Values

Explanations > Values About values | Historical values | Research on values | So what? Values is a confusing word that often gets confused with 'value' as in the value you get from buying a cheap, but well-built house. Values are, in fact powerful drivers of how we think and behave.

About values
           Value categories: different spheres into which we place values. Values, Morals and Ethics: splits hairs between these three rule-sets. Value of values: what are they for? Values types: there are two types of values: instrumental and end-state. Stress values: we use different values when we are under stress. Four Social Roles: Grid with four types of person. Organismic valuing: Rogers' valuing process. Spirituality: Higher integrity. The Development of Group Norms: How groups become one. Values Development (individuals): How individual people develop values. Vulnerability: Helping the vulnerable is a common value.

Historical values
         American values: A list of traditional US cultural values. Aristotle's Ethics: Values from the classical world. Four Core Company Values: Used in business. Franklin's Thirteen Virtues: Ben Franklin's advice for good people. Nicomachean Ethics: Aristotle's masterwork. Prudentius' seven virtues: Source of Christian virtues. The Seven Deadly Sins: Pope Gregory's anti-list. The Seven Virtues: The counterpoint to the sins. The Ten Commandments: Basic Christian values.

Research on values
      Career Anchors: identified by Edgar Schein as shapers of what we do. Governing Values: Common 'Model 1' modern values identified by Chris Argyris at Harvard. Argyris' Model 2 Governing Values: The ideal, as opposed to the common reality of Model 1. Five Common Human Concerns: Kohl's beliefs/concerns. Schwartz's Value Inventory: research-based set of common values. Values in Action (VIA): Values from Positive Psychology.

Values are also often a significant element of culture, where they form a part of the shared ruleset of a group. When I break my values, I will feel shame and guilt. If you break my values, I will feel repulsed. If I maintain my values when tempted to break them, I will feelpride.

So what?
Know the the values to which the other person will subscribe (these are often common sense) as well as the actual values they enact in practice (watch them for this). From this:

  

Beware of the values in practice which can be harmful to you (will they betray you?). Know the values that if you transgress will lead to betrayal responses from them. Find values that can act as persuasion levers.

If you act in a way which supports their values they will increase their trust in you.

See also
Social Norms, Guilt, Repulsion, Pride, Shame Kohlberg's Stage Theory, Preferences, Natural Selection Theories about conforming Theories about groups Theories about trust

Blogs by subject: Values

Value categories
There are a number of different categories into which values can be placed.

Personal values
Personal values are those you take for yourself and which constitute a critical part of your values and are apparent in attitudes, beliefs, and actions. Personal values may be prioritized, such as honesty then responsibility then loyalty and so on.

Social values
Social values are those which put the rights of wider groups of people first. This may include equality, justice, liberty, freedom, and national pride. These are often instilled into us when we were young.

Political values
Political values are ideological beliefs about the best way to govern a country or organization, for example through welfare, democracy and civic responsibility.

Economic values
Economic values are those around money, and may include beliefs around ownership of property, contributing to the common good (taxes!), the balance of supply and demand and so on.

Religious values
Religious values are spiritual in nature and include beliefs in how we should behave, including caring of one another and in worship of our deity or deities.

So what?
Understand how people hold values in these areas and respond accordingly. Do not cross their values lightly. Showing you have similar values will engender trust.

Values, morals and ethics
What are the differences between values, morals and ethics? They all provide behavioral rules, after all. It may seem like splitting hairs, but the differences can be important when persuading others.

Values
Values are the rules by which we make decisions about right and wrong, should and shouldn't, good and bad. They also tell us which are more or less important, which is useful when we have to trade off meeting one value over another. Dictionary.com defines values as: n : beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment (either for or against something); "he has very conservatives values"

Morals
Morals have a greater social element to values and tend to have a very broad acceptance. Morals are far more about good and bad than other values. We thus judge others more strongly on morals than values. A person can be described as immoral, yet there is no word for them not following values. Dictionary.com defines morals as: n : motivation based on ideas of right and wrong

Ethics
You can have professional ethics, but you seldom hear about professional morals. Ethics tend to be codified into a formal system or set of rules which are explicitly adopted by a group of people. Thus you have medical ethics. Ethics are thus internally defined and adopted, whilst morals tend to be externally imposed on other people. If you accuse someone of being unethical, it is equivalent of calling them unprofessional and may well be taken as a significant insult and perceived more personally than if you called them immoral (which of course they may also not like). Dictionary.com defines ethics as: A theory or a system of moral values: “An ethic of service is at war with a craving for gain"

Members of a group will thus share an often-unwritten set of values to which adherence is a condition for belonging to the group. but within the gang. Judging other people is a favorite pastime for many people. even though they may be different. Certainly. enabling the heroes to feel good about themselves.net/~qc/mind/value/ http://www. is based in the outcome-oriented ethics of responsibility. Ethics of responsibility challenges this. If there is conflict between these. but well-built house (see Values types). . our values say 'that would help us reach our goals. then you will act ethically. then they probably have it hidden from themselves and you may carefully use these as a lever. It has proved useful and so has survived along with us. in fact powerful drivers of how we think and behave.characterunlimited.com/character_ethics. They tell us the shoulds and shouldn'ts.The rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession. for example. So what? Understand the differences between the values. heaven help anyone who transgresses their values. or norms. saying that you must understand the consequences of your decisions and actions and answer to these. Right and wrong Values is a confusing word that often gets confused with 'value' as in the value you get from buying a cheap. Values create heroes. Beware of transgressing the other person's morals. morals and ethics of the other person. Values are. we are using our values to judge a person or situation against our values. as values often conflict with one another). Shared values In social environments from families to companies. musts and can'ts of life. They tell us what is good and bad. help a stranger or otherwise give more than I need. They also help us decide what is more or less important (which is necessary. Decision Values thus help us make decisions. the values that I have enable me to feel good about what otherwise might be seen as wasteful or pointless activity. When we are formulating intent and choosing from alternatives. So what? When you are talking about 'right and wrong' be sure that these are in the other person's values. If you have good principles. although the basis for this can be complex and based in our own damaged self-esteem. The rules of street gangs may be harmful to others. values. provide the unwritten rules which allow us to trust one another and work together. right or wrong. not just your high-minded principles. They also give reason for others to admire the person who stuck to their values even though it was clearly against their personal interests. They also help us decide which is more and less important. We also evaluate our own potential decisions as we weigh up what to do in various circumstances. Ethics of principled conviction asserts that intent is the most important factor. Evaluation When we evaluate. See also http://junior. as this is particularly how they will judge you. The medical maxim 'do no harm'. Talking about professional ethics puts you on a high moral platform and encourages the other person to either join you or look up to you. It may even be that we have the need for values programmed into us.apk. thus deeming it good or bad. Justifying sacrifice When I work late. not yours. but it would be socially unacceptable' and so we do not choose it. all people and groups have values. right and wrong. Generally work from their values. just like the ability and urge to speak.htm Value of values Evolution Values are one of the human ideas that has evolved alongside such skills as hunting in groups and living in tribes. If we share values then we can predict one another's behaviors and thus feel safe and know what to do.

