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As well as being one of life’s greatest pleasures, eating well is the most important contribution that we can make to our ongoing health and well-being. It’s easy to take to take our eating habits for granted. Our tastes have been with us for a long time. At some point though, it dawns on most of us that our chosen diet and life style hold the key to the state of our body and mind. We need to realize that the front line in the battle for the health of our being lies in our diet. Most people agree that a well body is one that is free of serious imbalances, excesses, toxins and diseases. To reach a level of whole health and well being you simply need to realize that you have the ability to achieve a balanced body and mind, by reviewing your dietary habits and lifestyle. In actual fact healthy eating does not mean we mush restrict our pleasure in food. Popular meals can be made much healthier, by simply preparing them in a slightly different way.
Is an expression of the moment. I read once that cooking is the only activity that actually involves all five senses with food we use sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. Cooking there for is a form of art. Something found in the sole and brought forward by the love for creation. a chef approaches a dish with an open mind and the challenge of creating something new, unexpected and delightful. One needs devotion patience and dedication when approaching a new way of cooking. Here are some tips to create a new dish. Visual: in the presentation include varying natural shapes, sizes, textures and colours. Olfactory: make each product distinguishable from each other, complement products with herbs, spices. Taste: let each item on the plate have its personality complement the others. Have no dominating or offensive flavours.
This pyramid, representing a healthy, traditional Mediterranean diet, is based on the dietary traditions of Crete, much of the rest of Greece and southern Italy circa 1960, structured in light of current nutrition research. The selection of these regions and this time period as a basis for the design follows from three considerations: 1. Recognition that the rates of chronic diseases were among the lowest in the world and adult life expectancy was among the highest for these populations at that time, even though medical services were limited; 2. Availability of data describing the character of food consumption patterns of the areas at that time 3. The convergence of the dietary patterns revealed by these data and our current understanding of optimal nutrition based on epidemiological studies and clinical trials worldwide. The design of the pyramid is not based solely on either the weight or the percentage of energy (calories) that foods account for in the diet, but on a blend of these that is meant to give relative proportions and a general sense of frequency of servings-as well as an indication of which foods to favor in a
healthy Mediterranean-style diet. The pyramid describes a diet for most healthy adults. Whether changes would need to be made for children, women in the reproductive years, and other special population groups is an issue that needs further consideration. What is the Mediterranean diet? There is on one Mediterranean diet. At least 16 countries border the Mediterranean Sea. Diets vary between these countries and also between regions within a country. Many differences in culture, ethnic, background, religion, economy and agricultural production result in different diets. The common Mediterranean diet has these characteristics:
1. High consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread and other cereals, potatoes,
beans, nuts and seeds. These are high in beneficial fibres and antioxidants, which are protective against both heart disease and cancer. Indeed a recent study in London in January 2006 showed that 5 servings a day of fruits and vegetables reduced the risk of a heart stroke by 25 %. Olive oil is an important monounsaturated fat source which can lower total cholesterol and LDL Cholesterol and increase HDL Cholesterol. It is also a source of antioxidants and Vitamin E. Dairy products, fish and poultry are consumed in low to moderate amounts and little red meat is eaten. Eggs are consumed zero to four times a week. Mediterranean people consume 1-2 glasses of wine a day with meals. Red wine is a rich source of flavonoid phenolics a type of antioxidants which protects against the heart disease by increasing HDL Cholesterol and preventing blood clotting. Fish especially oily fish, such as salmon high in omega 3 fatty acids, a type of polyunsaturated fat which can also lower cholesterol.
A European study published in the New England journal of medicine in 2003 follow more than 22,000 people living in Greece and investigating their
eating habits. During the 4 years of the study researches found that the closer people followed the Mediterranean Diet the less likely they were to die from either heart disease or cancer.
