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Said's Exile: Strategic Insights for Postcolonial Feminists
L.H.M. Ling Millennium - Journal of International Studies 2007 36: 135 DOI: 10.1177/03058298070360010901 The online version of this article can be found at: http://mil.sagepub.com/content/36/1/135
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1. uniquely qualifies for dissidence. Hall. Introduction1 ‘Exile’. Said conceded. famine. even ennobling. often the inadvertent result of impersonal forces such as war. 3. 2. ‘is one of the saddest fates’. Vol. Indeed. Drawing on his volume. and Sheila Nair for their contributions to this article. 47. and disease’. this article extends upon Said’s understandings of exile to devise strategies for a postcolonial-feminist emancipatory agenda. Representations of the Intellectual: The 1993 Reith Lectures (New York: Vintage Books. the marginalised. liberating. indeed. Said noted. ‘Only the exile has that awareness which comes with contrapuntal understanding’. Agathangelou. ISSN 0305-8298. © Millennium: Journal of International Studies. 135-145 135 Downloaded from mil. exile imprints a sense of permanent loss compounded by ‘years of aimless wandering’.com by guest on February 28.M.sagepub. 64. nonetheless. I remain responsible. ‘Enigmas of Exile: Reﬂections on Edward Said’. 1996).5 The exiled. less conventional. Ibid. 2013 . and sometimes exclusive. Said. 4. writes Vinay Lal paraphrasing Said. Ling Exile for Edward Said was a painful yet enriching condition. punishment of special individuals – like the great Latin poet Ovid … into a cruel punishment of whole communities and peoples. exile accounted for his extraordinary productivity in theorising about and strategising for social justice for the displaced. the silenced.36 No. He spoke speciﬁcally on the exile of Palestinians from their historic homes but his insights apply to all subjects and subjectivities suffering from hegemonic oppression and stultiﬁcation. Edward Said wrote. Like death.2 Nothing could erase exile’s disorienting and devastating impact.4 Yet exile could also prove stimulating.6 ____________ 1.. to have ‘the audacity of daring. Vinay Lal. not standing still’. It allows – compels – the exile to be more creative. ‘exile has been transformed from the exquisite. Ibid. Ibid. and to representing change. 6.3 In modern times. for the contents herein. to moving on. Many thanks to Anna M. Edward W. 2007. Zachary B. Reﬂections on Exile and Other Essays (2001).H. Economic and Political Weekly 1 January (2005): 33. 5.Said’s Exile: Strategic Insights for Postcolonial Feminists Said’s Exile: Strategic Insights for Postcolonial Feminists L. pp. Geeta Chowdhry.
no.com by guest on February 28. and politically. are especially productive for postcolonial feminists in and on International Relations – a condition and agenda that they share with Said personally.Millennium Said remained intriguingly unreflective. more accurately. never or yet to be. a reified way of being. 2. Lastly. those in exile question that power. knowledge/power at home exemplifies the ‘conventional’ and the ‘habitual’. overdetermined. And these insights. 3 (2005): 1–22. no. Yet a measure of Said’s brilliance is that his legacy also gives us insights into transforming these same social relations of power. London Review of Books 20. as did Said. Time: Home is now and for ever. the ‘provisionality’ and ‘risk’ of exile enables real dissidence. home is turned into an inside space that is ensconced cosily within fixed borders. looking in. Said did not theorise on how home may relate differently to different subjectivities like daughters and servants in contrast to sons and patriarchs. In focusing almost exclusively on ‘the exilic condition’. home.sagepub. Imbricated within space and time are structures of knowledge/power. Paul Tiyambe Zeleza. enduring its loss. Home thus becomes set. studied. 9 (7 May 1998): 1–10. fencing a familiar territory. Desire: You can’t go/come home again. Edward W. however. I submit. 2013 . marks space by either crossing it or. At most. by extension. that some who are not in exile may yet suffer from an internal. To Said. His contrapuntal method registered seemingly disparate events or conditions or cognitions of being but he did not see an underlying commonality binding them. hyphenated to denote. Said reproduced the same social relations of power about home that accounted for the pain of exile that he so lamented. 4. perhaps producing them. The exiled is always aspiring for and yearning to be at ____________ 7. Space: Home means being settled. exile. Knowledge/power: Those at home have power. ‘The Politics and Poetics of Exile: Edward Said in Africa’. Research in African Literatures 36. Exile. exile. whereas. an unquestioned origin. In setting the exiled as always outside. Exile and Home: Social Relations of Power Four analytical categories help us organise Said’s treatments of exile and. either. liminal. and eternalised while exile remains lacking. Said acknowledged that he tried but could not and did not feel the need to go home again. and.7 In so doing. desire underlies both exile and home. ‘Between Worlds’. their mutuality in practice and thought. existential exile. Said. Time twins space conceptually as exile memorialises home through nostalgia and other reified sentiments. I propose. Each reveals the social relations of power that bind the supposed dichotomy of exile versus home: 1. about home. just the opposite. and made his life’s work. 136 Downloaded from mil. thereby not feeling at home even when home. and constantly trying to catch up. intellectually. 3. home became an assumption. of course. Said did not consider.
