# General Objective: o Analyze the various communication systems used in digital modulation.

Specific Objectives: o Interpret the concept, types and the different processes used in digital modulation. o Analyze ASK, FSK, PSK and QAM. o Compare the error performance of different digital modulation systems.

We have discussed some methods of processing information involved in digital communications.
o Digital to digital encoding techniques o Analog to digital conversion
o These included techniques. UNIPOLAR, POLAR and BIPOLAR

o These included PAM, PWM, PDM and PCM

All of these methods are done to ensure proper transmission of digital information over a medium.

We will now investigate the methods of converting digital information to analog (digital to analog modulation).
o These techniques include
     Amplitude shift keying (ASK) Frequency shift keying (FSK) Phase shift keying (PSK) Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) And other digital modulation techniques associated with these.

Digital Modulation
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transmittal of digitally modulated analog signals (carriers) between two or more points in a communication system

Before proceeding with digital modulation techniques, let us first compare bit rate and baud rate. o Bit rate refers to the rate of change of a digital information signal. o Baud rate refers to the rate of change of a signal AFTER encoding and modulation have occurred.

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Bit rate is the number of bits transmitted per unit time. This is also called data rate. The unit for bit rate is bits per second (bps) Baud rate is the number of symbols transmitted per unit time. The other term for baud rate is symbol rate. The unit for baud rate is baud.

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Although the two quantities are different, they are closely related. The two are related by the equation Baud = fb/log2 M = fb/N where M = the coding level used. The quantity log2 M = N is the number of bits used in coding a level.

1. Determine the baud rate for a 10kbps binary signal to pass undistorted. 2. For the same 10kbps signal, determine the baud rate if 2 bits are used to represent a level. 3. In higher level PSK systems, such as 8PSK, three bits are used to represent a phase change. If the baud rate is 15 baud, what is the bit rate produced by this modulation system?

 

The simplest digital modulation technique. A binary signal modulates the amplitude of the analog carrier. For ASK, the analog output is either ON or OFF (hence the term ON-OFF keying) For ASK, bit rate = baud rate = minimum Nyquist bandwidth

Where:

Vask(t) – amplitude shift keying wave Vm(t) – digital information signals (Volts)

Example:

A/2 – unmodulated carrier amplitude (volts) ωc – analog carrier radian frequency (radians per second, 2πfct)

Determine the baud and minimum bandwidth necessary to pass a 10kbps binary signal using amplitude shift keying.

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Another simple, low performance type digital modulation system. In FSK, the binary signal varies the frequency of the analog carrier in accordance with its state. For this system, two frequencies are required, the mark(1) frequency and the space(0) frequency.

Where: Vfsk(t) – binary FSK waveform Vc – peak analog carrier amplitude (volts) fc – analog carrier center frequency (Hz) Δf – peak change (shift) in the analog carrier frequency (Hz) Vm(t) – binary input signal (volts)

Frequency Deviation
the difference between either the mark or space frequency, and the center frequency or half the difference between the mark and space frequencies Where: Δf – f requency deviation (hertz) | fm – fs | – absolute difference between the mark and space frequencies (hertz) fm – mark frequency, (fc + Δf) fs – space frequency, (fc – Δf) fc – carrier frequency

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For FSK, bit rate = baud rate

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The bandwidth is approximated by twice the sum of bit rate and frequency deviation.

Example: Determine (a) the peak frequency deviation (b) minimum BW and (c) baud for a binary FSK with a mark frequency of 49kHZ, a space frequency of 53kHz and an input bit rate of 2kbps.

Using Bessel Functions
Where: fa – highest fundamental frequency of the binary input signal (Hz) fb – input bit rate (bps)

;unitless or h = FM modulation index called the h-factor in FSK

Example:

Using a Bessel table, determine the minimum bandwidth for a binary FSK with a mark frequency of 49kHZ, a space frequency of 53kHz and an input bit rate of 2kbps.

FSK Transmitter

Δf = Vm(t)k1 Where: Δf – peak freqeucny deviation (Hz) Vm(t) – peak binary modulating signal voltage (V) k1 – deviation sensitivity (Hz/V)

Non-coherent FSK demodulator (Envelope/Not PLL Carrier)
BPF Power Splitter BPF Envelope detector

+

Envelope detector

Coherent FSK demodulator (Synchronous/PLL Carrier)
X Power Splitter X LPF LPF

+

PLL-FSK demodulator

comparator

Phase

Amp

Voltage Controlled oscillator

the most common circuit used for demodulating binary FSK signal

o has a poorer performance than PSK or QAM o it is seldom used for high-performance digital radio system o its use is restricted to low-performance, low-cost, asynchronous data modems for data communications over analog, voice band telephone lines

o a form of continuous phase frequency shift keying (CPFSK) with mark and space frequencies synchronized with input binary rate separated by ½ of bit rate o it requires synchronizing circuits and is more expensive

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PSK is a form of M-ary modulation where a change in phase can be represented by many bits. The analog carrier’s phase is varied by the digital signal.

