# BAGD Phil McDonald

Grids

& divine proportions

Introduction to grids

BAGD Phil McDonald

Fibonacci
Sequence

Introduction to grids

BAGD Fibonacci Sequence

Fibonacci sequence ratio 8:13 links to Golden section This sequence is not only evident within design but also nature.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Fibonacci Sequence

The human face follows the ratio and we find people whose faces are truer to the ratio more attractive. (?) Classic Renaissance masterpieces, architecture from antiquity, and even human body parts are proportioned based on the ratio down to the fingers themselves.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Fibonacci Sequence

A series of numbers in which each number is the sum of two preceding numbers.

0+1= 1 1+1= 2 1+2= 3 2+3= 5 3+5= 8 5+8= 13 8+13= 21 13+21= 34 21+34= 55 34+55 = 89

0+1= 1 1+1= 2 1+2= 3 2+3= 5

Introduction to grids

BAGD Fibonacci Sequence

Draw two small squares together.

1

&

1

=

1 1

Draw a third square using the combined lengths of the two original squares together.

1

1

=

2

Introduction to grids

BAGD Fibonacci Sequence

Continue to repeat this process and the set will form as shown...

3 5 2 1 1

Introduction to grids

BAGD Fibonacci Sequence

55 point title should be
complemented with 34 point body copy by applying Fibonacci’s sequence.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Fibonacci Sequence

Apply your understanding of the fibonacci sequence using grided paper.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Dividing the page

Dividing the page
Introduction to grids

BAGD Golden Section

Golden Section

Introduction to grids

BAGD Golden Section

...Forms the basis of paper sizes and its principles can be used as a means of achieving balanced designs. Many ancient cultures from Egyptians to the Greeks used this thinking to gain beautiful designed proportions. *Fibonacci sequence ratio 8:13 links to Golden section

Golden Section Rule - 8:13

1.62

is the golden number

Introduction to grids

BAGD Golden Section

Is also known as the Golden Rectangle. Definition “Golden Rectangle is a rectangle in which the ratio of the length to the width is the golden ratio”

Basic Calculations to finding the Golden Section of a page: 1.62 divided with page width.

56cm Divide by 1.62 = 34.56 (Round off to... 35)

Introduction to grids

BAGD Golden Section

56cm

21cm

35cm

Divide by 1.62 = 34.56 (35)

21cm

35cm

Introduction to grids

BAGD Golden Section

35 Divide by 1.62 = 21.60 (22)
22cm 13cm

21cm

35cm

Introduction to grids

BAGD Golden Section

22 Divide by 1.62 = 13.58 (14)

6cm

3cm 9cm 5cm

14cm

8cm

21cm

35cm

Introduction to grids

BAGD Golden Section

Introduction to grids

BAGD Fibonacci Sequence

Apply your understanding of the Golden Section by dividing your grided paper into the golden ratio.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Golden Section

The Rule Of Thirds
Introduction to grids

BAGD Rule of Thirds

The concept of the golden ratio can be simplified. The rule of thirds governs the placement of points of interest in a scene. Divide any given image into thirds both horizontally and vertically. You’ll get 9 grids.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Rule of Thirds

According to the rule of thirds, the vertices of those lines (where the lines cross) are the ideal placement for points of interest. People scanning the page are more likely to notice things placed near the points, and the division is comfortable to view.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Rule of Thirds

People scanning the page are more likely to notice things placed near the focal points, and the division is comfortable to view. More complex design is possible by breaking down those thirds into further thirds.

focal point
Introduction to grids

BAGD Rule of Thirds

Major images, news boxes, search bars and any other points of interest can be nestled on or near the horizontals. This little shortcut will give you a design that is both easy on the eyes and makes people drawn to key pieces of information.

information point
Introduction to grids

BAGD Fibonacci Sequence

Break down & cut out your layouts using the rule of thirds. Find focal points & information points.
Introduction to grids

BAGD Golden Spirals

Another method of using both the golden ratio and Fibonacci numbers are the golden spirals and Fibonacci spirals. The spirals have been used in artwork for as long as the numbers and ratios themselves. The theory is that areas of negative space and visual interest should fit within the spiral. Within this image, as with the rule of thirds, the eye is naturally drawn to the center of the spiral to look for details.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Golden Spirals

The spirals can serve as a guideline for content density and clustering. They can serve as the foundation for the ratio of your website header images, search bars and tool bars.

Introduction to grids

Cut layouts into columns, headers, footers, images, subheadings etc... Identify its grid.

