssuchas piecesofflint other as boneandwood,hard-edged rocks, Some ofthescraping devicesuchas a shellor pot-sherd or serrated marks, (Rice 1987). look as though seen on theNea Nikomedeia vessels, theyweremade witha comb-like shellor a fragment another of tool,probably pot. is research shownthatthe paddle and anviltechnique sometimes has Ethnographic or the to produces overlapping closely employed complete unionofcoils.Thistechnique left on of spaceddepressions, by theanvil, theinterior thepot (Rye 1981,fig.70). Such was in this vessels itseemsthat technique and marks werenotpresent theNea Nikomedeia were unless characteristic the notusedbythepotters, by depressions obliterated subsequent scraping. 4.3.5 Application of Bases and Lugs of vases have ringor flatbases; onlya fewof themare The majority Nea Nikomedeia was a base wasmodelled the round bottomed figs.5.21-5.23).After vessel built, round (see Some flatand a fewring the excessclay and smoothing surface. the away by scraping in basesweremodelled a similar way. for of Most often bases,a diskor a coil was however, themanufacture ringand flat are of added to the bottom the vessel.These additions visiblein manybrokensherds to of (plate8 b).The coil wasrestricted a number wellmadeand easilydistinguished ring in disk it and bases.Actually, is this the whereas diskwas encountered bothflat ring bases, in order makea ring flat than or base.The fact thediskis thicker that to which modelled is for the of that thebottom thevessel,suggests it was added partly modelling base, and All three methods the of it in for partly strengthening orderto sustain weight thevessel. even wereencountered in theearlier addition coilordisk), of described above (smoothing, Thessaly (Wijnen1981) and thePloponnse (Phelps1975). potsfrom of werepressed ontothesurface bulbsofclaywhich rounded Lugswereappliedas thick on wet thevessel.Additional claywas smeared to coverand seal thejoint.The bulbwas the of In the usedfor manufacture then lugsweremadefrom samefabric pierced. all pots, thewholepot. to them ontothebody.An extra was Forthelarger safely lugs, precaution taken secure the of went surface thelug,which through wallofthe oblong plugwasaddedtothebottom A attached handle have been found. similarly vase (plate 9 0). In all,fivesuchexamples in common Middle in was This of attachment very hasbeenfound Elateia.5 method handle the handles' known from EarlyBronze 'thrust are Makri(Yiouni1994).Similar Neolithic 1962, 175). (Weinberg Age in Greeceand Anatolia
5 In the stratum withthe early painted pottery Weinberg 1962, 175.




the had Thisis attested thepotsin which Lugswereaddedafter vessels beenscraped. by In off below lugshave broken thebodyat thepointofattachment. suchpots,thesurface thelugis wellsmoothed. Baseswerealso addedat a similar After the stage(after scraping). additionof lugs and bases, the unslippedpots were burnished as to acquire the so and characteristic surface. whenthesurface still was compact smooth Theywereburnished butnottooplastic. Thisis apparent from fact the that medium largesized the and yielding in inclusions usually are levelled thesurface, on visible breaks. being only thefresh Troughs tool madeby theburnishing arerarely visible.

4.4 SURFACE COATING surface Two different wereused by theNea Nikomedeia red-brown coatings potters: slip and pinkcoating. Theircharacteristics described are below. 4.4.1 Red-Brown Slip The red-brown adhereswell to thebody sinceflaking peelingis almostabsent. or slip ithas a sufficient toconcealthebody, vessels but with thin a Generally covering power slip are also present. surfaces carefully are finished no runsare visible, as and (wash) Slipped themargin oftheslip,on theinterior line surface closedpots,is moreor less regular. of Fine grooves whenthe slip is appliedby wiping absent.So the slip was are produced either dipping pouring. or Since dipping allowsmorecontrol over coverage applied by 198 1, 4 1),itseemsthat wasthemost this with limited to method, pouring (Rye widespread thelarger vases.After application, slipwas burnished. the the In all thin sections red-brown of the as fine sherds, slipappears a straight, grained slipped in of uniform thickness a singlesherd(plate 9 b). It has a distinctive in difference line, colour from underlying andthere a cleardemarcation the is between andsurface. body body The slipofpainted sherds a similar has under microscope. the appearance Red-brown in one pot to the other. slippedvesselsshowa greatvariation colourfrom Coloursrangefrom red through to shadesbeingmore red-brown, brown;the lighter common. Munsell ColourChart The Soil in notations given table 4.4. Thesedifferences are in colour couldbe theresult using of different or theresult firing vessels of the under slips, conditions. colour a slipcanbe attributed of either manganese, to Thus,thebrown varying whichacquiresa browncolourwhenfired, to ironoxidesfired a non oxidizing or in 1956,39). atmosphere (Shepard In orderto clarify three thinsections wereexamined withtheSEM. Two of the this, sections to red coloured the comesfrom brown a of sherds, third belong pot.The results theanalysis presented table 4.2, ist,2ndand 3rdsamples. can be seen,redand are in As brown and of is in slipshave thesamecomposition, theamount manganese negligible all cases. To verify above,brown the and redslippedsherds in wererefired oxidizing conditions for40 minutes 8oo C. After refiring, sherds at the all had a clearred colour, and it was


PARASKEVI YIOUNI Table 4.4: Surfacecolour of the plain vessels from Nea Nikomedeia.
Pottery Red-brown slipped Munsell Colour 2.5YR 5/6; 2.5YR 5/4; 2.5YR 4/8; 2.5YR 4/6; 2.5YR 4/4; 2.5YR 3/6; 2.5YR 3/4; 5YR 5/6; 5YR 5/4; 5YR 4/6; 5YR 4/4; 5YR 4/3; 5YR 3/4; 5YR 3/3; 5YR 3/2 10R 5/6; 10R 5/4; ior 4/6; ior 4/4; 7.5R 5/6; 7-5R 5/4 ioyr 7/3; ioyr 7/4; ioyr 6/3; ioyr 7/4; 7.5YR 7/4; 7.5YR 6/4; 7.5YR 6/2 2.5YR 4/6; 2.5YR 5/4; 2.5YR 4/4; 5YR 6/6; 5YR 6/4; 5YR 5/6;5yr 5/4; 5YR 4/6; 5YR 4/4

Pink coated Beige unslipped Red-brown unslipped

that the brown sherds. seemssafethento conclude It to impossible distinguish previously in werecoatedwithsimilar thedifference colourbeingthe brownand red sherds slips; in it is from pottotheother, seems one Sincethere a great variation shades result firing. of to of conditions from one firing theother, were thatthesedifferences theresult varying vessels. red intentional to than rather by light or darker being attempts thepotters produce in of uniform consistent colour, and The slippedsurface each vesselis fairly although A due to firing are or some darker lighter clouds, present. fewsherds (1% ofredspots, in of The exterior surface each showgreater variation colour. slippedsample)however, has surface darkbrown and blackin places.The interior sherd red,light brown, appears shades. the or itssliphas one oftheexterior either samemottled appearance, if coloured variation intentional. different was The It is difficultdeterminethis to patches however It shouldbe noticed decorative are mixedand theydo notfollow any pattern. wares(i.e.pinkcoated, on are the suchvariations, a single that vessel, absent among other and uncoated vessels). impressed painted, or from This groupof sherdsshouldbe differentiated the characteristic Variegated' in sites(Chourmouziadis which commonly are found theThessalian vessels, 'buntpolierte' decorative have triangular, and 26d and 25b). These vessels 1971,figs. tongue-like other The mottled oftheir surface which havebeenmadebycovering motifs, firing. during parts withthese and whencompared Nea Nikomedeia vesselsfrom appearbuff monotonous, Thessalian examples. A final mottled vessels. remark should madeaboutthered-brown be These,in the1962 ware" self burnished werereferred as "brown, coloured, to (Rodden 1962, 284), report D and in Rodden'sclassification). it the fieldwork was not easy to During (groups or these vessels wereslipped not. examination alone,whether distinguish, macroscopic by in a number thin of was clouds. this For Theirsurface covered largeparts firing reason, by Allexamined sections wereslipped. with wereexamined thepolarizing sections microscope.




Analysisof the threethinsectionswiththe SEM has shown thatslips have a significant withthe small amount of clay content(table 4.2, ist, 2nd and 3rd samples),in contrast iron oxide. The clay matrixof one sherd,made fromfabricB-i (see section 4.6.3), was is also examined (table 4.2, 4th sample). The amountofironoxides presentin the matrix with thatfound in the slip (9% in the slip; 8.2% in the clay matrix).This comparable but than thatthe slip was made froma ferruginous clay,similar more fine-grained suggests of thatused forthe manufacture the pot. Fabric B-i, when fired, coloursranging acquires to Since no colouringmaterialhas been added to the slip, frombrown-beige red-brown. in the difference colour betweenslip and clay matrixcan be explained as resulting from the fineparticlesize of clay mineralsand otherinclusionsin the slip. Moreover,the iron oxides presentin the slip were betteroxidized duringfiring, acquired clearercolours. and No otherclay matrixwas examined under the SEM. However,ptrographie analysishas shown that all clays used for the manufacture Nea Nikomedeia vessels are highly of It ferruginous. is probable then,thatit was a generalpracticeforthe slip to be made from used forthemanufacture thevessels,without additionof colourings. of the The same clays in was used by thepotters Middle NeolithicSesklo (Kotsakis1981). Use ofa slip technique which does not containadded colorantis not uncommon(Shepard 1956, 67). in Red-brown Theiramounthowever, not constant all vessels. is slipscontainmica grains. Almost80% ofthe studiedsherdshave slipswitha fewmica grains.The remaining sherds are coated witha mica dustedslip whichhas a glittering appearance. There are twoalternative for mica in themicaceous explanations thepresenceofplentiful Eitherground mica was added to the slip, or mica occurrednaturallyin the raw slip. material used forslip.Takingintoaccountthesuggestion thatslip was made fromthesame used forthemanufacture vessels, of one would expecttheclayused forthemanufacture clays in ofpots withthemicaceous slip to be richer mica. Comparativestudyof thinsectionsof in sherdswithmicaceous and non-micaceous slip,has shownno differences the amountof mica presentin the clay matrix(nb. thisstudyis based on an estimation the inclusions of in the matrix,and not on a point count analysis).Thus, the addition of ground present mica seems to be the most probable explanation. Judgingeven frombroken sherds,the additionof plentiful mica had a highlydecorativeeffect. 4.4.2 Pink Coating In all thinsectionsofpinkcoated sherds, pinkcoatingappears as a thinirregular of the line non-uniform thickness The coatingconsistsof rounded and subroundeddark (plate 10). red particlesof varyingsize, connectedwitha 'fluid',finegrainedpaste, most probably clay. Apart fromthe rounded particlesand the clay, the coating looks free fromother inclusions.There is not a distinct demarcation betweenbody and surface. Instead,the red are pressedinto the matrix, in it. particles makinggrooves Accordingto the ceramicliterature, is a suspensionof fineclay particlesin water, slip withor without additionof colouring the material(Shepard 1956, 67; Rye 1981, 41). Seen underthemicroscope, as aline ofuniform withno obvious particles thickness, slip appears ofthecolouring butwitha clear demarcation line betweensurface and claymatrix material, (Woods 1982 h, 16, photo 28). Althoughthe red-brownslip compares well with this it as the description, is clearthatthepinkcoatingcannotbe identified a slip.In fact, features



as the itas ofthepink layer, seenunder microscope, distinguish a mineral coating (pigment) madefrom crushed colorant clay(Woods1982 b, photo30). and the is to from wellto Macroscopically pinkcoating difficult distinguish a slip.It adheres itis notcrusty. thefollowing can differentiate coatedand thebody,and features Only pink few of red-brown are slippedvessels.First, large(up to 1 mm across)particles colorant in with nakedeyeinmost thepinkcoatedsherds. the of which have visible Second, vessels the and It lostpartoftheir lustre, pinkcoating burnishing appears powdery rough. is only whenthehandis rubbed thesurface these on of vessels. that occasionally colourcomesoff be that examination thepinkcoating that It should stressed though, itis under microscopic from is clearly distinguished a slip. the withtheMunsellSoil ColourChart, colourofpinkcoatedsherds ranges Compared colour connected from to 10R5/6-5/4 fig.4.4).This'cherry-red' is usually (see 7.5R5/6-5/4 has One thin section a pinkcoatedsherd been of with haematite ironoxide:Fe2O5). (red table 4.2, 5thsample, has haematite been with SEM. As can be seenfrom the examined to ofclay(Slo2,A12o3) amounting to 20%, butthehigh detected amounting percentage itseems 1% - shows purehaematite notbeenusedfor pinkcoating. has the that Instead, 7 sandstone been usedas a colorant. has a that ferruginous

1 are of fine water a binder and Mostpigments mixtures colorants, clay, (Shepard 956, 71). in of and of Claysslowthesettling particles themixture enhancetheflowand adhesion and The is medium which quality binds improves spreading pigment. binder an organic withpre-wheel but thepaint.The use of a binderis a common practice, not universal potters. beforeor after The pink coatingof the Nea can firing. Pigments be applied either from thin the This vessels been appliedbefore has Nikomedeia firing. can be recognized into wheretheparticles colorant pressed, burnishing, theclaymatrix, of are sections by surface. on thusmaking groovesin it. This would have been impossible a hard fired at oftwosherds for under conditions, 40 minutes 800oC, did Moreover, refiring oxidizing the of As was notalter their firing, presence a appearance. thepinkcoating appliedbefore the it out cannot detected be binder because,ifpresent, is burned during firing. will it unless soft After the the colorant remain and powdery applying pigment, ground in iron is burnished before or sintered firing (Shepard1956, 32). Sintering firing, during Nea at between oxidesoccurs temperatures 920oC and 950oC. Pinkcoatedvesselsfrom werefired temperatures at lowerthan800oC (see section Nikomedeia Therefore, 4.4.5). The of to of can thepermanence pinkcoating be attributed burnishing. quality burnishing from to poor. of varies lustre thepinkcoatedsherds high in Iron In a recent of study haematite-coating' Late Bronze/Early Age vesselsfrom in of wereusedfor application coating the twomethods South (Middleton 1987), England into was haematite burnished theleather a ofcrusted modern First, thick slurry replicas. haematite appliedas a drypowderto thewet clay was hard surface. Second,crushed Bothmethods at hardstage. surface followed burnishing theleather coatings produced by whichmicroscopically similar theNea Nikomedeia are to (Woods1982 b, pinkcoating 5 photo30; see also Rigbyetal. 1989,figs. & 7).





other vesselswithmineral are the pottery, coatings thesoApartfrom graphite-painted from Late-FinalNeolithic the The termCrusted called Crusted Ware,reported period. of a red Wareis appliedto all forms decoration employing thick or white crusty pigment considered a postas which adheres badlyto thevessel(Phelps1975,310). It is generally has as or and decoration, theredcoating beenidentified haematite as ironrich(Jones firing table9.6a). 1986, Nea is with Crusted the The pinkcoatedwarefrom Nikomedeia notcomparable Ware. has it adheres wellto thebodyand it is not The pinkcoating been appliedbefore firing, in it the of whereas Crusted Warethe Moreover, covers wholesurface thevessels, crusty. is usually usedfor decorative patterns. pigment A coating similar that to usedby theNea Nikomedeia has technique potters, notbeen from other Neolithic of theBalkanarea. Gardner site any early (1978) reports reported in has that haematite beenidentified, chemical Neolithic vessels by analysis, theslipofEarly Achilleion. surface suchvessels described beingpowdery thecolour The of from is as and A as fugitive. number thesesherds of were examined, macroscopically, the present by None ofthem thepowdery/rough had author. surface theNea Nikomedeia of pinkcoated andhaematite werenotvisible with nakedeye.Thusthemacroscopic the sherds, particles that wereusing clayslipwhich a contained analysis suggested theAchilleion potters very fine ofhaematite, rather than thevessels with crushed a mineral particles coating pigment. In the 1962 report Nea Nikomedeia pinkcoatedsherds for the werereferred as "the to PinkSlippedWare, characterized a uniformly slipappliedas a washtothesurface" by pink sherds werealsoreported French a number Neolithic for of (Rodden1962).Pink slipped by in sites West Macedonia(French The results themacroscopic of examination, 1967,1970). of material collected French from sites the which are author, thesurface by thepresent by situated to Nea Nikomedeia presented near are below.The surface collection keptat the is of University Thessaloniki. Trilophos: One pink sherd from site very this is similar thepink to coated sherds from Nikomedeia. Nea Itssurface thesamecolour(10R5/6) thesamepowdery has and Evenitsfabric appearance. to Nea Nikomedeia section looks,macroscopically, similar fabric (see very groupC from of was since belongs a reference it to collection. 4.6.5).Thinsectioning thesherd impossible and are 8 sharethesamegeology Trilophos Nea Nikomedeia situated kmapartand they from two settlements the were (see fig.4.1). It is highly probablethenthatthepotters the similar The possibility some that using sameclaybedsandwereemploying techniques. kindofpottery existed between twosettlements the cannot excluded. be exchange near Rizarion, Edessa: A number red coloured of sherds(colourof surface:2.5YR6/8) have a verypowdery surface their and colourcomesoff It a was veryeasily. seemsthat similar technique used fortheproduction thiscoating, thecolouring of but material fabric and appeardifferent from those usedin Nea Nikomedeia. Rizarion Nea Nikomedeia situated and are 30-35 km apart. Pink sherds alsoreported Yiannitsa (Chrisostomou Chrisostomou are from and slipped a sitewhich situated is kmne ofNea Nikomedeia. examination 1993), 30-35 Macroscopic






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indicates their ofthematerial that colour produced slipping was rather bycovering than by In contrast, with mineral a someoftheRed-Pink coloured vessels Red on Red and coating. Serviaappearsimilar theNea Nikomedeia to coated painted potsfrom EarlyNeolithic further similar sherds werenoticed, thepresent north, author, amongthe pots.Turning by material Neolithic from in Moreover, Lakavica(near (Anza)andVrsnik. Early Anzabegovo an has which showstypological and Stipin south Yugoslavia), animal figurine beenfound similarities figurines Nea Nikomedeia with from with (Nandris stylistic 1968).It is covered a pink paint,which macroscopically verysimilarto the pink coatingfromNea is Nikomedeia.6 examination indicates apart from Nikomedeia, technique Nea the Thus, that, macroscopic ofcovering vessels the with mineral a was Neolithic sites. coating also usedin other Early The availableinformation in thatthistechnique was employed sitesin West suggests Macedonia South and absent from Thessalian the Thisconclusion Yugoslavia, being region. ofcourse tobe verified microscopic has examination a sample of from sites the mentioned by above.

4.5 FIRING It seemsthat Nea Nikomedeia werefired openbonfires. is recognized the in This pots by theappearance thepottery, of which all thesigns a bonfire, has of in uneven temperature and atmosphere: firing i.e. bothamongdifferent clouds,and a rangeof surface colours, or evenon a single vessel. pots, the of is itself, Apartfrom appearance thepottery open bonfire firing implied the by absence anykiln of structures. Remains bonfires of when preserved, be indistinguishable may from remains fires forheating cooking, of lit or unlesstheyare accompanied a large by amount ceramic of wasters. Vitelli that an reports after experimental firing, a slight only ash remained two remained all. at (Vitelli 1974,2, 29) After years, grey stain nothing AtAchilleion circular in hearths situated courtyards, reported having are as large-sized been used forthefiring pottery a communal of on basis (Gimbutas 1989). Suchhearths in havebeenfound almost excavated level(apart from be every phaseI and Ha). It should noted that wasters reported for hearth phaseIllb (Gimbutas are in however, firing only the 1989,figs. 4.25b and 4.29). AtNea Nikomedeia large a number firing of remains hearths and havebeenfound which, from and couldhavebeen usedfor vessels. is also possible It apart cooking heating, firing that someofthepits, which contain ashesand blackearth, served similar had a purpose. The atmosphere the oxidation. majority The during firing usually supported incomplete in ofthefresh breaks potsshowa dark corebetween light two coloured The layers. relative of sometimes within vessel.In mostcases one proportions core and surface layers vary, the coloured are thin however, light (1-2 mm).In monochrome, margins very impressed andpottery applieddecoration, with In oxidized coresarerare. painted vessels completely oxidizedcoresaremorecommon, firing and cloudsare almost absent. however,

6 Nandris pers. comm.



attained bonfire Temperatures by 650-9000C, buthigher firing generally rangebetween be temperatures occasionally reached(Rice 1987; Woods 1982 a). may A roughestimation the maximum of at temperature whichthe vessels fromNea Nikomedeia werefired, be obtained can from clays the calcium carbonate containing grains. Calciumcarbonate whenheatedat temperatures between 700oC and 850oC, beginsto withcalcitic fired above 700o C, is inclusions, decomposeintoCO2 and CaO. Pottery to due of which a has subject disintegration, to thehydration CaO. Calciumhydroxide, exerts on thefabric causesa cone-shaped and to spallfrom volume, larger pressure piece thewallleaving white a at grain theapex (Rye 1981, 114). A in the usedbytheNea Nikomedeia fabrics andC arerich calcitic Among clays potters, their varying size from tocoarse(see sections fine inclusions; 4.6.2 and4.6.5). Bothfabrics werecommonly used: 72% of the plain vesselsweremade from them.Lime spalling is eveninthepotscontaining calcitic It be inclusions. should pointed however, absent, large in after at 800oC, limespalling noticed all sherds sherds) outthat, was made (3 refiring A from fabrics and C. Therefore,canbe suggested thevessels it that from Nikomedeia Nea werefired temperatures exceeding750-8000C. This temperature at not rangecan be as a rough taken sincefiring a complicated is and thefinal result is estimation, only process affected many factors: duration firing, offiring, ofclay, of by temperature, atmosphere type of pre-drying potsetc. to it for from other Greekand EarlyNeolithic sites, can Turning comparison thepottery the be seenthat estimated from C beingthe 750- 1050oC; 750-8500 temperatures range consensus 1986,table9.6b). (Jones low withthescarceevidence for The relatively firing are temperatures in accordance in kilnstructures the archaeological record.One kilnis reported from Late Neolithic in ofthis as however, 1929).Theidentification structurea kiln (Mylonas Olynthos, Chalkidiki and is questioned chronological technological on (Vitelli 1974;Jones1986,777). grounds site fromLate NeolithicDimini Anotherexample of a pottery-firing is reported Thisis alow, circular built structure m diameter), with (Chourmouziadis 1979). (1.15 clay, itsoriginal schist The structure tiles thick andflat (30 preserves height cm),so it fragments. that pit it is clearthat was nota domedovenbuta fire The excavator suggests this has pit. of the sinceinside outside pit(ina radius 3-4 m) and beenusedbya specialized workshop, with have sherds similarities beenfound. abundant stylistic In contrast thenegative neolithic kilns with evidence kilnstructures Greek for from sites, in Balkancountries. earliest so far, datedto the are The have been found other examples at havebeenfound Crcea(Nica of culture laststages theStarevo (Starevo Fourkilns IV). of withan opening, servedby a lateralfuel consist a singlefuelchamber 1978). They both chamber chambers, served (Ellis1984,fig. 48). One kilnhad twoadjoining by firing kilnstructures beenfound a number Late of have at chamber. Similar thesamefuel simple sites.7 Neolithic

VinCa, Turdas,Dudeti, Boian Cultures:see Ellis 1984.





4.6.1 Introduction A sampleof fifty-four sections thin from monochrome impressed pottery and and with has sherds werestudied Hodges (table4. 1).Painted applieddecoration, beenexamined by to of from Nea (Biernoff A). 1969,Appendix In order givea coherent picture thepottery a of examination thepaintedvesselswillbe of Nikomedeia, summary theptrographie included theend.Mostofthethin at sections thepainted of vessels wereavailableat the Institute Archaeology, of London,so thatmicroscopic University College, comparisons with of sections monochrome impressed and werepossible. pottery One oftheaimsofcarrying theptrographie out was information analysis, to confirm obtained macroscopic examination. has been proventhata macroscopic It by analysis features suchas colour, hardness clay,size,amount of and colourof nonusinggeneral inclusions their and reaction dilute with method acid, plastic hydrochloric canbe a reliable ofdifferent fora general fabric Based on thesefeatures, fabrics the separation categories. wereseparated, into different (fabrics A-E). macroscopically, five types With confirmed separation. exception this The onlyone exception, ptrographie analysis fabric Twenty sections, B. thin concerns which tomacroscopic examination were according considered be made from to fabric were examined withthepolarizing B, microscope. Fromthese, fifteen clearly were madefrom samefabric. remaining however, the The five had tobe separated a different type. thefollowing as In fabric the is description, first group B-i calledfabric and thesecondfabric ofthedifferent B-2.The relative fabric frequency usedfor manufacture Nea Nikomedeia the of has from data vessels, been calculated types, the obtained from macroscopic in Therefore all subsequent analysis. comparative analyses, B-i fabrics and B-2 are notdistinguished different, they considered a single as but are as B). group(fabric type The following gradation thenon-plastic size of inclusions usedin this was work: fine very inclusions <o.i25 mm;fineXX125mmand <o3 mm;medium>o.3 mmand <o5 are coarse>i mm. mm;coarse>o.5 mmand <i mm;very Before proceed we with description thedifferent types, remark the of fabric a concerning thesize ofthenon-plastic inclusions should made.Every be fabric contains variety a type ofclasses non-plastic of Thin inclusions. sections to contain belonging thesamefabric group in thesamevariety inclusions, comparable of in amounts. sections the of Moreover, thin samefabric classofinclusions shows uniformity inshapeandcontour. a However type, every on a variation thesize oftheinclusions beennoticed has sections thesame of amongthin fabric Somethin sections contain inclusions a variation particle of size, type. showing great from fine in whereas others most theinclusions smaller of are than ranging very tocoarse, thin can intotwo categories: fine 0.3 mm.Based on thisfeature, sections be separated and textured medium-coarse textured. It shouldbe stressed within that thesecategories, variation thesize ofinclusions in a is still noticeable. example For the textured sections fabric A, thefollowing of amongst fine type variations havebeen observed:



. The majority inclusions very of are few inclusions present; are fine, fine of are few and fewmedium present; are 2. The majority inclusions very fine, fine are somearemedium. fine, 3. Manyinclusions very manyarefine, Equallyamongthe medium-coarse textured sectionsof the same fabrictype (fabric thereare A), in are exampleswithfew coarse inclusions, othersthe coarse inclusions more or coarsegrains present. are numerous, somevery B-i in was E. fabric thesame variation noticed fabric and fabric The A, Apartfrom in in was textured sherds samevariation thesizeofinclusions noticed fabric butthefine C, All sizedgrains than those theother of fabrics. thin sections from moremedium contained D textured. fabric and fabric aremedium-coarse B-2 to sherds weredistinguished, examination, according thesize and macroscopic During into medium coarse and textured oftheir inclusions, fine, groups. non-plastic larger frequency where two the is between microscopic there a slight Thus, analysis, only groups discrepancy is examination. and weredistinguished, themacroscopic macroscopic analysis Although of and precise it can be appliedon a largenumber sherds detailed nota very technique, in of on trends the sample.The results themacroscopic and givesinformation general in of on the quality paste,willbe incorporated thedescription the different of analysis waresand vesselforms. pottery 4.6.2 Fabric A of the fabric Thisis themostcommon type, beingusedfor manufacture 60% oftheplain Moh's scale),calcareous vessels(fig.5.40). It is characterized a soft (2.5-3 beige-grey by to inclusions amount 25-30% ofthematrix. matrix. Non-plastic calcite to and and Subrounded fragments, quartzite limestone, subangular subrounded 11 a). A fewmolluscan are the constitute majorinclusions (plate fragments also present. and witha little mica (mainly muscovite) iron examples fragments, Amongthequartzite is as hornblende present well.Quite are quitecommon; mineral inclusions, occasionally, with overgrowth an rim. Inclusions inclusions surrounded a calcitic are often, by quartzite are from shellfragments, usually mentioned far, so are ofcalcite rare.All inclusions apart in fineto very size ranging from and of low sphericity, showa variation particle very size. of molluscan inclusions usually medium are coarse.Shelly less measures are the of quartz fragments low sphericity abundant; majority Subangular are ofhighsphericity, frequent than0.50 mm.Roundedironmineral inclusions, (<o.O5 with and mm).Theyoften appearin association quartz micainclusions. are and greywacke Some subroundedto roundedserpentine fragments scattered 11 b:one serpentine can be seenon theleft thematrix (plate partof fragment throughout but on theright). measure to 1 mm across, thefield;one greywacke They up fragment consist abundant of mm.Greywacke arelessthan polycrystalline 0.05 fragments generally mica and a fewironmineral inclusions. a inclusions, feldspar Occasionally, quartz, little visible is between inclusions notclearly the are The microcline, alsopresent. matrix mainly as are slatefragments, present minor and subangular subrounded to Roundedschist in minerals stained iron are brown yellow colour, heavily and inclusions. Schist by fragments, have a highcontent of on a: thelargeinclusion theright ofthefield). (plate 13 They part
(200 x).



mica inclusions, Due to the veryfinesize of the individualgrains, parallel to thefoliation. no othermineralscould be distinguished (200 x), apartfroma few quartz and feldspars. consistof numeroustinyquartzgrainsand some iron mineralinclusions Slate fragments oriented parallelwiththelaminatedstructure. Of the finerinclusions, mica fragments (mainlybiotite)are quite common. Plagioclase and pyroxeneinclusions, presentin minoramounts.In a few and microcline are feldspar, occasional grog-like thinsections, inclusionsare visible. 4.6.3 Fabric B-i Fabric B-i (and B-2) has been used forthe manufacture 20% of the Nea Nikomedeia of vessels (fig.5.40). It is a hard fabric(4.5-5.5 in Moh's scale), characterized a redplain by brown, compact matrix.Inclusions amount to 25-30% of the matrix. Subangular to and quartzfragments, low sphericity, subrounded of constitute majorinclusions the feldspar can measureup to 1 mm,butusuallyare less than0.5 mm across.Among (plate g b).They the feldspar but inclusions, plagioclase predominates, some microclinegrainsare present as well. Fine grainedquartzite inclusions(fineto medium)are common. Rounded to subroundedfragments andsite(0.125-2 mm), oftensurrounded of witha rim,are common (plate 12 a: the two large inclusionsin the centreof the ferruginous field).They consistof angularand subangular quartzand plagioclasefeldspar, angularand subroundedbiotiteand hornblende;theinclusionsare set in a veryfinegrainedfelspathic groundmass. Rounded iron mineralinclusionsofhigh sphericity (0.125-0.5 mm),are frequent. They oftenappear in associationwithquartz,feldspar and abundantmica inclusions. The finer inclusions consistofabundantmica (mainly less biotite), abundanthornblende, and relatively pyroxene rare medium-sized biotite(lath-like) grains. Occasionally, fragments are present. 4.6.4 Fabric B-2 This fabric is characterized a hard (4.5-5.5 in Moh's scale), red-brown type by clay matrix. Inclusionsamountto 25-30% ofthematrix. Subangularto subroundedquartzite fragments of low sphericity, predominate(plate 12 b). They range in size fromfineto verycoarse. Among the quartzite fragments, examples withveryfewmica and ironmineralinclusions are present.Subangularquartzfragments the second most common inclusion(usually are are <o.O5 mm across). Some plagioclase and microclinefeldspars present.Rounded iron in mineral withquartz, mica and feldspar are inclusions, close association fragments, scattered the throughout matrix(plate 12 b: on the leftcornerof the field).In some cases, a clear halo effect noticeable. is The smaller inclusions comprise pyroxene, hornblende, muscovite and biotite. are Occasionally,largebiotitelath-like fragments also present. 4.6.5 Fabric C Fabric C has been used forthe manufacture 12% of the Nea Nikomedeia plain vessels of It is characterized a soft(2.5 in Moh's scale),beige-red Inclusions (fig.5.40). by claymatrix. amountto 25% of the matrix.The fabriccontainsabundant subroundedlimestoneand



to and (plate 10 ). Calciteis virtually subangular subrounded quartzite quartz fragments and one shellfragment found was absent, onlyin one thinsection. Amongthequartzite with little micaandironmineral inclusions present. are and examples fragments, Quartzite in limestone inclusions showa greatvariation size,ranging between0.125 and 2 mm; are smaller than0.05 mm. fragments usually quartz Roundedshale,schistand subangular subrounded to are greywacke fragments also in In Theirfrequency notconstant all thin is sections. nineofthefifteen sections, present. are The thin contain abundant fragments present. remaining sections onlya few fragments in rocktypes. thesedifferences fragments themostcommon, all shale are ofthese Despite cases. in are stained with ironminerals brown colour), they and Shalefragments heavily (dark of consist numerous of contain largeamount micainclusions. a quartz Greywacke fragments inclusions relatively and calciteand plagioclase and biotite inclusions (plate infrequent in in corner thefield). of and brown colour, and 13 b:inclusions theleft Theyare yellow due to a ferruginous cement between the have a characteristic streaking appearance, they in inclusions. are different thosedescribed fabric theycontain from A: individual They ones. Moreovergreywacke quartzgrains,insteadof polycrystalline monocrystalline A from fabric do notcontain calcite lackthestreaking inclusions, they appearance fragments the inclusions notas clearly is visible in thegreywacke as between individual andthematrix in A C. are to of fragments similar thosedescribed fabric (large fragments fabric Schist in in of inclusions themiddle thefield plate 13 ). in with inclusions frequently are sometimes association Roundedironmineral found, and mica inclusions. smaller The inclusions consist abundant of mica subangular quartz and grains a fewfeldspars. 4.6.6 Fabric D of FabricD has been usedforthemanufacture 3% oftheNea Nikomedeia plainvessels Inclusions It is characterized a hard(5.5 in Moh's scale)red claymatrix. (fig.5.40). by to amount 20% ofthematrix. sometimes and Roundedschist subrounded accompanied a few by quartzite fragments, to constitute majorinclusions the mica and ironmineral (plate 13 b).Subangular grains, to subrounded inclusions also abundant. are subrounded greywacke quartz Subangular A the rounded shalefragments scattered are are throughout matrix. fragments common. few as inclusions the are Roundedsandstone resembling greywacke, present minor fragments, in are insomeofthethin sections. andshalefragments similar, appearance Schist, greywacke in C. to and composition, thosedescribed fabric in from tovery fine Allinclusions, showa great variation sizeranging from quartz, apart are usually than0.05 mm. less coarse.Quartz fragments in with inclusions ironmineral Some rounded (<o.5 mm),sometimes close association mica grains(mainly in are present FabricC. Of the smaller inclusions, quartzgrains, A are are muscovite) abundant. fewfine-sized feldspars also present.



4.6.7 Fabric the of It Fabric has beenusedfor manufacture 4% oftheNea Nikomedeia plainvessels. *nMoh'sscale),grey-cream matrix. Inclusions amount to is characterized a soft (2.5-3 by 25-30% ofthematrix. and are Rounded serpentine subrounded fragments the major inclusions. quartzite are and (plate 140). Serpentine quartzite quartz(<o.o5 mm)grains common Subangular fine the with range Among quartzite fragments, examples fragments in sizefrom tocoarse. and are Some subrounded a little inclusions, found. mica,ironminerals rarehornblende in similar appearance and and composition those to fragments, greywacke a fewschist in described fabric arepresent. A, fine the are Some inclusions, micafragments biotite) abundant. Among smaller (mainly arescattered and a few thematrix. One ofthethin sections feldspars throughout pyroxene a calcite inclusions. contained fewsubrounded 4.6.8 Petrographic Analysis of Painted Pottery in In all, 66 thin sections werestudied Hodgesand his analysis included BiernofPs is by 1969, had as itssubject painted which the from Nea Nikomedeia thesis (Biernoff pottery A will was into A). groups: Groups to C. Herethey Appendix The material separated three to to with described be referred as Groups1 to3, in order avoidconfusion thefabric types in sections painted of couldnotbe included anyofthese above.A fewofthethin pottery werereported non-conformers. as (Hodges1969),and they groups fabric This resembles Includedin thisgroupare all typeA, thefinetextured category. of ten sections theStandard of Wareand four sections the of Ware, sections thePorcelain The description these White Red Ware. on of in Painted Wares be found thefollowing can (section 5.3.2). Chapter Thisfabric hasnotbeenencountered the and type among monochrome, impressed pottery withapplieddecoration. is extremely textured, appearsto be almost It fine and without In inclusions. a highest a fewlimestone and mica, (200 magnification x), quartz, quartzite, A inclusions visible. few are shell in were pyroxene fragments present someofthesections. All thin sections from Ware. Group2 belongto thePorcelain group3 (8 thinsections): Thisfabric and with typehas notbeen encountered amongtheplain,impressed pottery decoration The predominant inclusions quartzite; are and (figs. 5.40,5.42). applied quartz limestone inclusions also common. fewfeldspar, are A and micainclusions are pyroxene in sizefrom The inclusions fine medium. to From eight sections the thin present. range very ofGroup3, sevenbelongto theWhite Red Wareand one to thePorcelain on Ware. Fromtheeight thin sections considered non-conformers, wereavailableat the as four of Institute Archaeology. these, wereidentified, thepresent From two as author, belonging by to themedium-coarse textured fabric one tofabric and one to fabric B-i D. A,






4.7.1 Diversity of Fabrics wereusedbytheNea Nikomedeia that of has analysis shown a variety fabrics Ptrographie In all,eight fabrics weredistinguished. different potters. in encountered mostGreekNeolithic withthesituation is This picture in accordance in is has shownthatthere at leastas muchvariation sites.At Servia,chemical analysis of is as coarsewares, there amongtheremainder theEarlyNeolithic among composition from ofthepottery Franchthi,8 material Neolithic theEarly Corycian 1986).Analysis (Jones as example results. has similar and Kitsos cave10 Makri11 produced exist, for cave,9 Exceptions the was et at Vassilika (Sikalidis al 1983)where pottery madefrom clay onlytwodifferent fabrics. 4.7.2 Source Location of Non-Plastic Inclusions and Clay used at Nea Nikomedeia, of the 62% out be It should pointed that, despite variety fabrics the weremade from samefabric and oftheplainpottery 90% ofthepainted (fabric A). of A the that examination suggests fabric wasalsousedfor manufacturestamps, Macroscopic this that claysourcewas near This of and altars themajority figurines. preference implies over encountered a widearea.It is that and/or itwas themostcommonly thesettlement, was moreworkable. that clay this also probable of a of Location theclaysources geological survey thearea.Considering requires detailed due Nea Nikomedeia, to extensive the dramatic changesof the landscapesurrounding was ofthesurface sources highly that it alluvium accumulation,was thought a survey clay at Similar at that time. to of to attempts unlikely giveanyresults relevance theconditions few With are with morestable Neolithic other sites, disappointing. geomorphology, rather material. with archaeological the the claysdid notcompare exceptions,12 collected in inclusions a present the map ofthearea,thenon-plastic geological Byusing detailed in thefabrics are All with local rockoutcrops. inclusions the present clayswerecompared withthe prevailing consistent geologyof the area whichis comprisedof igneous, the From geological and 4.1),itcan be seen map (fig. outcrops. metamorphic sedimentary calcareous are the there abundant of distance 7 kmfrom site, within minimum a that deposits, red and trachyte), and yellowschists, of serpentine, igneousrocks(andsite outcrops werefound and of Similar and calcareous types minerals rocks conglomerates sandstones. that be It in all thin of usedbytheNea Nikomedeia sections fabrics potters. should stressed in fabrics and of in order confirm similarity theminerals rocks the to present thevessels' has research thelocal rockfragments to of future with thoseavailable petrological locally, in is all can out. be carried Forthepresent, that be saidwith certaintythat thearchaeological with inconsistent thelocal geology. are material there no inclusions

8 Early-Final Neolithic:Tones 1086. 9 Late Neolithic: Courtois and Dimou iq8i. 10Middle-Final Neolithic: Courtois 1981.

11Middle Neolithic:Yiouni 1Q04. 12Vassilika:Sikalidisetal 1983; Sesklo: Overweel 1981.



sinceit containsinclusions andsite, of FabricB-i is theweathering productofandsite,15 abundant feldspar and quartz grains,numerous fine mica, hornblende and pyroxene schist and greywacke inclusions. Moreover,theabsence ofcalcareousinclusions, serpentine, implythatthisclay sourcewas depositednear theparentalrock.At a distanceof particles, of and andsite.Therefore, one 7 km north-west the site,thereare outcropsof trachyte thatfabricB-1 was collectednear thisarea. may speculate is Of special interest thefactthattwo different not fabrics, encountered among theplain of were used forthemanufacture Porcelainand Whiteon Red paintedware. Both pottery, to (see section 5.3.2). groupsare rare,each amounting 4% the of paintedpottery pottery in shows similarities, decorativemotifsand syntaxof Moreover, White on Red pottery withthe paintedpottery fromthe Early Neolithicsitesand the pottery from decoration,14 excavated site of Yiannitsa (Chrisostomou and Chrisostomou1993), a site the recently whichis situated35 km ne of Nea Nikomedeia. It has been stated above, thatall non-plastic inclusionspresentin the fabricsof Nea withthelocal geology. Nikomedeiaare compatible The low frequency thesewaresthough, of raisesthequestionofimports. different The proximity Nea Nikomedeia and their of fabric, such an explanation.A ptrographie and Yiannitsa supports examinationof the ceramic materialfromYiannitsa is necessaryin order to check the validityof thishypothesis. are However, thefollowing arguments againstthisexplanation: 1. Preliminary macroscopic examination, the presentauthor,of the vessels from by Yiannitsa indicatedthattheir fabrics differ fromthoseused in Nea Nikomedeia. 2. Three legged White on Red painted vessels which are present in Yiannitsa (Chrisostomou1994, figs. 7 & 8) are lacking fromthe Nea Nikomedeia painted examples. 3. White on Red and PorcelainWares were also made fromfabricscommon in plain, Red on White,impressedand pottery withapplied decoration.Moreover,theywere in use throughout occupationof Nea Nikomedeiaand were evenlydistributed the in the settlement.15 Thus, on the basis of the available data the White on Red and Porcelain vessels from Nea Nikomedeia should be consideredas local products.The different fabricgroupsused are fortheirmanufacture in accordance withthe practiceof the Neolithicpottersto use, a of simultaneously, variety fabrictypes. The use of fabric Group 2 for the manufactureof Porcelain Ware could have a finish and a superiorqualityof technological explanation.Porcelainvesselshave a careful It thatpotters from Nea Nikomedeiaselecteda finetextured burnishing. could be suggested for of of clay exclusively themanufacture thissuperior qualityware.The difficulty working withsucha clayshouldbe stressed. for Manyfinetextured claysare too plastic manufacturing vessels and theytend to crackduringfiring and drying (Rye 1981, 31).

15I. Freestone,pers. comm. 14 K. A. Wardle (Ed.) Nea Nikomedeia II: The Finds and the Place of Nea Nikomedeia in its SE European

Context (BSA Sul. forthcoming). 15Ibid.



4.7.3 Addition of Non-Plastic Inclusions Inclusionsfoundin a fabricmay be naturally presentin the parentclay utilized,or they be added by the pottersas filleror temper.Additionof tempercould facilitate the may and firing vessels (Rye 1981, 31). Moreover, different of of temperare building types functions pots (see section6.3.1). A fewtypesof inclusions of bettersuitedforthe varying are considered deliberate as additions. suchas grogand abundantplantfragments, generally inclusionsit is difficult determine, For the other categoriesof non-plastic to due to the of theywere naturally presentin the clay or added. On complexity the geology,whether can thisbasis, threecharacteristics be used to determinetheirorigin:size, contourand amount of inclusions.Deliberatelyadded inclusionstend to be of uniform size and are have an angularcontourand their can varyfrom usuallylarge,theygenerally proportions one pot to the next. As has been seen above (sections4.6.2-4.6.7), all inclusionsof Nea Nikomedeia fabrics are subroundedto rounded, and theyshow a greatvariationin particlesize. Moreover, different typesof inclusionsare presentin similaramountsin all thinsectionsof the same in The onlyexceptionconcernstheschist fabric. C, present fabric whose amount fragments in all sections.However, since schist are subroundedin contour is not constant fragments in variation particle as and theyshowa great size,theycannoteasilybe considered deliberate in Shell fragments because additions. A, either, present fabric cannotbe regardedas temper it theyare alwayspresentin small amounts.In mostcases whereshellis added as temper, The foundin fabricA is presentin relatively large quantities.16 occasional grogfragments show thatthe additionof thistempertypewas limited. charredplantinclusionswere noticed Duringmacroscopicexaminationof the material, in all fabrics.Such examples were limited,not exceeding 1-2% of the sample. This groups: slipped, coated, uncoated, impressedand percentagewas similarin all pottery withapplied decoration.Also, fabrics withvegetablematter were not restricted to pottery is fabrics. The amountof plantfragments vessel formor to coarse textured any particular small,but some heavilytemperedsherdsare presentas well. usually examination thethin of charred werenoticed sections, plantfragments Duringmicroscopic in threeof them (1 fromfabric-i and 2 fromfabricB-i). Two of the sectionscontaina whereasthethird was fullofelongatedvoids and vesicles (plate 14 b). fewplantfragments, In paintedpottery, plantinclusionswere found(Hodges 1969). no was very Thus, examinationof thinsectionsof all fabrictypesindicatesthattempering limitedamong the Nea Nikomedeia potters.Althoughthisresultshould be verified by and more detailedtextural analysis(Le. pointcountofparticlesize distribution, calculation thatsuch analysiswill alterthisconclusion. of average grainsize), it seems unlikely 4.7.4 Refining of Clay in some of thefabrics show variation the was verylimited, Despite thefactthattempering absence inclusions. Since thelarger inclusions werenotadded,itseemsthattheir size oftheir research is of from finetextured the process.Ethnographic categories theresult a clayrefining



Rice 1987, 410.



shows thatforthe removal of the coarserparticlespresentin the clay, two methodsare the usuallyused: sievingand settling (Rye 1981, 37). For settling, clay is mixed withwater to a sufficiently consistency permit coarserparticles settle thebottomof the thin to the to to levels of the pit (upper or lower), fineor mediumpit. By takingthe clay fromdifferent vesselscan be made fromthe same clay. coarse textured It seems thatsievingwas not used by the Nea Nikomedeia potters.Clays refinedby size. This is not the case with the Nea sievingcontain inclusionswhich have a uniform Nikomedeia vessels since, as has been seen in section 4.6.1, a clear distinction into fine, mediumand coarse textured sherdsis difficult make. Such a situation to could be explained by a settling procedure,which allows the broad separationinto fineand medium/coarse textured batchesofclay,but some mixingshouldbe expected.The veryfinetextured clay, at the top of thepit,could have been used forslippingthe pots. The onlythinsectionswhichcontaininclusionsofa rather uniform size, are thoseof the Porcelain Ware (group 2). In this case however,it is difficult distinguish thisis the if to resultof a refining or whether potters the were using a naturally finetextured procedure, clay source. P. Y.

5 Chapter The EarlyNeolithic Typology Pottery:

(plates 15-17) 5.1 INTRODUCTION of The ceramic includes decorated plainmonochrome and assemblage Nea Nikomedeia the Plainvessels form majority pottery, of to96% oftheceramics vessels. found amounting Decorated which at Nea Nikomedeia. amounts 4% oftheceramic to can material, pottery, with intopottery Painted is be separated and appliedmotifs. painted, pottery impressed morecommon, vessels(fig.5.2). Impressed 88% ofthedecorated considerably forming with and amounts 9% and 3% respectively 5.2). to (fig. pottery pottery applieddecoration All three decorative werein use simultaneously. types has In Painted and Biernoff pottery beenstudied Biernoff Washburn. hisPh.D. thesis, by fabrics decorative and theshapes, ofthepottery (Biernoff 1969).Moreover, presents patterns has Biernoff made drawings everypaintedsherd.Washburn's of studyconcernsthe of motifs on organization thedecorative depicted thepaintedvessels(Washburn 1983, of and was 1984).A preliminary study thedecorated plainpottery also published Dr. by Rodden(Rodden1962). In thepottery applieddecoration decorative with the patterns rangefrom complicated of All silhouettes animalsnouts simple and to linearmotifs. face modelling humanfaces, havebeenstudied Nandris hisPh.D. thesis in vessels from description the by (1968).Apart ofthedecoration, information theshapes, on is also fabrics spatial and distribution included. will Thisinformation be presented himin thenextvolume.1 by and were studied the Plain,impressed pottery vesselswithsimpleappliedmotifs by author. theclassification thematerial following For of the attributes wereused: present of surface treatment shape.Usingone attribute a and at composition paste(fabric type), timethepottery dividedintothree was mainclasses;smaller subsets weresubsequently within each class.For example, criterion surface in the for treatment plain distinguished was of was initially divided intocoatedand pottery thepresence surface coating. Pottery uncoated vessels on thebasisofsurface and colour eachsetwasdivided smaller into groups. theother classesweredivided two intosmaller subsets. Similarly, As for painted the and with the motifs, information pottery thevessels complicated applied theworks above2 was treated with samemethodology for the used provided by presented theother pottery categories.
1 K. A. Wardle (Ed.), Nea Nikomedeia II: The Finds and the Place of Nea Nikomedeia in its se European Context (BSA Suppl. forthcoming). 81 2 i.e. Nandris 1968; Biernoff 1969 and Washburn1983, 1984.



structure. the for 5 Initially, method Chapter has thefollowing employed thesampling is of material It ofplainpottery presented. is followed thedescription theceramic (plain, by with to and vessels)according thesurface painted, pottery applieddecoration impressed the Nea Nikomedeia presented. are treatment. Subsequently, shapesof thevesselsfrom of are morenumerous, shapesofthis the are Sincesherds plainpottery far pottery category then forms theother of are described; thevessel analytically pottery categories comparatively The of fabric usedfor manufacturetheNea the of presented. description thedifferent types vessels already has been givenin Chapter In thisChapter comparative a Nikomedeia 4. of of of usedfor manufacture the study thequality pasteandthepercentages thefabric types of thedifferent is included. thechronological of pottery categories Finally, development from Nikomedeia examined. Nea is thepottery



the at a of was During excavations Nea Nikomedeia, largeamount EarlyNeolithic pottery In in recovered. facttheceramic material found themainexcavation Aigrid(squares to the of M8) alone,amounts some 140,000sherds, great majority them being plainsherds it was necessary a samplebe taken that from plainpottery. the In Thus, (monochrome). withthe plain pottery contrast wherea samplewas taken,all recovered sherdswith decoration werestudied. impressed, appliedand painted The ceramic material collected the was during 196 1 campaign washedand thefeature sherds basesandlugs)ofthemonochrome in vessels werestored the'ferroia (rims, Museum, to excavation From all vessels, sherds according their square/spit designations. thedecorated werestored. in The ceramic material revealed themainexcavation (squares the A1-M8) during grid 1963 campaign, washedandpossible was sherds were joinsweremade.The monochrome dividedby Roddenintothree maingroups: red-brown and coarse), and (fine pink(fine and For excavation the from each coarse)andbeige(fine coarse). every square/spit, sherds werecounted their and surface was measured theexcavator. area group by Subsequently, sherds in werestored theMuseumaccording their to excavation onlythefeature square/ The of and in sherds spitdesignations. number painted impressed present each excavation as surface wasalsorecorded. contrast themonochrome area In with square/spit wellas their all in sherds werestored theMuseum. The ceramic material recovered pottery, decorated in trenches TY, TA, TB and TC was stored, in Museum. TX, unwashed, theVerroia In order use thepreliminary carried bytheexcavator, was decidedtotake to work out it a samplefrom pottery the in recovered themainexcavation (A1-M8). Sampling was grid notextended thepottery to recovered the for reasons. during 196 1 campaign thefollowing the ofthe material revealed First, stratigraphie associations/correspondence ceramic during the 1961 (mainly Area L) and the 1963-64 campaigns werenotclear.5 due Secondly, to in thefactthat the 1961 and 1963-64 campaigns two different reference grid systems wereemployed x 2 m squareunits 1961; 4 x 4 m in 1963 and 1964),itwas decided in (2

3 Rodden

pers. comm.



to use the materialfromthe 1963 main excavation grid only so thatthe samplingwas based on unitsof comparablesize. The main excavation grid extends over a large part of the site, where plans of superimposedhouses were uncovered. Sampling and comparativestudyof the pottery fromdifferent for of buildingperiodswas important the examination any changesthrough time.The ceramicmaterialfoundin TrenchesTX, , TA, TB and TC was not included in the samplingbecause the stratigraphic/cultural associationsof theirdepositswere still understudyby the excavator. AfterconsultingMr. C. Orton, it was decided that Selective Sampling (or Stratified Random Sampling)was the mostappropriate methodforthe case study.Stratification a is ofusingpriorknowledgeto improvetheprecisionofestimates, way usuallyby minimizing the variability withineach stratum. The resultscan be combined to give estimates the for as a whole (Torrence1978). population In Selective or Stratified Sampling the population is divided into a number of subpopulations (or strata).Then, a random sample is taken fromeach of these strata.The main excavationgridfrom Nea Nikomedeiawas dividedinto7 strata.Each area occupied a buildingor a groupof superimposed by buildingswas consideredas a separatestratum. The excavationsquaresincludedin each stratum well as theexcavationsquaressampled as fromeach stratum, givenin table 5.1. The amountof sampled squares correspondto are 25% of the total. It is obvious that,in many cases, the boundariesof the strataare not clear cut,since a singleexcavationsquare is shared by two strata{e.g.excavationsquares D2, C5, B8 etc.). This is common in cases where a square is bisected by a house-wall.In these cases the into one of the two strata. This decisionis not so arbitrary, we if square was incorporated take into considerationthat duringthe excavations at Nea Nikomedeia there was no distinction among the sherdsfoundinside or outsidea house-wall;all sherdspresentin an excavationsquare were referred as bulk materialfromthatparticular to square. In sampling the excavation squares, a fairlysimple procedure was followed. After examiningthe ceramicmaterialstoredat the VerroiaMuseum, a few excavationsquares (B7, A5, Co) were eliminatedfromthe sampling.These were squares thatdid not have clear designation indexes (i.e. not clear or missingspitdesignations). The ceramicmaterial fromthe excavationsquaresEo, Ei, E2, E3 and E4 was also excluded fromthe sampling, because parts of these squares were excavated during the 1961 campaign and their excavationwas completedduringthe 1963 season. After preliminary this the each stratum wereseparated procedure, excavation squaresfrom intotwogroups.One groupconsisted excavation of to theexcavator's where, grids according measurement(numberof sherds and theirsurfacearea), a large amount of pottery has been found.The second group included squares where less pottery has been recovered. One or two random samples,dependingon the size of the stratum, were selected from each group.Each sampled gridwas studiedvertically materialfrom spitspresentin all (the of it). The distinction the excavationsquares into two groupswas made in orderto make sure thatthe sample will include gridswhich will facilitate subsequentspatial,functional and chronological comparisonsof the ceramicmaterial. It shouldbe pointedout thatapartfrom sherdsfrom sampled excavationsquares, the the which were studiedanalytically, ceramicmaterialfromall excavation squares of the the main gridwas examined duringthefield-work.