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For BPSK, N = 1, M = 2. Therefore, bit rate = baud, BW = fb two output phases are possible for a single carrier frequency (1 & 0) as the input signal changes state, the phase of the output carrier shifts between 2 angles that are 180̊

BPSK

Truth Table Balanced Modulator Binary Input Logic 0 Logic 1 Output Phase 180º 0º

BPSK
Logic 0 180º -sinωct Phasor Diagram

cosωct Logic 1 0º sinωct -cosωct Logic 0 180º Constellation Diagram

cosωct Logic 1 0º -cosωct

waveform

Example: For a BPSK modulator with a carrier frequency of 70 MHz, and an input bit rate of 10Mbps, determine the maximum and minimum upper and lower side frequencies, draw the output spectrum, determine the minimum Nyquist bandwidth and calculate the baud.

Coherent Carrier Recovery – detects and regenerates a carrier signal that is both frequency and phase coherent with the original transmit carrier

Quaternary Phase-Shift Keying (Quadrature PSK)
o angle modulated, constant amplitude digital modulation, M-ary encoding technique where N =2 and M = 4 o four output phases are possible for a single carrier frequency o binary input data are combined into groups called ‘dibit’ o the rate of change of the output baud is one-half of the input bit rate

Quaternary Phase-Shift Keying
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With QPSK, realized.

bandwidth

compression

is

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For the same data rate with BPSK, QPSK has half the baud rate of BPSK (recall baud = bit rate/N; N = 1 for BPSK, 2 for QPSK).

o QPSK requires half the bandwidth of BPSK.

QPSK Transmitter

QPSK
Q I 1 0 cosωct- sinωct

Constellation Diagram cosωct cosωct
Q I 1 1 cosωct+ sinωct

10 -sinωct 00 -cosωct Binary Input Q I 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1

11 sinωct 01

-sinωct
Q I 0 0 -cosωct- sinωct

sinωct
Q I 0 1 -cosωct+ sinωct

-cosωct Phasor Diagram Truth table

QPSK Output Phase -135º -45º +135º +45º

Circle 45° 1/4π ’00’ Circle 135° 3/4π ’01’ Circle 225° 5/4π ’10’ Circle 315° 7/4π ’11’

’00’

00

10

01

’01’

’10’

’11’

’00’

00

10

01

’01’

’10’

’11’

fb B W  2

fb B a u d  2

For a QPSK with an input data rate equal to 10Mbps and a carrier frequency of 70MHz, determine the minimum bandwidth and the baud.

Example: For a QPSK modulator with an input bit rate of 10Mbps and a carrier frequency of 70 MHz, determine the minimum Nyquist bandwidth and calculate the baud.

o with 8-PSK, three bits are encoded, forming tribits and producing eight different output phases o with 8-PSK, n=3, M=8 o thus bit rate is three times the baud rate

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Q and I channel determine the polarity o Logic 1 – (+V) o Logic 0 – (-V) C and C’ channel determines the magnitude o Logic 1 – (1.307 V) o Logic 0 – (0.541 V)

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Binary Input Q I C 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1

8-PSK Output Phase -112.5º -157.5º -57.5º -22.5º +112.5º +157.5º +157.5º +22.5º

Truth table Diagram

fb B W  3

fb B a u d  3

For an 8 PSK modulator, with an input data rate of 10Mbps and a carrier frequency of 70MHz, determine the minimum bandwidth required and the baud rate.

Example: For an 8-PSK modulator with an input bit rate of 10Mbps and a carrier frequency of 70 MHz, determine the minimum Nyquist bandwidth and calculate the baud.

o with 16-PSK, four bits are encoded, forming quadbits and producing 16 possible output phases o n = 4, M = 16 o minimum bandwidth and baud is one-fourth the bit rate Receive

fb B W  4

fb B a u d  4

binary data

Bit Code 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111

Phase 11.25º 33.75º 56.25º 78.75º 101.25º 123.75º 146.25º 168.75º

Bit Code 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111

Phase 191.25º 213.75º 236.25º 258.75º 281.25º 303.75º 326.25º 348.75º

Truth table

Phasor Diagram

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QAM is a form of digital information similar to PSK except that the digital information is contained in both the amplitude and the phase of the transmitted carrier. With QAM, amplitude and phase shift keying are combined in such a way that the positions of the signaling elements on the constellation diagrams are optimized to achieve the greatest distance between elements.