On an international scale there is much discussion about, and deep interest in, finding the ideal diet, which will improve the health of human beings warding of illnesses. Ever since antiquity the traditional diets of Cretans seems to be just such a one, including all the right ingredients. The Greek island of Crete has always been identified with healing and regeneration. And once again, an ancient culture may offer lessons to people of today!! Following scientific research and statistical analyses, the Cretan nutrition and diet has been proven to promote health and longevity. It consists almost exclusively of products that the people of Crete produce naturally. Products that only the island of Crete and its ideal climatic conditions can offer. It is not only the unique in taste and quality Cretan products but also their combination, which gives an enormous nutritional value and can be found in every Cretan dish. A comparative study among several developed countries, which began in 1960 on behalf of seven countries, has a group of about 700 Cretan men from the countryside under medical observation, regularly checking the state of their health: so far this group has had the lowest percentage of deaths caused by heart attacks and different kinds of cancer. This study has also shown the Cretan population to be the longest living one: when, in 1991, thirty one years after the beginning of the study, the Social Health Sector of the University of Crete undertook the medical check-up of the group, about 50% were found to be still alive as opposed to the rest of the six participating countries where there wasn't a single survivor (even in the rest of Greece)!Until recently the diet was simple and wholesome: olive oil, which counted for the 1/3 of the individual's daily need in energy, but mainly cereals, principally bread, pulses, vegetables and fruit and, to a lesser degree, cheese, milk, eggs, fish and a little red wine with every meal. Taking into account the conditions of today's life, we would recommend a return to the traditional Cretan eating habits.
If someone decides to incorporate a Cretan-like diet, it is good to know the following basics: • Use olive oil as the principal fat, replacing other fats and oils. • Drink a moderate consumption of wine, normally with meals; about one to two glasses per day for men and one glass per day for women. • Eat fresh fruit as a typical daily dessert; limit sweets with a significant amount of sugar and saturated fat. • Incorporate an abundance of food from plant sources, including fruits and vegetables, breads and grains, beans, nuts, and seeds. • Eat minimally processed and seasonally fresh and locally grown foods. • Total dietary fat should range from less than 25 percent to over 35 percent of energy, with saturated fat no more than 7 to 8 percent of total calories. • Eat low to moderate amounts of cheese and yoghurt daily. • Consume low to moderate amounts of fish and poultry weekly; and limit eggs from zero to four servings per week. • Only eat red meat a few times or just one time per month The health and therapeutic benefits of olive oil were first mentioned by Hippocrates, the father of medicine. For centuries, the nutritional, cosmetic and medicinal benefits of olive oil have been recognized by the people of the Mediterranean. Olive oil was used to maintain skin and muscle suppleness, heal abrasions, and soothe the burning and drying effects of sun and water By reducing the animal fats and increasing olive oil in our diet we obtain a perfect combination for the prevention of such fatal diseases, like arteriosclerosis and heart attacks. The problems in bile area torture millions of people on our planet. The bad function of the bile and the formation of gallstone are problems difficult to cure and most of the times medical surgery is the only solution available. It has been also proved that the use of olive oil in nutrition helps to sustain:
1.Human metabolism at a good balance, body's growth and bone growth at a good level. It is obvious that olive oil means good health and development for our children.
2. Good level of Vitamin E in our body. This vitamin has the property to delay the change of the cellular structure which leads to natural decadence, the people's aging, so one of the best medicaments for delaying aging is the olive oil. On the other hand, as we all know, Vitamin E improves our sexual life. So one can say that olive oil is by itself an aphrodisiac Last but not least, is the unique property of olive oil to dissolve useful substances coming from food that cannot be absorbed by the human body. Olive oil is used in everyday cooking. It can be used in salads or added in the cooking process of almost any recipe. Olive Oil is the healthiest type of oil with 0% cholesterol, rich in Vitamins against aging and perfect even for frying dishes. Olive oil is the best nutritional gift we can offer to ourselves. Olive oil helps us keep good in health making our life pleasant. The Mediterranean is not only a weight loss and maintenance diet it is also the healthiest diet of the world. It is better to use the term MEDITERANEAN CUISINE as the traditional eating lifestyle of the Mediterranean people. The common principles are: • • • • • • • The use of unique plates. Intensive use of olive oil. Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. 1 time a week consumption of red meat. Moderate consumption of fish or white meat. Consumption of honey instead of sugar. Drink at least 6 glasses of water a day.
The main benefits are: • • • • • • • • • • • • Rich in antioxidants. Prevents heart and cardiovascular diseases. Reduces the risk of cancer. Reduces the risk of diabetes. Reduces the Hypertension and infract risk Protects from the Alzheimer’s risk. Reduces the risk of chronic bronchitis and emphysema Has anti-inflammatory effects Reduces the blood pressure Improves the life duration and its quality Is convenient Its tasty • It’s amusing.