Stress values When we are faced with a stressful situation our values may change. are not good for the future of mankind (let alone the groups of people with whom I interact). and we can act out of character when we are jealous. This is where 'values' and 'value' meet.and especially the related Morals and Ethics. The problem comes when we have to reconcile these later. Instrumental values thus moderate how we go about setting and achieving our goals.Also understand your and their decisions. They are the destination. we unthinkingly may become aggressive. salvation and prosperity. our values may change. They are useful only in that they are acceptable ways of behaving. and how you are filtering in and filtering out choices based on values. particularly when numbers of people are involved or when we are preserving the lives of those we know and love. Values such as dishonesty and selfishness destroy societies and. Regret and reparation One thing that can happen when we are faced with having broken our normal values is to feel regret and shame. Values types Instrumental values Instrumental values are values which are instrumental in getting us to desired ends. This gives us two choices. Fight or flight When we are affected by the Fight-or-Flight reaction. because to do otherwise would be to break an even more important value. whilst instrumental values control the journey there. Thus preserving life can be more important than taking life. End-state values End-state values are things we actually value. We thus seek to repair the damage we have caused and to atone for our sins. act as powerful drives of behavior. as we seek and value endstate values. Ethical dilemmas Would you ever kill another person? What about if your life was threatened. Examples of end-state values include: happiness. Notably. Reparation will typically include apology and possibly other compensatory actions. So what? When acting to achieve end-state values. Reconciling afterwards After we have cooled down and returned to our state of considering normal values. The force of emotion Emotions. As with other values. ensure you use only instrumental values. . Instrumental values can be viewed as having 'evolved'. Examples of instrumental values include: honesty. we seem to have less control over our sex drive than we might think. politeness and courage. The state of arousal changes our brain chemistry and leads us to act in uncharacteristic ways. whether they are aggressive or passionate in other ways. The basic drive in the moment carries us away and we may seek to hurt others. Values under stress Under stress. Spot these values by analyzing their decisions and evaluations. where values that normally would prevent us from hurting others are brushed aside by our fear and anger. Thus they are the best values we can have to create successful societies. either physically or psychologically. or killing was the only way of protecting other people? Sometimes we consciously and deliberately act in ways we would not normally do. These are what we often talk about when we discuss values -. ensuring we do so only in ways which are socially acceptable. If you act in a way which supports their values they will increase their trust in you. as we return to our normal values. We are also driven by other fundamental needs over which we may have more or less conscious control. as the number of illicit affairs indicates. especially in an evolutionary light.greedy or driven to other 'deadly sins'. these are levers that can be used to move other people. we have to handle the cognitive dissonance of knowing that we have acted outside those values.

Justification and explanation A problem with reparation is that. for example by objectifying the other person. The basic rule for secondary roles is hence that everyone should be involved in encouraging positive conformance and punishing negative conformance. We thus seek ways of explaining and justifying what we have done. in seeking to repair our esteem. depending on their involvement or not in conformance with the rule. Primary role In the primary role. The basic rule for primary roles is that positive conformance is rewarded and (negative) non-conformance is punished. Secondary role The secondary role is taken by all people who are not involved in the primary role. Here are two dimensions and four sub-dimensions of each dimension that indicate four distinct social roles for ensuring rules are followed. So what? When you are stressed. You have to respond to situations and non-response is considered itself as a transgression. both in encouraging use of the rules and in punishing transgression of the rules. And if you switch to stress values. Four Social Roles Explanations > Values > Four Social Roles Conformance | Role level | Four roles | See also Social norms are the unwritten rules by which societies and groups behave in a consistent and predictable manner. Role level There are two levels in which people may act. casting them as deserving the punishment we handed to them. the person is in the 'first person' position. Obedience to the rules is important and there are rules about how you should act. There are a number of ways in which we handle discomfort about such things. Conformance The conformance of any act or role is an assessment of how well (or not) any individual rule is obeyed. Negative When a person does not conform to social norms then they are acting negatively and some form of punishment is required. In theory there should be reward for all positive acts of conformance. we may also end up damaging it by placing ourselves lower than others and opening ourselves to further demands for apology. Positive Positive conformance is obedience of rules. It indicates that a person is doing as they should and acting within approved roles. watch out for justification afterwards. enacting the rule or breaking the rule. An important aspect of culture is that you are not allowed to sit on the fence. In practice. you may be able to make demands that they would not normally fulfill. . the reward is often nonpunishment and simply continuation of an 'approved person' status. If you provoke others into reacting and then guide them into reparation afterwards. be careful about the values you display in practice.

the response may be corrective. active support is an obligation for all who are not involved in the heroic acts. Also. eventually. for example. There has to be consequences for such acts as without action it may encourage others to also break rules. in a society where extra-marital sex is punished by stoning. If a person does not engage in punishment then they themselves become villains. If a person is found to be doing this. with open criticism and. This is the role of the supporter. A risk for heroics occurs where the identity-based drive for esteem and status leads to manipulated and foolish heroics where people create false situations and take risks that endanger others. Repeat offenders and those who break more serious rules are treated increasingly harshly. to encourage. Conformance Four Social Roles Positive Negative Primary Role Level Secondary Hero Villain Supporter Punisher Hero The hero is a person who conforms to social rules. This is not necessarily a bad thing for the group as it still leads to rules being followed. even if you do not approve of the methods by which such actions are undertaken. For example in wars. Heroes are hence held up as role models for others to emulate. even if they personally find this abhorrent. The person is reminded of the rules and educated as to how to behave correctly. supporting the group at a risk or cost to themselves. To sit on the fence is to show disapproval and invite criticism. Villain Villains are those who transgress social rules. it is imperative that all others engage in the response. whether it is simple criticism or more active punishment. Initially. Failure to do so may result in themselves also being stoned. other people are obliged to engage in the act of stoning. Hence if someone is villainous. with a right to accolades from others in the group. The first benefit of this is that they are not punished as villains. . As with the punisher. but you need also to engage in criticizing villains and supporting heroes. then you should not only obey the rules. it is a social imperative that non-combatants should verbally and actively support people in military forces. expulsion from the group.Four roles From the above dimensions and sub-dimensions. especially for relatively minor transgressions. Punisher An important rule about secondary roles is that everyone who is not in the primary role must be active in a secondary role. Supporter When a hero performs a selfless act then they seen as deserving reward. So what? If you want to be accepted in a social group. if their action is particularly selfless. Hence. they may be reframed as a villain. See also Extrinsic Motivation Organismic Valuing Carl Rogers described our actualizing tendency as being an 'organismic valuing process'. then they are seen as deserving reward. where we select goals based on our inner nature and purpose. The response to villainy may be proportionate to the act and also to the individual's history. support and celebrate heroes. This can become an extrinsic motivation as people deliberately act heroically in order to gain accolade and recognition.

