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This spreadsheet implements many of the formulae in my Aviation Formulary. (http://williams.best.vwh.net/avform.

htm)
No significant effort has been expended on protecting against invalid inputs.
1.00 Released under the GNU GPL 12/30/00 EAW. No warranties apply!
1.01 Added sunrise/sunset and wind direction in "three GS" calculation. 1/16/01
1.02 Added DME-DME worksheet.
1.03 Added rhumb direct calculations.
1.03.1 Corrected bug in calculation of longitude of apex- which occured if the initial heading was southerly.
1.03.2 Corrected bug in the calculation of the wind direction in the "wind given three groundspeeds".
1.04 Add rhumb inverse calculations.
1.04.1 Corrected typo in cell J27/Intersection - computing distance 4->6 (Thank you Real Jantzen)
1.05 Corrected bug in std atmosphere sound speed using Fahrenheit.
1.06/7
Added spheroid direct and inverse. Convert lat/lon to UTM and MGRS coords.
1.08 Fixed bug in I/O routines when degrees=0 for latitude or longitude.
1.09 Added spheroid/sphere rhumb direct and inverse to the spheroid page.
1.10 Fixed DME-DME sheet - broken by 1.08 fix.
1.11 Copied formulae on spheroid table fixed. Added options for DD.DDD and DD:MM:SS.SS output.
1.12 Corrected bug in ellipsoidal rhumb lines along parallels. (Thank you Christian Dost)
1.13 Refixed the 1.10 fix.
1.14 Extra distance and bearing rows were incorrectly copied on spheroid sheet. Negative distances for due west rhum
1.15 Sign E/W error in the display of longitudes in column N of the spheroid sheet.
1.16 Fixed bug in rhumb ellipsoid direct calcs for 270 azimuths. (Thank you Will Miles)
1.17 Tweaked accuracy of ellipsoid inverse and direct

Usage Notes:
Mandatory inputs are green, optional inputs are yellow, outputs are red. Intermediate results are hidden in uncolored
and can be restored with Format|Columns|Unhide. The calculational work is done in Visual Basic modules which you can
Units for input/output distances are set on each Great Circles sheet.
Lat/lons can be entered in a variety of formats. You must start or end with [NSEW]. Then DD.DD DD:MM.MM DD:MM:S
The separator can be a colon and or any number of spaces. See the first page for examples.
The sheets are protected to prevent accidental damage- unprotect with Tools|Protection|Unprotect Sheet

Great Circles
Given the location of two points [lat1,lon1] and [lat2,lon2] compute the distance and bearings between them. Show th
and nadir of the great circle.
Optionally:
Compute the locations along the course at intermediate values of latitude, with along track distance (from 1) and the lo
Compute the locations along the course where it crosses specified parallels, with along track distance (from 1) and the
Compute the locations along the course at specified distances, with the local true course.
Additional rows can be added by copying.

Great Circles 2
Given the location [lat1,lon1] and initial bearing, show the locations of the apex and nadir of the great circle thus def
Optionally:
Compute the locations along the course at specified distances, with the local true course.
Compute the locations along the course at intermediate values of latitude, with along track distance (from 1) and the
Compute the locations along the course where it crosses specified parallels, with along track distance (from 1) and th
Given a point, find the closest point to it on the great circle, with the along and cross-track distance.
Additional rows can be added by copying.

Intersection
Find the points of intersection (5 & 6) of two great circles. Each circle is defined either by two points on it, or by a poin
bearing. In the latter case the point cannot be a pole. Choose the input type by entering 1 or 2 in the appropriate box.
The method used (http://www.best.com/~williams/intersect.htm) associates each great circle with a unit vector perpend
The intersections lie in the direction of the cross-product. Garbage will be produced if the two great circles are the sam

The intersections lie in the direction of the cross-product. Garbage will be produced if the two great circles are the sam

DME-DME
Given two points at (lat1,lon1) and (lat2,lon2), find the points 3a and 3b at distances d13 and d23 from points 1 and 2
Lat-Lon to UTM & MGRS
Convert lat/lon points to UTM and MGRS grid references.
Spheroid table
Lookup table of a and f used by spheroid

Spheroid
Computes the location of points of known distance and azimuth from an initial lat/lon along the spheroid geodesic ("g
Compares the results to the standard great circle model on a sphere. xtd-err and atd-err are the distances across an
circle that the spheroid end-point lies.
Computes the distance and bearing between two locations using both spheroid and spherical earth models.
Makes corresponding calculations using rhumb lines instead of geodesics.

Rhumb
Given initial point (lat1,lon1) and a bearing, find the lat/lons of points on the rhumb line at given distances. These dis
the distance to the corresponding pole, where the rhumb line ends.
Given two points (lat1,lon1) and (lat2,lon2) find the rhumb line distance and bearing between them.