There are three kinds of dietary fats: saturated (animal), polyunsaturated (plants, seeds, nuts, vegetable oils), and monounsaturated (olive oil). From a nutritional standpoint, all types of olive oil are approximately the same, with 80% monounsaturated, 14% saturated, 9% polyunsaturated fats on average. Olive oil is rich in vitamins A, B-1, B-2, C, D, E and K and in iron. Olive oil, which is beneficial to the digestive system, does not necessarily keep you thin; it contains just as many calories as other oils (9cal/g). Olive oil acts as a mild laxative, is a friend to the intestine and an enemy of ulcers and gastritis. Olive oil is a good tonic, with specific benefits for people suffering from heart disease. Olive oil has been regarded as the "beauty oil". The body's cells incorporate the valuable fatty acids from the oil, making arteries more supple and skin more lustrous. The amount of oleic acid in olive oil is about the same as that found in a mother's milk and is thus the best growth supplement for infants. Drunk before a meal, olive oil protects the stomach from ulcers. If a spoon or two is taken with lemon or coffee, it prevents constipation without irritating the intestinal tract. It is also effective in treating urinary tract infections and gall bladder problems. It is a perfect remedy for gastritis in children; it accelerates brain development and strengthens the bones. Olive oil dissolves clots in capillaries, has been found to lower the degree of absorption of edible fats, and consequently slows down the aging process. Only animal-derived foods contain cholesterol. Olive oil is cholesterol-free. Cholesterol is not entirely harmful; it is an essential building block for cell membranes, nerve fibre coverings, vitamin D and sex hormones. The body manufactures all the cholesterol it needs, so any cholesterol in foods we eat is excessive. Excess cholesterol causes a gradual accumulation of fatty deposits and connective tissue, known as plaque, along the walls of blood vessels. Eventually, plaque builds up, narrows the arteries and reduces blood flow, in this way increasing the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is vital for the structure of cell walls. In order to circulate through the bloodstream, it is "packaged" in fatty-protein wrappings called "lipoproteins". The low-density lipoproteins
(LDL) distribute cholesterol throughout the body, dropping it off where needed. The liver also packages another type of cholesterol called high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which picks-up circulating cholesterol and returns it to the liver for reprocessing, or excretion. The LDLs are the ones that build up the walls of the arteries and so is tagged "bad" cholesterol. HDLs carry cholesterol away. So the more HDLs there are, the easier it is to unblock paths and rid the body of unwanted cholesterol. What the body really needs is a good HDL/LDL ratio. Polyunsaturated oils lower LDL ("bad") and HDL ("good") levels. Monounsaturated oils (such as olive oil), lower only LDL cholesterol, leaving HDLs to help clean out arteries. Animal fats, which contain saturated fatty acids, exponentially increase blood cholesterol levels. Polyunsaturated fatty acids lower both LDL and HDL levels in the blood, but they do not affect their ratio. Monounsaturated fatty acids on the other hand control LDL levels while raising HDL levels. No other naturally produced oil has as large an amount of monounsaturated fatty acids as olive oil, which mainly contains oleic acid. The modest amount of well-balanced polyunsaturated fatty acids in olive oil is well protected by antioxidant substances. It is widely believed that antioxidant substances such as vitamins E, K and polyphenols found in olive oil provide a defence mechanism that delays aging and prevents carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis, liver disorders and inflammations. Since olive oil is not tortured during extraction, these substances are left unspoiled, making the olive oil very stable even when frying. So contrary to common belief, olive oil undergoes a smaller degree of deterioration during frying than other oils. Due to its chemical structure, olive oil is of unrivalled organoleptic value and thus the oil best suited for human consumption. It is very well tolerated by the stomach. In fact, its protective function has a beneficial effect on gastritis and ulcers. It is a cholagogue, activating the secretion of pancreatic hormones and bile much more naturally than prescribed drugs. Consequently, it lowers the incidence of cholelithiasis (gallstone formation). Its excellent digestibility promotes the overall absorption of nutrients, especially vitamins and mineral salts. It has a positive effect on constipation. Bones need a large amount of oleates and what source could be better than olive oil? Promoting bone mineralization, it is excellent for infants and the elderly who have bone calcification problems. It also has beneficial effects on brain and nervous system development as well as on overall growth. It shields the body against infection and helps in the healing of tissues, internal and external. Olive oil is a panacea, the perfect oil for all ages. And every time scientists look into the reasons behind an olive oil advantage empirically known and employed by the peoples of the Mediterranean, it is certain that they will come across evidence of yet another unique biological attribute.