Table 5.1: Sampled excavationsquares from main excavationgridof Nea Nikomedeia (1963 the season).4 Stratum 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Excavation squares Coo, Co, Ci, Doo Do, Di, Eoo, Eo Ai, A3, A2, A4,A5 Bi, B2, B3, B4,B5 C2, C3, C4, A6, A7, A8, B6, B7 O6,O7 C7, C8, C9, Cio, D7 D8, Dg, D 10,B9, E8 E9 D3, D4, D5, D6, E3 E4, E5, E6, F4,F5 F6, B6, C5, C6 F7,F8, G6, G7, G8 H6, H7, H8 J6, ,J8,K4, K5 J7 K6, K7, K8, L4, L5 L6, L7, L8, M5, M6 M7, M8 Number 8 13 7 11 14 8 17 grids Sampled (2): Coo, Do (4): Bi, A3, C3, B4 (3): A6, A7,B6 (3): B9, Cio, C7 (4): D4, F6,D6, C5 (2): M7, G8 (4): L4, K5,J6,L8



5.3.1 Plain Pottery vessels On thebasisofsurface can into treatment, vessels be separated twogroups: plain with surface a and without surface a (uncoated). coating vessels coating

These vesselsamount 73% of the plainpottery to (fig.5.1). In open vesselsboth the In surface is interior exterior and surfaces havethesametreatment. closedpotstheinterior on the surface either therim, itcontinues theinterior at or uncoated; exterior coating stops for surface a fewcentimetres belowtherim. has been seenin Chapter twodifferent As 4, surface wereusedby theNea Nikomedeia Thesecomprised red-brown a coatings potters. which madefrom fine textured and a pinkcoating madefrom crushed shale, very slip clay of wasburnished tothevessel's on surface. range surface The of colours red-brown slipped in and pinkcoatedvessels given table 4.4. is
4 The first column gives the numberof the stratum; the second and thirdcolumns give the name and number of the the excavationsquares presentin each stratum; fourth column gives the sampled excavation squares.



vessels form commonest the Red-brown of to category theplainpottery, amounting 46% of the sample(fig.5.1). The pots are slippedin shadesvarying from through red redto with shades brown brown, lighter morecommon. Rodden(1962) distinguished Dr. being in based on thesedifferences colour:Light-coloured thefollowing groups SlippedWare, Red Slipped Ware,Dark Burnished and BrownBurnished Ware. However,as these in are differencescolour theresult firing vessels of the under conditions section (see varying itwas decidedto incorporate Rodden's all intoone category. 4.4.1), groups For themanufacture red-brown of of wereused,butin slippedvesselsall types fabric ofthevessels different weremadefrom fabric 36% from fabric 5% A, B, 49% proportions: D fabric 4% from fabric and 5% from from fabric (fig.5.57). It shouldbe notedthat C, fabric was mainly used forthemanufacture red-brown of slippedvessels:57% of the made from thisfabric have a red-brown As faras the quality thepasteis of pots slip. red-brown vessels from theplainpottery all have thehighest concerned, slipped groups of textured sherds 69%, with at and (fig. percentage fine 29% medium 6% coarsetextured 5.58). All vessels wereburnished. quality burnish The of from moderate good.Some to ranges ofthefine textured sherds wereheavily burnished. witha pinkcoating Vessels amount 27% of theplainpottery to (fig.5.1). This category coincides withDr. Rodden'sPinkSlippedWare(Rodden1962). For themanufacture of were was pinkcoatedvesselsall fabric-types used. Theirrelative frequency as follows: weremadefrom fabric 5% from fabric 33% from fabric 5% A, B, 55% ofthesherds C, D from fabric and 2% from fabric (fig.5.57). It should pointed that be out fabric was C usedforthemanufacture pinkcoatedvessels of since73% ofthepotsmadefrom mainly this fabric have a pinkcoating. The quality pastevarieswith55% ofthesherds of being fine medium textured 5% beingcoarsetextured 5.58). and textured, being 40% (fig. All vesselswereburnished. seemshowever It thatthepinkcoating does nothold the lustre wellas thered-brown In many as casesonlyparts theburnishing of burnishing slip. lustre preserved. are Uncoated monochrome vessels amount 27% oftheplainpottery 5.1). The exterior to (fig. andinterior surface openvessels wellas theexterior of as surface closedpotsarecarefully of smoothed. interior The surface closedpotsis roughly of from strip a below smoothed, apart therimwhichis morecarefully finished. Mostvesselsare burnished. quality the The of lustre varies from moderate poorandis inferior that coated to to on The great pots. majority ofuncoated vessels havea light The sherds red-brown are coloured. beigecolour. remaining The MunsellSoil Colour Chartnotations beige and red-brown for sherdsare givenin table 4.4. Separation uncoated of vessels intobeigeandred-brown is groups based on the colourofthefabric-types for used their manufacture.

ware: Red-brown slipped

Pinkcoated ware:



Their surfaces have a clear lightcolour, Beige vessels amountto 24% of theplain pottery. coincideswithDr. Rodden's (1962) except forsome reduced greypatches.This category A MonochromeWare. The vesselsare mainlymade from fabric at 88% of the Grey-Beige with3% of fabric 3% offabricC and 5% offabric (fig. 5.57). Well levigated B, sample, used. As can be seen from fig. 5.58, fine and medium textured pastes were regularly vessels amountto 48% and 40% respectively. However, by comparisonwiththe coated of sherds(at 12% and 5% vessels,thereis an increasein the proportion coarse textured respectively). whichcoincideswithDr. Rodden's Only 3% of the plain pottery belongs to thiscategory, D Coarse Ware. Vesselsare made from fabric and fabric at 66% and 34% of the (1962) FabricD, when fired, attainscoloursvarying betweenred, (fig. 5.57). sample respectively brownand darkbrown.FabricB, when firedunder oxidizingconditions, red-brown, light has a beige colour,but when firedin a reducingatmosphere attainsa lightbrown colour. The proportionof fine and medium texturedvessels is substantialat 50% and 30% of (fig. 5.58), but the proportion coarse textured respectively examples is largerthan in any otherware, at 20%. 5.3.2 Decorated Pottery

vesseh: uncoated Beige

vessels: Red-brown uncoated

painted pottery Paintedsherdsamountto 88% of the decoratedpottery. the basis of the colour of the On were distinguished. One group includes sherds decoration,two groupsof paintedpottery withred patterns on a whitebackground. set Sherdsofthesecond grouphave whitepatterns on a red surface.Red on White (R/W) vessels formthe greatmajority theyamountto as (fig. 5.2). 96% of the paintedpottery Redon White Ware: to the qualityof finish, two varieties withinthisgroup were distinguished: the According StandardR/W Ware and theR/W PorcelainWare (Rodden 1962; Biernoff Standard 1969). Ware is considerably more common. It amountsto 92% of the paintedpottery whereas to thePorcelainWare (fig.5.2). The remaining of thepaintedpottery 4% only4% belongs belongs to the Whiteon Red (W/R) Ware. In beStandardR/W Ware theexterior surface usuallycoveredby a cream-beige is slip, are but in a fewcases red patterns applied directly thelightcolouredfabricsurface. to The is interior whichwas paintedonlyveryoccasionally, coveredwiththereddishslip. surface, The surfaces usuallyburnished. seems thatthe red paintretainsitsgloss betterthan are It the white,which now has a mattfinish(Biernoff 1969). Both fineand medium textured sherdsare included in thisware. Porcelain Ware is differentiated both its superiorqualityof burnish(porcelain-like by of and the superiorqualityof the fabricused forthe manufacture a numberof the finish) vessels.As has been seen in Chapter4, seven out ofthe eighteenthinsectionsofPorcelain Ware belonged to a veryfinetextured fabric group(see section4.6.8). Porcelainvesselsare



withthe StandardWare, both their painted only on the exteriorsurfacebut, in contrast exterior and interior surfaces covered witha cream coloured slip. are Vesselsin thisgrouphave both theirexterior and interior surfaces covered witha red slip. Decorationis restricted the exterior to surfacewherethe designsare paintedwitha white paint. Among thepaintedsherdsone polychrome example is also included (fig.5.34, 12). The sherdis decoratedwithwhiteand red paintover the lightsurfaceof the vessel in orderto produce a three-coloured design(Biernoff 1969). There are also a fewexamples (10 sherds the 1000 paintedbody sherds)whichare decoratedwitha pink paint (ior 5/3 or among 10R 5/4-6) on a lighter overall slip or wash (fig. 5.70, 8). Solid and linear elementswere both used forthe decorationof the painted sherds.Solid elementsinclude triangles, squares and bands. Linear elementsinclude straight, zig-zag and wavy lines and simple curvedlines. The syntaxof the Nea Nikomedeia decorationis difficult reconstruct the majorityof sherds are fragmented. to as Washburn (1984) has reconstructed (Classes A-H) whichall come fromthe StandardR/W Ware. eightpatterns In the othertwo categories(PorcelainWare and White on Red Ware), only fragmentary combinationsof motifs could be recognized.It is clear, however,thatdifferences the in selectionand combination motifs evidentamong the threepaintedwares.5 of is Standard ware: This ware is unified thebold, simplecharacter thedecorative of motifs. by were reconstructed Washburncomprising: two triangles Eighttypesof pattern by (simple and double) placed back to back (Class A: fig. 5.21, 1; fig. 5.45, 6; fig. 5.46, 2; fig. 5.47, 4; fig. 5.49, 13 & 14; fig. 5.50, 3), a seriesof isosceles triangles pendantfromthe rimline isosceles triangles (Class B: fig. 5.37, 1 1; fig. 5.50, 5), two rows of interlocking (Class C and Class D: fig. 5.35, 4; fig. 5.35, 10; fig. 5.37, 2 & 4; fig. 5.45, 9; fig. 5.45, 13), diamonds(Class E: fig. 5.45, 3; fig. 5.36, 1; fig. 5.45, 2; fig. 5.46, 1 & 4) and interlocking both right and left(Class F: fig. 5.36, 10; fig. 5.39, 1; fig. 'step' designsdescendingfrom fig. 5.36, 8). Linear elementswhichare less common thanthe solid ones, include 5.45, 4; seriesofvertical from rimto base (Class G: see Washburn1984, fig. the zig-zagsextending III. 10) and series of wavy lines extendingvertically diagonallyfromthe rim to base or H: fig. 5.38, 16; fig. 5.40, 2; fig. 5.40, 12; fig. 5.44, 12 & 13; fig. 5.45, 11; fig. (Class are to vessel 5.61, 1). It is clear thatthe decorativepatterns not restricted any particular form. Fromthefragmentary whichare probablypartsofthepatterns elements, above, presented the following shouldbe mentioned:wedge-shapedelementswhichare attachedto rimsin severaldifferent ways (Group I: fig. 5.35, 1 1 & 12; fig. 5.36, 2; fig. 5.41, 2; fig. 5.45, 10; fig. 5.48, 8; fig. 5.49, 12), bold elements rimor angledtowardrim(Groups from extending II & III: fig. 5.34, 1 1; fig. 5.36, 3; fig. fig. 5.37, 10; fig. 5.38, 15; fig. 5.41, 10; .37, 6; fig. 5.43, 3; fig. 5.43, 13). Groups IV (fig. 5.45, 14; fig. 5.49, 15), V (fig. 5.51, 1), VI and VII (fig.5.46, 9) are consideredby Washburn being partsof Class A. Other sherds as
5 See also Biernoff 1969.

Whiteon Red Ware:(PLATE 15 a)




lines (GroupVIII fig. 5.41, 6; fig. 5.36, 7) or curvedunits, have horizontal perhaps X & XI: fig.5.35,6; fig.5.41, 1). (Groups spirals in seemtobe morecommon this ware.Theyinclude thin Porcelain Linearelements ware. at and linesaround rim(GroupXII: fig.5.34,9), thin the linescrossed right acuteangles with associated squareand triangular designs (GroupXIII: fig.5.35, 7; fig.5.51,4), thin in series lines bent XIV: fig.5.38, 1; fig.5.51, 2 frequently at right angles(Group parallel belowtherim(GroupXI: fig.5.34, 6; fig. & 3) and seriesof open and cut-out designs elements also present are (fig.5.51, 7). 5.51, 5 & 6). Curvilinear Whiteon White Red:Insteadofbeingnegative on pottery, copiesoftheRed on White havea different character. linear solidelements Both and werecommonly used Red sherds in thedecoration. linesfrom rimto base (GroupXV: the Theyincludediagonal parallel of linesor two-three fig.5.50, 7; fig.5.50, 9), groups wavy, wavylines,usually parallel attached a triangle to XVI and XVIII: fig.5.39, 7, 11 & 13; sometimes angled, (Groups XVII: fig. fig.5.40,6 & 9; fig.5.42, 1; fig.5.35,2),triangles cut-out and (Group triangles of and linesare also present 5-35 FIG 5; 549>14) Combinations straight curved (Group XIX: fig.5.34, 13; fig.5.38, 2; fig.5.44, 6; fig.5.46, 10).

In this is to of Vessels with section, pottery presented according thesubject thedecoration. will animalsnouts and humansilhouettes be analytically humanfaces, presented Dr. by in in order givea coherent Nandris thenextvolume.6 to of However, picture thepottery in a with is section. Vaseswith decoration,summary applied descriptionincluded this simple related thefacevessels, presented to linear sometimes are motifs, separately. Facevessels: withrepresentationshumanfaces, of and twowith Ten sherds three withanimalsnouts have humansilhouettes been found. Mostofthem very are so fragmented that onlyparts are ofthedecoration shown. In vessels with human faces modelling the starts few a centimetres belowtherimandthe facial features shown eyes,nose and ears.The mouth onlyoccasionally are was regularly modelled and, in one sherd,armswere added. At least threeof the examples are of sincea beardhas been added. representationsmalefaces, Two of thezoomorphic vessels have a snout modelled belowan everted rim.The just third has a prominent which on theforehead eyebrows and nose,a marked example bump out over the eyes. One of the sherdswithhuman silhouettes are curving carriesa of its is The and figure; upper representationa female part missing. pubictriangle thenavel areincised, whereas legsareapplied the which bentoutwards an angle.On the are at strips othersherd, head and upperpartof a torsoare represented. armsare zig-zag the The strips. Surface is Thereare four red-brown coating common slipped amongthefacevessels. All and twopinkcoatedexamples. have traces medium poorburnishing. of to Faces weresometimes modelled small, on thin-walled vessels(e.g. with wallthickness a The of 2.5 mm),butthemajority them of thick-walled vessels. to medium-large, belong ofone suchvesselwas calculated be at least40 cm. to height
6 K. A. Wardle (Ed.), Nea Nikomedeia II: The Finds and the Place of Nea Nikomedeia in its SE European Context (BSA SuppLforthcoming).



Vessels with wererather scarce.During excavations the the of simpleapplieddecoration maingrid, of are decorated with onlya smallnumber sherds (85) havebeen found. They linear and solidelements. Linearelements include or curved raisedbands, simple straight or include (fig.5.53). Solid elements right acuteangledlinesand morerarely, zig-zags blobsand pellets (fig.5.54). simple The syntax the decoration difficult reconstruct, of is to since all the examplesare withthesherds withhumansilhouettes discussed above,it fragmented. comparison By seems that someoftheangled bandsandzig-zags were ofa similar decoration probable parts of and solidelements suggested twosherds, are (fig.5.53, 1 & 7). Combinations linear by which havea blob setbelowa straight (fig.5.54,5-6). Groups blobsform band of another decorative on a number sherds twoor three of blobsare placednextto each pattern: (5), other sherds with blobsandpellets commonly are found (fig.5.54, 2-4). Moreover, single (fig.5.34, 7, 13). Decorative elements wereusually on Thisis placedsomewhere thebellyofthevessels. from fact among 85 sherds, the that the there onlysevenrimsherds four are and suggested concavesherds from neartherimline.The remaining coming examples belongto body sherds. Fromtherimsherds canbe seenthat it linear motifs wereusually horizontally set a fewcentimetres belowtherim line(fig.5.54,7). In one case,however, raised a bandstarts at thelip and continues vertically alongthecollarofa neck (fig.5.53, 2). jar Red-brown andpink coated are the with slipped examples common among vessels simple, to34% and 22% ofthepottery 5.60).Theyareusually applieddecoration, (fig. amounting burnished thequality burnishing and of from but of ranges poor to medium, onlytraces theburnishing usually are visible. Uncoated vessels always are smoothed onlya fewof but them have traces burnishing. of Vesselswithimpressed decoration amountto 9% of the decorated (fig. 5.2). pottery Decoration restricted theexterior is to surface thevessels. consists impressions of It of of and and madeeither finger-pinching or with finger-tips finger-nails also ofimpressions by an instrument. vesselusually Each carries type decoration, somesherds one of but with a combination twotypes decoration of of have also beenfound. Decoration executed was when claywasstill orleather the soft A hard. number vessels of have a surface on their exterior In surface. fact, ofimpressed sherds 8% coating impressed are red-brown and 5% have a pinkcoating All examples have a low slipped (fig.5.60). so coverstheimpressions. relief, thatthecoating adequately Dependingon thevessel's contour the surface be coatedand burnished, can smoothed and (open/closed), interior or smoothed. should pointed that It be out medium poorly and burnished, only slightly only burnished surfaces encountered are sherds. amongtheimpressed mostof the sherdsare fragmented, is Although enoughinformation stillavailableto reconstruct syntax thedecoration. most the of The common which encountered is practice, in all types impressed of is of into decoration, forthesurface thevesselto be subdivided three zones: one on thebellyof thevessel, whichis coveredwithimpressions two and horizontal zonesaround rimandfoot, the which left are undecorated. slightly By burnishing
Syntax decoration: of

Vessels simple with decoration: applied



the smoothedzones, the decoratedbelly standsout againsta slightly darkersurrounding area. The smoothzone below therimcan be consideredas a rule since itis presentin 90% of therimsherds. rangesfrom1.5 cm to 10 cm,withthemostcommongroupbeingbetween It cm and 4 cm (fig. 5.55, 2-9). An undecoratedzone measuring to 4 cm, is foundin 2 up halfof thebase sherds.In the othersherds,theimpressions continueup to thebase and in a few cases, continueeven below the base. Moreover,two sherds should be mentioned which are decoratedonly below the base (fig. 5.56). An undecoratedzone was sometimes leftat the belly of the vessel as well. On a small numberof sherds(3 examples) finger-pinched surround undecoratedarea. an impressions It is probable thatthiszone was restricted thistypeof decoration, to whichproduces the most rough and densely decorated surfacesand it is againstsuch a backgroundthatan of interplay smoothand roughareas would have a more decorativeeffect. decorated finger-tip with This since it raretypeof decoration, impressions. is a rather Pottery in is encountered only 5% of the impressedvessels. The decorationconsistsof shallow or made when thefinger-tips pressedon thesoft are circular, slightly oval, impressions clay of are (plate 15 b).In a fewcases theimpression thenail is also visible.Impressions arranged slightly apart in parallel verticaland horizontalrows. In all cases the decorationis very executedand the exterior surface rather is smooth.Vesselswitha surfacecoating carefully are common and almosthalfof themare red-brown slipped,or have a pink coating. decorated finger with This is themostcommontypeof decorationand it is pinching. Pottery foundin 71% of the impressedpottery. The impressions were made withthe thumband which are pressed together thatthe clay was squeezed into bulges (plate so fore-finger 16 , sherdin the lower leftcornerand plate 16 b' fig. 5.55, 1-5). Oftenone finger was intothe clay and thenslightly moved to one side. Thus, a small depression, witha pressed were bulge at itsside, was made (plate 17 a). It is probable thatsome of theseimpressions made withinstruments. All vesselshave a surface rowsofimpressions. coveredwithdense horizontal and vertical Some pieces were carefullydecorated with the rows of finger-pinching being nearly horizontalor vertical(plate 16 ); otherpieces were decoratedwithless care (plate 16 b). The size of impressions varies considerably; thereare sherdswithverysmall depressions In and a coffee-bean-like reliefand otherswitha veryroughrelief. a fewcases the fingerofimpressions verysmalland appearsto be made by a child.Similar is impressions, pinching Vesselswitha surfacecoatingamountto 13% however,can be produced by instruments. of thisgroup. decorated finger-nail with Sherdsdecoratedwithfinger-nail impressions: impressions Pottery amountto 18% of theimpressedpottery. They can be separatedinto two groups.The first of (fig. groupincludessherdsdecoratedwithrepeatedimpressions singlefinger-nails 5.55, and plate 17 b). On a numberof sherdsimpressions were made withthe finger-nail 6-7; are withpart of the tip of the finger well. Thus, these impressions wider and have an as amountto 13% of the oblong shape. Sherds decoratedwithsinglefinger-nail impressions and vertical set are usuallycarefully in horizontal rows,but impressedpottery. Impressions sometimes are scattered they randomly. In the second group,the nails of both the thumband fore-finger were pressed into the plate 16 , the two sherdson the right). The patternis similarto that clay (fig. 5.55, 6; the sherds look made by fingerpinching,but since the nails are not pressed together,



than the denselydecorated,finger-pinched smootherand lighter examples. A fewsherds as one finger and one nail are pressedinto the clay (fig. have an intermediate decoration, 555> 5) Decoratingthe vessels withdouble nails was not common and only 5% of the are executed. belongsto thisgroup.In all sherdstheimpressions carefully impressed pottery There are two pieces withverysmall impressions which were made eitherby a child or withan instrument. Finger-nail impressions (single or double) are sometimes indistinguishable from which has a straight impressionsmade with an instrument edge. The latterare usually and is straight longer,but a differentiationnot alwayspossible. Vesselswitha surface and coatingamountto 33% ofthevesselswithdouble impressions to 19% of thosewithsinglenail impressions. decorated the with helpofan instrument Sherdsdecoratedwithinstrument Pottery impressions amountto 6% of the impressedpottery. The decorationranges fromsimple scratchesto and short,straight The instruments used forthe circular, oblong, triangular impressions. decoration were probablybones, edged stones, reeds or driedplants.Sherdswitha surface coatingamountto 11% of the sample. Sherdsdecoratedwithscratches amountto 4% oftheimpressed This decoration pottery. is characterized a poor selectionof short,straight by parallel lines, angled lines, crossed lines and zig-zags.The scratches scattered thevessel's surface are on without following any On one sherdforexample, a few crossed lines appear 1 cm below the rim and pattern. below them,short, lines are sparselydistributed (fig. 5.55, 10-1 1). straight The remainingsherds are very few (9 examples). From these, three examples are decoratedwithcircular one and impressions, withsemi-circular twowithoblongimpressions All exampleswere carefully set (fig.5.55, 9). decorated, havingtheir impressions in vertical and horizontalrows. In two cases, circularimpressionswere made with an instrument whichhad long parallel scratches the exterior on surface, probablya bone or reed. From theremaining twowere probablydecoratedwithsmall,triangular but sherds, impressions, their form notclearly is one sherdwithoblongimpressions combined distinguishable. Lastly, withangled lines has been found. Finally,two bases withimpresseddecorationshould be described.Their decorationis confinedto areas which are not usuallyvisible,as the impressions set on the exterior are surface thebase. Both examplesare brokenand almosthalfof thedecorationis missing. of However, it is clear thatthe decorationwas not extendedto the vessel's body (fig. 5.56). The designsare made up of verysmall impressions size of a pin-head. the In thefirst base thedecoration consists a central of floral motif surrounded one circular by and two arch-shapeddesigns.Three thingirdlesare set on the edge of the surface(fig. while the thingirdles 5.56, 1). The bold motifsare made fromnumerousimpressions, The designsare carelessly executed.The decorative comprisea singlerow of impressions. of of lines radiating pattern thesecond base is more simple.It consists a numberof straight from central a All thelines are made up of a singlerow ofimpressions. point (fig.5.56, 2). Both bases are shortand flatand theirdiameters 7 cm and 5 cm respectively. The are but the exterior walls of the vases are coated witha redimpressedsurfaces smoothed, brownslip.



5.4 ANALYSIS OF THE SHAPES 5.4.1 Methodology The vessels weredivided intothree structural classes. Vessek: (A) Closed Theseare vessels with rimanglelarger a thango.Theyhave converging wallswhich are carried Rim angle,whichis defined theangle diameter. as beyondthepointofgreatest between rimlineand theupperwallofthevessel(see also Phelps1975), the measures the where vessels the have strongly or inverted, everted slopeoftheupperwall.In examples in the rims, change theslopeat therimlineis ignored. Vessek: (B) Open Thesearevessels rim with angle than walls from equaltoorsmaller go.Their vary spreading and to vertical stopat thepoint greatest of diameter. (C) Nedjars: These are vesselswithan inflection corner or pointabove themajordiameter (Shepard 93) 1956, Each oftheseclassesweredivided intoa number subcategories. of Closed vessels were closedbowls,whoserimangleranges dividedintoslightly from91-114 and intoholerimangleis larger mouthed where than 115.A third division intoaskoidvessels is jars which have an asymmetrical intermediate slightly to closedpotsand neck form, jars. weredivided three into those whoserimangle of Open vessels subcategories bowls:first, rimanglefrom from to to 60-84 ^d thirdly bowls 85-90,secondly thosewith ranges rim with anglesmaller than6o. Neckjars weredivided, thebasisoftheheight their on of medium neck,into jars with and highcollars. The height medium of collars varies between2.5 cm and 4.5 cm; high than4.5 cm. collars taller are thedividing between different line the is Although subcategoriestosomeextent arbitrary, thestudy theNea Nikomedeia of hasshown vessels that from different pottery subcategories in havedifferent The spanofrimangles eachvessel form quitelarge(15-20)in is shapes. to for in order compensate variations which to be expected hand-made are pottery. Rimdiameter theratio rimdiameter total and of to are used height, thetwoparameters in this workto describe size ofthevessels. the The ratioofrimdiameter total to is height estimated from whole or reconstructible vessels.Reconstructible vesselsare rim only which at of fragments preserve leasttwothirds theoriginal height. In thepresent with diameter a than10/10oftheir work, pots equal to or smaller height are characterized deep,thosewitha ratiobetween20/10and 10/10as medium as and those with diameter a than20/10oftheheight, shallow. Thisratio seemstohavea greater of Neolithic from Ploponnse material the value,sincestudies Early chronological (Phelps and Central Greece(Weinberg indicate deeppotsaremorecharacteristic that 1975) 1962) ofthelater of stages this period.



flatand rounded) and two main typesof handles There are threetypesof bases (ring, and unpiercedlug). These types are analytically presentedin this Chapter, (string-hole sections5.4.10 and 5.4.9 respectively. evertedrimsappear rims.In a fewcases slightly The Nea Nikomedeiavesselshave direct of but theyusuallyfollowthe direction the upper walls,which are concave (fig. 5.12, 1; fig. 5.16, 5 & 8; fig. 5.35, 1; fig. 5.45, 4; fig. 5.46, 8 & 12; fig. 5.47, 4 & 6; fig. 5.47, 11; fig. 5.48, 7 & 12). Such examples are more common among thepaintedvessels.Lips vary in shape. They can be rounded,thinned either theinterior on both sides,thickened or at at or of foundin each the interior theyare flat.The relativefrequency the different lip-types is vessel formof the plain pottery givenin table 5.2. Rounded lips are the most common or whereasthickened flatrimsare rare.It shouldbe pointedout however,thatin lip-type, Decorated vesselshave similar cases a singlerim sherdhas more thanone lip-type. many Moreoverpaintedvesselsoccasionally the have beaded lips (mainly R/W Porcelain lip-types. withrimangle from91-1 14o: fig. 5.34, 5; fig. 5.36, 4; fig. 5.35, 7; fig. 5.35, 9; fig. pots 5.35, 13; fig. 5.43,9). the vesselforms, shouldbe notedthatlids are absentamong Beforedescribing different it A few(1-4 examples)round-ovalsherds, thepottery formed from brokenvessels, fragments. are presentin everyexcavationsquare. Their greatest diameter from4 cm to 6 cm ranges reaches9 cm (fig.5.24, 13-14). As theNea Nikomedeiavessels(excluding and onlyscarcely have rimdiameters miniatures) largerthan6 cm (fig.5.26 -5.3 1),itis clear thattheroundoval sherdswere not used as lids. It has, therefore, be assumed thatfortheprotection to of the contentsof pots otherobjects such as largerpottery cloth or mats stones, fragments, were used. The use of the round-oval sherdsis not clear as theydo not have any obvious wear from damage. They shouldbe differentiated similar shaped itemswhichhave a perforation hole at the centreand whichwere mostprobablyused as spindle-whorls (fig. 5.24, 12).

