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OSIReferencemodel Interlayercommunication Dataencapsulation Horizontalcommunication,verticalcommunication physicallayer;datalinklayer;networklayer;transport layer;sessionlayer;presentationlayer;applicationlayer. TCP/IPReferencemodelLink;Internet;Transport;Application layer.

ComparisonoftheOSIandTCP/IPreferencemodels

OSIReferencemodel Interlayercommunication Dataencapsulation Horizontalcommunication,verticalcommunication physicallayer;datalinklayer;networklayer;transport layer;sessionlayer;presentationlayer;applicationlayer. TCP/IPReferencemodelLink;Internet;Transport;Application layer. ComparisonoftheOSIandTCP/IPreferencemodels

OSIReferenceModel
The OSI Model is a model for understanding and designing a network architecture that is flexible,robust&interoperable. The OSI model is a layered framework for the design of network systems that allows communicationbetweenalltypesofcomputersystems.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Application Presentation Session Transport Network DataLink Physical

OSIReferencemodel Interlayercommunication
TakeaexampleofArmycommunication

Dataencapsulation Horizontalcommunication,verticalcommunication physicallayer;datalinklayer;networklayer;transport layer;sessionlayer;presentationlayer;applicationlayer. TCP/IPReferencemodelLink;Internet;Transport;Application layer. ComparisonoftheOSIandTCP/IPreferencemodels

Device A

Interactionbetweenlayers
Peertopeerprotocol(7thlayer)

Device B

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Application DataLink
76interface

Application DataLink
76interface

Presentation DataLink
65interface

Peertopeerprotocol(6thlayer) Peertopeerprotocol(5thlayer)

Presentation 6 DataLink
65interface

Session DataLink
54interface Peertopeerprotocol(4thlayer)

Session DataLink
54interface

5 4 3 2 1

Transport DataLink
43interface

Transport DataLink
3rd 3rd 3rd 43interface

Network DataLink
32interface

N/W k
2nd 2nd

N/W k
2nd

Network DataLink
32interface

DataLink DataLink
21interface

DLL k
1st 1st

DLL k
1st

DataLink DataLink
21interface

Physical DataLink

Phy k

Phy k

Physical DataLink

OSIReferencemodel Interlayercommunication Dataencapsulation Horizontalcommunication,verticalcommunication physicallayer;datalinklayer;networklayer;transport layer;sessionlayer;presentationlayer;applicationlayer. TCP/IPReferencemodelLink;Internet;Transport;Application layer. ComparisonoftheOSIandTCP/IPreferencemodels

DataEncapsulation

Application Data Application Data Application Data Application Data DataLink footer

Transport header Network Transport header header DataLink header Network Transport header header

OSIReferencemodel Interlayercommunication Dataencapsulation Horizontalcommunication,verticalcommunication physicallayer;datalinklayer;networklayer;transport layer;sessionlayer;presentationlayer;applicationlayer. TCP/IPReferencemodelLink;Internet;Transport;Application layer. ComparisonoftheOSIandTCP/IPreferencemodels

HorizontalandVerticalcommunication

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Application Presentation Session Transport Network DataLink Physical

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Application Presentation Session Transport Network DataLink Physical

H7 D7 H6 H5 H4 H3 H2 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 T2
Transmissionmedium

010 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

As each block of data reaches the next higher layer, the headers and trailersattachedtoit atthecorresponding sending layer are removed
H3 H2

H7 D7 H6 H5 H4 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 T2

010 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

OSIReferencemodel Interlayercommunication Horizontalcommunication,verticalcommunication Dataencapsulation physicallayer;datalinklayer;networklayer;transport layer;sessionlayer;presentationlayer;applicationlayer. TCP/IPReferencemodelLink;Internet;Transport;Application layer. ComparisonoftheOSIandTCP/IPreferencemodels

PhysicalLayer
Thislayertransmitstheunstructured,rawbitstreamoveraphysicalmedium It deals with the mechanical and electrical specifications of the interface and transmissionmedium.
FromDLL
L2data

ToDLL
L2data

101010000001

101010000001

Physical Layer

Physical Layer

PhysicalTransmissionMedium

Thephysicallayerisconcernwith: Physicalcharacteristicsofinterfacesandmedium Representationofbits Lineconfiguration Transmissionmode Synchronizationofbits Physicaltopology

DataLinkLayer
Sendsdataframesfromthenetworklayertothephysicallayer
Thedatalinklayerisresponsibleforprovidingerrorfreetransferoftheseframes fromonecomputertoanotherthroughthephysicallayer.
FromN/Wlayer
L3data

ToN/Wlayer
L3data

T2

DataH2

T2

DataH2

101010000000010

101010000000010

Tophysicallayer

Fromphysicallayer

Specificresponsibilitiesofthedatalinklayer: 1.Framing 4.Errorcontrol 2.Physicaladdressing 3.Flowcontrol

NetworkLayer
1.Itisresponsibleforaddressingmessagesandtranslatinglogicaladdressesand namesintophysicaladdresses. 2.Thislayeralsodeterminestheroutefromthesourcetothedestinationcomputer.
3.Itdetermineswhichpaththedatashouldtakebasedonnetworkconditions,priorityof service,andotherfactors.