One of the two oldest cheeses in the world together with kasseri is feta cheese, a genuine Greek product. Strictly speaking, the real feta it is produced exclusively in Greece and it is considered to be a traditional Greek cheese par excellence. Feta belongs to the category of soft cheese. Feta is produced by sheep milk or a blend of sheep and goat milk up to a proportion of 70:30 %. Sheep's feta cheese is strong and rich (high in fat) while goat feta cheese makes for a strong game flavored product. Before being available for consumption, feta goes through two month maturation at least, this being the period of development of all its organoleptic and qualitative characteristics, which make the difference from other soft cheeses of the same category. Feta cheese is a type of brine matured cheese, packaged in traditional wooden barrels, tin vessels or small packages made of materials specified for food products. It is a solid mass cheese with no rind with a few uneven holes. It is white colour, pleasant in flavour, lightly sour and rich in aroma. In the market we found two qualitative variations, soft and hard feta. Due to its greater humidity content, soft feta is sweeter, less salty, rich in aroma and less spicy, while hard feta is saltier and spicier, having a stronger taste and aroma. Since 14 October 2002, feta cheese is officially recognized as a Greek only, cheese. Everybody knows dairy products are an essential part of a healthy, balanced diet, and although preventing osteoporosis is often the first thing people think of when they consider the health benefits of consuming dairy products, there is a growing list of ways that dairy can improve your health. Research has shown that increased consumption of dairy products, by both children and adults, results in increased bone density later in life and a reduced risk of osteoporosis. Emerging research indicates consuming three servings of low-fat dairy products as part of a healthy diet and exercise plan will help with weight loss and weight maintenance. Numerous studies have found that increasing the intake of calcium, potassium and magnesium – nutrients found in dairy foods – lowers blood pressure and helps reduce the risk of hypertension Several studies link the intake of dairy foods with decreased risk of certain cancers, such as colon and breast cancer. Certain cheeses, such as Cheddar, Swiss, Blue, Monterey Jack and processed American cheese, among others, have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of dental cavities.
Fish in one of the most popular food items. Fish varies in shape, size, colour, skin, bone and taste. It is a unique animal meat. The taste of the fish
depends upon its origin, whether from sea or fish water, its fat content and whether it is eaten fresh or preserved. Steaming baking or grilling fish is the best for health. Since fish is so delicate as soon as you cook it, it should be served. Fish are a great source of protein. They contain healthy fats that will reduce cholesterol and improve your health. Fish also contain omega 3 fatty acids that help keep our heart healthy and may even improve our mood. Big fish have more mercury for the simple reason that big fish usually live longer, which means that they have more time to build up higher levels in their body. Marlin, orange rough, shark, swordfish, tilefish and tuna have the highest level of mercury.
• Rubbing lemon on your fingers before handling fish will prevent odours from lingering on them. • Be sure to cook fish at the recommended temperatures for the proper length of time to prevent the loss of taste and nutritional value • Salt water fish are a superior source of nutrients, which are vital to growth and good health. Fish contain high amounts of proteins, vitamins, minerals and polyunsaturated fats. • Proteins are basic to the diet. They can be broken down into amino acids which are essential for the growth and repair of body tissue. • Fish are also a valuable source of vitamins, which are necessary for the body’s functions. Fish liver oil is an exceptional source of vitamins A and D. Vitamin A is necessary for healthy skin and development of bones. Vitamin D plays an important part in the body’s use of calcium, a mineral vital for sound teeth and bones. Fat fish are a prime source of vitamin D. All fish contain several of the B complex vitamins necessary for many of the body’s processes, like digestion and nervous system. • Fish are also a good source of minerals. Some of the minerals supplied by fish are phosphorus, copper, iron calcium and iodine. Phosphorus and calcium are essential for the bones and teeth. Iron and copper are vital to the haemoglobin content in blood. Iodine is necessary for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. • Fish oils contain polyunsaturated fats. These are essential for healthy skin, and the normal operation of the liver and kidneys. They also decrease the level of cholesterol in blood.
Ancient physicians and shamans used herbs to cure the sick. A recorded use of this natural form of medicine can be found as early as 2,500 B.C. today we still appreciate refreshing, healthy and therapeutic herbal teas. Herbs can even provide the stimulating pick-up we need from time to time, in an easy and tasty form. You can only enhance your health if you explore the delicious nutritional and medical plants that are the original inspiration for most modern orthodox synthetic drugs. Apart from the medicinal value of herbs when they are administrated as extracted medicines mixed by a profffesional herbalist, there are many different herbal teas you can choose to drink safely on a regular basis. It is important to vary them, as they all also have medicinal properties. Herbal teas are delicious healthy drinks that are easy to prepare. Just boil some water and pour it over 1 or 2 teaspoons of dried or ground herbs and allow infusing for 10 minutes. Many herbal drinks now come in the form of tea bags and can be found in the local supermarkets. They are usually from leaves, flowers and some times the root. We can drink herbal tisanes hot or cold.