Table 5.2: Relative on (%) frequency ofthelip-types represented theNea Nikomedeia plainvessels.
SHAPES A > rim-angle 115o rim-angle 91-1 14o rim-angle 85-900 60-840 rim-angle <6o rim-angle 49% 45% 50% 51% 69% TYPES OF UPS B 29% 19% 21% 17% 8% C 16% 33% 29% 28% 27% 3% % D E 3% 4%

Key: Type A: Type C: Type

Round lip from both sides Lip thinned Flat lip

Type B: Type D:

from interior the Lip thinned from interior the Lip thickened



5.4.2 Neck Jars Neckjars amountto 9% (255 examples)oftheplainpottery (fig.5.62). The sampleincludes vessels. They are deep pots and theirformresemblesan ellipsoid threereconstructible horizontal(fig. 5.5, 4). One of the pots has fourvertically diameter whichhas thegreatest the greatestcircumference (fig. 5.5, 4). The rim diameterof pierced lugs placed below neck jars rangesfrom5-29 cm withthe most common group being between 9-17 cm (fig. 5.25). Heightand shape ofneck,as well as theway theneck is joined to thebody, are the two neckjars (MilojCiC1971; Phelps 1975). Almost 70% criteria usuallyused forsubdividing of the sherds(178 examples) included in the sample of neck jars have theircollarsintact and attachedto the vessel walls. These were separated,accordingto the heightof their collars,intomediumand highneckjars. The collarsand upperwalls are usuallyconnected with a smooth curve. There are only two examples with an angularjoin (fig. 5.5, 1). Thessalian of thickened angular joins whichare so characteristic theEarlyNeolithic Internally neckjars (MilojCi 1971, Figs. 3, 6, 7, 8 and Fig. 5; Gimbutas 1989, Fig. 5.46, 4) are not present. themto eitherof sherdsare brokenand it is often The remaining impossibleto attribute the of As the two subcategories. the data is fragmentary, exact percentages the occurrence For cannotbe consideredas representative. thisreason only general of each subcategory willbe given. of estimates theirfrequency medium-collars: neckshave notbeen identified The height collarrangesfrom of 2.5-4.5 cm. Shorter among can be separatedinto two groups:Ai and the sherdswhichhave theircollarsintact. They A2. Ai: necks.The beginning Vesselsincluded in thisgrouphave internally thickened, cylindrical of of theneck is mainlymarkedby a thickening thewall and not by a clear angle or curve (fig. 5.4, 1-3). Necks are usually 0.3-0.5 cm thickerthan the upper walls of the pots. in These pots are intermediate shape to thehole-mouthed and theneckjars. They are jars less common thanthe vesselsbelongingto the A2 subcategory. A2: neck (fig.5.4, 4; fig. 5.5). Their collarsare eitherconcave These are vesselswitha definite more rare.Two examples of conical neckshave an angular or conical withthelatter being connectedwiththeupper withthebody,while all concave necksare smoothly articulation walls. high collars: The heightof collarrangesfrom5-10 cm. More commonare vesselswithnecksbetween withconcave examples 5 cm and 7 cm tall.The collarscan be concave,conicalor cylindrical (fig. 5.5). In all, vessels withhigh necks are less numerousthan being the more frequent thosewithmediumnecks.



in the 255 rimsherds included thesampleof neckjars,there 27 broken are Among which couldbe from either neckjars,or smallopen vesselswith examples highcollared walls(fig.5.6, 7-8). Indeedtheir of wallsbutthey flaring shapeis that a conewith flaring in it to are broken sucha waythat is impossible distinguish which to typeofvesselthey belong. Ifthey openvessels are their is similar that Late Neolithic to of profile very cups.Their fabrics surface and are from however, no different thoseofEarlyNeolithic coatings, pots. examination thefabrics theLate Neolithic of of Macroscopic paintedand monochrome in indicates they differentcolour, that are and from those usedin the pottery sorting firing Neolithic Period. Threesimilar sherds reported are from EarlyNeolithic the Otzaki Early are classified neckjars7 as and are described having as rims nonof Magoula.They "high considered these27 sherds openvessels neckjars that are or typical shape".It is therefore from EarlyNeolithic the levelsand notintrusions later from strata. 5.4.3 Hole-Mouthed Jars (Closed Pots with RimAngle Larger than 1 15o) Hole-mouthed are rare,amounting 3% (85 examples)of the plain pottery to (fig. jars 1 Theirrimangles from 15-140owith mostcommon the from 5.62). range group ranging Fourwholevesselshave been recovered. Theircontour similar thatof neckjars is to from is rather Their (figs.5.7 and 5.8). The transition thelowerto theupper part abrupt. wallscanbe straight, or in arepresent two concave, convex. upper slightly String-hole lugs wholevessels(figs.5.8, 5-6). In one case,thelugsare setvertically belowthegreatest far In circumference.theother are abovemid-height. vase,they sethorizontally Rimdiameters from cmto 32 cmwith most 10 the common range group beingbetween cm and 24 cm (fig.5.26). Basal diameters measure between cm and 11 cm. 13 3.5 5.4.4 Askoid Vessels Askoidvesselshave an asymmetrical the containers used for shape resembling leather from which taketheir name.Their has intermediate carrying liquids, they upper part a form of to that neck closedvessels, one sideconverges theother as and forms a jars and slightly short neck(fig.5.9). the at three wholevessels havebeenfound, of two During excavations Nea Nikomedeia themin thecentral in (excavation F6/1) and thethird squareK7/1. A building square broken miniature vesselhas also beenfound squareA6/1 (fig.5.9, 3). Twoofthepots in have oval bases (fig.5.9, 1),whiletheother are supported roundbases. two by the of no Despitetherelatively largesampleofwholevessels, during study thepottery rimor base fragments been found have whichcouldbe clearly attributed thisvessel to This unless very a the that, category. is due to thefact largepartofthevesselis preserved, cannot distinguished a slightly be from closedpotora neck A number oval of fragment jar. baseshavebeen found bases are notrestricted askoid to (see section 5.4.10),butas these vessels cannot considered definite be as for evidence thepresence askoi. of they
7 See


1971: Rim Form II, 3. MilqjCi<f



in are found EarlyNeolithic The onlyother Askoidvessels rarely sites. come examples In with vessels from Ploponnse.8 contrast theNea Nikomedeia the which uncoated, are theirshape is less the examplesfromthesesiteshave painteddecoration. Moreover, and they have a strap-handle. usually asymmetrical 5.4.5 Slightly Closed Vessels (Closed Vessels with Rim Angle from 91-1 14o) constitute commonest the vessel closedvessels form, 33% comprising (935 sherds) Slightly of the studiedsample (fig. 5.62). Amongthem,seven whole vessels and sixty-nine Twoofthewholevessels miniatures 5.10, 1). are reconstructible areincluded. (fig. pots closedvessels from The greatest concentration The rimangleofslightly 91-1 14o. ranges rimanglevarying the with between91o and 110o of valuesis towards lowerlimit: pots rim to Vaseswith anglebetween amount 28% ofthetotal sampleofmonochrome pottery. iii and 114oamount only 5%. As hole-mouthed (rimanglelarger to than 115o) jars sherds witha rimanglelarger constitute 3% of thesample, than 111 could have only in rimanglesup to 114ohave been included thesame category. vessels with However, in form similar occurin potswith rimanglegreater a than1150. shapes.Changes closedvesselsusually have a spherical lowerpartwhichreachesthegreatest Slightly diameter mid-height 5.11). The inclining wallscontinue or (fig. by upper straight, slightly In It totherim. a fewsherds theupper wallsare convex. seemsthat concave, (9%) up lugs arecommon accessories this to are with shape,sincethere sevenexamples string-hole lugs setjustbelowthegreatest diameter 5.10, 6 and fig.5.11, 3). (fig. If wholeand reconstructible vesselsare considered a representative as sampleof the closedpots,thendeep forms fig.5.12, 4; fig.5.13, 2) seemto be (fig.5.10, 6-7; slightly to from amounting 42% ofthesample. quitecommon, Apart beingmoreelongated, deep in vessels similar shapeto themedium are ones. Rimdiameters 1 from the between 2 cm common 8-35 cmwith most range group being 11 cm. and 24 cm (fig.5.27). Basal diameters measure between cm and 3.5 5.4.6 Open Vessels with Rim Angle from 85-900 that this is common, Despitethefact thespanofrimangleis restricted, vessel category very rimsherds) to 25% ofthemonochrome (fig.5.62). The sample (708 amounting pottery wholevessels includes four and eighty-three sherds. reconstructible The basic shape consists straight of wallsand a spherical bottom (fig5.15, 2). upper Less often lower the is oval (fig.5. 15, 4). The transition thelower upper from to part body In is usually and smooth. someexamples is the however, join ofthetwosections gradual bendin thewall (fig.5.14, 1-3). Suchexamples morecommon are marked an abrupt by vessels. Another variation thebasic shapeis seen in a fewvessels of amongtheshallow which have their vesselsoffer morecomplete wallsconcave(fig.5.14, 5). Painted upper ofthisshape(fig.5.45, 9; fig.5.46, 5). examples

8 Nemea:

Biegen 1975 Plate 63; Akrata: Phelps 1975.



in Vesselswithmedium depthpredominate the sample of reconstructible pots at 67%. more commonthantheshallowones (fig.5.14, 3-4) Deep vessels (fig.5.15, 4) are slightly of withproportions 18% and 14% respectively. lugs have been foundin only String-hole diameter. two vessels (fig. 5.15, 3). In both cases theyare set around the greatest Rim diameters range from6 cm to 30 cm, the most common groupbeing between 10 cm and 20 cm (fig. 5.28). Basal diameters rangefrom3 cm to 8 cm. 5.4.7 Open Vessels with Rim Angle from 60-840 to This is a commonvessel form (680 sherds) pottery amounting 23% ofthemonochrome rim angle ranges from 60-840 but the greatestconcentration values of (fig. 5.62). The rimangles smallerthan 70o. occurstowardsthe upper limit:only 30% of the sample have sherdsand one whole vessel. The sample includes 120 reconstructible Vessels show a variety shapes. Formsresembling of sectionsof sphere,ovoid, ellipsoid and cone have all been found. Rounded formsare more common and only 9% of the of the vesselsare conical. Despite thelow frequency the conical forms, singlewhole vessel has a conical shape. It is a large pot supportedby a flatangularbase (fig. 5.17, 3). (fig.5.16, 1,3, 5-8). A few Among theroundvessels,ovoid bowls are themostfrequent are to ofthemhave concave upper walls (fig. 5.16, 5-8). Ellipsoidforms usuallyconfined shallowvessels (fig. 5.18). Lugs are absent from the monochrome and decorated sherds of this vessel form. theiruse should not be completelydiscounted,at least for the deep and Nevertheless, in mediumvessels.Medium and shallowvesselspredominate thesample,at 58% and 40% vases are rare,at 2%. Deep respectively. The rimdiameter 8-30 cm withthemostcommongroupbeing between 10 rangesfrom cm and 26 cm (fig. 5.29). 5.4.8 Open Vessels with Rim Angle Smaller than 6o This is a fairly uncommon vessel categoryamountingto 6% (170 sherds) of the plain (fig.5.62). The rimangle rangesfrom30-590 withthemostcommongroupbeing pottery between55o and 40o. A largenumberofreconstructible sherdshas been recovered(130), but only one whole vessel.The largenumberofreconstructible sherdsis explained by the factthatas the greatmajority vessels are shallow (89% of the sample), theiroriginal of even fromsmallerfragments. heightcan be estimated Apart froma few (12) conical examples (fig. 5.19, 2, 5, 10), all sherdshave a round Theirshape resemblestheshallowsectionofan ellipsoid(fig.5.19, 1, 3-4, 6-9). A profile. numberofthemhave concave walls (fig.5.20, 1-2, 4-6). Since thereis not a singlevessel withlugs and mostof thepots are shallow,it seems thatthisvessel formdid not have lugs as accessories. The rimdiameters 6-32 cm withthemostcommongroupbeing between 12 rangefrom cm and 22 cm (fig. 5.30). 5.4.9 Handles Handles are presenton a numberof whole or reconstructible plain vessels. Most often, the The greatmajority however, lugshave been brokenoff vesselwheretheywere attached.



of handles are simple string-hole lugs. Unpierced,knob-likeand ledge lugs (pellets)were only occasionallyused. Straphandles are absent. betweentheuse ofhandles of showedthat there no correlation is Examination thematerial mediumand foundon fine, and thetexture clay fabrics. of Instead,handles are commonly and knob lugs are used on both coated and uncoated coarser textured pots. String-hole the of vessels.In fact, relative string-hole are the same as lugs frequencies coated/uncoated vessels.Red-brownslipped lugs amountto 44%, pink coated to those of coated/uncoated 27%, beige unslippedto 29% and red-brown unslippedto 2%. All examples ofledge lugs (4 sherds)come fromcoated pots. to Depending on the size of the vessel,lugsrangefromtinypellet-handles large ones. The of themare of medium size. Most lugs have circularor oval sections,but a few majority examples witha conical sectionare also present. vessels withlugs, only two open examples of whole/reconstructible Among the fifteen to thatlugsweremainlyattached closed vessels.In fourteen are included.This suggests pots four equally spaced lugs were set around the greatest of the reconstructible examples, In circumference. one vessel, only two lugs were used. Lugs were eitherverticallyor included 339 string-hole pottery horizontally pierced.The studiedsample ofmonochrome thatlugs were attachedto 25and 1227 base sherds.From theseit can be estimated lugs 30% of the Nea Nikomedeia vessels. of In thisgroupknob-like and ledge lugs (pellets)are included.These are rarefeatures the six Nea Nikomedeia vessels.From themain excavationarea (maingrid)only thirty sherds withsingleknobs,or pellets,have been found(fig. 5.24, 7-9). vesselsit seems thatthey Most of themare small and as theyare applied to thick-walled In were decorativeratherthan utilitarian. Nea Nikomedeia, groups of knobs or knobs of associatedwithraised stripsare common motifs the applied decoration(section 5.3.2; fig. 5.37). Similarexamples have also been foundat otherNeolithicsites (Milojflc 1971, Fig. XII, 7; Weinberg1962 Plate 52a & 53c, 5; Gimbutas 1989, Fig. 5.65, 12-14). six Thus, fromthe sample of thirty sherds,only fiveknobs and fourpellets are thick to have been used as lugs. From these,fourknobshave a circularsectionand the enough fifth triangular. is Pelletsare 2-6 cm long and have an almostconical section.

In thiscategory fourstrangely shaped handlesare included(fig.5.24, 10-11). They consist of a thickcore whichhas the shape of a sectionof cone. This is covered by an external has an oblong slotwhichexposes the centralcore (fig.5.24, 11). layer,whose top surface Two slotsare cut along the centreof the two side surfaces. In two of the handles the surfacelayeris pink coated, while the thirdexample is redbrownslipped.In all cases, the colouredlayerstandsout againsttheuncoatedcore. One of the examplesis attachedto a rimsherdshowingthatthehandle was setjust below therim (fig. 5.24, 10). Handles similarto those describedabove are not reportedfromany other Neolithicsite of the Balkan area.



vessels have low ring and flat bases.Roundbottomed Nea Nikomedeia usually examples baseshavebeenfound. arerareand onlya fewpedestal ring base: to The height ring of bases ranges Ringbasesamount 47% ofthesampleofbase sherds. reaches2 cm (fig.5.21). The concavity thebottom of from is 0.5-1 cm and onlyrarely someexamples which look likeflat bases witha slightly pronounced apartfrom usually concavecentre (fig.5.21, 2, 6, 8). flat base: have a low flat In base. Twovarieties this of can 45% ofthevessels type be distinguished. vessels supported a lowfoot are thefirst, whoseheight from cm (fig.5.22, 0.5-4 by ranges the it be from (not 1-5). Seen onlyfrom exterior a crosssection), cannot distinguished a base. In thesecondvariety, transition base to bodyis marked a slight the from ring by on of is morecommon 5.22,6-10). Thisvariety slightly concavity theprofile thevessel(fig. thanthefirst one.

vasesarealmost True round bottomed absent (fig. 5.23).Mostoftheexamples incorporated in thisgroupare rather bottomed flat vessels with rounded a transition thebase to from in of body.Thistype base was encountered 8% ofthevases. in bases are found all vesselforms. base thickness The Ring,flatand rounded ranges from thicker thanringbases, 9-30 mm.It has been noticedthatflatbases are usually whereas rounded bases are comparatively havingthe same thickness thebody as thin, walls.The majority bases are almost of but circular, a fewoval and rectangular examples are also present oval and 7 rectangular (10 bases;fig.5.9). The diameter circular of bases ranges from3 cm to 14 cm,themostcommon group between cm and 10 cm (fig.5.33). The longest diameter oval bases measures of 4 being between but to 6.5-14 cm. All rectangular examplesare broken, seemlikely be longer than5-6 cm. short described are feature allNeolithic of bases,suchas those above, thecommon Simple, sitesof the Balkan region.Rare oval bases have been foundin the Thessaliansites (Theocharis 1967, plate XXIVB; Milojclc'1971, Fig. XIV, 1-4), Servia(Wijnen1979, and Vrsnik be however vessels that from the (Garasanin 193) 1982,90). It should noticed Neolithic often sites haveelaborate baseswith wavy a andcruciform contour, Early quatrefoil shape. Such examplesare commonin Anzabegovo(Anza) (Gimbutas1976, Fig. 18; Garasanin sites.9 Rare 1971,Figs.4 & 5), Crcea(Nica 1977,Fig. 7) and theBulgarian have also beenfound Podgorie at Plate 1,6). Suchbases are absent (Lera 1983 examples from Nikomedeia, Nea Serviaand theThessalian sites.
9 i.e. Asmaska, Muldava: Fortier1981, Figs. 75, 85 & 88.




Pedestal bases are a rare featureof the Nea Nikomedeia vessels. Only fifteen examples have been foundduringtheexcavations.These includetwominiature 'egg-cups'whichare the only examples where both the conical base and the supportedvessel are preserved (Rodden 1962, 2, Fig. 15). of the The remaining pedestalsare brokenoff vessels.The majority them(1 1 examples) stemswhich open to a conical footat the base (fig. 5.23, 4-6). have compact cylindrical are One There are onlytwowhole pedestalsand their heights 6 cm and 8 cm respectively. thattallerbases were used as well. Basal of the broken bases reaches 8 cm, suggesting diameters rangefrom5-8 cm, with5 cm and 6 cm being the most common. Two short, carelesslymade examples are also present.Their heightsare 2.5 cm and 4 cm respectively. They look as thougha roundlump ofclay has been pressedat the sides; a in roundopeningat thebase has been made by pressing thethumb.Their basal diameters are 3 cm and 4.5 cm. On the basis of the miniature 'egg-cups'and by comparisonwithexamples fromother made vessels. The miniature sites,it seems thatthe pedestals supportedopen, carefully vesselsand two ofthelargerexamplesare unslipped.All theotherpedestalsare red-brown slipped. Nea Nikomedeiahave been foundat EarlyNeolithic to Pedestalbases similar thosefrom Otzaki (Milojdc' 1971, Fig. 15, 10-12) and SoufliMagoula (Gallis 1982, Fig. 2, 13) in Thessaly.At both sites,as in Nea Nikomedeia,such examples are rare. 5.4. 1 1 Legs A smallnumberofclay legs (10 examples)have been foundduringthe excavationsat Nea in Nikomedeia. They are usually cylindrical form,sometimestaperingtowardsthe base measures from2 cm to 5 cm and their (fig.5.24, i~6). Theirheight largerdiameter ranges it between 2 cm and 4 cm. Althoughnone of the legs are attachedto a pottery fragment, seems more probable thattheywere supportsforpolypod vases or small 'altars',rather fromNea Nikomedeia have plump legs whichare thanbeing partsof figurines. Figurines are usually modelled togetherwith the buttocks(Nandris 1968). Moreover, figurines whereas most of the legs included in the sample have a surfacecoating.Redunslipped, withthe latter brownslipped and pink coated examples are present, being more rare. One miniature vase on fourlegs (twolegs are missing)shows thatpolypod pots were in use at Nea Nikomedeia and thatthe legs, described above, could have been used in a similarway. It is probable,however,thatsome of themcould have been used as supports the of small 'altars'.At Achilleion,throughout Neolithicoccupationof the site,small legs or similar to those fromNea Nikomedeia were used for supportsof small triangular 'altars' (Gimbutas 1989, Figs. 7.63-7.67). Similar'altars' have been found at rectangular Prodromos(Theocharis 1973, Figs. 12 & 214). A fewlegs,similarto thosefromNea Nikomedeia,have been foundat Otzaki (MilojCi 1971, Fig. X, 28). Similarbroken offlegs have also been foundat Servia (Wijnen 1979, 194) and Vashtmi(Korkuti1982, Plate III, 1-10).



Polypod vessels are presentin the Early Neolithicsites: examples have been found at et Vrsnik(Garasanin 1982, 90), Porodin(Grbi(f al. i960, Plate XXI 2, 4, 5) and Drenovac Nea Nikomedeia has been vessel similar thatfrom to (VeiniC1972, Fig. 1, 12). A miniature foundat Anzabegovo (Anza) (Gimbutas1976, Fig. 23, 1). 5.4.12 Comparison of Shapes of Plain and Decorated Vessels of the Fromthe drawings thepaintedvessels,made by Biernoff, relativefrequency each of In the same figure relativefrequency the has been estimated vessel form the of (fig.5.62). For ofimpressedand plain vesselsis presented. thevesselswithapplied decoration, shapes could not be estimated since the sample ofrimsherdsis verysmall,consisting percentages rimsherds with facevesselsand sevensherds withsimplelinearmotifs. remaining offour The examples belong to body sherds. it Comparing these figures can be seen that the decorated and plain vessels have a of do comparablerepertory shapes,but some differences exist.In the case of the painted concern the relativefrequenciesof neck and hole-mouthed the pottery, differences jars. in Hole-mouthed more numerous, jars are slightly being twiceas frequent paintedpottery in thanin plain. Neck-jars, contrast, virtually are absentamongstthe paintedvessels (only one example). In the case of impressedpottery, increase of the slightly an closed vessels (rim angle from91-1 14o) and dish-like pots (rimangle smallerthan 6o) can be seen. These shapes werefavouredat theexpense ofneck and hole-mouthed jars,whichare absent.A decrease in the numberof open vesselswithstraight walls (rimangle from85-900) is also noticed. The absence ofneckjars amongtheimpressed pots (and probablyalso among thepainted) could be explained by the factthatthe decorationwas not extended up to theircollars. Whole neckjars fromothersites{e.g.examples from Porodinat Bitola Museum) show that decorationwas restricted the body of thejars. to impressed The fewrimsherdswithapplied decorationbelong,almostexclusively, neckjars and to vessels (rimangle from60-840) withconcave upper walls. Five out of the seven rim open sherdswithsimplelinearmotifs and one face vessel,belong to neckjars withhighconcave collars.The remaining face vessels (3 sherds)and one sherdwithlinear motifs, from are closed vessel. (rimangle from60-800). There is only one example of a slightly open pots Neck jars and open vessels withconcave walls musthave been common among the pots withapplied decoration, sincemanybody sherdsfrom near therim-line show a pronounced This indicatesthat, thecase ofvesselswithapplied decoration, in (fig.5.54, 4-6). concavity thereis a correlation betweenvessel formand decoration. fromthe differences the amountof some vessel forms, in Apart painted and impressed vessels have similarcontoursto those of the plain vessels. Their upper walls are usually but concave or convex examples are also present.The latterexamples straight, slightly (concave upperwalls) are more commonamong thepaintedvessels (fig. 5.36, 1; fig. 5.36, 8 & IO; FIG.5.39, 6; FIG.5.39, 10; FIG.5.43, 13; FIG.5.44, 7-9; FIG.5.45, 9; FIG.5.46, 57; fig. 5.46, 8, 1 1 & 12; fig. 5.47, 10-13; fig. 5.48, 16). The lowerpartsof the vesselsare round or oval. in However,a difference the size of the vessels is noticeable.In painted vessels the rim diameters from5 cm to 27 cm, the mostcommongroupbeing between 13 cm and range 19 cm (fig. 5.31). Examples of the lower and upper values of diametersare rare. The



rim with angle of for is vessels distribution therimdiameters each vesselform as follows: rimanglefrom from12-18 cm; vessels with than 115o:rimdiameters 91range larger rim rim 114o:8-27 cm;vessels with anglefrom with anglefrom 85-900:5-25 cm; vessels than 6o: 13-21 cm. Largepots (rim 60-840: 7-21 cm; vesselswithrimanglesmaller diameter to 32 cm) are absentamongthepaintedvessels.Such examples, up although in are rare, present theplainpottery. In contrast, seemsthat it were sinceexamples impressions notappliedto smallvessels, rimdiameters with smaller than 12 cm are absentamongtheimpressed pots.Theirrim 1 from 2 cmto 32 cm,themost common 18 diameters range group beingbetween cmand 30 cm (fig.5.32). in the vessels, lugsarepresent twohole mouthed (fig.5.34, 6; fig. Among painted jars number bodysherds 40 examples of (in 5.42,4) andin a limited amongthe1000 painted sherds have lugsor bear scarsmade from the Also,none oftheimpressed bodysherds). of It attachmentlugs. wouldseem, that toplainvessels. therefore, lugswererestricted mainly it be the out of off with However, should pointed that majority lugsarebroken thevessels; thoselugs thatare not decorated or impressed), is impossible distinguish it to (painted whether belongto plainor decorated vessels. they Painted are usually short bases.Theirdiameters 3pots supported by ring rangefrom cm. Impressed vesselsare supported ringand flat bases; a fewroundbottomed 6.5 by have also been found. Theirdiameters examples rangefrom6-10 cm. One sherdwith diameter around16 cm is probably from oval base. A similar an oval examplehas been thepainted found vessels(Biernoff 1969). among 5.4.13 Comparison of Fabric Types and Quality of Paste The fabrics usedfor manufacturepainted the in of have 4. pottery beenpresented Chapter It was seenin section the of vessels weremadefrom 4.6.8 that, although majority painted thesamefabrics usedfortheplainpots(mainly fabric twodifferent fabrics A), (Groups2 and 3) wereused exclusively themanufacture painted for of vessels. and with weremadefrom samefabrics the Impressed pottery pottery applieddecoration usedfor manufacture plainvessels. the of in Theirrelative aregiven fig.5.59. frequencies Fromfig.5.59 it can be seenthat considerably a amount impressed pottery of and larger with D decoration weremadefrom fabrics and E. Indeed,2 1% oftheimpressed applied and 27% ofthepottery applieddecoration, madefrom with was fabric Thisfabric D. was used in only 3% of theplainvessels.Similarly, and 19% of the 16% of theimpressed weremadefrom fabric which usedfor was E, appliedvessels, only4% oftheplainpottery. In impressed D fabrics and wereusedat theexpenseoffabrics and C. In the pottery, with A it is decoration, is fabric which lessfrequent. pottery applied In bothimpressed in and appliedpottery, increase the frequency fabric is the D of a risein thenumber red-brown of vessels(fig.5.43). Such accompanied by unslipped amount 15% oftheimpressed 26% ofpottery applieddecoration, to and with examples red-brown whereas vesselscomprise of theplain pottery. similar A unslipped only 3% correlation between fabrictypes and decorationhas been noticed at Prodromos (Chourmouziadis 1971). When comparing quality the paste of plain pottery pottery the of and withapplied decoration 5.61),itcanbe seenthat latter the contains considerably a (fig. larger proportion



ofcoarsesherds In (42%) as opposedto only6% oftheplainvessels. contrast, impressed decoration notbeen usedwidely coarsetextured has on sherds 52% ofthesherds as are fine and 26% are textured, aremedium 22% coarse(fig.5.61). Theseproportions similar to thoseobtained from plainunslipped the sherds of (fig.5.58). The great majority the vessels fine are textured section (see 4.6.8). painted 5.5 INTRA-SITE DEVELOPMENT