. generally.M. To demonstrate. Paul Gilroy. Martin Bernal. 2004). Indeed.8 This House of IR clearly demarcates who’s ‘inside’ and ‘outside’. 4 (December 2004): 21–49. contributions from non-capitalist traditions like socialism or scholarship from ‘nativeinformants’ or developmental experiences from non-Western sites like ____________ 8. Ling.H. [T]he House does so by appropriating the knowledge. formal acknowledgement. The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Race and the Intimate in Colonial Rule (Berkeley: University of California Press).12 Yet the House of IR exiles them from public.sagepub. and Complicity in Contemporary World Politics (London: Routledge. Postmodernism. The House of IR These understandings of home and exile apply to the discipline of International Relations. patriarchal household.9 this analogy ferrets from IR those ‘erasures and violences’ that made the field possible. and labour of racialised. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and DoubleConsciousness (Cambridge. Anna M. MA: Harvard University Press. iconic works like Said’s Orientalism have cross-fertilised with members of the House of IR – such as Marxism. sexualised Others [e. Recalling colonial households in Europe’s former subaltern states. ‘The House of IR: From Family Power Politics to the Poisies of Worldism’. would do anything to keep out the exiled (i. 2013 . not to mention Feminism – to produce new schools of thought such as Postcolonial IR that speak to world politics from the perspective of those outside of yet intertwined with the West. From Empire to Multiple Worlds: Transforming Violence. otherwise they wouldn’t be exiled) or keep themselves from being exiled. John M. and Constructivism/Pragmatism. and a more specific articulation of multiple worlds or ‘worldism’11 derive from these intellectual hybrids. Postcolonial-feminist approaches. Those at home are presumed to enjoy a lodged and contained sense of desire: i. accordingly. 137 Downloaded from mil. Agathangelou and L. who’s ‘upstairs’ and ‘downstairs’.e. Anna M.e. Agathangelou and Ling. Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilisation (The Fabrication of Ancient Greece 1765–1985.10 For example. a global imperialist and capitalist order ensures a hierarchy of social relations of power to sustain this ‘exilic condition’. 11. Ann Laura Stoler. I refer to an earlier work that analogises mainstream IR to a colonial.. 1993). relations between ‘members’ and ‘aliens’ have gone on for millennia and intimately.. ‘The House of IR’: 22. 10. forthcoming). International Studies Review 6. 12. and who teeters dangerously on the ‘borders’. Such exclusions do not simply reflect the outcome of ideological contestations. 9. no. 1987). Hobson.Said’s Exile: Strategic Insights for Postcolonial Feminists home again. NJ: Rutgers University Press.com by guest on February 28. They are granted a status as keepers of hearth and flame who. Agathangelou and L. those who threaten to extinguish such. contentment.M. 2002.g. Volume 1) (Piscataway. Ling. Desire. Rather. resources.H.