Wind
Unknown Wind
Find wind speed and direction, given true airspeed (TAS), ground speed, course and heading. Courses and headin
Speeds are in any (but the same) units.
Unknown heading and ground speed.
Solve for heading and ground speed, given TAS, course and wind- the standard pre-flight planning problem.
TAS and wind speed from three ground speeds.
This is a way to get your TAS when the wind is unknown but you can determine your groundspeed (eg by GPS). F
120 degrees apart- eg 10,130 and 250 degrees. Note the three groundspeeds. From these one can obtain the TAS
without knowing which is which! Hopefully the TAS is the larger of the two!) With exact data, the results are exact, i
wind. The method works best in light winds (say less than 20% of the TAS). As the windspeed increases, the metho
sensitive to errors in the input. These are minimized if one of the three directions is chosen to be approximately dow

StdAtm
Find temperature, pressure, density and sound speed as a function of altitude for the 1976 US Standard Atmosphere
for the first two layers (up to 20km ~ 65617 feet). There are two tables, on the left for heights in feet, on the righ
Different units can be chosen by setting the switches at the top of the corresponding columns. Heights can be change
rows.
Altitude
Pressure Altitude - what an altimeter indicates when set to 29.92"
Indicated Altitude- what an altimeter indicates when set to the local altimeter setting, equals true altitude at field
Field Elevation- the height above MSL of the altimeter setting reporting point.
True Altitude- height above MSL.
Density Altitude- height in the ISA (International standard atmosphere- see above) with the same air density.
Provides means of computing these quantities.

Sun
Calculate the time of local sunset given latitude, longitude and date. Depending on how far the sun is required to dip
the horizon, we have "official sunset", and the end of civil, nautical and astronomical twilight.
Enter the time difference to UTC (eg PST = -8 ) to get local time.

://williams.best.vwh.net/avform.htm)

heading was southerly.


e groundspeeds".

u Real Jantzen)

D:MM:SS.SS output.

Negative distances for due west rhumblines fixed.

diate results are hidden in uncolored columns,


Visual Basic modules which you can access with Alt-F11.

Then DD.DD DD:MM.MM DD:MM:SS.SS formats are supported.

tection|Unprotect Sheet

and bearings between them. Show the locations of the apex

ong track distance (from 1) and the local true course.


along track distance (from 1) and the local true course.

nd nadir of the great circle thus defined.

long track distance (from 1) and the local true course.


along track distance (from 1) and the local true course.
track distance.

either by two points on it, or by a point and initial


tering 1 or 2 in the appropriate box.
reat circle with a unit vector perpendicular to it.
d if the two great circles are the same.

d if the two great circles are the same.

ces d13 and d23 from points 1 and 2- if they exist.

t/lon along the spheroid geodesic ("great circle").


err are the distances across and along the great

and spherical earth models.

at given distances. These distances cannot exceed

ring between them.

se and heading. Courses and headings are in degrees.

flight planning problem.

ne your groundspeed (eg by GPS). Fly three headings


From these one can obtain the TAS and windspeed (but
th exact data, the results are exact, independent of the
the windspeed increases, the method becomes increasingly
s is chosen to be approximately downwind.

or the 1976 US Standard Atmosphere. Implemented


eft for heights in feet, on the right for heights in meters.
ding columns. Heights can be changed in the first two

etting, equals true altitude at field elevation.

ove) with the same air density.

on how far the sun is required to dip below


mical twilight.

Distance and bearing between points


latitude1
longitude1
latitude2
longitude2

deg:min:sec
N33:57.00
W118 24 00.00
40 38N
73:47:00W

UNITS
nm=1 km=2 sm=3
1

distance
bearing 1->2
bearing2->1
maximum latitude
at longitude
minimum latitude
at longitude

lat/lon format
nm
2143.726
deg
65.8922
273.8582

W111
W110.00
100W
E00 01 00
W120

intermediate latitude
intermediate latitude
intermediate latitude
intermediate latitude
intermediate latitude

3970.181

N40:47.0654
W79:41.7470
S40:47.0654

Latitudes of point on GC
intermediate longitude
intermediate longitude
intermediate longitude
intermediate longitude
intermediate longitude

N36:23.6597
N36:40.7719
N38:58.5733
N8:45.5170
N33:20.4906

along GC
bearing
70.1598
70.7551
76.8990
129.9945
65.0056

Crossing parallels
intermediate latitude

N36:23.65967428

intermediate longitude 1 W111:00.0000


intermediate longitude 2 W48:23.4939

70.1598
109.8402

intermediate latitude

N34:00:00

intermediate longitude 1 W118:15.9015


intermediate longitude 2 W41:07.5925

65.9676
114.0324

intermediate latitude

S34

intermediate longitude 1 E138:52.4075


intermediate longitude 2 E61:44.0985

65.9676
114.0324

Points given distance from 1 towards 2


nm
distance

100

distance

1000

distance

2000

distance

-100

point latitude
point longitude
point latitude
point longitude
point latitude
point longitude
point latitude
point longitude