Re-examinationtheexcavation from Nikomedeia of data Nea that werethree suggests there theEarly Neolithic ofthesite. oftheplainpottery building phasesduring occupation Study shows that samefabric the coated/uncoated and vesselforms ware werein use in all types, building periods. it be that material from different the However, might expected theceramic phasescould in showdifferences therelative of thefabrics, and surface treatment. frequencies shapes Thesedifferences reflect would altered theinhabitantsthethree of preferences among phases in due to changes theeconomy, function vessels, of of and/or the availability rawmaterial state technological of In order checkwhether suchdifferences to were development. any the from different the has studied. discernible, plainpottery periods been comparatively It is clearthat a rough canbe attempted eachspit(with since the only comparative study of spit 3) contained remains morethanone building the of exception phase.Thus,the ceramic material divided two was into broadcategories: category one consists thesquares/ of withpottery from first secondbuilding the and and the othercontains the spits phases material from secondand third the The smallnumber sherds of building phases. coming from 3 wereincorporated thefirst into The spit (first category andsecondbuilding phases). relative of coated/uncoated ware and fabric has been frequencies vesselforms, types, calculated each category. shouldbe noticed for It that comparative this is study based on theceramic material from squares/spits the to Structural belonging Groups1-6. The percentage red-brown of uncoated vessels coated, slipped, pink beigeandred-brown as wellas therelative of in are frequency thefabric types present each category, givenin fig.5.65 and fig.5.66 respectively. fig.5.65 it can be seen that ratioofcoated From the anduncoated vessels remains constant. the of is Similarly, proportion fabric types thesame for twocategories. frequency fine, the The of medium coarsetextured and vessels doesnot from category theother. one to examination thevessels of change Moreover, macroscopic shows that there no difference thefiring thevessels. is in of The relative of vesselforms givenin fig.5.63. As can be are frequencies thedifferent seen from figure, proportion thevesselforms similar thetwocategories. this the of is in is in of seemto have been used Onlyone differencenoticed theamount neckjars which morefrequently the at during later phasesofoccupation, theexpenseofthehole-mouthed in the jars. Variations theprofile concave/convex/straight of thevesselsfrom {e.g. walls) twocategories notobservable. amount deep,medium shallow are The of and vessels seems to remain constant. of shows allthetypes decoration that of Comparative study thedecorated pottery (painted: R/W& W/R, and and were impressed applied) thesamedecorative motifs, inusethroughout theoccupation thesite.The relative of of of frequencies occurrence thedifferent of types decoration werenotcalculated for and (first second;secondand separately each category third of material very is small. building phases)becausethequantity ceramic



5.6 CONCLUSION It is clearfrom above analysis thepottery the that from three the building phasesis rather thefactthatthesampleis mixed(one category includes homogeneous. Despite pottery from first secondbuilding the and the includes from the phaseswhereas other pottery secondand third therelative of surface treatment fabric and phases) frequencies types, in showa striking present thetwocategories, similarity. As for relative the in of the differencetheproportion forms, observed frequencies thevessel neckand hole-mouthed is 5%, whichseemsto be above theexperimental of error. jars is Evenso, thedifferencesmalland is notaccompanied anychanges theproportion in by oftheother vesselforms, by anytechnological or On the development. thecontrary, Nea Nikomedeia showan adherence their to tradition. potters potting of monochrome from Sesklo(Wijnen1981) concludes that the Study theearly pottery amount fineand medium of textured vessels with at increases time, theexpenseofthose with coarsetexture. was accompanied an increase theamount openvessels a This in of by in and an improvement thefiring thepots.At EarlyNeolithic of in Achilleion, thestrata in with decorated a development therepertory vessels noticed high of is as necked pottery10, with at an in Moreover, improvementslipping, jarsandvessels S-profiles appear a later stage. the A and is with firing levigating pasteofthevessels apparent, time. similar technological is notedbetween (Anza) la and Ib (Gardner1976). This is improvement Anzabegovo of of decoration accompanied theintroduction a newtype pottery by (impressed). The studied ceramic material Nea Nikomedeia notshowanydistinct from does differences thatcould be relatedto an economic, functional technological or change.Instead,the ofthematerial that excavated oftheNea Nikomedeia the settlement uniformity suggests part A similar a short time conclusion reached was from study the the of represents only span. architectural remains building and techniques. The Figures figs.5.1-5.33, 553-566 have all been drawnand prepared Paraskevi Yiouniusing by MacDrawII on an AppleMacintosh Forfigs.5.4-5.24 theinformation computer. given for eachvessel theexcavation lists number indicates known no (-/square/spit provenance); Feature thefabric colour(R: Red; P: Pink;B: Beige);and finally, number the to (F.); given each sherd examination. during macroscopic figs.5.34-5.52 have all been prepared from archive pottery the of drawings produced DavidBiernoff, a catalogue thesherds and of illustrated them. catalogue The by accompanies lists following the data: featurefollowed by decoration (R/Ws: Red on White Standard Ware; Sherd Porcelain on the Ware;W/R: White Red Ware);AreaCode,listing R/Wp:Red on White excavation number indicates known no Feature followed (-/(F.), square/spit provenance), to Munsell Colour Soil Chart examination; bythenumber given sherds during macroscopic notations bothinterior exterior for and surfaces.

10 Achilleion Ib- II: Gimbutas 1989.



fig. 5.1: Plain pottery: relativefrequency burnishedvessels and vesselswitha surfacecoating. of

fig. 5.2: Relativefrequency the different of typesof decoratedpottery.

fig. 5.3: Relativefrequency the different of typesof impresseddecoration.



1 4

fig. 5.4: Neck jars. Intermediary between hole-mouthed jars and neckjars (Ai): 1) B6/1 Pi 2, 2) D6/2 R26, 3) B6/2 Bi; Neckjar withmediumcollar (As): 4) C5/1 R25.



fig. 5.5: Neckjars withmediumcollar (As): 1) C5/2 P33, 2) B4/2 Ri?, 3) B7/1 R22, 4) E6/1 R.



1 4

fig. 5.6: Neck jars with high collar: 1) Cio/i P21, 2) C00/2 R2, 3) B9/1 P28, 4) B2/3 Rio, 5) D6/2 P21, 6) A7/1 R31; Probable neckjars: 7) C3/1 B3, 8) L8/1 R6.





fig.5.7: Closed vesselswithrimangle larger than 115o (hole-mouthed jars): 1) B1/3 P5, 2) B6/1 Pi, 3) B1/3 B25, 4) B1/3 B11, 5) B1/3 R5, 6) -/-.




fig.5-8: Closed vessels rim with anglelarger than 115o (hole-mouthed 1) -/-, a) B1/2 Ra, jars): Ri, 3) B6/s 4) Tgs/i B, 5) A6/1/2, B6/2F.X.R. 6)





fig. 5.9: Askoid vessels: 1) A/i B, 2) K7/1 B, 3) F6/1 F.C. B.




fig. 5.10: Slightly closed vessels withrim angle from 91-1 14o: 1) B6/1, 2) A6/0, 3) 1/3 P6, 4) D4/3 Rs>3,5) B6/2, 6) B6/1 Ris, 7) F7/1 EC.




fig. 5.11: Slightly closed vesselswithrimangle from91-1 14o: 1) H6/1, 2) C5/1 Pio, 3) D4/1 P.





fig. 5.12: Slightlyclosed vessels with rim angle from 91-1 14o: 1) C3/1 Pu, 2) Coo/s? R28, 3) D6/s B6, 4) -/-.




fig. 5.13: Slightly closed vesselswithrimangle from91-1 14o: 1) A6/1, s>)A8/1.



fig. 5.14: Open vesselswithrimangle from85-900: 1) D6/1 R13, 2) B5-C6 Baulk, *) D6/1 Rk, 00 O' 4) D6/2 R20, 5) D 1/3R6, 6) A6-B6/2 Pis>, 7) M8/1.





fig. 5.15: Open vesselswithrimangle from85-900: 1) F6/1 EC, 2) A6/0, 3) F6/1 F.C., 4) surface find.





! ' /
1 4

fig.5.16: Open vessels with anglefrom rim 60-840: 1) C00/1R25, 2) A7/1Rio, 3) C00/2R22, 4) A2/3R?5, 5) C3/1Psi, 6) C5/2B2, 7) D4/1 R6, 8) C5/2P34, 9) D4/2 Bi?.



1 4

fig. 5.17: Open vesselswithrimangle from60-840: 1) D3/3 12, 2) Coo/2 R3, 3) A2/3.



l~l V~l

7 7

fig. 5.18: Shallow vessels withrim angle from60-840: 1) A6/1 B12, 2) B6/2 P8, 3) D6/1 Rio, 4) B1/3 R18, 5) D6/1 R4.






fig.5.19: Open vesselswith rimangleless than 6o: 1) A2/3B4, 2) C5/2 B13, 3) D1/3 R32, 4) C00/2R7, 5) B9/1R27,6) B9/1R22, 7) D1/3 B2, 8) D1/3 P32, 9) B1/3Bs, 10) B4/2R23.






"s ^

V^n ; ;



rimangleless than 6o: 1) B2/3 R39, 2) C5/2 R23, 3) D6/2 Bi, fig. 5.20: Open vesselswith 4) B9/1R6, 5) B1/3B5, 6) D1/3 Bs, 7) C5/2R20.







fig. 5.21: Ring based vessels: 1) A6-B6/2 R11, 2) K5/1 B45, 3) 1/3 Ris>, 4) K5/1 B37, 5) A7/1 R21, 6) L4/1 B25, 7) A7/1 R17, 8) A6/1 R16, 9) B6/1 P17.



fig.5.22: Flatbased vessels vesselswith low foot(1-5): 1) K5/1 R38, 2) D4/2 B28, a including 3) C5/1 B34, 4) A7/1R18, 5) A6-B6/2P8, 6) K5/1R52, 7) D4/3 R38, 8) C5/2 R24, 9) C00/1 B27, 10) A7/1R32.





17 4




1 4

fig.5.23: Roundbottomed vessels: B6/2B32, 2) A3/1B23, 3) L4/1K30; Pedestal bases:4) NN 1) LE 3/7,5) NN Es>/2, D6/1. 6)





,9 '


VO o


13 -' f



fig. 5.24: Legs frompolypod vessels: 1) -/-, 2) C5/1, 3) D9/2 FA, 4) B1/1, 5) ?/?, 6) B4/2; Unpiercedlugs: 7) B9/1, 8) D6/1, 9) B3/1; Z-shaped lugs: 10) B5/1, 11) B2/2; Spindle-whorl: 12) L8/1 R21; Round sherds: 13) B2/3 R56, 14) B1/3.



fig. 5.25: Distribution rimdiameters neckjars. of for

fig. 5.26: Distribution rim diametersforclosed vessels withrim angle largerthan 115o (holeof mouthedjars).



fig. 5.27: Distribution rimdiameters closed vesselswithrimangle from91-114. of for

fig. 5.28: Distribution rimdiameters open vesselswithrimangle from85-90. of for



fig. 5.29: Distribution rimdiameters open vesselswithrimangle from60-840. of for

fig. 5.30: Distribution rimdiameters open vesselswithrimangle less than 6o. of for



fig. 5.31: Distribution rimdiameters paintedvessels. of of

fig. 5.32: Distribution rimdiameters impressedvessels. of of



fig. 5.33: Distribution basal diameters plain vessels. of of



/ <^^^


[J '

fig. 5.34: 1-1?) Paintedvesselswithrimangle largerthan 115o; 13) Paintedneckjar.


FIG. 5.34, 1



rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LI C4/11, 5, F. A. Colour:Int: 10R4/4 | 10YR8/3-4; Ext: 10R4/4 | 10YR8/3-4 Diam: 16 cm Porcelain ware. Red paint over whiteslip interior and exterior, mediumgloss finish. fig. 5.34, 2 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:D6/2, 1 Colour: Int: 10YR8/4;Ext: 2.5YR4/4| 10YR8/3 Diam: 12 cm Porcelainware. White slip interior. Red paint over white slip exterior. Medium gloss finish both surfaces. fig. 5.34, 3 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:E8/2, 3 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4/5-6; Ext: 2.5YR4/5| ioyr67/2 Diam: 15 cm fig. 5.34, 4 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code: 2/0, 1 Colour:Int: 2.5YR5/4-5; Ext: 10R4/4-5 I 10YR7/ 4-5 Diam: 11-12 cm fig. 5.34, 5 rim sherd; R/Wp Area Code:C2/2, 1 Colour: 7.5YR7-8/4; Ext: 10R3-4/4 | 7.5YR8/4 Int: Diam: 18 cm Porcelainware. White slip interior. Red paintover whiteslip exterior.Both surfacesmedium to high gloss finish. fig. 5.34, 6 rim sherd; R/Wp AreaCode: J8/1,4

FIG.5.34, 8 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C5/1, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7/4 Diam: 16 cm? fig. 5.34, 9 rim sherd; R/Wp Area Code:C1/1, 2 Colour: 7.5YR7/4;Ext: 2.5YR4/5-6 | 7.5YR7/4 Int: Diam: 17 cm Porcelain ware. Light slip interior. Red paint over Both surfaces mediumgloss finish. light exterior. slip fig. 5.34, 10 rim sherd; R/Ws

AreaCode: $/,

Colour: Int: 10R4/4; Ext: ioyr8/i | 10R4/4 Diam: 15 cm Red slip interior exterior, and mediumgloss. White exteriorover slip,matt. paint fig. 5.34, 11 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LXI D5/2, 2 Colour: 5YR3-5/1 ; Ext: 5YR3 1-3 | 10YR4Int: -4/ -3 Diam: 18 cm Red slip interior, low gloss. Red paint over light low to mediumgloss finish. slip exterior, fig. 5.34, 12 rimsherd; Polychromevessel Area Code:D 5/1, 1 Colour: Int: 5YR6/4; Ext: 10R4/3-4, 10YR8/3 | 5YR6/4 Diam: 3.5 cm Unique sherd. Red and white paint over body. Interior burnished. Paint unslipped.Neithersurface is verysmeared and unevenlyapplied. fig. 5.34, 13 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:L6/1 F. G, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR3-4/6 | 7.5YR6/4; Ext: 10YR5/4| 2.5YR4/6 Diam: 11 cm Interior slip,rimband 3 cm,overbody. Exterior red white paint over red slip; medium to high gloss finish.

Diam: 17 cm Porcelain ware, lightslip interior. Red paint over Bothsurfaces mediumgloss finish. light exterior. slip Small round knob on lower exteriorof sherd. fig. 5.34, 7 rimsherd; W/R

Colour: Int: 10YR6-7/3-4;Ext: 2.5YR2-4/4-5| 10YR6-7/3-4

Area Code: -/-, 27

Colour: Int: 10R3/5; Ext: 10YR8/3| 10R3/5 Diam: 15 cm



A 'J )
'L il "I ,- + I 4 Q

FIG535: Slightly closed paintedvesselswithrimangle from91-1 14o.

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC fig. 5.35, 1 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C8/1, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5-6; Ext: 2.5YR4/5-6 | 10YR7/ 4, 7.5YR7/4 D iam: 14 cm Unusual design. Medium gloss finishinterior and exterior. fig. 5.35, 2 rimsherd; W/R Area Code.TY/10 N. Baulk, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/3-5; Ext: 10YR7-8/3-4 | 2.5YR4/3-5 Diam: 15 cm? Red slip interior. Whitepaintover red slip exterior. mediumgloss finish. fig. 5.35, 3 rim sherd; R/Ws AreaCode:D 4/1, 2; D6/1, 1 Colour:Int: 2.5YR3-4/2-4 | 7.5YR5-4/2, 5YR5-4/ 2; Ext: 5YR4/4,2.5YR4/4-5 I 7-5YR7/4-5 Diam: 16 cm Unevenlyslipped interior fig. 5.35, 4 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:D-E8, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5-6 | 7.5YR5/4;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR8/4, 7.5YR8/4 Diam: 18 cm tracesof slip towardsbottomof sherd Only faintest interior. fig. 535> 5 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:K8/i , 7 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/6;Ext: 10YR8/5| 2.5YR4/6 Diam: 16 cm Exterior surface and designpartially Red destroyed. low Lightpaint over red slip exterior, slip interior. to mediumgloss finish. Originallyveryfineware. fig. 5.35, 6 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C8/1, 1

POTTERY: TYPOLOGY fig. 5.35, 7 rim sherd; R/Wp Area Code: J8/1,5


Porcelain ware. Lightslip interior, low to medium finish. Red paintover whiteslip exterior, gloss high gloss finish. fig. 5.35, 8 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LXI E5/1, 1 Colour:Int: 5YR6/2-5; Ext: 5YR4/1, 5YR5/2-4 | Diam: 15 cm Red slip interior smoothedto mattfinish. Red paint over light slip exteriorapplied using outline and infill technique;low to mediumgloss finish. fig. 5.35, 9 rim sherd; R/Wp Area Code:B4/2, 1 Colour: Int: 10YR8/3-4; Ext: 10R4/4-5 | 10YR8/3 Diam: 14 cm Porcelainware. White slip interior, low to medium gloss. Red paint over white slip exterior.Medium to highgloss. fig. 5.35, 10 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A,B6/2 X, 6 Colour: Int: 10R4/4; Ext: 10R4/4 I 10YR7/4,7.5YR 7/4 Diam: 12 x 14 cm May be oval vessel fig. 5.35, 11 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:-/-, 57 Colour: Int: 10R4/4; Ext: 10R3-5/4 | 10YR6/4 Diam: 20 cm fig. 5.35, 12 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LXI D5/3, LXI E5/F.A., LXI D5/4, 3 Colour: Int: 2.5YR6-5/5-6; Ext: 2.5YR5/5I 10YR7-

Colour: 10YR8/3-4; Int: Ext: 5YR4-5/6 ioyr8/ | 3-4 Diam: 14 cm


Diam: 17 cm? Unusual ware. Interiorslip? Smooth matt finish. Exteriorthinred paintover matteroded whiteslip. to High gloss finish red paint.

Colour: Int: 10YR4-5/1-2;Ext: 2.5YR2-4/2-4| 10YR8/2-3

Diam: 16 20 cm Oval vessel.Interior slip mattto low glossfinish. red Exteriorred paint over whiteslip, low to medium Paintthinand evenly applied. gloss finish.





. .
fig. 5.36: Slightly closed paintedvesselswithrimangle from91-1 14o.

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC FIG.5.36, 1 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B2/3, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR3-4/2-6; Ext: 2.5YR4/5-6 | 10YR7/2-3 Diam: 16.5 cm fig. 5.36, 2 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:HS/ , 2 Int: 5YR4/4;Ext: 2.5YR4/5-6 | 7.5YR7/5 Colour: Diam: 15 cm fig. 5.36, 3 rim sherd; R/Ws AreaCode:O7/1, 8 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/5;Ext: 10R4/4 | 10YR8/4 Diam: 15 cm Red slip interior. Red paint over lightslip exterior. Applied using outlineand infill technique.Outline overlapped by infill. fig. 5.36, 4 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:F8/1?, 5 Colour: 7.5YR8/ Int: 2-4, 5YR4/4-5 | 7.5YR4-5/0-1; Ext: 7.5YR5/2-4 I 10YR5-6/1 Unusual rim elaboration.Ware close to porcelain. Interior painted rimband ( 1 cm) over body. fig. 5.36, 5 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B6/i, A,B6/2 X, 1 Colour: Int: 10R5/5; Ext: 10R4/4 | 10YR6-7/4, 7.5YR7/4-5 Diam: 17 cm fig. 5.36, 6 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C0-C1, Do-Di F. B, 1 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4-5/4; Ext: 2.5YR4/4-5 | ioyr 7/3 Diam: 20 cm fig. 5.36, 7 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:-/-, 76 Colour:Int: 10R4/4-5; Ext: 10R4/3-4 | 10YR6-7/ 2-3 Diam: 11 cm fig. 5.36, 8 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:-/-, 42 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/4;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7/2 Diam: 13 cm



fig. 5.36, 9 rim sherd; R/Ws AreaCode:C7/1, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4-5/5; Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7/4 Diam: 16 cm fig. 5.36, 10 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LXI E4/1, 3; LXI E5/3, 1 Colour:Int: 2.5YR2-3/2-4; Ext: 2.5YR3-4/2-4 | 10YR5-6/2 Diam: 15-16 cm Red slip interior, uneven in thicknessand finish, mattto low gloss. Underlying body shows through in places. Exterior, paint over whiteslip. Paint red thinand applied usingoutlineand infill technique, low to mediumgloss finish.



10I ^W I

,/ ^

fig. 5.37: Slightly closed paintedvesselswithrimangle from91-1 14o.

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC fig. 5.37, 1 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:D 2/2, 2 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4/5 | 5YR3/4; Ext: 2.5YR4/5 | 7-5YR7/5 Diam: 17 cm Interior slip in broad band below rim (3 cm), then zone of partial coverage and smearing. Below unslipped.Exteriorpaintapplied usingoutlineand infill technique. fig. 5.37, 2 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A8/2 F. A, 1 Colour: Int: 10R4/4-5; Ext: 10R4/4 | 10YR7/4 Diam: 18 cm fig. 5-37 3 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A3/3, 3 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/4;Ext: 2.5YR5/5| 10YR7/3 Diam: 20-22 cm? Red slip interior, mattto low gloss. Red paintover Low to mediumgloss finish. lightslip exterior. fig. 5.37, 4 & 5 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:L8/iy 1 & 3 Colour: Int: 2.5YR3-4/6; Ext: 10R4/5 | 10YR7/4-5 Diam: 18-20 cm fig. 5.37, 6 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B8/1, 2 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4-5/6; Ext: 2.5YR4/5-6 | ioyr 7/4 Diam: 13 cm fig. 5.37, 7 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:By/i, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7/4-5 Diam: 16 cm fig. 5.37, 8 rim sherd; R/Ws



fig. 5.37, 10 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:O6/i, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/4;Ext: 2.5YR4/6| 10YR7-8/4 Diam: 18 cm? Red slip interior. Red paint on whiteslip exterior. fig. 5.37, 11 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:O$/i, 5; D3/2, 2 Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 7-5YR7/4~5 Colour: Diam: 15 8 cm Oval vessel.

AreaCode: $/, 2

Colour:Int: 2.5YR4/5; Ext: 2.5YR4/4-5, 10R4/4-5 I 10YR7/4 Diam: 18 cm

fig. 5.37, 9 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B3/2, 3 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5-6 | 10R8/5 Diam: 18 cm



' m J en
11 ^ 15 % ^^ / 16

fig. 5.38: Slightly closed paintedvesselswithrimangle from91-1 14o.

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC FIG.5.38, 1 rim sherd; R/Wp Area Code:L6/K, 9

POTTERY: TYPOLOGY FIG.5.38, 9 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A2/3, 2


Colour: 10YR8/3-4; Int: Ext: 2.5YR4/5 10YR6-7/ | 3-4 Diam: 17-18 cm ware. Porcelain

fig.5.38, 2 rimsherd; W/R AreaCode.TX 2/1,1 10YR3-5/1 Diam: 10 22 cm

Diam: 20 cm Interiorunslipped,matt finish.Exteriorred paint over lightslip, low to mediumgloss finish. fig. 5.38, 10 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:O6/ 1, 9 fig. 5.38, 11 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code.U D1/2, 2 Colour:Int: 2.5YR6/4-6; Ext: 2.5YR5/4 | 10YR7/ 2-3 Diam: 24 cm Thin red slip interior. White slip exterior.Overall mediumgloss. Paint thinand evenly applied. fig. 5.38, 12 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C10/ 2, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4-5/4; Ext: 10YR4/4| 2.5YR7/5 Diam: 18 cm Red slip interior. Whitepaintover red slip exterior. fig. 5.38, 13 rim sherd; R/Wp Area Code:E0/1, 3 Colour: 7.5YR7/4;Ext: 2.5YR-/6| 7.5YR7/4? Int: Diam: 12 cm Porcelain ware. Light slip interiorand exterior. Exteriorred paint over lightslip. Paint thickand raised. fig. 5.38, 14 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C4/1, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4-5/5 | 10YR7/3 Diam: 16 cm fig. 5.38, 15 rim sherd; R/Ws AreaCode:D 4/1, 3 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4/5; Ext: 2.5YR4/5-6 | ioyr8/ 2-3 Diam: 9 cm fig. 5.38, 16 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:G 6/1, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/6| 10YR8/3-4 Diam: 1 1 cm

Colour: Int: 10YR3-4/1-2;Ext: 5YR3-4/1,5/4 | 10YR6/2-4

Colour:Int: 2.5YR5/4 | 10YR3-7/1; Ext: 10YR8/3 |

Oval vessel. Interioronly fainttracesof slip at rim. Exteriormattwhitepaintover black slip,mattto low gloss finish. fig. 5.38, 3 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:-/-, 54 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7/4 Diam: 12.5 cm fig. 5.38, 4 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:-/-, 40 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4-5/5; Ext: 10R4/4-5 | 10YR7/3 Diam: 12.5 cm fig. 5.38, 5 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:F5/2, 3 Int: 2.5YR5/5-6; Ext: 2.5YR5/5-6 | 7.5YR5/4 Colour: Diam: 16 cm fig. 5.38, 6 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:L4/1, 1 Colour: Int: 10R4/6; Ext: 10YR8/2| 10R4/6 Diam: 17 cm Red slip interior. White paintover red slip exterior. fig. 5.38, 7 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LU B1/1-2, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/4;Ext: 2.5YR5/4| 10YR7/1 Diam: 2 1 cm Red slip interior, mattor low gloss. Exterior paint red over whiteslip. Paint thinand evenly applied. Matt to mediumgloss finish. fig. 5.38, 8 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C3/1, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5-6; Ext: 2.5YR4/6| 10YR7/3 Diam: 16 cm?