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8 QAM is an M-ary encoding technique where M=8 Unlike 8 PSK, the output of 8 QAM is not a constant amplitude signal. The bandwidth required for 8 QAM is the same as that of 8 PSK, and therefore they have the same baud rate as 8 PSK.

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fb B W  3

fb B a u d  3

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Q and I channel determine the polarity o Logic 1 – (+V) o Logic 0 – (-V) C channel determines the magnitude o Logic 1 – (1.848 V) o Logic 0 – (0.765 V)

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Q 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

Binary Input I 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

8-QAM output Amplitude Phase 0.765V -135° 1.848V -135° 0.765V -45° 1.848V -45° 0.765V +135° 1.848V +135° 0.765V +45° 1.848V +45°

Truth Table

cosωct
Q I C 1 0 1

Q I C 1 1 1

cosωct
1 0 1 1 1 1

Q I C 1 0 0

Q I C 1 1 0 Q I C 0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 0

-sinωct

Q I C 0 0 0

sinωct

-sinωct
0 0 0 0 1 0

sinωct

Q I C 0 0 1

-cosωct Phasor Diagram

Q I C 0 1 1

0 0 1

-cosωct Constellation Diagram

0 1 1

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16 QAM is an M-ary encoding technique where M = 16 The bandwidth required for 16-QAM is the same as that of 16-PSK, and therefore they have the same baud rate as 16-PSK.

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fb B W  4

fb B a u d  4

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Q and I channel determine the polarity o Logic 1 – (+V) o Logic 0 – (-V) Q’ and I’ channel determines the magnitude o Logic 1 – (0.821 V) o Logic 0 – (0.22 V)

Q 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Binary Input Q” I 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

16-QAM output I” 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0.311V 0.850V 0.311V 0.850V 0.850V 1.161V 0.850V 1.161V 0.311V 0.850V 0.311V 0.850V 0.850V 1.161V 0.850V 1.161V -135° -165° -45° -15° -105° -135° -75° -45° 135° 165° 45° 15° 105° 135° 75° 45°

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Truth Table

cosωct
1101

cosωct
1100 1110 1111

1001

1000

1010

1011

-sinωct

sinωct

-sinωct
0001 0000 0010

sinωct
0011

-cosωct Phasor Diagram

0101

0100

-cosωct

0110

0111

Constellation Diagram

Example: For a 16-QAM modulator with an input bit rate of 10Mbps and a carrier frequency of 70 MHz, determine the minimum Nyquist bandwidth and calculate the baud.

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ratio of the transmission bit rate to the minimum bandwidth required for a particular modulation scheme it is generally normalized to 1Hz bandwidth and thus, indicates the number of bits that can be propagated through a medium for each of hertz of bandwidth
transmissi on bit rate (bps) minimum bandwidth (Hz)

BW Efficiency 

Bits/cycle

Modulation ASK FSK BPSK QPSK 8-PSK 8-QAM 16-PSK 16-QAM 32PSK 64-QAM

Encoding Scheme Single Bit Single Bit Single Bit Dibits Tribits Tribits Quadbits Quadbits Five Bits Six Bits

Outputs Possible 2 2 2 4 8 8 16 16 32 64

Minimum Bandwidth fb fb fb fb/2 fb/3 fb/3 fb/4 fb/4 fb/5 fb/6

Baud fb fb fb fb/2 fb/3 fb/3 fb/4 fb/4 fb/5 fb/6

BW Efficiency 1 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 6

Example: For an 8-PSK system, operating with an information bit rate of 24 kbps, determine (a) baud (b) minimum bandwidth and (c) bandwidth efficiency.

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it is the process of extracting a phase coherent reference carrier from a receiver signal sometimes called “phase referencing” three methods ( squaring loop, costas loop and remodulator)

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as with any digital system, digital radio requires precise timing or clock synchronization between the transmit and the receive circuitry because of this, it is necessary to regenerate clocks at the receiver that are synchronous with those at the transmitter

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A digital modulation where the binary input information is contained in the difference between two successive signaling elements rather than the absolute phase The difference in phase of the two signaling element determines the logic condition of the data.

DBPSK Transmitter DBPSK Receiver

1 0 0

0 1 0°

1 1 0°

1 1 0°

1 1 0°

0 0 180°

0 1 0° 0

0

1 0

1 0

0 1 0°

1 1 0°

Reference 180° bit

180° 180° 180°

timing diagram (tx)
DBPSK 180° Input phase Reference phase Recovered bit stream

180° 0° 0° 1 0 1 1

0° 0° 180° 0° 180° 180° 180° 0° 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1

timing sequence (rx)

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The bit error performance for various multiphase digital modulation systems is directly related to the distance between points on a signal state-space (constellation) diagram. Probability of error P(e) is a theoretical (mathematical) expectation of the bit error rate for a given system. Bit error rate (BER) is an empirical (historical) record of actual bit error performance. Probability of error is a function of the carrierto-noise power ratio, or more specifically, the average energy per bit-to-noise density ratio, and the number of possible encoding conditions used.