N34:37.0184
W116:33.0834
N39:12.6839
W98:39.1717
N40:45.0965
W76:56.3363
N33:15.3500
W120:13.1569

66.9335
77.7485
91.8004
244.8852

0=DD.DDDD, 1=DD:MM.MMMM,2=DD:MM:SS.SS
sm
2466.954979

S43:00:00.00

along GC
nm
391.307
442.463
935.701
6465.894
-87.861

391.307
3358.121
7.356
3742.073
-7057.927
-10792.644

Lat/lon given radial and distance


latitude1
longitude1
bearing from 1

UNITS

N42:36
W0:01:00
135.0000
nm=1 km=2 sm=3
1

maximum latitude
at longitude
minimum latitude
at longitude
lat/lon format (0/1/2)

N58:38.0553
W55:55.4124
S58:38.0553
E124:04.5876
0=dd.dd 1=dd:mm.mm 2=dd:mm:ss.ss
1

Points given distance from point 1


nm
distance

1.5

distance

1000

distance

2000

distance

-100

along-GC
bearing
135.0162

lat
lon
lat
lon
lat
lon
lat
lon

N42:34.9392
E:00.4405
N29:56.6634
E13:31.1124
N16:13.8313
E23:51.3040
N43:46.0240
W1:38.9152

W111:00:00.00
W110:00:00.00
W100
E80
W120.0

intermediate latitude
intermediate latitude
intermediate latitude
intermediate latitude
intermediate latitude

N43:12.1405
N43:54.2663
N49:41.0970
S49:41.0970
N35:38.8069

45.5653
46.2544
53.5614
126.4386
39.8303

intermediate latitude

N36:23.6597428

intermediate latitude

34N

intermediate latitude

34S

intermediate longitude 1
intermediate longitude 2
intermediate longitude 1
intermediate longitude 2
intermediate longitude 1
intermediate longitude 2

W119:13.3712
E7:22.5464
W121:38.7170
E9:47.8922
W170:12.1078
E58:21.2830

40.2873
139.7127
38.8906
141.1094
38.8906
141.1094

143.0811
147.1730
313.8831

Latitude of point on GC
intermediate longitude
intermediate longitude
intermediate longitude
intermediate longitude
intermediate longitude

Crossing parallels

Along- and cross- track distance


latitude
longitude
latitude
longitude
latitude
longitude

N44:30
W110:30
N43:15.35
W115:13.1568863
N34:39
W116:33.0

closest latitude
closest longitude
closest latitude
closest longitude
closest latitude
closest longitude

N44:00.6875
W109:50.6628
N41:42.7444
W113:00.6737
N36:28.8857
W119:07.8594

distance
along
-4385.916
-4581.913
-5005.603

mm.mm 2=dd:mm:ss.ss
along-GC
nm

-4455.753
-4395.212
-3858.402
6941.598
-5071.058

-5012.457
505.340
-5198.842
691.725
-10108.275
5601.158
distance
cross
-40.657
-134.606
167.150

Great circle #1
1 =1 defined by two points, =2 defined by one point and (true) bearing
latitude1
longitude1
latitude2
longitude2
bearing

lat/lon format 0=dd.dd 1=dd:mm.mm 2=dd:mm:ss.ss


2

N0:00:00
W0:00:00
N2:00:00
E10:00:00
90.00

Great Circle #2
2 =1 defined by two points, =2 defined by one point and (true) bearing
latitude3
longitude3
latitude4
longitude4
bearing

N0:00:00
E10:00:00
N40
W110
360.00

Intersections
latitude5
longitude5
latitude6
longitude6
crs 1-5
crs 2-5
crs 3-5
crs 4-5
crs 5-1
crs 5-2
crs 5-3
crs 5-4
crs1-3

N2:00:00.00
E10:00:00.00
S2:00:00.00
W170:00:00.00

dist 1-5
dist 2-5
dist 3-5
dist 4-5

78.63
0.00
360.00
68.10
258.80
0.00
180.00
314.67
90.00

crs 1-6
crs 2-6
crs 3-6
crs 4-6
crs 6-1
crs 6-2
crs 6-3
crs 6-4

nm
km
sm
611.7626 1132.984 704.0035
1.97E-13 3.64E-13 2.26E-13
120
222.24 138.0935
6667.323 12347.88 7672.616
258.63
271.40
180.00
248.10
101.20
88.60
180.00
45.33

dist 1-6
dist 2-6
dist 3-6
dist 4-6

nm
10188.24
10800
10680
4132.677

km
18868.62
20001.6
19779.36
7653.717

sm
11724.41
12428.41
12290.32
4755.797

UNITS

nm=1 km=2 sm=3


1

latitude1
longitude1
latitude2
longitude2

N43:36.00
W117:51.96
N43:28.00
W114:12.00

brg 1->2
brg 2->1
latitude3a
longitude3a
latitude3b
longitude3b
brg 1->3a
brg 2->3a
brg 1->3b
brg 2->3b