Introduction to grids

Using different magazine layouts Frankenstein a custom layout of your choice and hand make a grid of your own...

Introduction to grids

BAGD End bit...

“Using the divine proportion, you give yourself an edge of natural logic and organic grace that all humans have a subconscious attraction to. The golden ratio is yet another tool at your creative disposal...”

Introduction to grids

BAGD Phil McDonald

Canons
& Grids
week 2

Introduction to grids

BAGD Phil McDonald

Van De Graaf
canon

Introduction to grids

BAGD Van De Graaf

...A gridded page is much like scaffolding for a building.

It is a structure that elements can be organized.

A grid will help continuity to be maintained and information digested with flow.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Van De Graaf

The Van de Graaf canon is a historical reconstruction of a method that may have been used in book design to divide a page in pleasing proportions.

This canon is also known as the “secret canon” used in many medieval manuscripts and incunabula.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Van De Graaf

The construction of Van de Graaf’s canon, works for any page width:height ratio.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Van De Graaf

Introduction to grids

BAGD Van De Graaf

Symmetrical layout.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Van De Graaf

Single Page Canon

Introduction to grids

BAGD Van De Graaf

Asymmetrical Layout

Introduction to grids

BAGD Gutenberg

Historian John Man suggests that Gutenberg’s Bible page was based on the golden ratio.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Octavo Format

The text area and margin proportions are determined by the starting page proportions.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Golden page & Resarivo’s 9ths

Introduction to grids

BAGD Application of Canon

Introduction to grids

BAGD Application of Canon

Introduction to grids

BAGD Application of Canon

Introduction to grids

BAGD Phil McDonald

a very brief overview

Introduction to grids

BAGD Width Of Column

Column width is more than just design or format. it is also based on legibility. Printed Collateral (text) is read by the eye of a distance of 30 35cm.

According to empirical rule there should be 7 words per line for a text of any length. To keep the type area light and open (in appearance) we must consider the leading.

i.e. The vertical distance from line to line which suits the size of the type.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Width Of Column

Overlong text lines tire the eye, as do overshort ones. Readers find overlong lines strenuous to read. This is because too much energy is spent keeping the horizontal line in sight over a long distance. Too short of a line and your eye chages text lines too often.

Wrong column widths lead to... Time and Energy wasted.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Width Of Column

Column widths with 12 point sans serif. 14 point leading. A column is easy to read if it is wide enough to fit in average 10 words per line.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Width Of Column

15 point sans serif. 17 point leading.

20 point sans serif. 24 point leading.

24 point sans serif. 28 point leading.

28 point sans serif. 32 point leading.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Width Of Column

The key is ease of reading. Text must not impair the rhythm of reading. This can not apply to titles and subtitles.

Advertising It’s function functions is to sell. require headings to standout and be absorbed by the eye.

Are columns just aesthetic creatures?

Introduction to grids

BAGD Phil McDonald

Margin Proportions
Introduction to grids

BAGD margins

Margins can have a influence on the overall feel of a page of print.

Too small - looks over full. Too large - exageration.

Well balanced margins on the sides, head and tail can create an agreeable impression.

Introduction to grids

BAGD margins

1

BADLY PROPORTIONED... 1 X 1 X 1 X 3 (pica’s) Side margins are the same width, looks wishy-washy. Same sized margins can never generate an interesting page design... 1 1

3
Introduction to grids

BAGD margins

THEY GENERATE THE IMPRESSION OF INDECISION AND DULLNESS...

Introduction to grids

BAGD margins

3

WELL PROPORTIONED...
Intended to be the right hand page due to larger left margin. More applicable to literature rather than advertising etc... The margins are luxurious but would this increase print costs? 4 3

7
Introduction to grids

BAGD margins

Well... Is it all just about aesthetics?
Introduction to grids

BAGD Phil McDonald

The type area!
no... really.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Type Areas

1 & 2 Column Grids

Introduction to grids

BAGD Phil McDonald

Construction
of grids
week 3

Introduction to grids

BAGD construction

Before you can apply a grid you must understand the requirement of the grid for the work to be produced. Typeface, text & illustrations, print method and paper quality must be confirmed beforehand (ideally). Thumbnail sketches will make your job of final layouts easier and productive. Thumbnail sizes should be proportonate to the final format...

... to make your job of final layouts easier and productive.

Introduction to grids

BAGD construction

Before drawing your sketches, consider the number of columns needed. For example... 1 column only for text and illustrations gives little freedom of layout. Restriction of making illustrations small, medium or large.