1. It is the best thing we can do for preventive health care 2. Reduces the risk of heart diseases 3. Improves our circulation 4. Helps prevent the development of cancer 5. Improves our breathing and our entire respiratory system 6. Helps alleviate systems of osteoarthritis 7. Strengthens our back and reduces lower back pain 8. Increases bone density 9. Reduces the risk of osteoporosis 10. Strengthens the muscles, tendons, ligaments and stabilizes joints 11. Increases our flexibility 12. Improves our posture 13. Slows down the aging process 14. Increases our energy 15. Helps reduce body fat level 16. Helps maintain our ideal body weight 17. Improves our digestion 18. Boosts our immune system 19. Improves our self esteem 20. Reduces depression, anxiety and stress 21. Helps us look and feel better
22.Makes us happier. These provide energy and other nutrients. There are two kinds: simple which are sugars and complex which are vegetables and grains.
Although sugars are an excellent source of quick energy it is healthier to get our energy from the complex ones as they are good for us and bring with them lots of other benefits and nutrients. These are another source of energy. Some of them help maintain body heat, protect vital organs and provide cell wall structure. Necessary for the growth, maintenance and repair of body tissue, proteins help the building of cells. They are also an important energy source. As well as providing the bulk that facilitates the passage of foods through the system, fibre in sufficient quantities may also help prevent intestinal problems. Derived from plant cell walls, fibre is classified as insoluble fibre, which is cellulose, and soluble fibre, mainly pectin which is important in helping reduce blood cholesterol levels and stabilizing blood sugar.
These are the substances, required in fairly small amounts except from calcium that are essential for the body’s process to function correctly. vegetables and pulses, fruits and herbs) Super food is a recent term for some fairly everyday foods of all types that, as well as being highly nutritious, possess powerful properties for promoting good health and a good life. Some of these are: 1. Almond: it is full of protein. 2. Apple: full of antioxidant vitamin C and pectin (an apple a day keeps the doctor away). 3. Avocado: full of antioxidant vitamin A, C and E and some B complex. 4. Banana: it has some source of potassium, B6 vitamin, calcium and iron. 5. Barley: it helps tress, strengthen the nervous system and ahs B and E vitamins. 6. Basil: It helps calm the nervous system. 7. Beans: are high in fibres, proteins and low in fat. 8. Berries: they are high in vitamin C. 9. Beetroot: it is good for the entire digestive system and for the liver. 10.Black cumin seeds: in contains nigelin which stimulates the digestion and is antibacterial. 11.Blackcurrant: it is full of vitamin C.
12.Brazil nut: it is the richest vegetable source of the antioxidant selenium. 13.Broccoli: in the same family are included cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, cabbage and radishes they are full iron, beta carotene and vitamin C. 14.Brown rice: it is full of fibre, vitamin B and antioxidant vitamin E. 15.Camomile: it known as a relaxing property. 16.Cardamom: it is an excellent digestive tonic. 17.Carrot: they are rich in vitamins A, B and C and some minerals. 18.Celery: it is a good substitute for sea salt because it is high in sodium. 19.Cinnamon: it can treat stomach upsets and vomiting. 20. Chillies: these are infact a fruit and they provide three times more vitamin C than oranges. 21.Cloves: they are a well-known toothache remedy. 22. Cranberries: the juice of this fruit is excellent for preventing the urinary track infections 23. Fenugreek: high in ingredients that sooth and heal inflammatory conditions of the stomach 24. Garlic: it is a natural diuretic, it increases kidney functions and cleans wounds and bites 25. Ginger: it is valued for its cleansing, warming and stimulating qualities 26. Grapes: they have the effect of stimulating the bodies regenerative powers and combating stress 27. Horseradish: it acts as a digestive aid and increases urinary flow 28.Lemon balm: it helps treat anxiety, tension and depression 29.Lentils: these are a very good source of protein, cholesterol and bloodsugar regulating fibre, potassium, magnesium and b-vitamins 30. mango: it is full of vitamin E,C and iron 31.Melon: cleans and stimulates the kidneys and bladder 32.Mushrooms: mushrooms contain B vitamins, potassium, iron and proteins 33. Nutmeg: contains myristin, a substance that causes drown ness and a sense of well-being 34. Oats: are good for the digestive system and contain vitamins B,E, calcium, magnesium, potassium and silicon 35. Oily fish: they are rich in omega 3 fatty acids 36. Olive oil: has vitamins E, and helps lower cholesterol 37. Onions: are high in potassium and B vitamins. They also help reduce heart disease, stroke and cancer risk 38. Orange: are high in vitamins C, beta-carotene and bioflavonoid 39. Parsley: it is an excellent source of potassium, calcium, antioxidants and vitamin C 40. Peppers: have a very high level of vitamin C, iron, potassium and betacarotene 41. Peppermint: it is good for the digestive system