DME- DME Worksheet


1 lat/lon format 0=dd.dd 1=dd:mm.mm 2=dd:mm:ss.ss

dist 1->3

dist (nm)
120.0000

dist 2->3

135.4500

91.61 dist 1->2


274.13

159.6528

N41:54.3353
W116:25.1266
N45:12.6133
W116:12.3180
147.41
227.01
35.80
321.26

Latitude/longitude conversion to UTM and MG


Help!!

Latitude
Deg

Longitude

Min Sec

34: 15: 18.00

Deg
W

Latitude

Min Sec

88: 36:

0.00

Deg Min

N
N

34: 15.3000
34: 15.3000

W
W

Longitude

Latitude

Deg

Deg

Min

88: 36.0000
88: 36.0000

34.255000
34.255000
34.255000

<------------------------------------------- Copy Rows 7, 8 or 9 below as desired -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

72: 30.0000

9: 36.0000

72.500000

rsion to UTM and MGRS coordinates.


Ellipsoid

WGS84

1/f

6378.137

298.2572236

Longitude
Deg

MGRS

-88.600000 16SCC5267991588
-88.600000 16SCC5267991588
-88.600000 16SCC5267991588

UTM

Check MGRS to UTM

16N 0352679.374 3791588.469


16N 0352679.374 3791588.469
16N 0352679.374 3791588.469

16N 0352679.000 3791588.000


16N 0352679.000 3791588.000
16N 0352679.000 3791588.000

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->

9.600000 33XUA1897852848

33N 0318977.669 8052847.521

33N 0318978.000 8052848.000

Coding

MGRS digits

Standard

Ellipsoid
Custom
WGS84
NAD27
NAD83
WGS66
GRS67
IAU68
WGS72
Clarke66
GRS80
Krasovsky
Bessel

a (km)
6378.137
6378.2064
6378.137
6378.145
6378.16
6378.16
6378.135
6378.2064
6378.137
6378.2064
6377.397155

1/f
298.2572236
294.9786982
298.2572221
298.25
298.2472
298.2472
298.26
294.9786982
298.2572221
298.3
299.1528128

WGS84
NAD27

6378.137 298.2572236
6378.206 294.9786982

Lat/lon given radial and distance/Distance and bearing between lat/lonsellipsoid and sphere
UNITS
nm=1 km=2 sm=3
nm
1
ELLIPSOID
WGS84=1, NAD27=2
WGS84
1
SPHERE
1nm/1'=1 FAI=2
1nm/1'
1
lat/lon format 0=dd.dd 1=dd:mm.mm 2=dd:mm:ss.ss
0

Points given distance and bearing from point 1


latitude1
N42:36.00
longitude1
W117:51.96
bearing from 1
51.0000

nm
distance

100

distance

1000

distance

4000

distance

-100

lat
lon
lat
lon
lat
lon
lat
lon

Great Circle Ellipsoid


deg:min
N043.635363
W116.082381
N051.382342
W097.024374
N044.031725
W020.174509
N041.537591
W119.590777

fwd azimuth
52.2192
66.3637
127.2872
229.8443

lat
lon
lat
lon
lat
lon
lat
lon

Great Circle Sphere


deg:min
N043.635084
W116.076332
N051.379671
W096.943643
N043.904001
W019.921690
N041.537981
W119.596433

Distance and Bearing between points


latitude1
longitude1
latitude2
longitude2

latitude1
longitude1
latitude2
longitude2

latitude1
longitude1
latitude2

N45:0:0
W0:0:0
N45:0.0001
E100

Great Circle Ellipsoid


distance
bearing (deg)
nm
3949.2844966357 49.8670365021
Rhumb Ellipsoid
distance
bearing (deg)
4257.3884422813 89.9999986541

Great Circle Sphere


distance
3935.7301
Rhumb Sphere
distance
4242.6407

N45:0
W0:0
N45:1
E100

Great Circle Ellipsoid


distance
bearing (deg)
nm
3948.6399666542 49.8530868667
Rhumb Ellipsoid
distance
bearing (deg)
4256.7713984315 89.9865386390

Great Circle Sphere


distance
3935.0858
Rhumb Sphere
distance
4242.0236

N42:36.00
W117:51.96
N42:36.00

Great Circle Ellipsoid


distance
bearing (deg)
nm
9.3204507523 270.0711842689
Rhumb Ellipsoid
distance
bearing (deg)