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the ratio of the average carrier power (the combined power of the carrier and its associated sidebands) to the thermal noise power

C( dBm

C( watts ) )  10 log 0.001

P N  kTB ( watts )
Where: o N – thermal noise power (watts) o k – Boltzman’s constant o T – temperature (K) o B – bandwidth

Noise in dB

KTB N(dBm )  10 log 0.001

Mathematically, the carrier-to-noise ratio is:
C C  unitless N KTB ratio

Stated in dB

C C (dB)  10 log N N  C( dBm ) - N( dBm )

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the energy of a single bit of information

Eb  CTb (J/bit)
Where: o Eb – energy of a single bit (Joules per bit) o Tb – time of a single bit (seconds) o C – carrier power (watts) Stated in dBJ

E b ( dBJ )  10 log E b

because Tb = 1/ fb, where fb is the bit rate in bits per second, Eb can be written as:

C Eb  (J/bit) fb
Stated in dBJ

C Eb(dBJ)  10 log fb  10 log C - 10 log fb

o

the thermal noise power normalized to a 1Hz bandwidth
N N0  (W / Hz) B

Where: o No – noise power density (watts per Hz) o N – thermal noise power (watts) o B – Bandwidth (Hz)

Stated in dBm

N N 0 ( dBm )  10 log - 10 log B 0.001  N( dBm ) - 10 log B

KTB N0   KT (W / Hz) B K N0(dBm)  10 log  10 log T 0.001

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the ratio of the energy of a single bit to noise power present in 1 Hz of bandwidth

E b C / fb C B   N 0 N / B N fb
o

Eb C B  X N0 N fb

Eb/N0 is used to compare two or more digital modulation system that use different transmission rates (bit rates), modulation schemes or encoding techniques.

stated in dB

Eb C B (dB)  10 log  10 log N0 N fb  10 log E b - 10 log N 0
The minimum C/N power ratio for QAM systems is less than that required for comparable PSK systems. The higher the level of encoding, the higher the minimum C/N ratio.

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Example For a QPSK system and the given parameters, determine: o Carrier power in dBm o Noise power in dBm o Noise power density in dBm o Energy per bit in dBJ o C/N in dB o Eb/N0 ratio Pc = 10-12 W PN = 1.2 x 10-14 W fb = 60kbps B = 120 kHz

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The bit error performance for the various multiphase digital modulation systems is directly related to the phase distance between points on signal state space diagram. For example, for BPSK signal state space diagram, the two signal points (logic 1 ad logic 0) have maximum separation (d) for a given power level (D). In essence, one BPSK signal state is the exact negative of the other If a noise Vector (VN) is combined with the signal vector (VS), it is effectively shifts the phase of the signaling vector (VSE) to alpha degrees. If the phase shifts exceeds 90°, the signal element is shifted beyond the threshold point into the error region

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For PSK systems, the threshold point (TP) is given by:  TP   M

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The error performance of higher PSK systems can be compared to the BPSK (which is referred to as the antipodal performance) simply by determining the relative decrease in error distance between points on a signal state-space diagram. For PSK systems, the general formula for the maximum distance between signaling points is:
Where: o d – error distance o M – number of phases o D – peak signal amplitude

180 Error Distance(d)  (2 x sin ) xD M

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From these equations we can see that oThe higher levels of modulation require a greater Eb/N0 to reduce the effect of noise interference oThe higher the level of modulation, the smaller the angular separation between signal points and the smaller the error distance.

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The general expression for the bit error probability of an M-phase PSK is:
P

 
π

e

1

l o g 2 M

e rf ( z )

Where erf = error function

z

si n

 M    

l o g 2 M

  

E b N o

  

Determine the minimum bandwidth required to achieve a P(e) of 10-7 for an 8PSK system operating at 10Mbps with a carrier-to-noise power ratio of 11.7 dB.

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For a large number of signal points (i.e. M>4) QAM outperforms PSK. This is because the distance between signaling points in a PSK system is smaller than the distance between adjacent signaling points for a QAM system.
Where: o d – error distance o L – number of levels on each axis o D – peak signal amplitude

d

2 L -1

xD

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The general expression for the bit error probability of an L-level QAM is: 1 L 1 P e   e rf z  lo g 2 L  L 





Where erfc(z) = complimentary error function

z 

log 2 L L -1

Eb No

Example Which system requires the higher Eb/N0 ratio for a probability of error of 10-6, a four level QAM system or an 8-PSK system?

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