His own exile. The ‘Arab–Israeli conflict’.com by guest on February 28.g. NJ: Princeton University Press. Dipesh Chakrabarty. their surveillance. now turned into a garrison state. 15. stems from it. Israelis). ____________ 13. those ‘downstairs’ and ‘outside’ (e. then. 2000). Achille Mbembe.sagepub.. and culture. and revenge plots proliferate. Partha Chatterjee. And the cycle repeats. embrace. In registering exile’s perpetual mobility and memorialising a sense of lack. to preserve their home. ‘The House of IR’: 21. from ‘traitors’ within as well as ‘terrorists’ outside. no. ‘The Banality of Power and the Aesthestics of Vulgarity in the Postcolony’. Frantz Fanon. for home. Both the exiled and those at home seek a common desire: i. Resentments. Public Culture 4. Not surprisingly. 2: 1–30. Agathangelou and Ling. Dominance without Hegemony: History and Power in Colonial India (Cambridge. those who once fought for freedom from the House end up imprisoning themselves in it. his table. once won. to Said. gender. The Nation and its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories (Princeton. and love. and his wife in the bed.13 Put differently. signified certitude. Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and the Historical Difference (Princeton. Rai. The exiled is always looking backwards with fondness and regret upon the past. 2013 . in turn. Gender and the Political Economy of Development: From Nationalism to Globalization (Cambridge: Polity Press. including old hierarchies of race.g. for generations to come. 2002). 138 Downloaded from mil. Postcolonial scholars have documented amply those anti-colonial struggles that. sanctioned the erection of borders. 1963). and not that ‘we’ are indebted to ‘them’. Ranajit Guha. unreflexively reproduce the same old colonial power relations.. the ‘powerful’ from the ‘powerless’.14 As Frantz Fanon (in)famously noted. 1993). his bed. Palestinians) are naturally exploited for valuable labour and resources to sustain the privileges of those ‘upstairs’ and ‘inside’ (e. History demonstrates this tendency all too frequently. the native crouches in the dark desiring all that the settler possesses: his house. NJ: Princeton University Press. Home versus Exile Edward Said would not disagree with this characterisation of world politics. Shirin M. 14. it erases from view the imperialist and capitalist bargains that constructed these demarcations. and hegemonic practices. divides ‘outsiders’ from ‘insiders’. MA: Harvard University Press.e. class. he affixed stability and eternity to the concept of home that. hostilities.15 Said retained these imperialist and patriarchal features of the colonialhousehold/garrison-state despite his own commitment to challenging it. 1998). Accordingly.Millennium Asian capitalism] for its own beneﬁt and pleasure while announcing itself the sole producer – the father – of our world. as taught and practised by the House of IR. All the while. and polices the borders to ‘protect’ the colonial household. The Wretched of the Earth (New York: Grove Press. the House presumes that ‘they’ want to be just like ‘us’. indeed. even at the cost of exile for others..
com by guest on February 28. and their legacies. Said characterised this condition of being caught in-between by ‘at least’ two cultures as ‘contrapuntal’ since it ‘gives rise to an awareness of simultaneous dimensions’. Said. So it is with Said’s treatment of dissent and power. ‘that I now think it’s maybe not worth the effort to find out [what it means to be at home]’. Said’s reference to Joseph Conrad. accordingly. In reproducing such cultural imperialism. Alvin Koh. At the same time. But when beset by sudden illness. could not perpetrate tyranny or authoritarianism in the guise of democratic dissent. Cf.19 In a short story. Said.. and has a child with her. is shipwrecked off the coast of Britain. memories.e. no. singular fate of the exile. I will focus on two – hegemony and patriarchy – and how the relationship between them opens up. Said’s ruminations on exile were awash with the latter. (2) exile could not produce a knowledge/power centre of its own. 139 Downloaded from mil.17 Hegemony and Patriarchy in Said Said’s paradoxes. Postcolonial Studies 4. ‘Amy Foster’. unhoused. at home. Edward Said revealed his own deep-seated and ambivalent desire to be like those whom he critiqued: i. like Bach’s disjunctive chords. demonstrates the paradoxes of hegemony and patriarchy at work in both. On hegemony. complacent. 1(2001): 105–8. Eventually. Framing dissidence as provisional and risky reinforces the claim of those at home that they and they alone wield knowledge/power since it is institutionalised. give us a method for inquiry. ____________ 16. 19.16 Yet he never theorised about the relations between these contrapuntal worlds. Edward W. 18.sagepub. states of being. He left them simply resonating. Reﬂections on Exile and Other Essays. 17. centralised.Said’s Exile: Strategic Insights for Postcolonial Feminists contrastingly. each equal to and confronting the other. Yanko marries an Englishwoman. Said confessed in an interview in 1996. takes his child away just before he expires. Here. 2000). and (3) the exiled critic. Said quoted in Lal. unyielding. An Eastern European peasant. nonetheless. His wife. ‘Enigmas of Exile’: 32. ‘I suppose it’s sour grapes’.18 On patriarchy. Yanko dies alone and alienated. Said recognised only the Self’s sexual fantasies about the Orientalised Other but he rarely extended these insights to gendered. ‘Said’s Paradoxical Identities’. rather than forecloses. Said’s take on home has three implications for freedom and agency: (1) that knowledge/power at home must be solid and resistant to change from within. 2013 . 186. and unprotected. ensconced. Amy of the title. who never learned his language. new intellectual vistas for an emancipatory programme. Conrad dramatised the ultimate. Yanko Goorall. Reﬂections on Exile and Other Essays (Cambridge. the future meant vulnerability since the exiled is unplaced. another intellectual-in-exile. and thereby eternalised.MA: Harvard University Press. sexualised power relations among Others or from Others to the Self.