Great Circle Sphere


distance
9.2895
Rhumb Sphere
distance

longitude2

latitude1
longitude1
latitude2
longitude2

W118:04.5799

9.3204531501 270.0000000000

N42:36.00
W117:51.96
N43:38.9320
W116:05.4787

Great Circle Ellipsoid


distance
bearing (deg)
nm
100.1926866616 50.4974788433
Rhumb Ellipsoid
distance
bearing (deg)
100.1945584435 51.1004022108

9.2895
Great Circle Sphere
distance
99.9981
Rhumb Sphere
distance
100.0000

ween lat/lons-

at Circle Sphere
fwd azimuth
52.2233
66.4231
127.4423
229.8405

at Circle Sphere
bearing (deg)
49.8793
bearing (deg)
90.0000

at Circle Sphere
bearing (deg)
49.8653
bearing (deg)
89.9865

at Circle Sphere
bearing (deg)
270.0712
bearing (deg)

Cross and along track


difference between
GC ellipsoid and sphere
nm
xtd-err
-0.17417
atd-err
-0.19736
xtd-err
-1.35758
atd-err
-2.70607
xtd-err
0.532595
atd-err
-13.3282
xtd-err
0.181739
atd-err
0.17902

Rhumb Ellipsoid Rhumb Sphere


lat
lon
lat
lon
lat
lon
lat
lon

N043.649102
W116.097262
N053.082358
W098.544776
N084.433938
E037.682721
N041.550705
W119.605307

N043.648867
W116.091312
N053.088673
W098.473496
N084.554693
E039.388551
N041.551133
W119.611060

270.0000

at Circle Sphere
bearing (deg)
50.3971
bearing (deg)
51.0000

Lat/lon given radial and distance- rhumb line


Dist to
latitude1
N 25:47.5900
N. pole
longitude1
W80:17.4300
S. pole
bearing from 1
45.0000
UNITS
nm=1 km=2 sm=3
1
FORMAT
lat/lon format 0=dd.dd 1=dd:mm.mm 2=dd:mm:ss.ss
1

5448.13047 nm
-9825.376004 nm

Points given distance from point 1


nm
distance

100

distance

300

distance

500

distance

1000

distance

5000

distance

5400

distance

5425

distance

5448.13

lat
lon
lat
lon
lat
lon
lat
lon
lat
lon
lat
lon
lat
lon
lat
lon

0.470745
1.378373
0.511882
1.331711
0.55302
1.283957
0.655865
1.158859
1.478621
-1.20897
1.560896
2.84235
1.566039
2.109579
1.570796
-2.41155

N26:58.3007
W78:58.4964
N29:19.7220
W76:18.0849
N31:41.1434
W73:33.9206
N37:34.6968
W66:23.8645
N84:43.1239
E69:16.1194
N89:25.9666
W162:51.2796
N89:43.6443
W120:52.1986
N89:59.9997
E138:10.2827

Distance and bearing between points- rhumb line


nm
latitude1
longitude1
latitude2
longitude2

N 33:57
W118:24
N 40:38
W 73:47

UNITS
nm=1 km=2 sm=3
1

Dist
Bearing

0.62965
1.384464

2164.58
79.32

Wind Triangles

Units of speeds (knots, mph etc) do not matter as long as they are consistent.

Unknown wind
Course
Heading
TAS
Ground Speed

300 deg
305 deg
130
125

Wind Dir
Wind Speed

8.3
12.2

Unknown Heading and Ground Speed


Course
TAS
Wind Dir
Wind Speed

300 deg
130
8.3 deg
15

Heading
Ground Speed

306.2
123.7

Headwind and Crosswind Components


Wind Dir
Wind Speed
Rwy Dir

60 deg
20
30 deg

Headwind
Crosswind

17.32
10.00

TAS and Windspeed from three (GPS) ground speeds


The three headings must differ from each other by 120 degrees (eg 40, 160 and 280)

GS1
GS2
GS3

130
140
140

TAS
Wind Speed

HDG1
HDG2
HDG3

40
160
280

Wind Dir(from)

136.6
6.6

40

The results assume that the TAS is in fact greater tha


case, swap TAS and Wind Speed. This method beco
in the groundspeeds as the wind speed increases. Th
known. However, if it (approximately) known, choosin
downwind minimizes the effects of measurement erro

assume that the TAS is in fact greater than the wind speed. If the opposite is the
TAS and Wind Speed. This method becomes more sensitive to measurement errors
ndspeeds as the wind speed increases. The wind direction is not required to be
wever, if it (approximately) known, choosing one of the three headings to be
minimizes the effects of measurement errors.