.men -
fig. 5.39: Slightly closed paintedvesselswithrimangle from91-1 14o.

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC fig. 5.39, 1 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B2/3, 1 Int: 5YR4/4;Ext: 5YR4/4| 10YR8/2 Colour: Diam: 12 cm fig. 5.39, 2 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:H7/ia, 3 Int: 2.5YR5/5;Ext: 10R4/5| 10YR6-7/4 Colour: Diam: 16 cm fig. 5.39, 3 rimsherd; R/Ws Area Code:LXI C5/2, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR3-5/2-4; Ext: 10R3-4/2-3 | 10YR5-6/2 Diam: 16 cm red Exterior paint red Interior slip,low gloss finish. over lightslip, mediumgloss finish. fig. 5.39, 4 rimsherd; R/Ws AreaCode:O6/, 5 Int: 2.5YR5-6/4; Ext: 10R4-5/4 | 10YR7/4 Colour: Diam: 18 cm Red painton lightslip exterior. Red slip interior. fig. 5.39, 5 rim sherd;R/Ws Area Code:Dq/i A, 1 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4-5/5; Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR78/3 Diam: 15 cm fig. 5.39, 6 rimsherd; R/Ws Area Code:LXI D5/3, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7/2 Diam: 17 cm Interiorred slip, mattto low gloss finish. Exterior red paint over white slip, matt to medium gloss finish. fig. 5.39, 7 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:LXII A5/2, 3 Colour: Int: 10R4/3-4; Ext: ioyr8/i | 10R4/3-4 Diam: 18 cm Red slip interiorand exterior,interiorlow gloss finish. Exteriormediumto highgloss finish. White paint remainsglossywhere not eroded.



FIG.5.39, 8 rim sherd;R/Ws Area Code:LI 1/3,' Colour: Int: 7.5YR5-6/2; Ext: 10R5/3| 7.5YR5/2 Diam: 30-3 1 cm Interiorroughlysmoothed. Exterioruneven pink paint over body, poorly burnished. Low gloss on highlights mattsurface. fig. 5.39, 9 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:L7/1, 1 Int: 2.5YR4/6;Ext: 10YR8/3| 2.5YR4/6 Colour: Diam: 13 cm Red slip interior. Whitepaintover red slip exterior. Whiteeroded from overallhighgloss. Paintapplied over scratchedoutline. fig. 5.39, 10 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A2/1, 7 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/4;Ext: 2.5YR4/4-6 | 10YR8/3 Diam: 14 cm? Red slip interior, mattto low gloss finish. Red paint over whiteslipexterior. Low to mediumgloss finish fig. 5.39, 11 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:LI C1/1, 2 Colour: Int: 10R4/4-5; Ext: 10R4/4-5 | 10YR8/3 Diam: 16 cm Red slipinterior exterior. and Thickmatt white paint burnishedto mediumgloss exterior. fig. 5.39, 12 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LXI E5/F. A, 7 FIG.5.39, 13 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:LNT, 3 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4/5-6; Ext: 10YR8/3| 2.5YR4/ 5-6 Diam: 16 cm Red slip interior. Whitepaintover red slip exterior.



r m





fig. 5.40: Slightly closed paintedvesselswithrimangle from91-1 14o.

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC fig. 5.40, 1 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code.T Y 7/1, 3 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/4| 10YR7/2-3 D iam: 10 cm fig. 5.40, 2 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:D6/2, 8 Cohur:Int: 2.5YR4-5/4;Ext: 2.5YR4/4-5| 10YR7-8/3 fig. 5.40, 3 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:D 2/1, 3 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/4-5; Ext: 2.5YR4/4| 10YR7/4 Diam: 12 cm fig. 5.40, 4 rimsherd; R/Ws Area Code:LXI C5/3, 1 Int: 10R4/4| 10YR7/4;Ext: 10R4/4| 10YR7/ Colour: 3-4 Diam: 12 cm Interiorand exteriorred paint over body. Low to medium gloss finish. Surface eroded. Paint and surfacenow uneven. fig. 5.40, 5 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:-/-, 59 Colour: 5YR3-5/2;Ext: 2.5YR4/2-4| 7.5YR7/4-5 Int: Diam: 12 cm



fig. 5.40, 9 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:C2/1, 1 Colour: Int: 10R4/4; Ext: 10YR8/3| 10R4/4 Diam: 17 cm Red slip interior. White paint over red slip exterior. Both surfacesmediumgloss finish. fig. 5.40, 10 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B6/2, 8 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 75YR7/4-5 Diam: 20 cm? fig. 5.40, 11 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code.Lll A2/1, 2 Colour: 10YR8/3-4;Ext: 10R4/4| 10YR7 Int: -8/3-4 Diam: 22 cm Porcelain ware. White slip interior and exterior. Interiormediumgloss. Exteriorred paint somewhat smeared,burnishedto highgloss. fig. 5.40, 12 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:L6/1 K, 17 Colour: 10YR5-6/2-3; Int: Ext:2.5YR4/4 10YR6-7/3-4 | Diam: 8 cm Verycrude withonly roughlyfinishedsurfaces. Interior unslipped. Exteriorbadly eroded.

fig. 5.40, 13 rimsherd; W/R fig. 5.40, 6 Area Code.l E4/1, 1 rimsherd; W/R Colour: Int: 5YR3-4/2-3; Ext: 10YR7/2| 5YR3-4/2Area Code.- 9/2, 1 3, 2.5YR3/2-4 Colour: Int: 5YR5/4; Ext: 10YR7/2-3 | 2.5YR4/5-6 Diam: 1 1 cm Diam: 13 cm Black or red slip interior and exterior withhighgloss. Reddishslipinterior. Whitepaintoverredslipexterior. Thick whitepaint frommattto gloss veryuneven Medium gloss finish. fig. 5.40, 14 fig. 5.40, 7 rim sherd; R/Ws rimsherd; W/R Area Code:E6/2, 3 Area Code:E00/1, 1 Colour: 10R4/4-5;E**'loYR8/3| 5YR4/4,10R4/4 Int: Int: 10R4/4; Ext: 10YR8/2| 10R4/4 Colour: Red slip interior, low to mediumgloss finish. White Diam: 15 cm matteroded paint withtracesof burnishvisibleover Red slipinterior. White Both medium red slip exterior. paintoverredslipexterior. surfaces mediumgloss finish. fig. 5.40, 15 fig. 5.40, 8 rimsherd; W/R rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C2/3, 2 Area Code:D 9/2, 3 Colour: Int: 10R4-5/4; Ext: 10YR8/3| 10R4-5/4 Colour: Int: 5YR3/1-2; Ext: 5YR4/2-4,3/1 | 10YR7/ Diam: 16 cm 2-3 Red slip interior. White paint over red slip. White Diam: 17 cm now eroded to mattotherwise tracesof mediumgloss Burned standardware. Very high gloss finishboth finish. surfaces.



12 f



fig. 541: Slightly closed paintedvesselswithrimangle from91-1 14o.


FIG. 5.41, 1

POTTERY: TYPOLOGY fig. 5.41, 8 rim sherd; R/Ws

Area Code: -/-


rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B3/2, 2 Int: 2.5YR6/5| 7.5YR3-4/1-4; Ext: 2.5YR5/ Colour: 6 I 10YR8/2-3 Diam: 15 cm shows body. Veryunevenlyslipped interior fig. 5.41, 2 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:'AT>$/', 1 Int: 10R4/5; Ext: 10R4/5| 10YR7/2-3 Colour: Diam: 19 cm and Overall Red slip interior finewhiteslipexterior. medium gloss. Paint somewhat streaked from finishing process. fig. 5.41, 3 rim sherd;R/Ws AreaCode:D 1/2,3 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4/4-5; Ext: 2.5YR4/4-5 | ioyr 7/3 Diam: 12 cm fig. 5.41, 4 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:C2/1, 2 Int: 10R4/4; Ext: 10YR7/3| 10R3-4/4 Colour: Diam: 28 cm? Whitepaintover red slip exterior. Red slip interior. otherwise bothsurfaces Whiteeroded to mattfinish, mediumgloss finish. fig. 5.41, 5 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:F5/2, 1 Diam: 2 1 cm

Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5-6 | 10YR7/4 Diam: 15 cm

FIG.5.41, 9 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code ;LXI D 4/1, 3 Colour:Int: 2.5YR6/4-5; Ext: 2.5YR4/5-6 | ioyr 7/3 Diam: 16 cm? Red paint over white slip Light red slip interior. exterior. Paint smeared. Medium gloss finish. fig. 5.41, 10 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code: J6/1, 2 fig. 5.41, 11 rimsherd; W/R Area Code.T X 9/1, 2 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4-5/4; Ext: 10YR7/3| 2.5YR45/4 Diam: 16-17 cm Red slip interior. Whitepaintover red slip exterior, mediumgloss finish. fig. 5.41, 12 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:O>j/i, 3 Colour: Int: 10YR3-6/1; Ext: 5YR2-3/2 | 10YR7-8/ 2-3 Diam: ? Burnedporcelainware.Lightslip interior. paint Red over whiteslip exterior, mediumgloss finish.

Colour:Int: 2.5YR4-5/4-5; Ext: 2.5YR4/4-5 | 10YR7-8/4

fig. 5.41, 6 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code.lXll A5/1, 2 Int: 10R5/3; Ext: 10R4-5/3 | 10YR7/1-2 Colour: Diam: 18 cm medium gloss finish.Red paint Red slip interior, over whiteslip exterior. Eroded to mattfinish. fig. 5.41, 7 rim sherd; R/Ws

Area Code.J4/1, 1

Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/6;Ext: 2.5YR4/5-6 | 10YR8/4 Diam: 12-13 cm






fig. 5.42: Slightly closed paintedvesselswithrimangle from91-1 14o.

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC fig. 5.42, 1 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:111 A2/1, 1 Int: 10R4/5; Ext: 10YR7-8/3 10R4/5 Colour: | Diam: 14 cm? Red slip interiorand exterior.Interiorlow gloss. Exteriorwhitepaintapplied and surface burnished to highgloss. fig. 5.42, 2 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B6/i, 4 Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/4-5| 10YR7/3-4 Colour: Diam: 15 cm fig. 5.42, 3 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:-/-, 43 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/4;Ext: 2.5YR4/4| 10YR6/3-4 Diam: 18 cm fig. 5.42, 4 rim sherd,R/Ws Area Code: 1/3, Colour:Int: 2.5YR5/5; Ext: 2.5YR8/4 | 7.5YR7/5, 10YR7/5 Diam: 18 cm of Portion applied knobprojectsfrom wall of vessel. May be basal portionof handle. fig. 5.42, 5 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code.TX 3/1, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/4;Ext: 2.5YR4/4-5| 10YR7/4 Diam: 19 cm? fig. 5.42, 6 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code: 1/3, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/4-5;Ext: 2.5YR4/4-6| 10YR7/5 Diam: 18 cm










fig.5.43: Open painted rim vessels with anglefrom 85-900.

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC fig. 5.43, 1 rim sherd: R/Ws Area Code:B6/2, A,B6/X, 4 Colour: 10R5/5,2.5YR4/5;Ext: 10R4/4,2.5YR4/ Int: 4 I 7.5YR7/4-5,10YR6 Diam: 18 14 cm May be oval vessel fig. 5.43, 2 rim sherd: R/Ws Area Code:D7/2, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/4;Ext: 2.5YR4/4-5| 10YR7-8/3 Diam: 15 cm fig. 5.43, 3 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LI D3/2, 2 Colour: Int: 10R4/4; Ext: 10R4/5| 10YR7-8/3 Diam: 12 cm Red slip interior. White slip exterior. Interiorand exterior mediumgloss and paint thin. fig. 5.43, 4 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B$/i, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/4-6;Ext: 2.5YR4/4-6| 10YR8/4 Diam: 17 cm fig. 5.43, 5 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B4/2, 5 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR8/4 Diam: 15 cm fig. 5.43, 6 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LU B 1/3, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4-5/4;Ext: 10R4/3-4| 10YR7/1-2 Diam: 12 cm Red slip interior, mattto low gloss finish. Red paint over white slip exterior, paint thin and evenly applied. Low to mediumgloss surface. fig. 5.43, 7 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:E6/2, 4 Colour:Int: 5YR4-5/4;Ext: 2.5YR4/4| 7.5YR5-6/2, 6/3 Diam: 15 cm Sparse and thin interior wash. Red paint over burnished body exterior. Low gloss finish. Unusuallycoarse ware.



fig. 5.43, 8 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C6/2, 5 Colour: Int: 5YR4-5/4;Ext: 5YR4/3-4| 10YR7/5 Diam: 6 cm? Unusual slip and colour. Thick streaked paint exterior over slip.Streaks parallelto edges ofdesign. fig. 5.43, 9 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:D5/2, 4 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7-8/3 fig. 5.43, 10 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:D 1/3, 1 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4-5/5| 7.5YR6/5; Ext: 2.5YR4/4, 5YR4-5/3-4 10YR7/2I 10Y I Diam: 12 cm and exteriorunder slip. Body visibleboth interior fig. 5.43, 11 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B8-g Baulk/1-2,2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 10R4/5 | 10YR7/4 Diam: 13 cm fig. 5.43, 12 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C6/2, 3 Colour: Int: 5YR3-4/2-4; Ext: 2.5YR4/4| 10YR7/3 Diam: 16 cm fig. 5.43, 13 rim sherd; R/Ws

AreaCode.TX 1/1,1

Colour: Int: 10R4/4, 2.5YR2-3/2; Ext: 10R4/4 | 7.5YR7/4-5 Diam: 15 cm

fig. 5.43, 14 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LXI B4/2, 3 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5-4;Ext: 2.5YR4/4| 10YR7-8/2 Diam: 18 cm Red slip interior. Red paintover whiteslip exterior. Both surfaceseroded to mattfinish.



fig. 5.44: Open paintedvesselswithrimangle from85-900.

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC fig. 5.44, 1 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A2/2, 3 Colour: Int: 10R4-5/4; Ext: 10R4/4-5 I 10YR7-8/3 Diam: 17 cm? Red slip interior, mattto low gloss finish. Red paint over lightslip exterior, low to mediumgloss finish. fig. 5.44, 2 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:E8/3 A, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5-6; Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7/3 Diam: 16 cm fig. 5.44, 3 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B2/2, 4 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR8/4-5; *: 2.5YR4/6| 10YR8/4-5 Diam: 18 cm Red paint over white slip interiorand exterior. Much of interior surfaceremovedby erosion. fig. 5.44, 4 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:E8/2, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/5;E*t: 2.5YR4/5I 10YR4/4 Diam: 17 cm fig. 5.44, 5 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:-/-, 16 Diam: 16 cm

POTTERY: TYPOLOGY fig. 5.44, 8 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:-/-, 56 Colour: Int: 10R4/4-5; E*t: 10R4/5 | 10YR7/2 Diam: 16 cm


fig. 5.44, 9 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B2/2, 3 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/6;Ext: 2.5YR4/6| 10YR8/4 Diam: 16 cm fig. 5.44, 10 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:-/-, 58 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 10R4/4 | 10YR7/3 Diam: 14 cm fig. 5.44, 11 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B7/ 10 , Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7/4 Diam: 13 cm fig. 5.44, 12 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C5/2 Pit A, 1; C5/2, 9 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4-5/5; Ext: 2.5YR4/5-6 | 10YR7/ 3-4 Diam: 11 cm Paint applied using outlineand infill technique. fig. 5.44, 13 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:E7/2 Pit A, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/4-5 | 10YR7/3 Diam: 9 cm fig. 5.44, 14 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:D 9/2, 4 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4/4-5; Ext: 2.5YR4/5-6 | ioyr 7/4 Diam: 13 cm

Colour:Int: 2.5YR4-5/4-5; Ext: 10YR7/2-3 | 2.5YR4-5/4-5

fig. 5.44, 6 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:L6/K, 23

Diam: 16 cm Red slip interior. Whitepaintover red slip exterior. Paintappliedover scratched Medium designoutline. (Whiteeroded to matt). gloss finish. FIG.5.44, 7 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:Bi/ 2, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/5;*1: 2-5**4/5 I 10YR8/4 Diam: 17 cm

Colour:Int: 2.5YR4-5/5-6; Ext: 10YR8/2-3 I 2.5YR4-5/4-6



3 I




. 7) r~^ .
13 14 fig. 5.45: Open paintedvesselswithrimangle from85-900.

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC FIG.5.45, 1 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:L6/1, 1 Colour:Int: 2.5YR2-5/2-4; Ext: 2.5YR3-4/4-6 | 10YR6-7/3-4 D iam: 14 cm FIG.5.45, 2 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A 1/3,6 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4/4; Ext: 2.5YR4/4-5 | ioyr67/3 D iam: 13 cm Red slip interior, mattto low gloss finish. Red paint over lightslip exterior, low to mediumgloss finish. fig. 5.45, 3 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B6/2, 9 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 7.5YR7/4-5 Diam: 15 cm fig. 5.45, 4 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C4/1, 1 Colour:Int: 2.5YR5/4| 7.5YR6/4; Ext: 2.5YR5/5 I 10YR7/3 Diam: 16 cm Exterior paintapplied clearly usingoutlineand infill technique.Interior only partially slipped. fig. 5.45, 5 rimsherd; R/Ws Area Code:6/1 C wall earlybid., 1 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4/4; Ext: 2.5YR4/4-5 I 10YR7/ 3-4 Diam: 19 cm exterior. Veryfinepiece witheven highgloss finish fig. 5.45, 6 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A6/R, 1 Colour:Int: 10R2-4/1-2; Ext: 2-5YR2-3/2-4,4/6| 10YR5-7/2,5/1 Diam: 14 cm fig. 5.45, 7 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:Plough, 9 fig. 5.45, 8 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:Bz/i, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/5;**-' 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7-8/4 Diam: 16 cm



fig. 545> 9 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C7/1, 2 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4-5/4; Ext: 2.5YR4/5 | ioyr8/ 3-4 Diam: 13 cm fig. 5.45, 10 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LXII A5/1, 1 Colour:Int: 2.5YR2-3/2; Ext: 2.5YR5/5 I ioyr6/ 3-4 Diam: 14 cm Red slip interior, to mediumgloss surface.Red low paint over body exterior.Paint thin and evenly applied, mediumgloss finish. fig. 5.45, 11 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:-/-, 67 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4-5/5-6; Ext: 2.5YR4/5-6 | 10YR7/4 Diam: 13 cm fig. 5.45, 12 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A 2/3, 8 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/4-6; Ext: 10R4/4 | 10YR7/2-3 Diam: 16 cm Red slip interior; red paint over lightslip exterior. Both surfacesmediumgloss finish. fig. 5.45 *3 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:L5/1 - Plough, 5 Colour: Int: 5YR3-4/2-4; Ext: 2.5YR3-4/5-6 | 7.5YR7/4-5, 10YR7/4-5 Diam: 16.5 cm Interior reddishslip. fig. 5.45, 14 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C 10/2, 1 Colour: Int: 5YR5/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/4-5 | 10YR7/4 Diam: 18+ cm




. TO 7



fig. 5.46: Open paintedvesselswithrimangle from85-900 (1-7) and from60-84 (8-14).

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC FIG.5.46, 1 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C*j/i,4 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7-8/4 Diam: 8.5 cm? fig. 5.46, 2 rim sherd; R/Ws AreaCode.O^/i, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/5-6; Ext: 2.5YR4/6| 10YR8/3 Diam: 9 cm fig. 5.46, 3 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:O6/la, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/4;Ext: 7.5YR5-6/4 | 10YR7/3 Diam: 1 1 cm Red slip interior. Red paint over lightslip exterior. Low to medium gloss. fig. 5.46, 4 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C6/2, 4 Colour: 2.5YR3-4/3-4; Int: Ext: 10YR7/3 2.5YR2-4/2 | Diam: 12 cm Reddish slip interior.White paint over red slip exterior. White paint thickand uneven and shows no signsofgloss now but surfacemay have eroded. fig. 5.46, 5 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C 10/1,4 Colour: 10R4/4;Ext: 10R4/4I 7-5YR7/5> Int: 10YR7/4 Diam: 14 cm fig. 5.46, 6 rim sherd; R/Ws AreaCode:0>j/iy7 Colour: Int: 2.5YR3-4/1-3; Ext: 2.5YR4/2-4 | 10YR7/2-3 Diam: 16 cm? Red slip interior. Red paint over lightslip exterior. fig. 5.46, 7 rim sherd; R/Ws



Red slip interior, mattto low gloss. Red paint over whiteslip exterior, low to mediumgloss. fig. 5.46, 9 rim sherd,R/Ws Area Code:D 10/1, 5 Colour:Int: 10R3-4/3-4; Ext: 10R3/2-5 | ioyr67/2-3 Diam: 16-17 cm fig. 5.46, 10 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:LXI E5/3, 4 Colour:Int: 5YR2-3/1-2; Ext: 10YR7/2| 5YR3-4/ Diam: 22 cm Dark slip interiorand exterior.Interiorlow gloss Exteriorwhitepaintover unevenlystreakedfinish. Some eroded matt slip,low to mediumgloss finish. areas on whitepaint. fig. 5.46, 11 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:j/i, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 10R4/5 | 10YR7/5 Diam: 16 cm fig. 5.46, 12 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C 5/1, 1 Colour: Int: 5YR3-4/2; Ext: 5YR4-5/4 | 10YR7/3 Diam: 13.5 cm Only veryfainttracesof interior slip. fig. 5.46, 13 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A$/i, 3 Colour:Int: 5YR5/4-5; Ext: 2.5YR4/4-6, 5YR4/4 | 10YR7/4 Diam: 11 cm Red slip interior. Mattto low gloss finish. Red paint over lightslip exterior, low to mediumgloss finish. FIG.5.46, 14 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B8-$ Baulk/ 1-2, 1 Colour: 5YR5/ | 7.5YR6/4;Ext:5YR5/4| 10YR7/ Int: 4 2-4 Diam: 15 cm Possiblyporcelain ware. Reddish slip or wash over body interior.

Area Code: 06/ 1,4

Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7/4 Diam: 17 cm Red slip interior. Red paint on lightslip exterior.

fig. 5.46, 8 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A2/2, 1 Colour:Int: 7.5YR6/4, 2.5YR5/4; Ext: 2.5YR4/5 | 10YR8/3 Diam: 20 cm



1 . '


fig.5.47: Open painted vessels rim with anglefrom 60-840.

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC FIG.5.47, 1 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code: 10/2, 2 Colour: Int: 10R4/4-5; Ext: 10YR8/4| 10R4/4-5 Diam: 16 cm Red slip interior. Whitepaintover red slip exterior. Medium gloss finish. fig. 5.47, 2 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:Coo/, 1 Colour: Int: 10R4/4; Ext: 10YR8/3| 10R4/4 Diam: 17 cm? Red slip interior;low gloss finish.Exterior,white paint over red slip, medium gloss finishexcept where whiteeroded. fig. 5.47, 3 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C2/2, 3 Colour: Int: 2.5YR2-4/2; Ext: 2.5YR3-4/4 | 10YR4/ 3-4 Diam: 13 cm fig. 5.47, 4 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:D 9/2, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/6;Ext: 10R4/6| 10YR7/3-4 Diam: 17 cm fig. 5.47, 5 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B7/ 2 , Colour:Int: 2.5YR5/5-6; Ext: 2.5YR4/6 | ioyr8/ 2-3 Diam: 14 cm fig. 5.47, 6 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:'!>'/', 3 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/6;Ext: 2.5YR4/6| 10YR8/4 Diam: 12 cm FIG.5.47, 7 rim sherd; R/Ws



fig. 5.47, 8 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C5/2 A, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR 4-5/5; Ext: 2.5YR4/6| 10YR7/3 Diam: 15 cm FIG.5.47, 9 rim sherd; R/Ws

AreaCode: UlBi/Y. B, 1

Colour:Int: 2.5YR5/4j 10YR7/3; Ext: 2.5YR6/6 | 10YR7/3 Diam: 14 cm Red slip over body interior, design, low gloss. no Red paint over lightcolour slip exterior. Paint thin and even. Burnishedlightly mattor low gloss. to

fig. 5.47, 10 rim sherd; R/Ws AreaCode:L5/1, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7-8/3 Diam: 16 cm fig. 5.47, 11 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B9/2, 4 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7-8/3 Diam: 16 cm fig. 5.47, 12 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A1/2, 6 Colour: Int: 10R4/3-4; Ext: 10R4/3 | 10YR7/8-3 Diam: 16 cm Red slip interiorand red paint over white slip exterior. Eroded to low gloss finish. fig. 5.47, 13 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:D8/2, 1 Colour:Int: 10YR4-6/1; Ext: 10YR2-3/1 | 10YR78/1 Diam: 18 cm Burned porcelain ware. Light slip interior.Paint over lightslip exterior.

Area Code: O6/ "i, 1

Diam: 18 cm Red slip interior. Red paint on lightslip external thick. paint fairly

Colour: 10R2-4/1-3; 10R3-4/2-3 ioyr6Int: Ext: | 7/2-3



m ' ,

fig. 5.48: Open paintedvesselswithrimangle from60-840.


THE EARLY NEOLITHIC FIG.5.48, 1 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LU A3/1, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR6/3-4 Diam: 21 cm Red slip interior. Red paint over burnishedbody exterior.Unevenly burnished. Highlightsof low gloss on exteriorsurface. fig. 5.48, 2 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:-/-, 50 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/4;Ext: 10R4/5| 10YR6-7/4 Diam: 17 cm FIG.5.48, 3 rim sherd; R/Ws AreaCode:D$/i, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 10R3/6| 10YR7-8/4 Diam: 15 cm fig. 5.48, 4 rim sherd; R/Ws AreaCode:O>j/i, 1 Colour: 2.5YR4-5/4; 2.5YR4-5/6 10YR8/2-3 Int: Ext: | Diam: 14 cm fig. 5.48, 5 rimsherd; W/R Area Code.TY 10/2, 1 Colour: 2.5YR3/2-6; 10YR8/3 2.5YR3/2-6 Int: Ext: | Diam: 14 cm? Red slip interior. Whitepaintover red slip exterior. Medium gloss finish. fig. 5.48, 6 rim sherd; R/Ws AreaCode.-Oq/i,1 Colour: Int: 10R4/4 | 7.5YR6/4; Ext: 10R4/5 | 10YR7-8/3 Diam: 18 cm Interior unevenlyslipped. fig. 5.48, 7 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A 1/3,4 Colour: 2.5YR5/4-5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5 10YR7-8/3 Int: | Diam: 14 cm Red slip interior; mattto low gloss finish. Red paint over whiteslip exterior; low to mediumgloss finish. fig. 5.48, 8 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:AS/1, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/6| 10YR7-8/2 Diam: 17 cm



fig. 5.48, 9 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:D7/, 2 Int: 2.5YR5/5;Ext: 10R4/4 | 10YR7-8/4 Colour: Diam: 18 cm fig. 5.48, 10 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C3/2, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/4-5; Ext: 2.5YR4/5-6 | 10YR7/ 3-4 Diam: 18 cm fig. 5.48, 11 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LXI E4/2, 3 Colour: Int: 10R5/4-5; Ext: 10R5/4-5 | 10YR7/3 Diam: 17 cm Red slip interior, low gloss finish.Red paint over whiteslip exterior, low to mediumgloss finish. fig. 5.48, 12 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:D 0/2, 2 Colour:Int: 2.5YR5/5| 7.5YR6/4; Ext: 10R4/5-6, 2.5YR4/5-6 I 10YR7/3-4 Diam: 12 cm fig. 5.48, 13 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C6/1, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5-6; Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR8/4 Diam: 21 cm? fig. 5.48, 14 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:-/-, 49 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4-5/4, 2-3/2; Ext: 2.5YR2-4/24 I 10YR7/3 Diam: 18-19 cm fig. 5.48, 15 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:O6/ 1, 3 Colour: 7.5YR6-5/4; 2.5YR4-5/4 10YR7/3-4 Int: Ext: | Diam: 18 cm Interior slip,low gloss finish. red Exteriorred paint on lightslip, mediumgloss finish. Paint smeared. fig. 5.48, 16 rim sherd; R/Ws AreaCode:D 1/2,3 Colour: 2.5YR5/4-5; 2.5YR4/4-5 10YR8/2-3 Int: Ext: | Diam: 15 cm Exterior paint applied using outline and infill technique.




