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An ideal I is primary if xy ∈ I implies x ∈ I or y n ∈ I for some n. Can check that in Z, primary is equivalent to prime power. Last time we proved that in a noetherian ring, every irreducible ideal is primary. The converse is not generally true (but is true if primary is replaced with prime). With the result from last time, in a noetherian ring, every ideal is a ﬁnite intersection of primary ideals. Unique? Relation between prime and primary ideals? Geometric interpretation? (For example, X 2 − Y 2 = 0 can be factored as (X − Y )(X + Y ) = 0 and geometrically, it is an algebraic variety that is a union of two algebraic varieties. A reducible algebraic variety is a ﬁbnite union of irreducible varieties. Can be thought of as (X 2 − Y 2 ) = (X + Y ) ∩ (X − Y ).) Notion of a (Nil-)Radical. Let R(I) = {x ∈ A|xn ∈ I}. Then R(I) is an ideal. Claim. I is primary implies R(I) is prime. Suppose xy ∈ R(I) and x ∈ R(I). Then (xy)n ∈ I for some n. But xn ∈ I implies (y n )m ∈ I, / / so y ∈ R(I). Proposition. In any ring, for an arbitrary ideal I, one has R(I) = ℘ ⊃ I implies ℘ ⊂ R(I). Suppose x ∈ R(I), we want to ﬁnd a ℘ containing I but not x. Let S = {1, x, x2 , . . . } ⊂ A, / and look at S −1 A. Then S ∩ I = ∅. Choose a maximal ideal M in S −1 A containing S −1 I (proper containment from the intersection we found), and let ℘ be its inverse image in A of M from A → S −1 A. Then ℘ contains I but not x, since the map sends x to a unit, and an ideal containing a unit is the whole ring. Jacobson Radical. There is another kind of radical called the Jacobson radical, deﬁned M ⊃I by J(I) = M maximalM . Note that J(I) ⊃ R(I). Let I ⊂ F [X1 , . . . , Xn ] = A. Let V (I) be the set of common solutions of the equations f = 0, f ∈ I, and I(V ) = f ∈ A, f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = 0 for all (x1 , . . . , xn ) ∈ V .

℘⊃I

℘ for prime ℘.

Hilbert Nullstellensatz. I(V (I)) = R(I). Corollary. If I is prime, then since R(I) = I, I(V (I)) = I. Primary Decomposition. I = q1 ∩ · · · ∩ qn , where the qi are primary. In general the qi ’s are not unique, but there is a slightly weaker form of uniqueness. Suppose I = q1 ∩ q2 and q1 ⊃ q2 . Then I = q2 , so there the q1 is redundant. That is, if qi contains the intersection of a subset of the others, then qi is redundant. By using this process we can obtain an irredundant decomposition.

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- Math-6170-Lec-01
- Math 6210 Lec 01
- Math 6710 Lec 01
- Math 7370-Lecture 24
- Math 7370-Lecture 23
- Math 4340-Lecture 23
- Math 4340-Lecture 24
- Math 7370-Lecture 22
- Math 4340-Lecture 22
- Math 7370-Lecture 21
- Math 4340-Lecture 20
- Math 7370-Lecture 19
- Math 4340-Lecture 19
- Math 7370-Lecture 18
- Math 4340-Lecture 18
- CS 4820-Lecture 18
- Math 7370-Lecture 17
- Math 4340-Lecture 17
- CS 4820-Lecture 17
- Math 7370-Lecture 16
- Math 4340-Lecture 16
- CS 4820-Lecture 16
- Math 7370-Lecture 15
- Math 4340-Lecture 15

Notes from lecture. Cornell University, Spring 2013.

Notes from lecture. Cornell University, Spring 2013.

- Math 7370-Lecture 12
- Math 7370-Lecture 8
- Math 7370-Lecture 3
- Math 7370-Lecture 10
- Math 7370-Lecture 19
- Math 7370-Lecture 13
- Math 7370-Lecture 18
- Math 7370-Lecture 16
- Math 7370-Lecture 15
- Math 7370-Lecture 17
- Math 7370-Lecture 5
- Math 7370-Lecture 1
- Math 7370-Lecture 11
- Math 7370-Lecture 4
- Math 7370-Lecture 21
- Math 7370-Lecture 9
- Math 7370-Lecture 23
- Math 7370-Lecture 14
- Math 7370-Lecture 7
- Math 7370-Lecture 22
- Math 7370-Lecture 24
- Math 7370-Lecture 2
- Math 7370-Lecture 6
- Classic Set
- Fuzzy Automata Based on Lattice-Ordered Monoid With Algebraic and Topological Aspects
- Real Analysis Hw5
- Sigma Algebra
- A 2
- a
- Analysis 7
- Math 7370-Lecture 20

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