1976 Standard Atmosphere up to 20km (65617 ft)


0 C
1 F

UNITS
0

3
1 slugs/ft
slugs/ft3
3
2 kg/m
kg/m3
3 rho0

1 psi
2 in Hg
3 Hpa, mB
4 lbs/ft2
5 atm

ft
C
lbs/ft2
Height
Temp
Pressure
1575.42
11.9 1998.4821
11111
-7.0 1393.6735
-500
16.0 2154.7345
0
15.0 2116.2166
500
14.0 2078.2582
1000
13.0 2040.8529
1500
12.0 2003.9947
2000
11.0 1967.6774
2500
10.0 1931.8948
3000
9.1 1896.6410
3500
8.1 1861.9099
4000
7.1 1827.6956
4500
6.1 1793.9922
5000
5.1 1760.7938
5500
4.1 1728.0947
6000
3.1 1695.8890
6500
2.1 1664.1710
7000
1.1 1632.9351
7500
0.1 1602.1757
8000
-0.8 1571.8871
8500
-1.8 1542.0638
9000
-2.8 1512.7004
9500
-3.8 1483.7914
10000
-4.8 1455.3313
10500
-5.8 1427.3150
11000
-6.8 1399.7369
11500
-7.8 1372.5919
12000
-8.8 1345.8748
12500
-9.8 1319.5803
13000
-10.8 1293.7033
13500
-11.7 1268.2388
14000
-12.7 1243.1817
14500
-13.7 1218.5270
15000
-14.7 1194.2697
15500
-15.7 1170.4049
16000
-16.7 1146.9277
16500
-17.7 1123.8333
17000
-18.7 1101.1170
17500
-19.7 1078.7738
18000
-20.7 1056.7992
18500
-21.7 1035.1885
19000
-22.6 1013.9370

1 ft/sec
2 knots
3 m/sec

0 C
1 F

UNITS
2

slugs/ft3 knots
Density
Sound Speed
0.002269
657.89
0.001695
635.71
0.002412
662.61
0.002377
661.48
0.002342
660.34
0.002308
659.20
0.002274
658.06
0.002241
656.91
0.002208
655.77
0.002175
654.62
0.002143
653.47
0.002111
652.32
0.002079
651.17
0.002048
650.01
0.002017
648.85
0.001987
647.69
0.001957
646.53
0.001927
645.36
0.001897
644.20
0.001868
643.03
0.00184
641.86
0.001811
640.69
0.001783
639.51
0.001755
638.33
0.001728
637.15
0.001701
635.97
0.001674
634.79
0.001648
633.60
0.001621
632.41
0.001596
631.22
0.00157
630.03
0.001545
628.84
0.00152
627.64
0.001496
626.44
0.001471
625.24
0.001447
624.03
0.001424
622.83
0.0014
621.62
0.001377
620.41
0.001355
619.19
0.001332
617.98
0.00131
616.76

1
meter
Height
15064
333
-400
-200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200
2400
2600
2800
3000
3200
3400
3600
3800
4000
4200
4400
4600
4800
5000
5200
5400
5600
5800
6000
6200
6400
6600
6800
7000
7200
7400

19500
20000
20500
21000
21500
22000
22500
23000
23500
24000
24500
25000
25500
26000
26500
27000
27500
28000
28500
29000
29500
30000
30500
31000
31500
32000
32500
33000
33500
34000
34500
35000
35500
36000
36500
37000
37500
38000
38500
39000
39500
40000
40500
41000
41500
42000
42500
43000
43500
44000
44500
45000

-23.6
-24.6
-25.6
-26.6
-27.6
-28.6
-29.6
-30.6
-31.6
-32.5
-33.5
-34.5
-35.5
-36.5
-37.5
-38.5
-39.5
-40.5
-41.5
-42.5
-43.4
-44.4
-45.4
-46.4
-47.4
-48.4
-49.4
-50.4
-51.4
-52.4
-53.4
-54.3
-55.3
-56.3
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5

993.0402
972.4935
952.2924
932.4324
912.9091
893.7182
874.8552
856.3160
838.0961
820.1914
802.5978
785.3109
768.3268
751.6414
735.2506
719.1504
703.3369
687.8062
672.5543
657.5775
642.8718
628.4336
614.2591
600.3446
586.6864
573.2809
560.1246
547.2138
534.5450
522.1148
509.9197
497.9562
486.2211
474.7109
463.4396
452.4351
441.6919
431.2038
420.9648
410.9688
401.2103
391.6834
382.3828
373.3030
364.4388
355.7851
347.3369
339.0893
331.0375
323.1770
315.5030
308.0113

0.001288
0.001266
0.001245
0.001224
0.001203
0.001183
0.001162
0.001142
0.001123
0.001103
0.001084
0.001065
0.001046
0.001028
0.00101
0.000992
0.000974
0.000957
0.000939
0.000923
0.000906
0.000889
0.000873
0.000857
0.000841
0.000826
0.00081
0.000795
0.00078
0.000765
0.000751
0.000737
0.000722
0.000709
0.000692
0.000676
0.00066
0.000644
0.000629
0.000614
0.000599
0.000585
0.000571
0.000558
0.000544
0.000531
0.000519
0.000507
0.000495
0.000483
0.000471
0.00046