' - S~7 m 7
w- ? '


fig. 5.49: Open paintedvesselswithrimangle from60-840.


FIG. 5.49, 1


rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:AB6/2 X, 7 Int: 10R4/4 | 10YR6/3-4; Ext: 10YR6/3-4 Colour: Diam: 20 cm Exteriorunpainted. fig. 5.49, 2 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:L6/K, 4 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/6;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR8/3 Diam: 16 cm fig. 5.49, 3 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:-/-, 26 Int: Colour: 10R3-4/4-5;Ext: 10YR8/2-3 10R3-4/4-5 | Diam: 15 cm fig. 5.49, 4 rimsherd; R/Ws Area Code:K8/1, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/6;Ext: 5YR4/6| 10YR7/4 Diam: 27 cm? fig. 5.49, 5 rim sherd;R/Ws Area Code:-/-, 77 Colour:Int: 2.5YR4/5| 7.5YR6-7/4; Ext: 2.5YR4/4 | 10YR8/3 Diam: 20-2 1 cm Interior rimband 2 cm over body. fig. 5.49, 6 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:-/-, 14 Colour: Int: 10R4/5; Ext: 10YR8/4| 10R4/5 Diam: 15-16 cm fig. 5.49, 7 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:LXII A5/2, 2 Colour: 2.5YR5/5 10YR6/3; Int: Ext: 2.5YR5/5 10YR7/3 | | Diam: ? Red paint over body interior and exterior. Paint thin and evenly applied. Surfaceeroded but tracesof low remain. gloss finish fig. 5.49, 8 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LXI D5/2, 3 Colour:Int: 5YR6-7/4 | 7.5YR6-7/2; Ext: 2.5YR6/5 | 10YR6-7/2 Diam: 22 cm Interiorveryuneven and sparse pink slip over body, mattfinish. Exterior:pink over lightslip. Paint much eroded. Medium gloss finish.

fig. 5.49, 9 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:L6/1 K, 13 Cobur:Int: 10YR7-8/2;Ext: 2.5YR3-4/5| 10YR8/2 Diam: 17 cm Porcelain ware. fig. 5.49, 10 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B2/2, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR8/3-4 Diam: 17 cm? fig. 5.49, 11 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:F7/1, 2 Colour: 2.5YR4/4-5;Ext: 2.5YR4/4-5| 10YR7/4 Int: Diam: 16 cm fig. 5.49, 12 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B8/1, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5;Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7-8/4 Diam: 10.5 cm fig. 5.49, 13 rim sherd; R/Ws AreaCode:LI E1/1, 1 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR7/3-4; Ext: 2.5YR4/5| 10YR6-7/3-4 Diam: 22 cm Red paint over white slip interiorand exterior. Medium burnish. Paint thin with uneven edges. Appliedusingoutlineand infill techniquewithshort strokes. fig. 5.49, 14 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:H8/ia, 1 Colour: Int: 5YR4/4; Ext: 2.5YR4/5-6 | 7.5YR7/5 Diam: 15 cm FIG.5.49, 15 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:H M Plough, 1 Colour: 2.5YR3-4/6; Int: Ext: 10YR7-8/4 2.5YR3-4/6 | Diam: 14.5-15 cm Red slip interior. White thickand raised paintover red slip exterior. Both surfaces mediumgloss finish. Surfacenow badly eroded. fig. 5.49, 16 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C00/2, F. 2, 1 Colour: Int: 10YR4/5 | 10YR7/3; Ext: 10R4/5 | 10YR7/3 Diam: 20 cm Red paint over whiteslip interior and exterior.






fig. 5.50: Open paintedvesselswithrimangle less than 6o.


FIG.5.50, 1 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C2/ 1y3 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/4;Ext: 2.5YR3-4/4 | 10YR7/3 Diam: 12 cm fig. 5.50, 2 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:G7/ia, 3 Int: 2.5YR4/5-6; Ext: 2.5YR4/6-7| 7.5YR7/ Colour: 4-5 Diam: 17 cm fig. 5.50, 3 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:K6/1, 2 Colour: Int: 2.5YR4/6 | 10YR7/4; Ext: 5YR4/6, 2.5YR4/6I 10YR7/4 Diam: 16 cm and exterior. Red paintover lightslip interior fig. 5.50, 4 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LI 1/3, Colour:Int: 2.5YR4-5/2; Ext: 2.5YR2-3/2 | ioyr 4/1 Diam: 18 cm Red slip interior. Thin paint over thin white slip exterior. Interior low gloss, exterior mediumgloss. fig. 5.50, 5 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A8/2 F .A, 2 Colour: Int: 10R3/5 I10YR7/3-4; Ext: 10R3/5 | 10YR4/3 Diam: 20-21 cm Red paint over lightslip interior and exterior. fig. 5.50, 6 rimsherd; W/R Area Code: -/-, 13 fig. 5.50, 7 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:Tg 3/4, 1 Int: 10YR8/1-2 | 5YR4/2-3; Ext: ioyr8/iColour: 2 I 2.5YR4/2-4 Diam: 22 cm? Thick raised whitepaint over reddishslip. No sign of burnishon white,red medium gloss finishboth surfaces.


fig. 5.50, 8 rim sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A2/3, 3 Int: 10R4-5/5 | 10YR7/4-5; Ext: 10R4-5/5I Colour: 10YR7/4-5 Diam: 18 cm red Interior exterior paintover whiteslip.Much and smeared,low gloss finish. fig. 5.50, 9 rimsherd; W/R Area Code:-/-, 79 Int: 10YR2-3/1; Ext: 10R4/4| 7.5YR6-5/4 Colour: Diam: ? Vessel foot.Interior rough and unslipped. Exterior paintthickand raised,unevenlyapplied over body (unslipped).



( <

0 4


fig. 5.51: Paintedbody sherds.

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC fig. 5.51, 1 body sherd; R/Ws Area Code:A1/2, 9 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/5, 5YR6/3; Ext: 2.5YR4/5 | 10YR7-8/3 Red slip over body interior, eroded to low gloss finish.Red paint over white slip exteriorapplied using outline and infilltechnique.Paint thickand raised. Eroded to low gloss. slightly fig. 5.51, 2 body sherd; R/Wp Area Code:L6/K, Colour: Int: 10YR6-7/4; 10YR6-7/4 Porcelainware. fig. 5.51, 3 body sherd; R/Wp



fig. 5.51, 7 body sherd; R/Wp Area Code:D8/2, 5 Colour: Int: 7.5YR6-7/2-4; Ext: 2.5YR4/6| ioyr8/ 2-3 Probablyporcelainware.Tracesoflight slip interior. Exteriorred paintover whiteslip. Medium to high gloss finish. fig. 5.51, 8 body sherd; Pink/Pink Area Code:F4/1, 8a Colour: Int: 2.5YR6/4;Ext: 2.5YR6/4| 2.5YR4/2-4 'Pinkover pink' exterior.Lightoverallslip or wash. Design producedby wipingaway wetslip to expose red underslip.

Ext: 2.5YR4-5/4-5 |

AreaCode:TX6/i9 1

Colour:Int: 10YR7/3-4; Ext: 2.5YR4/4-6 | 10YR7/ 3-4 Porcelainware.Interior badly eroded to mattfinish, slipped. Exteriorred paintover lightslip eroded to mattfinish.

fig. 5.51, 4 body sherd; R/Wp

Area Code.TY

Colour: Int: 10YR7-5/3; Ext: 5YR4-5/4-6 | 10YR78/3 Porcelain ware. White slip interior,matt to low gloss. Exterior red paint over light slip, high to mediumgloss finish. fig. 5.51, 5 body sherd; R/Wp AreaCode.TX 4/1, 5 Colour: Int: 10YR7/3;Ext: 2.5YR4/6,5YR4-5/4-5 | 10YR7/3 Porcelainware. White slip interior. Red paint over whiteslip exterior. Medium to highgloss finish. fig. 5.51, 6 body sherd; R/Wp AreaCode: 4/1, 4 Colour:Int: 10YR7-8/2-3; Ext: 2.5YR4/5,5YR5/ 4-5 I 10YR8/3-4 Porcelain ware. Lightslip interior, low to medium gloss finish.Red paint over white slip exterior. Medium to highgloss finish.




fig. 5.52: Paintedbase sherds.

0 4

THE EARLY NEOLITHIC fig. 5.52, 1 base sherd; R/Ws Area Code:LLV 3.30-3.40 [1] Colour: Int: ior5/4-5,2.5YR4-3/s> | 10YR5/24,7.5YR5/4;Ext: 2.5 YR5/4-5 I 10YR7/2-3 Base Ext: 2.5YR5/4 Diam: 7 cm Medium gloss burnish. Paint slightly raised somewhatsmeared. Interioralso burnished. fig. 5.52, 2 base sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C1/3, 3 Int: 2.5YR4-5/4 | 7.5YR5-6/3; Ext: 2.5YR4/ Colour: Diam: 6 cm Interiorslip eroded and now only traces remain over body. fig. 5.52, 3 base sherd; R/Ws Area Code:B6/1, B6/2, AB6/2 X, 8 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5-6/5; Ext: 2.5YR5-6/5-6 | 10YR8/3-4 Diam: 5.5 cm fig. 5.52, 4 base sherd; R/Ws Area Code:C5/2, 5 Int: 5YR5/4;Ext: 5YR4-5/5 | 10YR7-8/4 Colour: Diam: 14 cm fig. 5.52, 5 base sherd; R/Ws Area Code:O7/1, 7/2, 10 Int: 7.5 YR6/4;Ext: 10R4/3-4 | 10YR8/4 Colour: Diam: 5.75 cm Interior:bottom unslipped but top red slip over body, low gloss finish;base roughly smoothed. red Exterior paintover light slip.Appliedusingclear outline and infill technique.Medium gloss eroded to mattfinish. fig. 5.52, 6 base sherd; R/Ws Area Code:Do/ 2, 5 Colour: Int: 2.5YR5/4| 7.5YR6/4;Ext: 2.5YR4/4-6 | 10YR7/4, 7.5YR7/4-5 Diam: 6 cm Interior unevenlyslipped over body.



5 I loR7/3



FiG.5.53: Applied decoration:sherdswithraised bands.




fig. 5.54: Applied decoration:sherdswithraised bands and blobs.





" ^

" />sv,)
Cftw^y | 6



fig.^.55: Impresseddecoration: vesselsdecoratedwith nail (1-4), finger impressions finger pinchings (5-8) and instruments (9-11).



fig. 5.56: Bases decoratedwithsharp pointedinstrument.



fig. 5.57: Plain pottery: correlation surface of treatment fabrictypes. and



fig. 5.58: Plain pottery: correlation surfacetreatment paste quality. of and



fig. 5.59: Relativefrequency fabrictypesin plain,impressedand applied pottery. of



fig. 5.60: Relativefrequency surface of coatingin plain,impressedand applied pottery.

fig. 5.61: Relative frequency fine,medium and coarse vessels in plain, painted,impressedand of applied pottery.



fig. 5.6?: Relativefrequency vessel shapes in plain,paintedand impressedpottery. of



fig. 5.63: Relative frequency open pots,closed pots and neckjars in first of and second building phases.

fig. 5.64: Relativefrequency different of vessel forms fromthe threebuildingphases.



fig. 5.65: Relativefrequency surface of coatingin the threebuildingphases.

fig. 5.66: Relativefrequency fabric of typesin the threebuildingphases.

Chapter6 Functional The EarlyNeolithic Analysis Pottery:

6.1 INTRODUCTION In recentyears, considerable a amountofarchaeological has research been oriented towards the functional obtainedfrom analysesof ceramics.Such studiesare based on information two interrelated researchand technological approaches:ethnoarchaeological investigation of experimental pottery. The ethnography pottery a greater of has material culture literature anyother than analysis. Studies generallygive information the number of pots in individualhouseholds,on on form their and stated use.1In someworks, on and information vessellifeexpectancy recycling of ceramicsis included.2 information thecontribution different on of materials Technological investigation provides offabric and non-plastic and techniques, vessel suitability particular to for inclusions) (types Such studieshave developed mainlyafter functions. the ig7o's.s Functionalanalysesof Early Neolithicceramicsfromthe Balkans have been published in two works.The first concernsthe materialfromEarly and Middle NeolithicFranchthi was manufacture veryinfrequent (Vitelli 1989). This studyconcludes thatpottery during the Early Neolithicperiod,withan average productionof 12-13 pots per year.From the estimatednumber of vessels, Vitelli concludes that the inhabitantsof Early Neolithic Franchthi not have enough vesselsforseed or harveststorage.Furthermore, did evidence forthe use of ceramicsforcookingcould be foundonly in the Middle Neolithicmaterial. In thesecond publication, the fabrics from Gardner, examining pottery Anzabegovo (Anza), Achilleionand Sitagroi, concludesthatvesselswere not used near thefire(Gardner1978). or Instead,accordingto Gardner,vesselswere used forstorage, as displaydishes. 6.2 ESTIMATION OF THE NUMBER NIKOMEDEIA OF POTS FROM

A roughsense of the scale of local pottery is for production a basic prerequisite studying thefunction vessels. In Nea Nikomedeia,as in everyotherNeolithicsiteof theBalkans, of an impressive numberof pottery sherdshas been found.
1A review theliterature be found Kramer 5 A reviewof the researchinto the mechanicaland of can in 1979 andRice 1987. thermal of in can properties ceramics be found Bronitsky * Foster e.g. i960; DavidandHenning 1972;Stanislawski 1986. 1977; DeBoerand Lathrap 1979; Longacre 1985.



Severalmethods be used in orderto measure quantity thepottery can the of (Millet Orton1982).The method which usedfor estimation thenumber pots was the of of 1980; from Nea Nikomedeia determined theavailabledata.During post-excavation was his by work Roddencounted sherds Dr. in the recovered every ofthemainexcavation square/spit their surface area The total surface oftheceramic area A1-M8) andmeasured grid (squares material from main excavation the was calculated be equal to 1,343,400cm2. to grid in sherds werestored theMuseum.In orderto use the Subsequently, thefeature only work carried by theexcavator was decidedto use as an estimator the out it of preliminary number pots, surface ofthesherds. thecalculation theaverage of the area For of equivalent surface oftheNea Nikomedeia thefollowing area method developed thepresent was pot, by author. the area of a pot withrimanglefrom85-900 was calculated. The Initially, surface vesselwas chosenso becauseitsratioofrimdiameter/height equal to the measured was estimated ratiofor particular this vesselform. average The ratioofrimdiameter/ average wasdetermined a number wholeandreconstructible Fortheestimation from of height pots. ofthesurface area ofthevesselwith rimanglefrom 85-900,thepot was dividedintoa number conicalsegments, 1 cm height of of area ofeach segment (fig.6.1). The surface was calculated from following the expression: S = * (Ra+ RJ * h R where , B^ aretheradii, and h is theobliqueheight theconicalsegment. surface of The area ofthebase was calculated from following the equation and itwas added to thetotal. the of rim for with anglefrom Usingthedatafrom histogram rimdiameters thevessels the surface area of each sherdwas calculated, consequently and the 85-900 (fig.5.28), surface area forthisvesselform was estimated. basic assumption this The for average is that ratio rim of diameter/height is constant. means bychanging This that generalization the therimdiameter thepot,all other of dimensions Ra,Rb,Rc ... , and h) wouldchange {i.e. proportionally. The same method was used to calculate averagesurface the area of all othervessel In forms. table 6. 1 theaveragesurface area and theoccurrence each vesselform of are As thesurface area is directly related thesize ofthepot,vesselforms to which presented. includetallpotswith have a larger table area (from largerimdiameters averagesurface 6. 1 compare average the surface area ofthevessels rim with anglelarger than 1150with that thevessels of rim with anglelessthan6o). The average surface oftheNea Nikomedeia was calculated be equal to 1205 area to pot cm2.As has been explained forthiscalculation averagesurface the area of each above, vesselform its occurrence and wereused.Dividing total the surface oftherecovered area ceramic material from maingrid(1,343,400cm2), theaveragesurface the area ofthe by Nea Nikomedeia (1205 cm2), equivalent the number vessels of was found be equal to pot The underlying of estimationsthat number sherds which is the of into assumption these a vesselbreaks random, independent thesizeofthepot.In reality, is and of vessels larger willbreakintoa larger number sherds. of Thiswillbias thedistribution rimdiameters of
to 1115. Sb." *R2


Surface Area *(Ra + Rb)h R1 d 2 r^ = 10.2 cm =10.5 cm =10.5 cm 65.0 cm 2 66.0 cm 66.0 cm 2 66.0 cm 66.0 cm


R =10.5 cm ^ F_, =10.5 cm =10.5 cm

cm _, _10_4
Ral10.2an R_ __9.j_cm

/ / /

_ / /

64.7 cm 2 63.1 cm

_____Ql1_=_ 8^7 cm ______

62.2 cm 2 2 2

_-.___ _3_6-7cm __ _ yS y yS

62.5 cm


736 cm
surfaceof base (nR ) =

78.5 cm

Surface of Vessel = 853 cm

fig. 6. 1: Calculationof the surface area of a vessel withrimangle 85-900.

Table 6.1: Average surfacearea (cm2),volume (cm5),occurrenceand the diameter/height ratio of the different vessel forms fromNea Nikomedeia. Vessel
neckjar largerthan 115o 1"11^ 85~9 60-840 less than60o

0.59 0.61 4 !52 2.11 2.58

1942 4540 1451 88 725 580

10416 28032 7886 358 2850 X9l6

9% 3% 33% 25% 23% 6%



the values. the areaoftheNea Nikomedeia towards larger Consequently, estimated average number of be larger than actual the value.In this case,theequivalent might pot(1205 cm2) willbe larger than1115. pots 6.2.1 Recovery Rate rate The recovery of theceramic material affected manyfactors. is Post-depositional by such as the collectionof sherdsforvariouspurposes(as temperin pottery factors, manufacture as building or or of suchas rainor wind material) theeffect natural processes in onesite. canalter original the amount theceramic of material action, deposited Recycling In ofdamaged vessels sherds also affect or can their and greatly quantity appearance. Nea Nikomedeia knowthatspindlewhorls we and clay roundels were made from pottery fragments. An estimation therecovery oftheceramic of rate material from Nea Nikomedeia was from W/Rpaintedand theimpressed obtained the vessels. themethod described Using it that and 6 earlier, was calculated amongthe 1115 vessels, impressed 2 W/Rpotsare included. thestudy impressed of sherds to at least 36 different During pottery, belonging vesselshave been distinguished. is, thesherds That could be separated into 36 groups in whichdiffered either fabric or decorative motifs in vesselform. or the type, Similarly W/Rsherds couldbe attributed 9 vessels least. to at Thissuggests therateofrecovery that ofceramic material Nea Nikomedeia around20%. at is The total surfacearea of the impressedand the W/R pottery mighthave been underestimated Dr. Rodden'spost-excavation sinceitis probable that some work, during sherds from undecorated the of the vesselswerenot counted withthe decorated parts intoconsideration onlytwothirds thesurface impressed that of of vessels pottery. Taking was decorated, valueof 25-30% fortherecovery oftheceramic a rate material must be morerepresentative.can be estimated that number vesselsthat It then the of entered the of from archaeological deposit themainexcavation at Nea Nikomedeia, 3700 grid ranges to 4500. 6.2.2 Rate of Production In orderto obtaina roughsense of the scale of local pottery production year,an per in estimate thetime which of these were formed needed. is into deposits Taking consideration that three the building phasesweredistinguished, siteshouldhave been occupiedfor50 at least. years An upper limit theduration occupation moredifficultestimate. recorded for of is The to ceramic material inthis used comes from mainexcavation where thickness the the study grid, of deposits from20-65 cm. An indication thelength occupation of of could be ranges obtained comparing depth these the of with Thessalian those thecontemporary of by deposits sites. a relation between of does and of Although direct depth stratigraphy length occupation notexist, indication therateoftheaccumulation deposit be obtained. an for of can table 6.2,theoccupation As canbe seenfrom the accumulated deposit during Decorated Phasein Thessaly from1.60-4.20m. On thebasisofC14dates, periodlasted this ranges for250-300 radiocarbon the value (1.60 m),a periodof 100 years years. Taking lowest would be suggested the Nea Nikomedeiadebris.Consequently, occupation for the



Table 6.2: Thicknessof occupationdepositsof the Thessalian siteswithearlydecoratedwares.4

Sites Otzaki Achilleion Prodromos Gendiki Magoulitsa Agia Anna

Thickness(mm) 4.20 1.60 3.15 3-3 3.40 3.10

Duration (C14 years) 250 250 250 25 250 250

the from mainexcavated most had over deposit grid probably accumulated a periodof50 to 150 years. Fromtheestimated number yearsofoccupation thecalculated of and number pots, of we arrive an estimated at annualproduction 25-90 potsper year, all thehousesof of for themainexcavation grid. The annualproduction vesselswhich been calculated an area covering 1 of has for o. that wereproduced in Nea Nikomedeia, contrast in with hectare, suggests pots frequently Franchthi where number 12-13 potsperyear a of was estimated thewholesite(an area for ofaround13,300m2, thecave and thesettlement theshore). on The difference including in pottery between twoEarlyNeolithic couldindicate difference the sites a in production thetype site of occupation different economic activities site), (ephemeral/seasonal/permanent ora greater of inhabitantsFranchthi, containers of on madefrom dependence, the perishable materials. possibility the The that recovery oftheceramic rate in material lower Franchthi was in than Nea Nikomedeia shouldalso be taken intoconsideration. The factthatceramic containers an important in theactivities theNea role of played Nikomedeia inhabitants also reflected thevariation shapeand size ofthevessels. is in by Potsrangein shape from is bowls,to hole-mouthed In size there a open dish-like jars. continuous from miniature the cmin height, thelarge to neck which vessels, 4-6 range jars reachup to 60 cm in height. This suggests vesselshad a variety functions. that of The functions ceramic of containers be separated three can into broadcategories: of processing and transfer transport or food, (Rice 1987,208). storage

Milojci 1971; Achilleion: Gimbutas 1989; Prodromos: Chourmouziadis 1971; Gendiki:

4 Sources: Otzaki:

Theocharis 1962; Magoulitsa: Papadopolou 1958; Agia Anna: Chourmouziadis 1969.





6.3.1 Cooking Vessels in Vessels usedfor must havea goodresistance thermal to shock order withstand to cooking and cooling without Two factors usually are repeated heating fracturing 1981, 26). (Rye the controlled the potters: shape of vessels,and the typesof fabricused forthe by manufacture pots.As far thevessel's of as not shapeis concerned, angular potsareusually used forcooking, becausetheyhave manypoints stress of which initiate fracture might whenexposedto suddenchanges temperature. of the of vessels Instead, majority cooking have rounded contours (Woods1986). The composition thefabric alsobe relevant. useofdifferent andtempers of The may clays different forms function vessel or classesofpottery,widely for is known from ethnographic research of ceramics (Rice 1987,226). Thisis also attested analyses experimental by (Rye in which contains inclusions the 1983; Steponaitis 1976, 1981; Bronitsky 1984). Pottery whichhave low coefficient thermal of or to pot fabric expansion one similar thatof the fired shouldprovemost resistant theeffects thermal to of shock. Suchinclusions are clay, and grog(Rye 1981,31-36). Furthermore, amounts non-plastic of calcite, feldspars large will the of Porous fabrics maximize inclusions, coarse, increase porosity thefabric. preferably thermal shockresistance, becausetheyallowthepot to expandand contract the during and cooling heating phases. The non-plastic inclusions couldbe either addedbythepotters, they or couldbe naturally in included theoriginal whichhas been used forthemanufacture pots.As was of clay in discussed Chapter4 (section theNea Nikomedeia weremostprobably 4.7.4) potters material from original beds after refining the a using clay process. IftheNea Nikomedeia were of of pottery fabric's potters aware theeffects the composition on theperformance vesselsused fordifferent a correlation of between fabric tasks, types In and vesselforms wouldbe expected. order investigate therelative to of this, frequency fabric usedin each vesselform, wellas theproportion fine, as of medium and every type, in coarsetextured have been calculated. pasteencountered each vesselform, They are in figs.6.2 and 6.3. presented From 6.2,itcan be seenthat fabrics fig. all wereusedfor manufacture eachvessel the of form. therelative in of each fabric is similar all vesselforms. Moreover, frequency type In variations noticed. neckjars theuse offabric is increased the are at Onlytwoslight in offabric A slight A. in increase theuse offabric is alsonoticed theopenpots expense rim with anglelessthan 6o.In thecase ofneckiars, increase the couldbe attributed the to riseofred-brown 6.4 slipped pots(figs. and 6.5). As was seenin Chapter (sections 1 5 5.3. and 5.4.8),there a correlation is between surface treatment types fabric. and of fig.6.3 showsthat relative the of medium and finetextured frequency coarse, pasteis thesamein each vesselform. the between of Therefore, Nea Nikomedeia do notshowanycorrelation pots types fabric or quality paste,and vesselform. of Howevertheabove conclusion does notexcludethe use ofpotsfor Fabrics B and C, itseems, wellsuited themanufacture are for of A, cooking. A vessels. Fabrics and C, which havebeen usedforthemanufacture 60% and of cooking in are and inclusions 12% oftheceramic material, rich calcite limestone 4, (Chapter sections and 4.6.5). Fabric (usedfor 18% of thevessels) contains abundant and 4.6.2 feldspar volcanic inclusions all of are coarse. (sections 4.6.3 and4.6.4).Moreover, types fabric rather



fig. 6.2: Correlation fabrictypeand vessel form. of



fig. 6.3: Correlation qualityof texture of and vessel form.