4.Italsomanagestrafficproblemsonthenetwork,suchasswitchingandroutingof packetsandcontrollingthecongestionofdata.
FromTransportlayer
L4 data

ToTransportlayer
L4 data

H3

H3

L3 data

L3 data

ToDataLinklayer

FromDataLinklayer

SpecificresponsibilitiesoftheNetworklayer: 1.Logicaladdressing 2.Routing

TransportLayer
1.providesanadditionalconnectionlevelbeneaththesessionlayer
2.Itensuresthatpacketsaredeliverederrorfree,insequence,andwithoutlossesor duplications..
FromSessionlayer
L5 data

ToSessionlayer
L5 data

H4

H4

H4

H4

H4

H4

L4data L4data L4data

L4data L4data L4data

ToN/Wlayer

FromN/Wlayer

SpecificresponsibilitiesoftheTransportlayer: 1.Segmentationandreassembly 2.Connectioncontrol 3.Flowcontrol 4.Errorcontrol

SessionLayer
1. allows two applications on different computers to open, use, and close a connectioncalledasession. 2. It performs namerecognition and other functions, such as security, that are neededtoallowtwoapplicationstocommunicateoverthenetwork. 3. It performs namerecognition and other functions, such as security, that are neededtoallowtwoapplicationstocommunicateoverthenetwork.
4.Thesessionlayersynchronizesusertasksbyplacingcheckpointsinthedatastream.

5.Thislayeralsoimplementsdialogcontrolbetweencommunicatingprocesses,such asregulatingwhichsidetransmits,when,andforhowlong
FromPresentationlayer ToSessionlayer

H5

H5

syn

syn

syn

syn

syn

syn

ToTransportlayer

FromTransportlayer

SpecificresponsibilitiesoftheSessionlayer: 1.DialogControl 2.Synchronization

PresentationLayer
1. It defines the format used to exchange data among networked computers. 2. It is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information exchangedbetweentwocomputers. 3. The presentation layer is responsible for converting protocols, translatingthedata,encryptingthedata,changingorconvertingthe characterset,andexpandinggraphicscommands 4.Italsomanagesdatacompressiontoreducethenumberofbitsthat needtobetransmitted.
FromApplicationlayer ToApplicationlayer

H6

Data

H6

Data

Tosessionlayer

Fromsessionlayer

SpecificresponsibilitiesofthePresentationlayer: 1.Translation
Conversion from sender dependant format into a common format at sender and at receiver change of common format into its receiver format takes place by presentationlayer.

2.Encryption
Thesendertransformstheoriginalinformationtoanotherandsendstheresulting messageoutoverthenetwork,whichhandlesbypresentationlayer.

3.Compression
Itreducesthenumberofbitstobetransmitted.

ApplicationLayer
1. This layer relates to the services that directly support user applications, such as software for file transfers, database access, andemail. 2. Applicationlayer protocols can be programs in themselves, such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP), or they can be used by other programs, such as Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), used by mostemailprograms,toredirectdatatothenetwork.
User User

X.500

FTAM

... X.400

X.500

FTAM

... X.400

H7

Data

Message

H7

Data

Message

ToPresentationlayer

FromPresentationlayer

SpecificresponsibilitiesoftheApplicationlayer: 1.NetworkvirtualTerminal
Itallowsausertologontoaremotehost.

2.Filetransfer,accessandmanagement(FTAM)
Itallowsausertoaccessfilesinaremotecomputer,toreceivefilesfroma remotecomputerandtomanageandcontrolfilesinaremotecomputer.

3.Mailservices
Itprovidesthebasisforemailforwardingandstorage.

4.Directoryservices
It provides distributed data sources and access for global information aboutvariousobjectsandservices.

Summaryofdutiesforeachlayer
Application
ToTranslate,encrypt, andcompressdata
Toprovidereliableprocessto processmessagedelivery&error recovery

ToAllowaccessto networkresources Toestablish,manage andterminatesessions Tomovepacketsfrom sourcetodestination Totransmitbitsovera medium

Presentation Session Transport Network

Toorganizebitsinto frames

DataLink Physical

OSIReferencemodel Interlayercommunication Horizontalcommunication,verticalcommunication Dataencapsulation physicallayer;datalinklayer;networklayer;transport layer;sessionlayer;presentationlayer;applicationlayer. TCP/IPReferencemodelLink;Internet;Transport;Application layer. ComparisonoftheOSIandTCP/IPreferencemodels