615.54
614.32
613.09
611.86
610.63
609.40
608.16
606.93
605.69
604.44
603.20
601.95
600.70
599.45
598.19
596.93
595.67
594.41
593.14
591.87
590.60
589.32
588.04
586.76
585.48
584.20
582.91
581.61
580.32
579.02
577.72
576.42
575.11
573.80
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57

7600
7800
8000
8200
8400
8600
8800
9000
9200
9400
9600
9800
10000
10200
10400
10600
10800
11000
11200
11400
11600
11800
12000
12200
12400
12600
12800
13000
13200
13400
13600
13800
14000
14200
14400
14600
14800
15000
15200
15400
15600
15800
16000
16200
16400
16600
16800
17000
17200
17400
17600
17800

45500
46000
46500
47000
47500
48000
48500
49000
49500
50000
50500
51000
51500
52000
52500
53000
53500
54000
54500
55000
55500
56000
56500
57000
57500
58000
58500
59000
59500
60000
60500
61000
61500
62000
62500
63000
63500
64000
64500
65000
65500

-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5

300.6975
293.5574
286.5868
279.7817
273.1382
266.6525
260.3207
254.1394
248.1048
242.2134
236.4620
230.8472
225.3656
220.0143
214.7900
209.6897
204.7106
199.8497
195.1042
190.4714
185.9486
181.5332
177.2226
173.0144
168.9062
164.8954
160.9800
157.1575
153.4257
149.7826
146.2259
142.7538
139.3640
136.0548
132.8241
129.6702
126.5911
123.5852
120.6506
117.7858
114.9889

0.000449
0.000439
0.000428
0.000418
0.000408
0.000398
0.000389
0.00038
0.000371
0.000362
0.000353
0.000345
0.000337
0.000329
0.000321
0.000313
0.000306
0.000299
0.000291
0.000285
0.000278
0.000271
0.000265
0.000258
0.000252
0.000246
0.00024
0.000235
0.000229
0.000224
0.000218
0.000213
0.000208
0.000203
0.000198
0.000194
0.000189
0.000185
0.00018
0.000176
0.000172

573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57
573.57

18000
18200
18400
18600
18800
19000
19200
19400
19600
19800
20000

0 C
1 F

1 slugs/ft3
2 kg/m3
3 rho0

1 psi
2 in Hg
3 Hpa, mB
4 lbs/ft2
5 atm

C
hPa mB
Temp
Pressure
-56.5
119.2361
12.8
973.8805
17.6 1062.2343
16.3 1037.5081
15.0 1013.2500
13.7
989.4532
12.4
966.1111
11.1
943.2168
9.8
920.7638
8.5
898.7456
7.2
877.1557
5.9
855.9877
4.6
835.2353
3.3
814.8921
2.0
794.9520
0.7
775.4089
-0.6
756.2566
-1.9
737.4892
-3.2
719.1007
-4.5
701.0853
-5.8
683.4370
-7.1
666.1503
-8.4
649.2193
-9.7
632.6384
-11.0
616.4021
-12.3
600.5049
-13.6
584.9414
-14.9
569.7060
-16.2
554.7936
-17.5
540.1989
-18.8
525.9166
-20.1
511.9416
-21.4
498.2689
-22.7
484.8933
-24.0
471.8100
-25.3
459.0140
-26.6
446.5005
-27.9
434.2647
-29.2
422.3018
-30.5
410.6072
-31.8
399.1762
-33.1
388.0042

1 ft/sec
2 knots
3 m/sec

kg/m3
m/sec
Density
Sound Speed
0.191729
295.07
1.186314
339.01
1.272737
341.83
1.248694
341.06
1.225
340.29
1.201651
339.53
1.178645
338.76
1.155977
337.98
1.133644
337.21
1.111642
336.43
1.089969
335.66
1.068621
334.88
1.047594
334.10
1.026885
333.31
1.00649
332.53
0.986407
331.74
0.966632
330.95
0.947161
330.16
0.927993
329.37
0.909122
328.58
0.890546
327.78
0.872262
326.98
0.854267
326.18
0.836557
325.38
0.819129
324.58
0.801981
323.77
0.785108
322.96
0.768508
322.16
0.752179
321.34
0.736116
320.53
0.720316
319.71
0.704778
318.90
0.689497
318.07
0.674471
317.25
0.659697
316.43
0.645171
315.60
0.630892
314.77
0.616856
313.94
0.60306
313.11
0.589501
312.27
0.576176
311.44
0.563084
310.60

-34.4
-35.7
-37.0
-38.3
-39.6
-40.9
-42.2
-43.5
-44.8
-46.1
-47.4
-48.7
-50.0
-51.3
-52.6
-53.9
-55.2
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5