The Nea Nikomedeia pots have rounded contours,a design which tends to eliminate Round bases are not a commonfeature, to pointsofhighstress. amounting 8% ofthebase sherds.Flatbased vesselswere more common,amounting 25% ofthesample. Although to round bottomedbases mighthave a betterthermalshock resistance, the archaeological recordshows thatflatbased vesselshave also been used forcooking(Woods 1986). researchshows thatcookingvessels can have a varietyof shapes, Ethnoarchaeological and McDonald 1983; Ericson dependingon thetypeofcooking(Iinton 1944; Henrickson etal 1972; Smith 1985). For boiling,slightly closed vessels are regularly open or slightly are used. These forms commonin Nea Nikomedeia (fig.5.62). Anothercharacteristic which can be used forthe identification cooking pots, is the of detection sootingand burning theexterior of on surface thevessels.The locationof soot of can indicatehow thevesselhas been used (Rice 1987, 235). If thesoot occursprimarily on the sides of a vessel,fromthe base up to or near the maximumdiameter, vessel was the probably set in the fire.Vessels with soot on the base and sides were most probably suspended over the fire.



fig. 6.4: Correlation surfacetreatment vessel form. of and



fig. 6.5: Correlation surfacetreatment vessel form. of and

the in one Among wholepotsfound Nea Nikomedeia, askoidvesselhas thelarger part of the exterior surface coveredwithsoot,apartfrom lighter a area near thebase. This area in flames. lighter maybe due to theexposure hotoxidizing Amongthebase sherds, there examples are with blackpatches theexterior on surface. Sincemostofthesherds are rather it to whether these black aretheresult repeated of small, is difficultdistinguish patches to or of It exposure fire, areduetotheoriginal however, firing thepots. isworth mentioning, that blackpatches werenoticed 31% ofthebeigeuncoated in to bases,in contrast 12% of thered-brown and 7% ofthepinkcoatedbases. slipped Fromtheabove discussion can be concluded it thatdefinite of proofof theexistence madefrom particular a fabric and/or a specific with is notprovided cooking pots type shape, material. Howeversucha differentiation requirea long by the Nea Nikomedeia might in tradition pottery manufacture pottery The siteofNea Nikomedeia datedat and use. is the earlystagesof ceramic in theBalkanarea. Moreover, seemsthatthe it production of usedby theNea Nikomedeia wereable to withstand firing the majority fabrics potters and marks beenfound. has stress, a wholevesselwith sooting



is thattheinhabitants Nea Nikomedeia of The above discussion based on theassumption were using clay cookingpots (boilingvessels in particular). From the studyof faunaland such as milk,were floral remainsit is knownthatmeat and perhapsotheranimalproducts, consumed.Cultivatedgrainsand legumesand probablya wide variety wild plants,fruits of role in theirdiet. It is not known though,whether and nutsplayed an important boiling, formof cooking.An indirect indicationforthe use of roastingor bakingwas a preferred is of by boilingcontainers, some sort, offered thebotanicalsample. vetchseeds have been foundin Nea Nikomedeiaand otherNeolithicsites, Bitter together withhumanfood remains(van Zeist and Bottema 197 1). Thus, althoughtodaybitter vetch is used for animal fodder,it seems thatin the Neolithicperiod man himselfconsumed vetchis poisonousfor theseseeds. Bitter man and some animals, thepoisonoussubstance but can be removed by boiling the seeds and pouringoffthe water (van Zeist and Bottema in Wild bitter vetchwas also present Mesolithicsites.5 WhethertheNeolithicinhabitants had adapted their Mesolithic traditions thenew technology to (ceramiccontainers), cooking is difficult say. As Vitelli argues, tasteis somethingthat changes very slowly (Vitelli to indicationsof 1989). As faras Nea Nikomedeia is concerned,the ceramicmaterialoffers the use of vessels near the firebut it is difficult conclude how widespreadthispractice to was. 6.3.2 Storage Vessels if Ceramic containers, used forstoring offer betterprotection foodstuffs, againstrodents, thando containers made from leatheror wooden containers). perishablematerial(baskets, The safestorageof thenext season's seed grainin particular, would have been essentialto In the earlyfarmers. Nea Nikomedeia,a numberof large vessels have been found,which mostprobablywere used forthe long termstorageoffoodstuffs. The largestvessels belong to the hole-mouthed and neckjar categories.They are deep vesselswithrim diameters to 32 cm (fig. 5.26). Their heightrangesbetween reachingup closed and slightly 40-60 cm. Moreoverlargevesselsbelongingto the slightly open bowls as well as the medium sized neck and hole-mouthed could also have been used for jars, storage.Large sized vesselshave also been foundin otherEarly Neolithicsites.6 the Halstead, reviewing faunaland floralremainsfromGreek Neolithicsites,concludes thattheir inhabitants were largelydependant, their for diet,on grainsand pulses (Halstead He estimatesthatthe combined annual consumptionof cereals and pulses may 1981). have been something like 200 kg per head. Using NarroPs(1962) formula: numberofpersons= totalfloorspace of all houses in m2/ 10 it can be estimatedthat 30-50 people were living in the houses revealed in the main excavationgrid.For thestorage their of annual crop production, storagevolume of7500a litreswould have been needed. A conversionrate of 1.25 litres 12500 per 1 kg of pulses and grain seeds has been used. This rate has been estimatedby measuringthe volume

6 e.g.Franchthi:Hansen and Renfrew1978. Achilleion: Gimbutas 1989; Franchthi:Vitelli 1989



The and where B^ are theradii, h is theheight cm) oftheconicalsegment. average (1 Ra, of a total volume 22600-27500 litres. to was found be 6107 cm5, volume suggesting for wouldhave been employed storage. volume however, Onlya partofthecalculated used all from thevessels has of the Furthermore figure 22600-27500litres beenestimated volume of a smallfraction thetotal Thismeansthat overa periodof 50-150 years. only of the that storage at was available a time. Thus,itis obvious capacity theNea Nikomedeia made containers It for was notenough theannualcropproduction. seemsthenthat pots werealso usedfor and/or materials from purposes. storage storage pits perishable is volume a the for of Forthestorage seedskept sowing next capacity year, muchsmaller was to needed.According Halstead,10% or evenlessoftheannualcropproduction kept to forsowing (Halstead1981, 317). Thiswouldcorrespond a volumeof 750-1250 litres. in volumefrom The largevesselsofNea Nikomedeia Only 15 to 20 36-85 litres. range the to of for wouldhavebeenenough theinhabitants themaingrid store grain suchvessels vesselshave a long use life, to ethnographic forsowing. research, large According kept the moved(Foster are sincethey rarely 1979).Consequently i960; DeBoer 1985;Kramer at Nea of the was ofseedskeptforsowing within capacity theceramic production storage to which amounts 25-90 vessels year. Nikomedeia, per

to the wheat, (see peas andlentils table 6.3). In order calculate by occupied kgofbarley, usedforthecalculation vessels samemethod the volumeoftheNea Nikomedeia average was The surface area has been employed. volumeofeach conicalsegment oftheaverage the from following calculated expression: V = ^(Ra8+R*Rb+Rbi)*h/3

Table 6.3: Measurementof the weightof 1 litreof cereals and pulses (nb. the sample comprises cereals and pulses boughtat a Greek market).
Volume (litres) wheat barley peas lentils 1 1 1 1 Weight (grams) 850 750 710 890

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS for Dr. of the I would tothank excavator Nea Nikomedeia, R.J.Rodden, theopportunity like Dr. to the from site.I am also grateful Mrs.H. C. Ridley, material the to study ceramic Mr. Dr. Mr. Dr. K. A. Wardle, K. Gallis, G. Touphexis, P. Chrisostomou, Pan.Chrisostomou, Mr. Mrs M. thelate Professor Gimbutas, D. Simoska, V. Sanev,Mr. T. Nacev and Mr. of a from number Greekand material me for Z. Beldedovski permitting tosee theceramic



thanks theformer to for Yugoslaviansites.I wishto expressparticular Ephor ofAntiquities the late Dr. M. Siganidou,to the archaeologists VerroiaMuseum, Western of Macedonia, Mrs. K. Tzanavariand Mrs. M. Apostolouand thestaff theMuseum,fortheir of hospitality. I would like to thankDr.J. G. Nandrisforhis helpfulcritical appraisalwhilstpreparing Mrs. C. Cartwright her for thiswork,Mr. C. Orton forhis advice in statistical techniques, for discussions and for analysisand Dr. D. Griffiths manyconstructive help in ptrographie to operatingthe SEM on my behalf. I am grateful Dr. I. C. Freestonefor his helpful data. Special thanksare deserved by my on suggestions the analysisof the ptrographie Barbara and DimitriYiouni, and my husband EuripidesGlava, fortheirconstant parents, the supportthroughout yearsofmy studies. I assistanceoftheA. S. Onassis Public Benefit Finally, wishto acknowledgethefinancial of Foundationand the CentralResearchFund of the University London. P. Y.

A Appendix The Radiocarbon DatingofNea Nikomedeia

Table Showingthe laboratory information, publisheddates and dates bc of Nea Nikomedeia.

Year 1962 Unknown* 1967 1967 1988 1988 1988 1988 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993* 1993 1993* 1993

Lab. No. 0:^55 GX-679 P-1202 P-1203A OxA-1603 OxA-1604 OxA-1605 OxA-1606 OxA-3873 OxA-3874 OxA-3875 OxA-3876 OxA-4280 OxA-4281 OxA-4282 OxA-4283

Material Charcoal No Information Charcoal Charcoal Triticum monococcum Triticum dicoccum Hordeum vulgre Lens culinaris Bone (Ovis) Bone (Capra) Bone (Sus) Bone (Bos) Triticum monococcum Triticum dicoccum Hordeum vulgre Lensculinaris

PublishedDate 8180 7780 7557 7281 7050 7340 7400 7400 7300 737 i 150 bp 270 bp 91 bp 740p 80 bp 90 bp 90 bp 100 bp 80 bp 80 bp 728o9obp 7370 90 bp 6920 120 bp 7100 90 bp 7400 90 bp 7260 90 bp

Date bc 6230 5830 5^7 5331 5100 539 545 545 5350 5420 533 5419 49^9 5149 5449 53 10

No information available concerningthisdate. is These dates were obtained fromhumic acid as a check forcontamination.



APPENDIX A radiocarbondates of Nea Nikomedeia. Graph showingthe uncalibrated


55PQ 5600-



59o60006100620063000400 iDt^o^rsO




^ r*r^t^t^-oooocx)oo





OOOOOOOOOOOO Number Laboratory

1. . be 5607-5331 (Appendix ). 5450-5100 be. (4969 be) . , , 3.3). (FIG. Dr. o R. J. Rodden, , . (GillianPyke). , , ( ). ( ), O (John Nandris). Payne) (Rosemary (Gillian Pyke). ( ), . 2. 1961 1964. 2 x 2 . (1961) 4 (1963, 1964) x 4 . (spits). 6-7 , (PLATE 3). 3. , Rodden, Dr. , : . .


. (groups) 1: 2.7). (FIG. 2. ( 1) , 3. 2: 2 : 3 , 21). (FIG. 1 . 2 . 2 1. 1. , 3, 3: (FIG. 2.9). 3. 1, 2, C1-2 1 ( ). 2 . 2, 1. 4: 1 2 2) (spit 1 (FIG. 2.10). 2. , 2 , . 3, , D4-5 3 . 5: (FIG. 2 1. 2.11). 6: 2.12). (FIG. 2, 1, 3 . L4-5 4 (FIG.24), . 7: I).To (spit 2 3 1, , 5 (FIG. 2 2.13). 5-66-7 8: 5 214). (FIG. 1 . 3 8, 1. 9: . 1 (FIG. , 215).


. (FIG.217) 3 2. (FIG.2.18) 2 1. 1 (FIG.219). (spits 1 & 2) 1 2 . . 1 3 2 . 4 (spit 2) 1-3. ' , 2 1 2 , 1 2 , 1 1, . ( 9) . 5 1 G6-8 2 , 1 6-8 1. 5 . 6 1 , 14. , 7 8 9 . , , . 4.

24 ( 8/3, ) . ' . (34-50 .) . , , 8-20 ., 1-1,5 . . ( : 2/3). . ( 3/2).


, (. . 5/1, 6/2), ( 4/1). . . . . : 5/1 : ( 7/1) 1 4/1 (TABLE 3.1). . : : . 1 (TABLE Dr.Rodden 3.2). ( 4/2) . : . , , : (TABLE 3.3). 2 8 1, : , . 8% . , , 75. 100 , m^). (10 500-700 300375.


, . 1961 Rodden , , . , , , , , (1963 1964). Dr.Rodden (FIG. 3.2). 8/1, 1963. : 2/2, . , 2/21/2. '"" 5.

, (SEM), iring (ref test). 8 PLATE a) " " " " (pinching: : (coiling). " ", " ". 8 (PLATE b). , 9 ). (PLATE , / .


(, -, TABLE : 4.4) , (TABLE 4.2). SEM ( ) (TABLE 4.2), . , - 9 b' (PLATE 10a (PLATES & 6). SEM (TABLE 4.2) . (Crusted Ware), . . (mineral coating) . () ( , , ) . Vrsnik, Lakavica). (Anzabegovo, , ( "" ) 750-800C. , ,(7) (fabrics: PLATES -14). "'' 11 7 . , 14 . (PLATE b) %), (1-2 . - (settling).


(group2) Porcelain Ware), 3) (Red/White, (group Ware Porcelain (PorcelainWare (White/Red). White/Red White/Red) . , , ' , , . . . 6.

96% . 88% 9%3% 5.2). (FIG. .

(FIG.5.2): 46% , 24% , - . 24% 3% , . (6) , , (FIG. 5.57). (FIG. 5.58).

(White/Red). (Red/White) , 4% , (Red/White, PorcelainWare). StandardWare) (Red/White,


( 92% ). (, , ,) ). , (, . ' , : (Standard Ware) , 3 5.35, & 4; FIG. 5.21, FIG. 1; 5.36, (FIG. (FIG. (Porcelain Ware) 10). 5.34,9; FIG.5.35,7; FIG.5.38,1), 7 5.49, 7; 5.39, & 11& 13;FIG. (FIG. 6). 5.50, FIG. , , , , , (FIG. 5.53). (FIG. 5.54). , , FIG. 5.55) : ( , 5.55). (FIG. (, ) (FIG. 5.56). , (FIG. 5.59). , (FIG.5.61). . " (rimangle) " . , . . . 5.62 5.25-5.30. FIGS. FIG. : (FIGS. 5.4-5.6) 9% , ( 115: FIGS. 3% ( 5.7-5.8) , : FIG. FIGS. 5.9), 91-114: ( 5.10-5.13)


( (33%), 85-90: FIGS. 5.14-5.15) 45% , 23% 60-84 (FIGS. 5.16-5.18) ( 60: FIGS.5.19-5.20) 6% . (string-hole lugs) (FIG. 5.24,8-10). FIG.5.24,11-12. , , , . FIG. ( 47% , 5.21) ( 45%, FIG.5.22). (FIG.5.23). (pedestalbase,FIG.5.23,4-6) 5.24, , (FIG. 1-7). FIG. 5.62 . ( 115) , 91-114) ( ( 60). , 60-84. FIGS. 5.66 & ( : 5.65) ' . ( , , FIG. 5.64) : . . , ,, 7.

( 6/7-4/8)


. (surface area) . , 1115 6 1115 2 . ' , 35 9 . , 30%-25%. 3700 ( ) 4500 50 150 . , 90 25 / ), (12-13) ( . ) (// . , , , . (, : ). . :


6.2). (FIG. 6.3). (FIG. . C , . , . To Vicia , ( ervilia). . . ,, . . Halstead kg (200 ) (30-50 ), 7500-12500. (22600-27500 ) 50-150. , , . 10% ( ) (750-1250 ). 36-85 15-20 . .

and AdamsA. E., W. S. Mackenzie C. Guilford, Rocks under die 1984,Adas of Sedimentary Microscope,London:Longmans. in Bankoff and F. Winter, H. 1979, House Burning Serbia.Whatdo BurnedRemainstellan Archaeologist?', Archaeology32, 8-15. fromWest BiernoffD., 1969,An Analysisof die EarliestPainted Design Motifson Pottery Anatolia and Greece. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Institute Archaeology, of London. Remains Nemea',Hesperia 44, 227-51. at BiegenC. W., 1975,'Neolithic in science of ceramics: overview and G., Bronitsky 1983,'Materials approaches thestudy Virginia initial results', Anthropology (2), 13-20. 7 in ScienceTechniques theStudy Pottery of Construction and , 1986, The Use ofMaterials M. Use', in Schiffer B. (Ed.),Advances in ArchaeologicalMethod and Theory,9, 209-76, New York:Academic Press. G. II (iq6q), 36. Chourmouziadis Ch., 1969,' ', , 1971 ', 1971* 165-87. , 207-26. , 1979 , Chrisostomou and Pan. Chrisostomou, P. i993> ' 4 (99) 169-77 ', Chrisostomou Pan., 1994*' *>(iqqi), 111-21. 1991', Clark G. D., 1952,Prehistoric & J. Europe, The Economic Basis, 129-51,London:Methuen Co. Ltd. Courtois G., 1981, 'Etude Physico-chimique la cramique', Lambert L. de in ., La Grotte de Paris:ADPF. Prhistorique Kitsos (Attique)I, S7Q-QO, and E. Dimou, 1981,'Annex Apercu I: sur de technologique les cramiques Nolithiques Andre inTouchais Le matrielnolithique, Andre CorycienI, 173-82 and G., Corycien', 248-51. (BCHsuppl. 7). David N. and H. Henning,1972, The Ethnographyof Pottery:A Fulani Case Seen in McCalebModules Anthroool. Reading Archaeological Perspective, 21. Mass:Addison-Weslev. DeBoerW.R, 1985,The lastpottery show:System sensein ceramic and in A. studies', Pritchard C. and Leeuw van der S. (Eds.),The Many Dimensions of Pottery, 529-68, Amsterdam: of University Amsterdam. and of in , and D. Lathrap, 1979,The making breaking Shipibo-Conibo ceramics', Kramer C. (Ed),Ethnoarchaeology: for Implicationsof Ethnography Archaeology,102-38,New York:ColumbiaUniversity Press. EllisL, 1984, The Cucuteni-Tripolye Culture:A studyin Technologyand the Origins of BAR International Complex society, Series, 217. Oxford. the between primary the E., EricsonJ. D. Read and C. Burke, 1972,Researchdesign: relationships functions the physical and of for properties ceramicvesselsand their implications ceramic distributions an archaeological Anthropology on UCLA * (2), 8a-qk. site', Fortier C, 1981,Chronological RegionalVariation A. and within EarlyNeolithic the Karanovo I-Kremikovtsi Ph.D.Thesis, of Complex ofBulgaria, UniversityWisconsin-Madison, Michigan, AnnArbor, Microfilms University (1981).


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and ZumbuschJ. V. Milojdc, 1971,Die DeutschenAusgrabungenauf der OtzakiMilojtic-v. 1, Magula in Thessalien I, Das frheNeolithikum, AM 10/1 Bonn. I. lonasG. E., iq2Q,Excavationsat Olynthus. The Neolithicsettlement, Baltimore. My of South-East Nandris G., 1968,The Prehistoric Ph.D. Europe, Unpublished Archaeology J. of Thesis, University Cambridge. and , 1971, 'Bos primigenius thebone spoon', , 63-82. The Perspective Long-term of F. , 1977, Changein south-east Europe',in Carter W. (Ed.), An HistoricalGeographyof the Balkans,2*-*7, London:Academic Press. Naroll 1962,'FloorAreaand Settlement Am. K, Population', Antiq. 27, 587-9. donnssurle Neolithic Nica M., 1977,'Nouvelles Ancien Oltnie', d' Dacia XXI, 13-53. de n din Drobeta (Turnu , 1978,'Cuptoare olariw epocaneolitic Severin) descoperite Oltenia', C. thin Overweel J., 1981,'Ptrographie section and X-RayDiffraction of from analysis pottery in Seskloand Achilleion', Wijnen, H., The Early Neolithic I settlementat Sesklo, M. Praehistorica Leidensia XIV. I, Appendix 105-11,Leiden:Analecta M., ', Papadopoulou 1958,'. W. Ph.D. sequence in SouthernGreece,Unpublished Phelps W., 1975,The Neolithicpottery Institute Archaeology, of London. Thesis, Renfrew 1973,Trade and craft in D. C, specialisation', Theocharis R, Neolithic Greece, 179Athens. 01, Rice P. M., 1987, PotteryAnalysis:A Sourcebook,Chicagoand London:The University of ChicagoPress. and technical examination V., Rigby A. P. Middleton I. C. Freestone, 1989,The Prunay workshop: ofla Tne bichrome WA 21. 1-16. from painted pottery Champagne', Rodden J., 1962,'Excavations theEarly at Neolithic at Nea Nikomedeia, site GreekMacedonia PPS 28, 267-88. (iq6i season)', Linkwith ChatalHuyuk: a in Settlement , 1964 a, 'A European Uncovering 7thMillennium I Macedonia. Part - Siteand Pottery', Illustrated The London News,April11, ^64-7. Settlement Nea of , 1964 b, EuropeanLinkwithChatalHuyuk:The 7thMillennium in Nikomedeia Macedonia.PartII - Burials and Shrine', The IllustratedLondon News, April18,604-7 Discoveries from Prehistoric Balkan Studies5, 110-24. , 1964 c, 'Recent Macedonia', 'AnEarlyNeolithic in Greece', Scientific American212 (4), 83-gi. , 1965, Village YourTemper under Control: Materials theManufacture Papuan and of RyeO. S., 1976,'Keeping in Pottery', Archaeologyand PhysicalAnthropology Oceania 11, 106-37. , 1981,Pottery Technology: Principlesand reconstruction, Washington. A. Shepard O., 10*6,Ceramicsforthe ArchaeologistWashington. Sikalidis M. Kesisoglou, Mirtsou E. and K. Alexiadis,1983, ' K., ', 7-2^. , Simoska and V. Sanev,1076,Prehistory CentralPelagonia,Bitola. D. in Smith F, 1985, 'Towardan EconomicInterpretation Ceramics: M. of VesselSize and Relating toUse',inNelsonB. A. (Ed.),Decoding Prehistoric Illinois: Ceramics,255-309,South Shape Press. University Stanislawski ., 1977, 'Ethnoarchaeology Hopi and Hopi-Tewa . of pottery making: Stylesof in D., learning', Ingersoll Yellen and MacdonaldW. (Eds.),ExperimentalArchaeology, J. Press. 378-408,NewYork:Columbia University studies prehistoric of from V., Steponaitis 1984,Technological pottery Alabama: physical properties and vesselfunction', Pritchard and LeeuwS. van der.(Eds.),Tlie many dimensionsof in A. of pottery, 79-121, Amsterdam: University Amsterdam.
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Theocharis R, 1962,' D. , 4 (1962),63. , , 1967 : Volos. , , 1973NeolithicGreece, Athens. in aboutsampling lithic Torrence 1978,'Chipping K, awayat somemisconceptions assemblages', Cherry F., Gamble C. and Shennan S. (Eds), Sampling in Contemporary British J. BAR British Archaeology, Series, Oxford. 50, in Nea vanZeistW. and S. Bottema, Greece, 1971,'Plant husbandry EarlyNeolithic Nikomedeia', Acta Botnica Neerlandica 20 (), 24-^8. kultura u Vetnic 1972, 'Po eci rada na ispitivanju S., prvihneolitskih zemljoradnika srednjem Pomoravlju', MaterijaliX, 123-68. K. Ware fromthe Franchthi Vitelli D., 1974,The Greek NeolithicPatternedUrfirnis Cave AnnArbor, and Lerna, Ph.D. dissertation, of Pennsylvania, University Michigan, University Microfilms (1980). in Neolithic Current , 1984,'Greek Pottery Experiment',RiceP. M. (Ed),Potsand Potters: by in Ceramic Archaeology, of Press. Approaches 113-31,Los Angeles: University California WA madefor foods? Doubtsfrom , iq8q, 'Werepotsfirst Franchthi', 21 (1), 17-20. Washburn K., 1983,'Symmetry D. of two of on analysis ceramic design: tests themethod Neolithic in material from Greeceand theAegean', Washburn, K. (Ed.),Structure D. and Cognitionin Press. Art,138-64,Cambridge: University Study theRed on CreamandCreamon Red Designs Early of on Neolithic Ceramics , 1984, ATA88, 305-24. Nea from Nikomedeia', S. at Elateia1959', Hesperia 31, 158-209. Weinberg S., 1962,'Excavations Prehistoric Whitelaw 1981, 'The Settlement Phournou at and of T., Koriphi, Myrtos, Aspects EarlyMinoan in SocialOrganisation', Krzyszkowska and NixonL. (Eds.),Minoan Society,Proceedings O. of the Cambridge Colloquium 1981,Bristol: Bristol ClassicalPress. ServiaV, in RidleyC. and Wardle. ., 'Rescue WijnenM. H., 1979, 'The EarlyNeolithic Excavations Servia1071-1073:A preliminary at BSA 74, 180-04. report', at Praehistorica Leidensia ,1981, The EarlyNeolithicI settlement Sesklo.Leiden:nalecta XIV. WoodsA.J., 1982 a, 'Smokegetsin youreyes:patterns, variables temperature and measurement in openfirings', BEFG 1, 11-25. in and an M. , 1982 b, Thin sections ceramic technology: introduction',Corfield and Foley K. (Eds.) Microscopy in Archaeological Conservation, 13-18, United Kingdom Conservation OccasionalPaperNo. 2. Archaeological note thin for , 1984-85, 'An introductory on theuse of tangential sections distinguishing between wheel-thrown coil/ring-built and BEFG *, 100-14. vessels', in and SomeObservations theCooking in Antiquity', on Pot , 1986,'Form, Fabric, Function: W. D. (Ed.), Technologyand Style,157-72, Columbus, Ohio: American Ceramic Kingery Society. Yiouni P., 1991, The Neolithic Potteryof Nea Nikomedeia in its Balkan Context,Ph.D. Institute Archaeology, of London. Thesis, of from , 1994, Technological Analysis theNeolithic Pottery Makri (inpressBCH 1994).


the of and (a) The PlainofMacedoniashowing low mound Nea Nikomedeia thesurrounding with other members theGreekworkforce. of foothills; Foreman (b) (left) YiannisPapadopoulos

Plate 2

of the (a) Atwork clearing sitein 1963; (b)Excavation thesamearea.

Plate 3

viewsoftheeastern ofthesettlement half taken from north the {a) & (b)Aerial mound, west, Structures Groups1, 2, 5 and 6 are visible theleft; of on structure 1963. Group4 is theexcavated in thecentre. of Air (Photographs courtesy theGreekArmy Corps.)

Plate 4

(fl)Group 2 structure squares A6-A8 and B6-B8; {b) Close-up of Group 2, structure squares 3, 3, A6-A8 and B6-B8.

Plate 5

northeast. () Group 4, fromsoutheast; (*) Group 4, from

Plate 6

1 (a) Group 4 structures and 2, from 1 the east; (b) Group 5, showingone wall of structure (right), cornerof structure (bottomleft)and Late Neolithic 2 Trench(across centre).

Plate 7

2; () Group 6 structure {b) Group 9 in squaresTB1-2 and Tgi-s withLate Neolithic Trenchin foreground.

Plate 8

(a) Miniaturevessel withtracesof pinching;{b) Sherdsshowingthe methodof base attachment.

Plate 9

{a) Thrust Lugs'; {b) Red BrownSlip (crossedpolars 170 x).


(a) Pink coating(crossedpolars 170X); (b) Pinkcoating(crossedpolars 420X).


(a) FabricA (crossedpolars 170X); (b) FabricA (crossedpolars 170X).

Plate 12

{a) Fabric B-i (crossedpolars 170X); (b) FabricB-2 (crossedpolars 170X).

Plate 13

(a) Fabric C (crossedpolars 170X); [b) FabricD (crossedpolars 170X).

Plate 14

(crossedpolars 170X). (a) Fabric (crossedpolars 170X); (b) Charredplantinclusions

Plate 15

(a) White on Red PaintedWare; (b) Sherdsimpressedwithfinger tips.

Plate 16

and finger (a) Sherds impressedwithfinger nails; [b) Sherds impressedwithfinger pinching pinching.

Plate 17

nails. (a) Sherdsimpressedwithfinger pinching;(b) Sherds impressedwithfinger