Said did not consider that husband and wife could transcend the limitations of spoken language to revel in an unspoken bond.25 The home is never that secure in another sense. ‘[A] solitary death illuminated. Sites. Man and his household stay strictly bordered. Cf. and Feminist Alternatives’. ‘Gender and Globalisation: Female Labour and Women’s Mobilisation’.unicef. Journal of World-Systems Research 5. not labourers24 – all this. Said wrote. just like ‘Palestine’ and ‘Israel’.Millennium She fears his fevered mumblings in a foreign tongue would scare the little boy. and other dissident activists from among both Israelis and Palestinians have sought consistently to forge a different path to politics. ‘Conﬂict. The very nature of patriarchal exploitation and arrogance compels alliances between subjugated subjects ‘inside’ with those ‘outside’. Marianne Marchand and Anne Sisson Runyan (eds). Said accepted Conrad’s premise that Yanko remained an isolated. 2004). and Insecurity in the Mediterranean Nation-States (London: Palgrave Macmillan. L. albeit whose hegemony was turned inwards onto him alone. http://www. 180. no. regardless of whether they are ‘inside’ and ‘civilised’ or ‘downstairs’ and ‘domesticated’. Instead. The impact they have made is proportional to the extent mainstream analysts and media alike dismiss or ignore them. Valentine Moghadam./templates/story/story. untouched by time or labour or love.html. Agathangelou. Violence. 22. UNICEF. talk delivered at the Institute of Social Studies.26 ____________ 20. home and exile.com by guest on February 28. by unresponsive. Gender and Global Restructuring: Sightings. and Resistances (London: Routledge.20 One could almost hear Said whisper: ‘Mine included’. 26. 2 (1999): 367–88. Again: A Response to Fukuyama on Women and World Politics’.21 In exchange for such an arrangement.H. 140 Downloaded from mil. The State of the World’s Children 2005. no. for example. Nor did he think that Yanko could have talked to his child in his own language. They are the ones who bear and raise the children who might walk onto a landmine22 or find themselves kidnapped and sold into prostitution rings23 or toil in fields/offices/factories that benefit owners. Orthodox male Jews insist that women sit at the back of the bus to preserve religious and gender ‘propriety’. 25.org/ publications/index_24432. Anna M. Cf. or ‘outside’ and ‘alien’. uncommunicating eyes’. this recent controversy in Israel. http://www. They know that they sustain the household/state with their labour and resources despite being stamped as exploitable and disposable. sovereign centre. was every Conradian exile’s fear. workers.sagepub. Peace. 23. Cf.M. Note. 2013 . Said. The Global Political Economy of Sex: Desire. International Feminist Journal of Politics 2. Reﬂections on Exile and Other Essays. Ling. 30 May 2001. 24. feminists. past and present.npr. for little to no say in the decision-making while receiving more promises of ‘democratisation’ and ‘sovereignty’. patriarchy supposedly extends protection but women and other subjugated subjects are not dumb to the high human cost demanded for the price of admission. 2 (2000): 278–86. In the Middle East. 21. Valentine Moghadam. so to speak. the Hague. ‘Hypermasculinity on the Rise. 2000).php?storyId=7361060. Women and other subjugated subjects know better.org.