Intensely. . may show an interest as it is a described human experience. You can also. tolerance. This takes the definition out of the scientific domain. Process living: Recognising that we are in a constant state of becoming and never reach a final end point. perhaps in hope that they may somehow gain some of the benefits of this state. C. which is concerned solely with the physical. They may speak wise words and show deep concern for others and the world at large. This attractiveness can make spiritual people effective leaders. perhaps we can experience greater things. So what? Use Rogers' methods and criteria to help set goals and align with your purpose. Psychologists and phenomenologists. or being like. the body may tingle all over and a strong feeling of love experienced. compassion. This benefit may also result in would-be leaders (including incults) to seek the appearance of spirituality. Internal locus of evaluation: Judgement based on one's own view. The detail of definitions vary but it seems spirituality includes some combination of inner harmony. who may wish to associate with the spiritual person. Unsurprisingly. contentment. although not all may desire a following. of course. a spirit. a lack of tension that is experienced as a complete harmony. Spirituality What is spirituality? Spirituality is an interesting phenomenon that is connected with both experience and how we behave. concern for others and connection to a higher order. The appearance of spirituality A person who is considered by others as spiritual often has an appearance of great calm and happiness. Unconditional positive self-regard: Judging and accepting yourself as valuable and worthwhile. harmony. they will become more relaxed and at ease with their life.This process may include any of the following principles:        Authenticity: Getting away from defensive superficiality and being oneself. 160-167. spirituality usually appears as a desirable state to other people. When we lack tensions that distract us. facilitate others in this process. natural world. may both be felt at the same time. patience. It can seem as a natural 'high' and meaning may be found in the smallest of things. love. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. (1964). Autonomy: Moving away from what you 'should' to and making your own decisions. R. however. forgiveness. See also Alignment principle Rogers. unity. concern. Definition Common words used in descriptions of spirituality include: integrity. including all thoughts and emotional reactions. Spirituality and science The term spiritual implies connection with. alignment. Spirituality may also be felt as a a deep calm. paradoxically. In doing so. If the process of organismic valuing is continued over time then the person will become more closely aligned with their natural values. 68. religious and connection. Relatedness: Seeking close and deep relationships where you can truly appreciate and understand other people. Scientists would hence describe spirituality as super-natural and have no interest in it. piety. Openness to inner and outer experience: Being able to perceive and accept how others and oneself behaves and feels. rather than seeking the approval of others. Toward a modern approach to values: The valuing process in the mature person. To measure it would first require a clear definition and then a questionnaire that was developed to give reliable and valid results. The feeling of spirituality Spirituality may be felt in both intense and calm ways that.

This occurs where a person feels connected with God or another religious being. It is typically assumed that such experiences could only happen to highly spiritual people. Social spirituality A person with social spirituality also has alignment with social norms. people on drugs have reported similar experiences. for example between different interests within the group. If the circles overlap. A socially spiritual person is particularly attractive as the prosocial behavior creates a sense of safety and their attractiveness gives them a position of esteem. Wiley-Blackwell The Development of Group Norms Norms and values generally develop within groups across a process that is described below. It can also be constraining as being spiritual implies a certain self-denial. serves to increase their attractiveness. although being spiritual and being religious are not the same. 2. a person with universal spirituality feels connected with an external essence. This concern. attractiveness and lack of need for admiration can make the socially spiritual person an effective leader. In a concentric sense. nature or the universe. The lack of inner tension leads to a strong sense of calm and a clear certainty in thoughts and actions. Triggering event The unspoken conflict or problem continues for a while until some event occurs which brings it to the fore. but if you want to change minds it can certainly help.Spirituality and religion The 'spirit' in spirituality usually means it is closely related to religion. Just because they appear to be spiritual does not always mean they have your best interests at heart. turning from an unspoken to a spoken issue that needs resolving. the personal spirituality is an inner core. with a sweet spot in the middle where they converge. . The three levels below can be thought of as circles that may be concentric or overlap. In this way prophets and agents of change have added weight to their edicts by citing a higher purpose and authority. A religious person follows the beliefs and codes of a defined religion. See also Leadership Philip Sheldrake. whether that is a named deity or a general connection to humanity. Example In a college dorm. paradoxically. P. and may even see or converse with them. 1. the person may feel themselves as a vessel or channel through which that greater force communicates or acts. which typically are based in the sustaining of the local group and wider society through trust and concern for others. Universal spirituality In an even wider sense. Personal spirituality Personal spirituality is an internal state where the person is has a strong sense of alignment with their values and feels at one with their true self. then a person can have any or all of these qualities. This provides a useful way of thinking about spirituality in terms of alignment with values. A Brief History of Spirituality. So what? Being spiritual is easier said than done. One reason for the alignment is that their values are strongly held to the point where they would not consider transgressing them. different sleeping patterns lead to an unspoken irritation when individuals are woken by others. the person has no need for others to stroke their identity which. Also watch out for people who appear spiritual and seek to draw you into cult-like commitments. Latent conflict The process starts with an underlying issue which includes some form of conflict. Three levels Sheldrake (2007) links spirituality with values. even when others are uncertain or disagree. Perhaps worryingly. Such a person may be considered to have high integrity. In such a sense. defining it as the 'deepest values and meanings by which people live'. What is called 'religious experience' is connected with spirituality. Aligning with social norms by definition makes a person good. When aligned also with inner personal spirituality. (2007).

Emerging consensus With discussion and eventual understanding of the broader problem. but also others. so it has to be taught verbally to new people. to see how they feel. from 10pm to 10am. General adoption With the solution agreed. Social propagation The rule is not written down. Example Students who go to bed early want a curfew. They agree a 'quiet time' at either end of the day. Opposing debate Once the issue is in the open. eventually exploding in a whole tirade against one of the culprits. the rule is generally adopted by all. there is public debate. See also Values Development (individuals) Values Development We are not born with values. Example Now and again people come in drunk or are a bit noisy clattering around in the sleepy morning. good and bad. Example The students agree that sleep is important for everyone. 4. we are like sponges. especially when it comes from our parents. often our parents. Periods of development Sociologist Morris Massey has described three major periods during which values are developed. so how do people develop their values? There are three periods during which values are developed as we grow. So what? Watch for underlying things that may become norms. quite possibly with people choosing sides and taking positions for and against various solutions. Example A new person arrives in the dorm and arrives noisily back from a night out. There may be some transgressions which may cause revision of rules or punishment of some kind for the offenders. absorbing everything around us and accepting much of it as true. Rather than blind acceptance of their values. a workable solution gradually emerges. This may be facilitated by people acting as leaders or social mediators. . we copy people. The critical thing here is to learn a sense of right and wrong. The Modeling Period Between the ages of eight and thirteen. The next day one of the dorm members tells them in a friendly way about the ten-to-ten quiet rule. This is a human construction which we nevertheless often assume would exist even if we were not here (which is an indication of how deeply imprinted it has become). You can force the issue by causing a triggering event and then facilitate the process towards a norm that makes best sense. 3. Those who get up late want early rises to go and work in the library or just be quiet. especially with exams coming up. The confusion and blind belief of this period can also lead to the early formation of trauma and other deep problems. The Imprint Period Up to the age of seven.Example A student in the dorm who goes to bed early has been woken often at night by others and becomes irritable. The offenders are spoken to by one of the group social leaders and subsequently apologize. 5. You may remember being particularly influenced by junior school teachers who seemed so knowledgeable--maybe even more so than your parents. At this age we may be much impressed with religion or our teachers. This is typically done by transgressors being taken aside and quietly told something like 'you don't do that around here'. 6. we are trying them on like a suit of clothes.