42. Pineapple: contains an enzyme called Bromelaine, which can digest many
times its own weight of protein in a few minutes 43. Prune: they contain twice as much antioxidants that any other fruit or vegetable 44.Pumpkin seed: contain a good source of iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc and vitamins B 45. Radish: is a good source of calcium, sulphur and potassium 46.Raspberry leaves: are good for pregnant woman. They help relax the uterine muscles for labour and delivery 47.Rosemary: it is a natural antibacterial, antifungal antiseptic and has relaxing powers 48. Sage: it helps the memory and has strong antiseptic, antispasmodic properties 49. Sauerkraut: it is high in calcium and vitamin C 50. Sesame seed: it is rich in proteins, iron, vitamin E, magnesium and calcium 51. Soya bean: is rich in vitamins B, C, E, iron and lecithin. 52.Spinach: has a very high quantity of iron and potassium 53.Sprouted seeds: are packed with minerals, vitamins, enzymes and proteins 54. Sunflower seed: it is rich in B vitamins, polyunsaturated fats, proteins and minerals 55. Sweet potato: it has a level of E vitamin, lots of minerals and antioxidants 56. Thyme: it helps to ease the symptoms of asthma, bronchitis and coughing 57. Tomato: it is long regarded as having the power to enhance the love-life of people it has a high level of iron, potassium, antioxidant vitamins C and E 58.Turmeric: it contains liver-protectant compounds and is good for the digestive system 59.Watercress: it is an excellent source of vitamins A and C, some B vitamins, iodine, iron, potassium and zinc.
1. Baking: In this method, the food gets cooked in an oven or oven like
appliance by dry heat. The temperature range maintained in an oven is 120°C – 260°C.is the process of cooking at certain temperatures in an oven 2. Barbequing: is the process of cooking at high temperatures over coals or an open flame. Marinating is essential for the taste. 3. Blackening: is the process of cooking by coating in spice and cooking at extremely high heat. The process actually creates a barrier between the food and the heat, allowing blackening, not burning to occur. To blacken properly, a cast iron skillet or grill plate is heated over very high temperature until just short of a white spot or ash appearing. The skillet of grill must be extremely dry before it is heated. Dip into melted clarified butter, and then sprinkle with spice.
Place onto the pan cooking on both sides. Blackening adds a distinctive flavour while creating a savoury, moisture-retaining barrier around the out side. 4. Broiling: is the process of cooking under an open flame or electric element at high temperatures. 5. Roasting: In this method food is cooked in a heated metal or frying pan without covering it. 6. Toasting: This is a method where food is kept between two heated elements to facilitate browning on both sides. Bread slices are cooked by toasting.
1. Steaming is a method of cooking using steam. Overcooking or burning
food is easily avoided when steaming. 2. Poaching in court bouillon: is the process of cooking in simmering stock. Court bouillon for poaching: • ½ cup vinegar or dry white wine • 1 Tbsp salt • 1 celery stalk • ¼ cup slice onions • ¼ cup sliced carrot • ¼ tsp thyme • ½ tsp peppercorns • 1 bay leaf • 1 Tbsp chopped parsley • 1 Lt. Simmering water Combine all the ingredients and simmer until the food is ready.
3. Boiling is a method of cooking foods by just immersing them in water at
100° C and maintaining the water at that temperature till the food is tender. Rice, egg, dhal, meat, roots and tubers are cooked by boiling. 4. Stewing: It refers to the simmering of food in a pan with a tight fitting lid using small quantities of liquid to cover only half the food. This is a slow method of cooking. The liquid is brought to boiling point and the heat is reduced to maintain simmering temperatures (82°C - 90° C). The food above the liquid is cooked by the steam generated within the pan. Apple, meat along with roots, vegetables and legumes are usually stewed.