As Paul Tiyambe Zeleza notes. also. attests. which prevents Said from visiting between 1960 and 1975. Said’s memoir of his childhood in Cairo tells much through its silences. the education to write.28 Not only have these refugees from World War II given us pioneering works on democracy and freedom but they have produced. in all its minutia – its sights. too. violently and almost annoyingly. the intellectual-in-exile is immunised from having to account for why she happens to have the lifestyle to think.edu. 2013 . see http://www. so sprawling and demographically uncontrolled had Cairo become its services crippled. smells. records his impression. Insulated by a sense of righteous loss and focused almost entirely on the individual.newschool. ‘The Politics and Poetics of Exile’: 6. another subjectivity. 141 Downloaded from mil. and when he ﬁnally does in 1977.Said’s Exile: Strategic Insights for Postcolonial Feminists Moreover. Such intersections and integrations show the multivaried. 30.29 From such ambivalences come a set of postcolonial-feminist queries. Gindi.com by guest on February 28. ‘any large third-world city. the Cairo of Arab exiles. and resonance of overlapping. They celebrate the richness. 29. ‘Between Worlds’. the confidence to speak truth to power. This perspective reﬂects postcolonial studies’ general insights on race and subalternity but these are read explicitly through the analytical lens of gender. and Theodor Adorno. 28. a legacy now institutionalised into a paradigm of learning and progressive politics for future generations. dissident intellectuals in exile – such as Hannah Arendt. could become a source of patriarchal hegemony. Postcolonial-Feminist Queries Postcolonial feminists do not stay suspended ‘between worlds’30 but take us to another place. and scandals – but the Cairo of the indigenous Egyptians is largely invisible. she quotes him. interactive. these same processes work within dissidence-in-exile for it. cross-cutting allegiances of contemporary politics where simple binaries such as ‘coloniser’ versus ‘colonised’. Egypt intrudes in this island of comfortable exile. as his former Egyptian neighbour. Max Horkheimer. as the history of their institution (also mine). mutually creating worlds. for ‘it had become’. ____________ 27. ‘international’ versus ‘domestic’. Zeleza. ‘Enigmas of Exile’. Cairo was no longer the ‘cosmopolitan city of his youth’. the New School. the last of whom Said hailed as the critical intellectual par exemplar27 – have centralised their knowledge/ power from the margins. sounds. its immense mass so dusty and crumbling … I have no wish to return’. resilience. Said. Lastly. For a history of the New School.sagepub. Cairo is ‘a great disappointment’. Lal. through the revolution of 1952 and Nasser’s doomed socialist experiment. These guide an emancipatory programme that pays attention to Said’s paradoxes while helping us traverse beyond them. One passage merits quoting at length: We are given the expatriate Cairo.
women writers in exile do not just discover creativity and stimulation in exile but also a voice for their stories. as Chiang Kaishek. ‘exile in the global North [brought] with it new marginalities and alienation of race [nonetheless. ‘The Politics and Poetics of Exile’: 15. ‘wife’. not just between ‘home’ and ‘exile’ but also ‘upstairs’ versus ‘downstairs’. writes Zeleza.. or worker. 142 Downloaded from mil. their concerns. Not surprisingly. 1. or images?’ Given the border-crossing agility of colonial and patriarchal relations covered by rationalisations of religion or poverty or simply struggles to establish a new life. especially through certain memories. as soon as Taiwan ended martial law in 1987 (a decade ____________ 31. ‘daughter’.e. Displayed prominently throughout the island. For almost forty years.31 Said’s paradoxes on exile and home. enshrouded in nostalgia as the original. glorious home of one’s ancestors. postcolonial feminists may encounter a scenario reminiscent of home. For women writers from the Maghreb. motivate the following postcolonial-feminist queries. they were able to] use exile to create new spaces of active agency for women disempowered by the triple patriarchal tyrannies of French colonialism. 2013 . Postcolonial feminists experience pain as much as anybody else when forced to leave home. However. maid. their dreams. then. and assigned to the same social-sexual roles as reproducer. Zeleza. Indeed. and images. weighed down by patriarchal tradition. postcolonial authoritarianism. stories. especially through the propagation of certain memories.sagepub. Rai. memories of home may not be suffused with as much tenderness as suggested by Said and other masculinist writers.32 2. ‘masculinity’ versus ‘femininity’ do not apply. the Nationalists (KMT) on Taiwan maintained that they would ‘recover/restore’ (guangfu) the Chinese mainland. Taiwan’s ‘exile’ from the ‘home’ of China serves as an apt example. ancient. was a famous phrase: ‘Do not forget [the] national humiliation [of not being home] in time of peace and security’ (wu wang zai ju). or ‘sister’. colonial power politics. On space: ‘What does it mean to be “settled” and “unsettled”?’ For feminists. especially when instigated by patriarchal. even in exile now doubled by the racism and sexism of the new locale: i. postcolonial-feminists question the privileging of the past over the present/future. Gender and the Political Economy of Development. On time: ‘Why is the past privileged over the present or the future. whether male or female. Cf. embodying Taiwan. The politics behind such contrapuntal representations invariably arise. nurturer. defined by identities of ‘woman’.com by guest on February 28. Recovering/ restoring the mainland was comparable to completing the Confucian obligation of filial piety. and religious fundamentalism … thereby turning exile into a “productive contradiction” in which the mechanisms of alienation are transformed into mechanisms of liberation’. But they may not find themselves in the same kind of suspension and liminality as defined by Said’s ‘exilic condition’. stories. 32.Millennium ‘men’ versus ‘women’. was the exiled son. especially at KMT rallies. ‘inside’ versus ‘outside’.