a common criterion is the vulnerability of those people in question. So what? If you can understand how people's values develop. An old Jesuit saying is not that far off: 'Give me the child and I will give you the man. you should help them. There are four classic groups of vulnerable people who are affected by this:  Children: Who are smaller.). Principled When we are truly principled. even if it means hurting other people. you should not harm them. and especially if our needs are threatened or we are pretty sure we can get away with breaking values with nobody else knowing about it. which correlate with the two primary values above: 1. With strong values such as those around vulnerable people. (b) Natural: Where the person is in difficulties with something in their general environment. Actively help: You should positively act to help vulnerable people where they are in need of assistance. teachers and peers. As we develop as individuals and look for ways to get away from the earlier programming. We will break our values occasionally. See also Learning stage theories. innocent and understand less. There are two primary values that are common across cultures: 1. as learned from their parents. Many great leaders were principled (Martin Luther King. Do no harm: Do not use your superior strength or ability to harm the vulnerable. we naturally turn to people who seem more like us. These basically say 'here are the rules to live in reasonable harmony with other people.' Being principled is a very powerful method of influence. But beware: this is a one way street -. Pre-moral In the pre-moral state. but some people get there. So also are psychopaths. etc. Relational: When interacting directly with the vulnerable person. 2. This is well understood by dictators and religious sects around the world. Other influences at these ages include the media. Dictators regularly take over the education system and brainwash the children in their ideals. then you can guide the process. we are very largely influenced by our peers.' The bottom line of this state is that we will follow them just so long as we think we need to. . in particular when the values affect other people. Conventional Most people have conventional values. This includes: (a) Defensive: When the vulnerable person is being abused by another person. Right and wrong are absolute things beyond the person. 2. These may be applied in two situations. Gandhi. we have no real values (we are thus 'amoral'). especially those parts which seem to resonate with our the values of our peer groups.it also means there are many things you cannot do. doing whatever it takes to achieve our goals. for example as defined by a religion. As with all values. Situational: When you are a bystander and the vulnerable person needs assistance. there is also a social rule that violators should be punished. it also becomes an imperative that everyone should be actively involved in the punishment. Young children are premoral. The Development of Group Norms Vulnerability and Values Description When we are choosing and prioritizing values. The test of a principled person is that they will stick to their values through thick and thin. and even will sacrifice themselves rather than break their principles. Becoming principled It's tough to have high moral values. Our basic nature tells us to be Machiavellian. To sit on the sidelines is seen to condone the action of the perpetrator.The Socialization Period Between 13 and 21. we believe in our values to the point where they are an integral and subconscious part of our person.

If you want to publicly criticize another person. there is always a difference in power. naturally appeal to the 'nurturing parent' in adults for help. Women: Who are physically weaker than men. See also Powerlessness. The stranger hurries to help. Children. A man slaps a woman in public. Minorities: Any small group within a bigger group. The second vulnerability value. particularly if the less vulnerable person falls into one of the four main categories above. Discussion When two people interact. ask for support rather than hoping someone will help. such that one person is. Another man nearby steps in to defend the woman. In organizations. trying to force others to help them when they could perhaps be more independent and do things for themselves. Values will force others to give you the assistance you need. This seems selfish as witnesses to this abuse of rights may be motivated to avoid helping other vulnerable people in the future. A person in a wheelchair asks for help from a stranger in getting through a door. It is easy for what seems like a normal persuasive approach to appear as taking advantage of the vulnerable person and so result in you being socially punished. to 'actively help' can be harder as it takes time and may lead to embarrassment or even putting oneself in harm's way to protect the vulnerable.. Other groups may also play to their weakness. standing in front of her and readying to fight. I'm . it can be a difficult choice to put oneself out for a stranger. as it is a passive act that only requires self-control. There is a danger that vulnerable people who understand this value may take excessive advantage of it. Outcasts: Those who are reviled for some aspect of their person. While we may instinctively do this for our own family. more vulnerable. Disabled: Who have particular aspects where they have difficulties. If you are persuading.'). It is perhaps not surprising that there are significant laws and policies to protect the vulnerable. Other groups who may be affected include:     Destitute: Those who have no money or home. If you have power. beware of using this to harm vulnerable people in any way as this may result in a wider majority castigating you for you abuse.   Elderly: Who are physically frail and may be cognitively fading. This helps make the organization appear 'good' and attracts employees with strong integrity who also work hard to help with company success. even though he is putting himself at risk. to 'do no harm' is relatively easy to comply with. Vulnerability values help compensate for this difference by restricting the actions of the more powerful person. including sexual and religious preferences. He feels this is his duty. even to the point of being explicit about this ('You can't touch me. this includes protection for employees who may be harassed by those in power above them. weaker and otherwise less able to defend themselves physically. Weaker: Those who are not disabled but who are shorter. For example where a teacher holds back his anger when a child has misbehaved. Example A company has a strong policy on equality that goes beyond legislated requirements. then be particularly careful with vulnerable groups and individuals.. So what? If you are vulnerable. you may be able to find where they have abused vulnerable people or at least been less than helpful. to some degree. even when the child is older. for example. The first vulnerability value. It can also help to band together with other vulnerable people. Transactional Analysis .

then this may give you an insight into how to communicate effectively with Americans. you are against us. based on an investigation into political speeches. 83-91 . The Ten Commandments: Basic Christian values. E. both spiritually and in the opportunities they deserve. W. practicality and pragmatism Solution is more important than ideology. foul and fair. they are likely to buy into your message. The Seven Virtues: The counterpoint to the sins. and Redding. wealth and property.and maybe you are an American (or at least you will easily agree with a lot of Americans).C. Efficiency. Ethical equality All people are equal. The next version will be better than the last. The Seven Deadly Sins: Pope Gregory's anti-list. gender. Aristotle's Ethics: Values from the classical world. Franklin's Thirteen Virtues: Ben Franklin's advice for good people. Four Core Company Values: Used in business. Utility is more important than show. Success occurs at the level of the individual. People should not have to fight for their rights. Newer is always better. A key question to any idea is 'Will it work?' So what? Are these values still apparent? Values change very little. Change and progress Change is inevitable. Puritan and pioneer morality The world is made up of people who are good and bad. This includes differences in race. A retired wealthy person was successful. they are more likely to look up to you. Prudentius' seven virtues: Source of Christian virtues. but is now less admirable. The government should protect the rights of the individual. you will fall behind. Achievement and success Success is measured by the accumulation of power. See also Culture Steele. If you are not with us. If you embody these values. If you think they do. not the other way around. If you appeal to these values. (1962).D. American Values An early study. Progress is good and leads to success. Western Speech. Value of the individual The individual has rights above that of general society and government.Historical values          American values: A list of traditional US cultural values. If you do not keep up. sexual preference and so on. Nicomachean Ethics: Aristotle's masterwork. The great American Dream of fame and fortune comes to those who work hard and never give up. The American Value System: Premises for Persuasion. 26. was published in 1961 by Edward Steele and Charles Redding that identified a set of archetypical American values. What you already have is not as important as what you continue to accumulate. Effort and optimism Hard work and striving is the key to success. disability. they are probably your values -. If you think this is a damn fine set of values. You are either one of the good guys or you are one of the bad guys. age. status.