377.0868
366.4195
355.9979
345.8175
335.8742
326.1637
316.6818
307.4243
298.3872
289.5664
280.9580
272.5579
264.3624
256.3676
248.5697
240.9650
233.5498
226.3204
219.2942
212.4860
205.8893
199.4973
193.3038
187.3026
181.4877
175.8533
170.3938
165.1039
159.9781
155.0115
150.1991
145.5361
141.0178
136.6398
132.3978
128.2874
124.3046
120.4455
116.7062
113.0830
109.5723
106.1706
102.8744
99.6806
96.5860
93.5874
90.6820
87.8667
85.1388
82.4956
79.9345
77.4529

0.55022
0.537582
0.525167
0.512973
0.500997
0.489236
0.477687
0.466348
0.455216
0.444288
0.433563
0.423036
0.412706
0.40257
0.392626
0.382871
0.373302
0.363918
0.35262
0.341672
0.331065
0.320787
0.310828
0.301178
0.291828
0.282768
0.273989
0.265483
0.257241
0.249255
0.241516
0.234018
0.226753
0.219713
0.212892
0.206283
0.199879
0.193673
0.187661
0.181835
0.17619
0.17072
0.16542
0.160284
0.155308
0.150486
0.145814
0.141287
0.136901
0.132651
0.128533
0.124542

309.75
308.91
308.06
307.21
306.36
305.51
304.65
303.79
302.93
302.07
301.20
300.33
299.46
298.59
297.71
296.83
295.95
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07

-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5
-56.5

75.0483
72.7184
70.4608
68.2733
66.1537
64.1000
62.1099
60.1817
58.3133
56.5029
54.7488

0.120676
0.116929
0.113299
0.109782
0.106374
0.103071
0.099871
0.096771
0.093766
0.090855
0.088035

295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07
295.07

Alt Setting Unit


(1=in Hg 2=hPa)

Pressure altitude from Indicated Altitude etc.


Indicated altitude
Altimeter Setting
Pressure Alt

1000 feet
30.15 in Hg
789 feet

Pressure Alt
Altimeter Setting
Indicated altitude

1000
30.15 in Hg
1211

Density altitude from pressure altitude and temperature


Pressure altitude
Temperature (C)
Density altitude

8000 feet
18 C
10145 feet

Density altitude from indicated altitude, altimeter setting and temperature


Indicated altitude
Altimeter Setting
Temperature (C)
Density altitude

7906
29.82
18
10144

feet
in Hg
C
feet

True Altitude
Indicated Altitude
Field elevation
OAT
ISA deviation
True Altitude

8000
5000
5
4
8043

feet
feet
C
C
feet

Indicated Altitude
Field elevation
OAT
True Altitude

8000
5000
5
8063

feet
feet
C
feet

Indicated Altitude
Field elevation
OAT
Temp at field
True Altitude

8000
5000
9
15
8105

feet
feet
C
C
feet

It is not easy to get an accurate true altitude (actual altitude above MSL) from an altimeter. You need
to know not only the pressure at some point of known elevation below you (satisfied by having the local
altimeter setting), but also the vertical profile of the air temperature between that point and your aircraft.
Setting the altimeter to the local altimeter setting compensates for non-standard surface pressures.
The altimeter then reads "indicated" altitude, which would be true altitude only if the temperature profile was that
of the "standard" atmosphere. Deviations of the actual air temperature from standard causes the pressure to
change with altitude at non-standard rates. In the end, what matters is the vertically
averaged deviation from standard temperature, "isadev". This could be obtained from a radiosonde balloon
sounding, if one were available- one would then use the first of the three calculation methods
to obtain true altitude.
In the second column, the only available temperature is the OAT at altitude, and the assumption is made that
below you, the lapse rate is standard (ie 2C/1000' as in the standard atmosphere).
In the third column, one also has the temperature at the field (the altimeter setting location) available,
and the lapse rate between the field and the altitude is assumed constant.
In the fourth column, the temp at the field is available, but not the temperature at altitude (useful for
precomputation).
Below the inverse of the computation in (4) is made, finding indicated altitude, given true altitude.
To the extent these latter assumptions are correct, the result will accurate...

To the extent these latter assumptions are correct, the result will accurate...

True Altitude
Field elevation
Temp at field
Indicated Altitude

8000
5000
15
7895

feet
feet
C
feet

Indicated Altitude
Field elevation
Temp at field
True Altitude

profile was that


pressure to

nde balloon

n is made that

8000
5000
15
8105

feet
feet
C
feet

Sunrise and sunset


deg
Latitude
Longitude

N40:
W74:

min
54.0000 Date
18.0000 Timezone

06/25/90
-4

sunrise
sunset
UTC
local
UTC
local
Official
9:26
5:26
0:33
20:33
Civil
8:52
4:52
1:06
21:06
Nautical
8:10
4:10
1:49
21:49
Astronomical
7:19
3:19
2:40
22:40