5. Pressure cooking: When steam under pressure is used the method is
known as pressure cooking and the equipment used is the pressure cooker. In this method the temperature of boiling water can be raised above 100° C. Rice, dhal, meat, roots and tubers are usually pressure cooked. 6. Blanching: In meal preparation, it is often necessary only to peel off the skin of fruits and vegetables without making them tender. This can be achieved by blanching. In this method, food is dipped in boiling water for 5 seconds to 2 minutes depending on the texture of the food. This helps to remove the skin or peel without softening food. Blanching can also be done by pouring enough boiling water on the food to immerse it for some time or subjecting foods to boiling temperatures for short periods and then immediately immersing in cold water. The process causes the skin to become loose and can be peeled off easily.
1. Sautéing: is a method in which food is lightly tossed in little oil just
enough to cover the base of the pan. The pan is covered with a lid and the flame or intensity of heat is reduced. The food is allowed to cook till tender in its own steam. The food is tossed occasionally, or turned with a spatula to enable all the pieces to come in contact with the oil and get cooked evenly. The product obtained by this method is slightly moist and tender but without any liquid or gravy. Foods cooked by sautéing are generally vegetables which are used as side dishes in a menu. Sautéing can be combined with other methods to produce variety in meals. 2. Pan frying: is the process of cooking in an open pan or pot using butter lard or oil. 3. Deep frying: is the process by completely immersing in heated deep fat and allowing it to remain in the fat until it is done. 1. Braising: is a combined method of roasting and stewing in a pan with a tight fitting lid. Flavourings and seasonings are added and food is allowed to cook gently.
Stephanos Chrysanthou started learning his cooking skills in Nicosia at the hotel & Catering Institute of Nicosia in 1982. Then he moved to the United States of America. He graduated the French Culinary Institute in New York City, and has learned a lot from Master chef Jacques Pepin a celebrity chef that serves as dean of special programs at the institute. He worked in New Jersey as a Sous chef at the Glen Ridge Country Club, French restaurant & also at a Bloomfield steak & Seafood. After spending 5 years in the United States he came back to Cyprus. He was always fascinated by the Mediterranen diet. Since 1993 that he came back to the Island he worked at the best 5 star hotel establishments. Before coming to Intercontinental he worked as an Executive Chef for 3.5 years at Le Meridien Spa & Resort Hotel in Limassol. He opened 4 new restaurants including a Mediterranean fine dining restaurant Balthazar, Seafood restaurant, Italian restaurant & fusion cuisine. He has been at Intercontinental since 2005. His pride is the Mediterranean cuisine & culture. Stephanos says that Mediterranean cuisine is the healthiest & tastier cuisine in the world. He wrote a book exclusively for Mediterranean diet. Every 6 months he changes the menu of Mesogios, introducing also local dishes giving our guests the chance to know more about it. He is also a fan of the Asian cuisine & he is always experimenting new things at our Fusion restaurant, Leander.
Refrigerating meat This is a good way to store meat for a short period of time. Refrigerated meat should be stored at below 35 F. and wrapped to prevent dehydration, odour absorption and cross contamination of the meat and other products in the refrigerator. In generally you should consume refrigerated meat within 4 days of purchase. Frozen meat will have a different colour than fresh meat. The temperature must be kept below 0 C. Frozen storage time is extended with proper packaging and sealed to prevent air and moisture exchange and protects against freezer burns.