In summary. team. we seek ways that will contribute most. to society. ‘Integrity’ brings it all together in the individual. we produce consistently high quality results. See also Nicomachean Ethics Four Core Company Values If you were going to set four core values for an organization. Understanding We develop a deeper understanding of business and of people in order to work better together and maximize our total contribution. we can contribute so much more. how can we contribute? And if we understand well. Contribution At the end of each day. product and service. In his Nicomachean Ethics. We contribute through our daily jobs and also through improving our approaches and adding to the bigger picture. we ask ourselves: What did I contribute today? When looking ahead. we must also understand. ‘Collaboration’ turns this into a joint affair and moderates selfishness. If we do not understand. With attention to detail. ‘Contribution’ is a powerful and ever-present guiding value that works well as a primary driver. . To achieve this. and that good values is indicated through the use of good judgment in finding an effective balance between extremes. ‘Understanding’ and knowledge is a core competence of many companies. Aristotle thus had a personal value of moderation. It is not enough to 'know'. always seeking to understand better. he gave examples: VICE (Defect) Cowardice (too little confidence) Foolhardiness (too little fear) Insensibility (too little pleasure) Meanness or Stinginess (too little giving) Niggardliness (in giving out large sums of money) Undue Humility (too little honor) Inirascibility (too little anger) Shamelessness (too little shame) Surliness VIRTUE (Mean) Courage Courage VICE (Excess) Rashness (too much confidence) Cowardice (too much fear) Temperance Self-indulgence (too much pleasure) Liberality Prodigality or Wastefulness (too much giving) Magnificence Tastlessness and Vulgarity (giving out large sums) Proper Pride Empty Vanity (too much honor) Good Temper Irascible (too much anger) Modesty Bashfulness (too much shame) Friendliness Flattery So what? If you want to be like Aristotle. company. With flexibility and innovation. we produce new value. be moderate. understanding is important for each of us. To contribute more we must understand our business and our customers. what would they be? Here is one possible set. We can contribute on many levels. To collaborate well we must understand ourselves and each other. Going beyond ignorance and assumption means we have a learning approach. More generally. customers. moderation is a pretty good guide to acceptable behavior.Aristotle's Ethics Aristotle made note (and Plato agreed) that moral virtue is about the exercise of control over natural feelings. Collaboration Through collaboration we multiply our contribution.

Chastity. the early easiness of his circumstances and acquisition of his fortune. Be not disturbed at trifles. vision and mission. think innocently and justly. and to the joint influence of the whole mass of the virtues. all that evenness of temper. To Temperance he ascribes his long-continued health. Without personal care. Resolution. or habitation. let each part of your business have its time. and that cheerfulness in conversation. Integrity Underpinning all our work. one person may gain but at a cost to others. never to dulness. Silence. therefore. down to his 79th year. Shared goals and mutual support lead to greater success than isolated work and individual focus. to Sincerity and Justice. even in the imperfect state he was able to acquire them. or at accidents common or unavoidable. It was so successful that he stuck to it for many years. "It may be well my posterity should be informed that to this little artifice. cloaths. be always employ'd in something useful. Order. decide what works for you and adopt/adapt for your organization. Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself. Humility. Frugality. Cleanliness. to Industry and Frugality. and obtained for him some degree of reputation among the learned. Without trust. such that he would cycle through the whole set once every 13 weeks and four times per year. drink not to elevation. See also American values The original HP Way Franklin's Thirteen Virtues When Benjamin Franklin was 20. the confidence of his country.e. We are honest. cut off all unnecessary actions. Moderation. perform without fail what you resolve. Rarely use venery but for health or offspring. if you speak. Trust and care are important for collaboration. Who we are is what our company is. their ancestor ow'd the constant felicity of his life. forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve. . which makes his company still sought for. and. To achieve the above requires personal and collective integrity.Together. Let all your things have their places. Resolve to perform what you ought. think about them. Industry. that some of my descendants may follow the example and reap the benefit. we are stronger and can contribute more. he wrote a 13-point plan for how he would live his life. and agreeable even to his younger acquaintance.              Temperance. "In this piece it was my design to have endeavored to convince young persons that no qualities were so likely to make a poor man's fortune as those of probity and integrity. we think and act with integrity. both within the organization and with customers and others stakeholders. speak accordingly. Wrong none by doing injuries. So what? Review these. we waste time waiting and chasing one another. Imitate Jesus and Socrates. weakness. Tranquillity. or omitting the benefits that are your duty. avoid trifling conversation. Sincerity. the reflection on past happiness enjoy'd ought to help his bearing them with more resignation. and what is still left to him of a good constitution. or the injury of your own or another's peace or reputation. waste nothing. We take to heart our values. reliable and caring in our dealings with other people. in his own words (plus his added commentary). Tolerate no uncleanliness in body. leading to a net loss of contribution.. Justice. and the honorable employs it conferred upon him. if they arrive. i. I hope. He would focus on one point each week. Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself. Our brand is both fragile and powerful and requires our constant attention. What reverses may attend the remainder is in the hand of Providence. with all that knowledge that enabled him to be a useful citizen. with the blessing of God. Lose no time. in which this is written. but. He kept track of progress with a chart in which he would put a red dot for each fault against each virtue committed that day. Eat not to dullness. Avoid extreams. These are a set of values he defined in 1741. Use no hurtful deceit.

You will probably also be a saint. sincerity. perhaps. Thus a sword that has the purpose of killing is a good sword if it achieves this well. In all things. yet in a Christian setting became one of the Seven Deadly Sins. but a Quaker friend having kindly informed me that I was generally thought proud. for. He also highlights rational choice: a person is not just innately good. When a person does something wrong by accident and apologizes. but was overbearing. perhaps. "In reality. stifle it. then the act is involuntary. . borrowing and lending. You are also likely to trust others who demonstrate these values. you are more likely to be trusted. and likely have similar roots. Nicomachean Ethics in which he expounds on a set of values. of which he convinc'd me by mentioning several instances. wit. beat it down. Temperance is described as not indulging oneself. In persuasion. take note of them: if you shows these values. and I added Humility to my list. Magnificence: Making fair use of wealth or power. Agreeableness: Being pleasant with all people. there is. Book 4: Other virtues Other virtues described include liberality. Christian-based virtues. that I was not content with being in the right when discussing any point. that my pride show'd itself frequently in conversation. He describes courage as overcoming fears such as death in battle. it is still alive. good fortune and a good character. and will every now and then peep out and show itself. struggle with it. mortify it as much as one pleases. Wit: Intelligence and humor. In this sense. Book 2: Moral virtue What Aristotle classified as moral virtues are most closely aligned with Western. but alsodecides to be good. Praise and blame are given for voluntary actions. then the act is called non-voluntary. you will probably be considered to be a good person by many others. amiability. Perhaps these are two ends of the same spectrum: One can be justly proud of one's achievements whilst excessive pride puts oneself too far above others. See also The Seven Virtues Nicomachean Ethics The Greep Philosopher Aristotle wrote a great work in ten books. finding the mean between extremes. I determined endeavouring to cure myself. For moral virtues. you will see it. I should probably be proud of my humility. Aristotle translates 'good' as 'effective'. and rather insolent. or 'character-centered' ethics. Liberality: Being moderate in money matters. he named:          Courage: Overcoming fear to to what is right. If they are not sorry or ashamed. if I could. The definition allows also allows for the separation out of virtue. Truthfulness: In all things. no one of our natural passions so hard to subdue as pride. Other actions may be admired or pitied. involuntary and nonvoluntary. Temperance: Acting in moderation in all things. not acting like a spoiled child."My list of virtues contain'd at first but twelve. For a happy life. and modesty. even if I could conceive that I had compleatly overcome it. Thus we can talk about a 'good' person. Disguise it. Book 1: The study of the good Aristotle defined goal-directed (teleological) ethics in terms of purpose and achievement of those ends. Book 3: Courage and temperance Aristotle described actions as voluntary. Pride: Claiming what is yours by right. Aristotle says you need health." So what? So if you live your life by these. often in this history. including using. Note how pride was considered a virtue. Gentleness: With a slow recourse to anger. Aristotle generally preached moderation. of this vice or folly among the rest. in which ethics are based in the person and their innate character. such as the Seven Virtues.