e.e. symmetrical amities among all three actors) in contrast to a ‘stable marriage’ (i. 2 (1998): 287–319. Taiwan itself is racialised.Said’s Exile: Strategic Insights for Postcolonial Feminists after Chiang’s death) and opened direct links with the mainland. Cf. and future. to sustain the colonial household/garrison-state yet are still cast as helpless victims who need protection? ____________ 33. there is no question that Taiwan could never be ‘pivot’ to America’s or China’s ‘wing’. ‘[T]o what identity could one return?’ asks Mustapha Hamil. 35. whether it is from home or in exile?’ Postcolonial feminists need to know since the colonial household/garrison-state typically holds them responsible for reproduction at all levels.36 Neither exile nor home could allow any deviation from the colonialpatriarchal House.e. I add: is a different answer even possible when the return is so vested with a past ‘lost’ through exile? Accordingly.. amity between two of the actors and enmity between each of them and the third) or ‘romantic triangle’ (i. the popular consciousness. 143 Downloaded from mil. no.com by guest on February 28. Mustapha Hamil. These ranged from representing China as a source of cultural ‘strangeness’ to its feminisation and sexualisation as more businessmen from Taiwan entered the Chinese mainland market for profits and women. present. ‘The Trope of “Mainland China” in Taiwan’s Media’. whether from the position of the filial KMT to ancestral China or Sugar-Daddy Taiwan to mistress China. 36. no. 34. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 23. 1 (1995): 149–83. On knowledge/power: ‘Whose labour and resources produce the knowledge/power. Given this hierarchy. 4 (July 1981): 485–515. and sexualised by the US. no. World Politics 33.. feminised. patriarchal hegemony operated behind both representations.33 Quite clearly. unpublished manuscript. on a daily basis. by extension. so that each may illuminate a way of understanding. framing.. 3. positions: east asia cultures critique 3. National Sun Yat-sen University. Shu-mei Shih. Lowell Dittmer.sagepub. what does it mean for feminised subjects to ‘have’ knowledge/ power when they already exercise it substantively. ‘Subaltern Straits: Chinese and Taiwanese Perspectives on US Foreign Policy on China and Taiwan’. Research in African Literatures 35. 1 (Spring 2004): 57. amity between one ‘pivot’ and two ‘wing’ actors but enmity between the latter). very different representations flooded Taiwan’s media and. 2013 . ‘The Strategic Triangle: An Elementary Game-Theoretical Analysis’. no. ‘Gender and a New Geopolitics of Desire: The Seduction of Mainland Women in Taiwan and Hong Kong Media’. and shaping the other. The future does not become a repository of past desires/oppressions but a beacon of emancipation through integration for the self and its community. ‘Exile and its Discontents: Malika Mokaddem’s Forbidden Woman’. Ching-Chane Hwang and Bo-yu Chen34 note that US foreign policy analysts historically cast the US–China–Taiwan relationship in terms of a ‘strategic triangle’ where the ‘optimum’ outcome is a ‘ménage à trois’ (i. Shu-mei Shih. Ching-Chane Hwang and Bo-yu Chen. if that is what inspires the return. At the same time.35 In all three scenarios. postcolonial-feminists juxtapose past.