TCP/IPTransmissionControlProtocolInternetProtocol
It is an industrystandard suite of protocols that provide communicationsinaheterogeneousenvironment. TCP/IP also supports routing and is commonly used as an internetworkingprotocol.
TCP/IP is broken intothefourlayers

Application Presentation Application Session Transport Internetlayer Network DataLink N/Waccesslayer N/WinterfaceORLink Physical

Applications Presentation Session Transport Internet DataLink LinkLayer Physical


Protocolsspecifictotheunderlyingphysicalmedia usedfordatacommunicationatthehardwarelevel

SMTP

FTP

DNS

HTTP

TELNET

Application

TCP ICMP IP

UDP ARP
RARP

TCP/IPTransmissionControlProtocolInternetProtocol

N/WaccesslayerorN/Winterface The network interface layer, corresponding to the physical and datalinklayersoftheOSIreferencemodel,communicatesdirectly withthenetwork. It provides the interface between the network architecture (such astokenring,Ethernet)andtheInternetlayer. Internetlayer The Internet layer, corresponding to the network layer of the OSI reference model, uses several protocols for routing and delivering packets. SeveralprotocolsworkwithintheInternetlayer. Internet

ICMP

IP

ARP

RARP

1.InternetProtocol(IP) InternetProtocol(IP)isapacketswitchedprotocolthatperforms addressingandrouteselection. IP is a connectionless protocol and sends packets without expectingthereceivinghosttoacknowledgereceipt. IPisresponsibleforpacketassemblyanddisassembly 2.AddressResolutionProtocol(ARP) Before an IP packet can be forwarded to another host, the hardwareaddressofthereceivingmachinemustbeknown. The ARP determines hardware address (MAC addresses) that correspondtoanIPaddress. 3.ReverseAddressResolutionProtocol(RARP) A RARP server maintains a database of machine numbers in the form of an ARP table (or cache) which is created by the system administrator. The RARP protocol provides an IP number to a requesting hardwareaddress.

4.InternetControlMessageProtocol(ICMP) The ICMP is used by IP and higherlevel protocols to send and receivestatusreportsaboutinformationbeingtransmitted. TransportLayer It is responsible for establishing and maintaining endtoend communicationbetweentwohosts. The transport layer provides acknowledgment of receipt, flow control,andsequencingofpackets. Italsohandlesretransmissionsofpackets.
The transport layer can use either TCP or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) protocolsdependingontherequirementsofthetransmission.

Transport

TCP

UDP

1.TransmissionControlProtocol(TCP) The TCP is responsible for the reliable transmission of data from onenodetoanother. It is a connectionbased protocol and establishes a connection, betweentwomachinesbeforeanydataistransferred. 2.UserDatagramProtocol(UDP) Aconnectionlessprotocol,theUDP,isresponsibleforendtoend transmissionofdata. UDP does not establish a connection, it attempts to send the dataandtoverifythatthedestinationhostactuallyreceivesthe data. UDP is best used to send small amounts of data for which guaranteeddeliveryisnotrequired. ApplicationLayer SMTP FTP DNS HTTP TELNET Correspondingtothesession,presentation,andapplicationlayers of the OSI reference model, the application layer connects applicationstothenetwork.

OSIReferencemodel Interlayercommunication Horizontalcommunication,verticalcommunication Dataencapsulation physicallayer;datalinklayer;networklayer;transport layer;sessionlayer;presentationlayer;applicationlayer. TCP/IPReferencemodelLink;Internet;Transport;Application layer. ComparisonoftheOSIandTCP/IPreferencemodels

ComparisonbetweenOSI&TCP/IP
TCP/IP also supports routing and is commonly used as an internetworkingprotocol.
OSIReferenceModel 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Application Presentation Session Transport Network DataLink Physical TCP/IP Application

4 3 2 1

Transport Internetlayer

N/Waccesslayer N/Winterface

TCP/IP

OSIReferenceModel

1.Defined after the adventofInternet 2.Service interface & protocols were not clearlydistinguished 3.TCP/IPsupports internetworking 4.Looselylayered 5.Protocol dependent standard 6.Morecredible 7.TCP reliably delivers
packets, IP does not reliablydeliver packets

1.Defined before the adventofInternet 2.Service interface & protocolswereclearly distinguished 3.OSIdoesnotsupports internetworking 4.Strictlayering 5.Protocolindependent standard 6.Lesscredible packets are 7.All reliablydelivered

ComparisonbetweenTCP&UDP
Factor
Reliability

TCP
Itisconnectionoriented, nodatacorruptionwhile datatransfer Messagearrivesinorder

UDP
It is connectionless, may be data corruption while datatransfer Noordermessage No ordering of message, notrackingconnection Packets are individually, onepacketpercall DNS,VOIP,DHCP,NFS

Order

Heavy/light If order miss then it weight requirestobebutback Streaming/ datagram Example Dataisreadasastream. There may be multiple packetperreadcall www, email, FTP, HTTP, TELNET,SMTPetc.