to be dispensed well. Brutality: Physical threat or assault of others. which deals with situations where a person achieves a gain which appears excessive and hence may be considered unfair. Friendship of the good: Enjoyment of one another's character. Book 6: Intellectual virtue In complement to moral virtues. Intuition: Knowing without conscious thinking. requires a very strong understanding of the other virtues. Book 7: Evil and pleasure Aristotle describes three types of evil in a person's character:    Vice: Extremes of behavior that are based in selfishness. These vices thus lead to 'unjust profits'. So what? Use principles that Aristotle understood so long ago. and a 'good' person is only so in relation to others who who are better or worse. Temperance (opposite of Gluttony): Practicing self-control. and that pleasure is an outcome of actions. typically at the national or international level. written in AD 410. Diligence (opposite of Sloth): Zeal and care in action. Aristotle identifies three types of friendship:    Friendship of utility: A relationship of convenience. Working hard to create valuable achievement. Incontinence: Understanding ethics but not exercising this. He also noted that some pleasures are good whilst others are not. Book 10: Pleasure and politics Aristotle describes politics and ethics as virtually the same thing. 3. and that politics is effectively ethics 'writ large'.Magnanimity is seen as as being layered on top of other virtues and based in understanding them both in oneself and others. intellectual virtues are attributes of intelligence. Friendship of pleasure: Delight in the company of another. so also can friendship. He describes general justice as the simple compliance or non-compliance with stated laws. Seeking peace over conflict. . More complex is particular justice. abstention and moderation. The Seven Virtues. 1. These were later were adapted by the Christian church. Politics should thus be an honorable profession. Particular justice includes fair distribution of goods and righting situations where individuals have been wronged. Book 5: Justice Aristotle saw justice as the cornerstone of society and. forgiving and showing mercy. and Aristotle defined five:      Knowledge: The accumulation of fact. The Seven Deadly Sins Prudentius' seven virtues Aurelius Clemens Prudentius identified seven virtues in his 'Psychomachia' ('Battle for the Soul'). Charity (opposite of Greed): Giving to the needy. Art: The appreciation and creation of art. Virtues generally are seen as a relative thing. Wisdom: Knowing what is right. Patience (opposite of Wrath): Holding back anger. Prudence: Discretion and foresight in practical affairs. for example seeking the friendship of good that delights in the company and personality of others. 5. 4. 2. Books 8 and 9: Friendship Just as exercising virtues improves the self. See also Aristotle's Ethics. Chastity (opposite of Lust): Seeking moral wholesomeness and purity of body and thought through education and general betterment. befitting great people of noble stature. Nobility in thought and action.

Suggest that the other person is succumbing to one or more of these values and they will likely head in the opposite direction. credit.com/ The Seven Virtues When Pope Gregory defined the seven deadly sins that we should avoid.whitestonejournal. Humility (opposite of Pride): Modesty and selflessness. the Seven Deadly Sins (or Vices) we know today were defined in the 6th century by Pope Gregory the Great. Anger is the loss of rational self-control and the desire to harm others. Kindness (opposite of Envy): Compassion support of others without seeking reciprocation. 6. is not only a cabbalistic magical number. the Didache. The Seven Virtues The Seven Deadly Sins Sins have always been popular areas of focus in the church. Origen produced a sevenfold list and at the end of the 4th century Cassian amended this sevenfold list. it also just happens to be the size of our short-term memory. You can even use it then as a guilt lever. gluttony. Note how many of these are very similar: envy. 7. 5.com/seven/. as a set of negative values: the values that you are supposed to adopt is that you will avoid these things and actually adopt their opposites. The Seven Virtues. Envy is wanting what others have. 1. Another approach is to play the Devil and encourage the other person to give in to these natural tendencies. which is a real limit to the number of things we can hold in mind at one time. Eventually. Prudence is care of and moderation with money. You can then either use this 'rule-breaking' as evidence that they can do things they previously would not consider. Lust is a powerful craving for such as sex. Pride is an excessive belief in one's own abilities. 4. There is also a hidden lack of concern for others in at least envy and anger. rather than taking. power and money. Attraction-avoidance. See also Aristotle's Ethics. As with other religious rule-sets. 5. These are: 1. Greed http://www. or possessions. Justice is being fair and equitable with others. See also The Ten Commandments. So what? Do not demonstrate these values yourself.6. 3. Or maybe you can also help others think about these. that good will prevail. Charity is concern for. Greed is the desire for material wealth or gain. abilities. Fortitude is never giving up. http://deadlysins. Respecting others and giving. and active helping of. Faith is belief in the right things (including the virtues!). 3. be it status. Few people will openly admit to any of them (which attests to the success in the inculcation of these as anti-values in the Christian world). 7. 6. perhaps you could too. lust and greed are all about desire. he also included a counter-balancing set of values that we should espouse and adopt. The number seven. 2. Hope is taking a positive future view. 4. others. An early 2nd century document. Gluttony is the desire to eat or consume more than you require. . maybe even as a form of blackmail (this is far more common than may be supposed). these pretty much hit the nail on the head in terms of a system for social harmonization or social control (depending on your viewpoint). Sloth is laziness and the avoidance of work. 2. So what? If the Romans could do it. contains a list of five. by the way.