between you and me. while others. 2013 . On desire: ‘How do we build communities together?’ Feminised subjects have little to gain in upholding one House over another. It calls for building communities trans-subjectively: that is. some benefit from this arrangement at the expense of others. The Essential Writings of Mahatma Gandhi. 39. like mom-and-pop (family) stores and the general populace. Millennium: Journal of International Studies 33. Mohandas K. all in the name of protecting them. Raghavan Iyer (Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bush nonetheless taxed those very same consumers. Dirk Wiemann. in blood and treasure.M. Ling. Instead.H. act. 1990). 42.37 Recognising that the American economy depended on consumers to rebound. ‘Neoliberal Neocolonialism: Comparing Enron with Asia’s “Crony Capitalism”’. 95. 144 Downloaded from mil. Agata Stopinska. Transgressive Readings and Postnational Negotiations.sagepub. Noah Feldman. 3 (2005): 827–53. Meanwhile. Borders.H.38 Typically. 3 (September 2004): 517–38. 4. Cf..41 we draw on Gandhi’s notion of an ‘oceanic circle’ for inspiration. L. ‘Power. NJ: Princeton University Press. remain ‘downstairs’ or ‘outside’. Anna M. ____________ 37. US academics like Noah Feldman analogise the US democratisation of Iraq. to fund his imperialist ventures overseas. ed. Bush made this connection amply clear when he urged the nation to ‘go shopping’ in response to the 9/11 attacks.com by guest on February 28. Agathangelou and L.42 These queries help us to see.M. Wealth: Lessons of Violence and Desire from September 11’. the oceanic circle channels desire differently. Agathangelou and L. 93–105. such as the mega-corporation Halliburton and the oil industry. in Discourses of Violence – Violence of Discourses: Critical Interventions. It does not have the ‘outermost circumference … wield power to crush the inner circle but give[s] strength to all within and derive[s] its strength from it’. ‘Power and Play through Poisies: Reconstructing Self and Other in the 9/11 Commission Report’. as a process of insemination – with clear notions of who is inseminating whom. not you for me. the former. postcolonial feminists seek to redefine community and what it means to build it. for example. not a single House. he [sic] cannot get out but is sucked into what American vernacular calls “the quagmire” – a situation from which he cannot extract himself.Millennium George W. no. Anna M. Living inside.39 He adds a warning to the US: ‘When things go wrong.’40 Feldman seems intent on revising the Madama Butterfly fable: Lt Pinkerton (US) was not callous but right to leave clingy Cho-cho-san (Iraq) even if they did produce a son (democracy) together. 2005). Elsewhere. Various communities. 38. and feel another world politics.M. Security.H. 2004). 41. Ling. What We Owe Iraq: War and the Ethics of Nation Building (Princeton. Ibid. 348. ed. appear before us. Unlike the House of IR and other colonial households/garrisonstates. 40. Clearly. Anke Bartels and Johannes Angermüller (Frankfurt/ Main: Peter Lang. International Studies Quarterly 48. but in which he cannot remain without suffering unmanning damage. Ling. no. Gandhi. whether in exile or at home. are ‘inside’ and ‘upstairs’ the colonial household/garrisonstate.
Said exemplified both home and exile.M. of his people and within himself.sagepub. 2013 .H. L. it is motivated instead by Said’s compassion in face of injustice. Conclusion We still need Edward Said today – not because his thinking was perfect but just the opposite. Ling is Associate Professor in the Graduate Program in International Affairs (GPIA) at The New School. No mere quest for intellectual coherence. and through these multiple worlds. including Edward Said. whether they divide a field of study like IR or slash through societies as in the Middle East. New York. US. Only then could we obviate the tired exclusions of who is at home and who is in exile and allow many in the world. we transcend faux borders. May we continue in his footsteps. his integrity when pressed with his own contradictions. 145 Downloaded from mil.Said’s Exile: Strategic Insights for Postcolonial Feminists between. probe deeper. inquire more comprehensively.com by guest on February 28. finally to rest. In this sense. The paradoxes he produced in his treatments on exile and home compel us to search further. and his celebration of the joy and beauty of creativity despite long-standing pain and suffering.
sagepub.com by guest on February 28. 2013 .Millennium 146 Downloaded from mil.
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