2 columns, logically, gives you more scope: 1 column for text 1 column for illustration they can be mixed together

2 column division can be subdivided to create a 4 column page...

Introduction to grids

BAGD construction (with Tom Selleck - Magnum P.I)

1 column only

2 columns 1 column for text 1 column for illustration

mixed together...

Introduction to grids

BAGD construction (with Tom Selleck - Magnum P.I)

Three columns opportunities for arranging and accomodating text and illustrations in numerous sizes. You could also subdivide the three column grid into a 6 column arrangement.

Three columns

Subdivided into 6

Introduction to grids

BAGD construction

Disadvantages of 6 column systems are: Lines of text will be narrow. Small typeface will have to be used. ... But ... This solely rests on the function that is to be performed!

Introduction to grids

BAGD construction

For statistics, figures, graphs & trend line publications: Use 4 columns per page.

Introduction to grids

BAGD construction

Remember: 4 columns can be subdivided into 8, 16 + columns... Convenient for representing stats.

Introduction to grids

BAGD construction

OK

???

The width of a column dictates the size of typeface used. The rule: The narrower a column is, the smaller the typeface.

Why is that?

Introduction to grids

You have an annual report to layout. You can only use one single page. You have to use a minimum of 3 columns. You have six images of pie charts to use. **Include header, footer, headline, subheading, body text**

Introduction to grids

BAGD Thumbnails

Thumbnails
& Developments

Introduction to grids

BAGD Thumbnails in design process...

in a nut shell

Make a variety of thumbnails of layouts / designs. Do not rely on just one set of thumbnails. Enlarge a small selection of appropriate thumbnails by 1:1. Compare them and select and repeat process until you are confident with the design.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Thumbnails

Apply type to columns...
Introduction to grids

BAGD Apply type to columns

The first line must fit flush to the top limit of the column grid. The last line must stand on the bottom limit. Keep calm, it is difficult to find the final solution the first time around. It could mean that your grid field is too high or too low.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Apply type to columns

1:1 thumbnail type area with the depth and breadth that fits best both functionally and aesthetically

Divide into further 2 or 3 text columns. example shows 2 columns. Divide the type area into two columns by adding gutters.

Divide the text column into 2 or 3 fields.

Decide what type point size and leading for the text. To know that you have the correct type point size for the space you are filling in you must have the same amount of lines per field within the overall column.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Apply type to columns

10 point type 15 point leading Column length 15cm loosely means use 15 point leading. at this length there must be 10 lines per field. meaning 30 lines every per 15cm. The depth of my fields ascertains how many 10point type lines i have.

Introduction to grids

BAGD Apply type to columns

Figure 1 Match grid fields to the lines of text that live next to field line. It must be measured as 1 line space. A proportion of the leading and type point size. Figure 2 Final 6 field grid.

1

2

Introduction to grids

BAGD Apply type to columns

Lines of text aligned to grid fields.

Introduction to grids

Font Heights

Introduction to grids

BAGD Font heights

4 point type 6 point leading
Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

7 point type 10 point leading
Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recently with desktop publishing software like Aldus PageMaker including versions of Lorem Ipsum.

Caption text

Introduction to grids

BAGD Font heights

10 point type 13 point leading
Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry’s standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, and more recent-

20 point type

Body Text

Introduction to grids

BAGD Type & Picture

Type & picture
8 field grid...

Introduction to grids

BAGD 8 Field Grid

A4+ Format. 8 & 20 grid fields. 8 grid fields are used frequently for advertising material and brochures.

If using 8 field grids, you can subdivide into 16 grid fields. 8 and 16 grid fields give you a range of possibilities.

Introduction to grids

BAGD 8 Field Grid

Introduction to grids

BAGD 8 Field Grid

8 grid fields allow various sizes of illustrations to be portrayed. You can use with or without text.

You need to have a good perception of composition.

Introduction to grids

BAGD 8 Field Grid

The grid is only an instrument in which you, a designer, can make interesting and balanced designs.

Introduction to grids

BAGD 8 Field Grid

Introduction to grids

BAGD 8 Field Grid

Introduction to grids

BAGD 8 Field Grid

Introduction to grids

BAGD 20 Field Grid

20 field grid has quite a large scope for idea solutions. There is around 42 possible layout options.

Introduction to grids

BAGD 20 Field Grid

Example.... and so on....

Introduction to grids

BAGD 20 Field Grid

Introduction to grids

BAGD Overall So far...

So, there you have the basics. It is up to you to use the teachings to create and develop your design response. ...Are grids et al an aesthetic choice?
Introduction to grids