9. and Diligence against sloth. 7. and bury the dead. and Loyalty. Hope and Faith. You shall have no other gods but me. 4. Temperance is moderation of needed things and abstinence from things which are not needed. 6. as defined by St. You shall not take the name of your Lord in vain. Valor. The Natural Virtues had already been defined by Greek philosophers. nor his maidservant. Paul (who placed love as the greatest of them all). 10. visit the sick. Very few people brought up around the Christian/Old Testament tradition will disagree with these values even if they are not God-fearing church-goers. whilst the last four are called the Chief or Natural Virtues. Honor your father and mother. Benevolence. The Seven Bushido Virtues: Right decisions.edu/research/iep/v/virtue.com/MartialArts/Bushido/Bushido.utm. . You shall not covet your neighbor's goods. You shall not steal.newadvent. Charity.htm. give drink to the thirsty. Hope http://www.com/think/xtrseven. nor anything that is your neighbor's. whilst the Spiritual Virtues are a slight variation on St. Honor. See also The Ten Commandments. Honesty. You can also be seen as being bold and daring if you break the virtues. You shall not covet your neighbor's wife. 3. The four Cardinal Virtues: Prudence. So what? If you follow the virtues.htm. so be aware of the other person's real values. Respect. You shall not covet your neighbor's house. Hope and Faith (due to variation in translation from the original: Charity and Love arguably have a high level of overlap).7. 1. clothe the naked. The Seven Deadly Sins. Fortitude. who went up Mount Sinai and came down with these basic rules for peaceful living. Temperance. http://www . 5. Patience against anger. Temperance. The first three of these are known as the Spiritual Virtues. from the house of slavery. Chastity against lust. Liberality against greed. nor his manservant. I am the Lord your God Who has taken you out of the land of Egypt. If you assume and act as if others follow the virtues. you will be seen as a good person who is to be trusted. Hope. 8. http://www. Kindness against envy. You shall not commit adultery. Prudence. Abstinence against gluttony. You shall remember and keep the Sabbath day holy. Paul's trio of Love. going back to Moses. including:       The Seven Contrary Virtues which are specific opposites to the Seven Deadly Sins: Humility against pride.htm The Ten Commandments One of the oldest and most commonly adopted set of values that have held together communities for thousands of years are the ten commandments. They are not even Christian.htm. Justice. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. The Seven Heavenly Virtues: Faith. 2. nor his bull. minister to prisoners. The whole of the Western society is permeated with these rules. There are also a number of other sets of virtues.takase.http://www. Courage and Justice. then they are more likely to do so.org/summa/3. You shall not kill.virtualsalt. give shelter to strangers. nor his donkey. The Theological Virtues: Love. Many modern groups (most notably youth) deliberately form their own identity by going against the values of others. The Seven Corporal Works of Mercy are a medieval list of things you can do to help others: feed the hungry.

Lifestyle . to run their own businesses. In fact in most cases you are unlikely to come anywhere near any of them except the last two or three. Entrepreneurial Creativity These folks like to invent things.wikipedia. If the other person is a professed Christian. be creative and. Such people will change jobs when the current one gets boring and their career can be very varied. say. for them. perhaps even bringing them up. Schwartz's Value Inventory: research-based set of common values. Pure Challenge People driven by challenge seek constant stimulation and difficult problems that they can tackle. People tend to stay anchored in one area and their career will echo this in many ways. For example a person with a primary theme of Security/Stability will seek secure and stable employment over. They may well work in public services or in such as HR. as opposed to the common reality of Model 1. although this may be used as a metric of success). They find ownership very important. They thrive on responsibility.org/wiki/Ten_Commandments Research on values       Career Anchors: identified by Edgar Schein as shapers of what we do. If you live by the rules. To be successful. They like to be challenged and then use their skill to meet the challenge. You might impress them with your knowledge of biblical matter (few but the most devout can recite all ten commandments). then you can be more direct. Security/Stability Security-focused people seek stability and continuity as a primary factor of their lives. They like problem-solving and dealing with other people. these folks want to be managers (and not just to get more money. employment that is challenging and riskier. So what? Beware of transgressing these rules. General Managerial competence Unlike technical/functional people. Schein's Career Anchors Edgar Schein at MIT has identified eight themes and has shown that people will have prioritized preferences for these. Technical/Functional competence This kind of person likes being good at something and will work to become a guru or expert. they also need emotional competence. They avoid standards and prefer to work alone. Autonomy/Independence These people have a primary need to work under their own rules and steam.Note also that these values are elsewhere than just Christian Bible: they are found in the Jewish Torah the Moslem Koran. They easily get bored. Governing Values: Common 'Model 1' modern values identified by Chris Argyris at Harvard. They avoid risks and are generally 'lifers' in their job. is a sign of success. Argyris' Model 2 Governing Values: The ideal. See also http://en. for example pointing out that it is not a good idea to tell tales about you. They differ from those who seek autonomy in that they will share the workload. Service/Dedication to a cause Service-oriented people are driven by how they can help other people more than using their talents (which may fall in other areas). Values in Action (VIA): Values from Positive Psychology. then You can also use them as levers. most of all. doing the job properly and better than almost anyone else. Five Common Human Concerns: Kohl's beliefs/concerns. Wealth.

as discussed here. Organizational Learning II. with an alternative set of values that are more selfless and lead to a better way of behaving that is nearer to an honest espoused theory. We should believe that they are valid and good decisions. D. So what? So find the other person's career anchor and priorities and then pitch your persuasion in the right direction. and that we should actively pursue the consequent actions. they will naturally act on them with passion and energy. This is true also of group decisions and where a leader makes a decision that requires others to act.Those who are focused first on lifestyle look at their whole pattern of living. this should not be lip-service. Mass: Addison Wesley . Monitoring should also follow the Model 2 values. but they are not common. being done in a way that provides valid information about how things are going and leads to sensible course corrections that are followed through to make things work better. A. See also Argyris' Governing Values. Any omissions and limitations are understood and taken into account. Particularly if business people follow these. Internal commitment to choices When we make decisions. Career Anchors (discovering your real values).html References Schein. When people are truly committed to decisions. Reading. to differentiate it from the more saintly Espoused Theory where which we tell other people (and ourselves) how wonderful we are. then everything else will be invalid. as opposed to half-hearted efforts that can easily fail through a simple lack of commitment. A reason for this is that it requires a collaborative culture where people feel open enough to allow difference of opinion and where high integrity is valued over shorter-term personal gain. communications and actions. Consistency Theory. He consequently described a Model 2. they will end up with a lot more success. Jossey-Bass Pfeiffer. If plans are based on invalid information. They may even take long periods off work in which to indulge in passions such as sailing or traveling. and Schon. They may seem obvious. Valid information We should base our decisions on information that is relevant to the situation and which is as full and correct as possible.edu/scheine/www/home. (1990). then they have a far greater chance of gaining the commitment of others than if the decision appears to be self-serving or based on weak data. Constant monitoring Even when we make commitment to good choices. Free and informed choice When we make decisions. In practice this can be very difficult as organizations are social institutions staffed with people who have their own desires and agendas that may well not align well with higher strategies and decisions of the organization. If they can show that this was an informed decision. (1996). See also http://web. So what? Try to follow these values yourself and encourage them in others. it is easy for actions to be less than is needed to make things work in practice. we should be careful to ensure implementation of sound choices is executed correctly. San Francisco Argyris' Model 2 Values Chris Argyris at Harvard identified four common values that drive people that he called the Model 1 Theory-inuse. opinion or limited data. Decisions References Argyris. including decisions. They not so much balance work and life as integrate it.mit. C. it should be without explicit or implicit pressure from others. based on valid information. Edgar H. We hence need to invest up-front to get valid information rather than base decisions on hearsay. As a result. The decision should be based on the valid information available rather than social reasons such as avoiding criticism or avoiding harm to others.

F.. selfish. Becoming Doing Become what you are Action speaks louder. Concern Human Nature What is the basic nature of people? Evil People are basically bad. The ability to control others is important and power will be actively sought through dominance of others and control over resources. Achievement . Those in charge decide and get more. You are enough already. Strodtbeck. what you achieve. untrustworthy and need to be controlled. Kluckholn and Strodtbeck's Dimensions of Culture Kohls. Everyone shares decisions and outcomes. What cohabit. IL: Row.C. so figure them out before trusting them.Five Common Human Concerns Kohls (1981) identified five common human concerns. and controlled. prepared. they are born good. R. D. L. living in dominated. Individual Individuals should decide for themselves. Some people are superior and others want to follow. you can determine how to converse and interact with them. Reward comes from Reach your potential. Power This takes value from social status and prestige. Dominant over Nature Man-Nature Relationship How should people relate to nature? Nature is driven by We should learn to Nature is there to be external forces. See also Beliefs about people. Sacrifice now for a better future. happen. Developing intercultural awareness. R. Evanston. (1981). From this. Collateral Act as a group. There is no point in striving for false goals. Social Relations What is the best form of social organization? Hierarchical There is a natural order. Activity Being Live for today. L. and Strodtbeck (1961). So what? When working with people. How should we act? Just 'be'. Kluckhohn.000 people to identify common values that acted as 'guiding principles for one's life'. Washington. Variations in value orientations. Now is Plan for tomorrow. Peterson Schwartz's Value Inventory Shalom Schwartz (1992. plus three possible responses to each one. (1961). Be all there is. We are in charge of our own destiny. based on the Value Orientations of Kluckhohn.: Sietar Press. Harmony with Nature Good Most people are basically pretty good at heart. 1994) used his 'Schwartz Value Inventory' (SVI) with a wide survey of over 60. capable of becoming. Subordinate to Nature Possible Responses Mixed Everyone has some degree of good and evil. plundered happens was meant to harmony with nature. He identified ten 'value types' that gather multiple values into a single category. understand their position on this table and hence what their values in action will be. & F. Past Present Future Time Sense What part of time is We should learn from most important? history and continue traditions.

seeking to help others and provide general welfare. Tradition. Any change makes them uncomfortable. status is reduced and greater goals are sought. They seek pleasure above all things and may. They are the 'earth mothers' who nurture all. seeking to preserve the world order as is. Self-enhancement: Achievement. Conformity The person who values conformity seeks obedience to clear rules and structures. they welcome the comfort that their existence brings. SelfUniversalism. though the goal is slightly different. They promote peace and equality and find war anathema except perhaps in pursuit of lasting peace.Value here comes from setting goals and then achieving them. Stimulation The need for stimulation is close to hedonism. the greater the sense of achievement. They are conservatives in the original sense. The prefer freedom and may have a particular creative or artistic bent. They can also be collated into larger super-groups:     Openness to change: Stimulation. Self-direction Those who seek self-direction enjoy being independent and outside the control of others. Conformity Achievement. Universalism The universalist seeks social justice and tolerance for all. with successive values often having a close relationship. as below. These can be arranged in a circle or square. Tradition The traditionalist respects that which has gone before. according to the view of others. and seeking stability or change. Though they may worry about the potential of military force. SelfPower. tradition and conformity. Conservation Security. This is perhaps unsurprising as they are groupings of a larger number of values. Self-direction. doing things simply because they are customary. Self-transcendence: Universalism and benevolence. power and some hedonism. sink into debauchery. with these four variables forming two dimensions of focus on the self or not. They gain a sense of control through doing what they are told and conforming to agreed laws and statutes. Benevolence Those who tend towards benevolence are very giving. Super-grouping Note how these values form something of a spectrum. enhancement benevolence transcendence Hedonism Stimulation. self-direction and some hedonism. Hedonism Hedonists simply enjoy themselves. The more challenge. Security Those who seek security seek health and safety to a greater degree than other people (perhaps because of childhood woes). Conservation: Security. When others have achieved the same thing. Pleasure here comes more specifically from excitement and thrills and a person with this driver is more likely to be found doing extreme sports than propping up a bar. which they seek to indulge whenever possible. Hedonism Openness to change .

Yoon. Being just and without bias. Understand the strengths of others and try to work with them. S. 8. Understand your strengths and try to build on them. So what? Go take the free test (requires registration) here. Humor: Enjoying laughter and making people laugh. See also http://www. Curiosity Exploring and seeking for its own sake. M. Seeing the lighter side of life. 2. 22. 21. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. San Diego: Academic Press Schwartz.org/ http://www. Zanna. 6.C. challenge. Fairness: Treating everyone in a similar way. Beyond individualism/collectivism: New dimensions of values. 13. Kagitcibasi. Bravery: Not shrinking from threat. 12. See also Schwartz. Leadership: Driving achievement whilst maintaining harmony.C.sas. 14.htm . Integrity: Presenting oneself in a genuine way. C. Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Perspective: Seeing in ways that make sense and giving wise counsel. Newbury Park. Self-regulation: Controlling one's emotions and actions according to one's values. Spirituality: Having coherent beliefs higher purpose and the meaning of life.H. but the ones that really count are those that you enact every day. Individualism and Collectivism: Theory Application and Methods. Many people have aspirational values. acting on convictions even if unpopular. Citizenship: Being socially responsible and loyal. 16. 5.ppc. In summary. S. and others to identify core character strengths. (1992). 20. Creativity: New ways of thinking and acting. Gratitude: Knowing. despite difficulties. Prudence: Not taking undue risks or doing what you will regret.H. difficulty. feeling and being thankful for all the good things in life.edu/publications. Social intelligence: Being aware of how yourself and others are motivated. 10. Love: Valuing. Triandis. 18. 15. Wonder: Appreciating beauty and excellence. Persistence: Seeing things through. 3. Also understand weaknesses and seek to shore them up or work around the. Vitality: A zest and enthusiasm for life and living. Note that the name is 'Values in Action'. Kindness: Doing things for others without requiring reciprocation. or pain. 19. (1994). H. 24. 11. a piece of work has been done with the field's founder. Open-mindedness: Seeing things objectively and fairly. Kim. 23. U. and acting accordingly. from all sides. taking responsibility for one’s feeling and actions 9. Letting achievements speak for themselves. Martin Seligman. Love of learning: Constantly developing skills and knowledge. Choi and G. the twenty-four values are: 1.upenn.viasurvey. 4. S. CA: Sage Values in Action (VIA) In the relatively new field of positive psychology. 7.So what? This model is useful both in understanding values and also in understanding culture. 17. Hope: Positively expecting the best and working to achieve it. sharing and caring for others. Humility / Modesty: Not putting oneself above others. Forgiveness and mercy: Forgiving wrong-doers rather than seeking punishment or revenge.

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