Lamb kebabs marinated with thyme:
Fresh Thyme, olive oil, seasoning, white wine Pork Flamatzeri marinated with red wine & Coriander: Red dry wine, dry coriander, Chilli flakes, oregano, honey, seasoning Baby chicken marinated with oregano: Olive oil, fresh oregano, seasoning, herbed garlic butter Ingredients: Pork mince meat Pig’s cowl Onion Parsley Salt Coarsely ground black pepper Procedure: Finely chop the onion minimum 5 hours before. Finely chop the parsley. Mix together with the mince meat and the seasoning and wrap in the pigs cowl. Sheftalia is only cooked on the BBQ. Ingredients: Sea bream fillets Young spinach leaves Olive puree Olive oil Potatoes Saffron butter For the sauce: Fresh skinless tomatoes Sliced fennel Olive oil Balsamic vinegar White wine Sugar Spring onion
Fillet the sea bream and brush with extra virgin olive oil. place the fillets upside down and on one side place some blanched spinach and on the other side spread some olive puree, and close together. Bake in the oven until done. Shape the potatoes into barrel shapes and boil in saffron stock. For the sauce: Cut the tomatoes in squares and sauté them in olive oil add dew drops of balsamic vinegar, a little sugar and some white wine and reduce. Add the spring onions and season. Blanch the fennel in hot water and then sauté in some olive oil. Ingredients: Red snapper fillets Olive oil Sliced bell peppers Raisins Chopped parsley Tomato sauce White wine Sliced onions Garlic Bread crumbs Procedure: Sauté the sliced onion in olive oil then add the garlic the sliced peppers. Deglaze with white wine and add the tomato sauce. To the sauce then add the chopped parsley and the raisins and simmer for 10 minutes. Put some sauce on the bottom of a baking tray and place the fish on the sauce with the skin looking up, then cover the fish with the remaining sauce. On top sprinkle some bread crumbs and bake in a moderate oven for about 25 minutes. Ingredients: Baby calamari clean and washed Worcester sauce Fresh lemon juice Salt and pepper Flour for frying
Procedure Marinate the calamari in the lemon juice, the Worcester sauce for and the seasoning 2 hours. Then place it in flour to coverit and deep fry it, until crispy and golden brown.
Ingredients: Clean and washed cuttle fish Red dry wine Cinnamon sticks Pepper corns Olive oil Bay leaf
Red wine vinegar Procedure: Heat a sauce pan us much as possible, then add the olive oil and the cuttle fish and allow to sauté. Add all the rest of the ingredients and cook until ready about 45 minutes.
Ingredients: Village pasta Boiled octopus cut in small pieces Olive oil Chopped onions Garlic Tomato sauce Spinach leaves White wine
Seasoning Procedure: Sauté the onion and garlic in olive oil. Then add the octopus allow to sauté and deglaze with the white wine. Add the tomato sauce allow to simmer for 20 minutes. Add the spinach leaves and the pasta mix all together season and serve.
Ingredients Prawns 16/20 Kateifi fillo Mango fresh Tinned mango Diced bell peppers
Procedure: Wrap the prawns with the kateifi Fillo and deep fry. Dice the bell peppers and the fresh mango, puree the tinned mango and mix together season.
Ingredients: Romain lettuce Tomato wedges Cucumber Coriander leaves Diced peppers Black olives Oregano Sliced red onion
Feta balls Dako bread Olive oil & lemon sauce Procedure: Cut the lettuce with your hand and put in a mixing bowl. Add the tomato, cucumber, coriander, peppers, olives, and season and add the sauce. Mix together and put in a plate. On top arrange the dako bread and the feta balls with the sliced onions and dust with oregano.
Ingredients: Eggplant smoked on the grill Diced tomato Chopped onion Garlic Olive oil Chopped parsley Walnut butter Feta cheese Diced bell peppers
Red wine vinegar Seasoning Procedure: Char grill the egg plants until cooked and clean them discarding the skin. Finely chop the eggplant and sauté in olive oil with onion and garlic. Put the feta cheese, tomato and peppers in aluminium foil and bake in the oven. Put all the ingredients in a mixing bowl and mix until incorporated season and serve.
Ingredients: Fresh seasonal fruits Water sugar Kiouli Procedure: Clean and cut the fruit in to pieces. Bring the water to boil add the sugar and the Kiouli. Blanch in the syrup and serve.
Ingredients: Kateifi Fillo Syrup Pastry cream Fresh cream Pistachio nuts grounded Procedure:
Butter a baking tin and lay out the kateifi Fillo. Bake it in the oven until golden brown. Remove from the oven and cover with syrup. Allow to cool and cover with pastry cream. On top garnish with whipped fresh cream and pistachio nuts.
Ingredients: 1 lt Milk 100 gr Corn flour 4 Eggs 150 gr Sugar Vanilla Procedure: Boil the milk. Mix the other ingredients together and add to the boil milk and cook until firm.
Ingredients: Lamb shanks Olive oil Bay leaf Black pepper corns Salt Water Procedure: Mix the ingredients together.
Wrap in parchment paper and then in aluminium foil. put them in a baking dish add the water and bake in an oven for about 3 hours.
Ingredients: Lamb shanks Olive oil Sliced onion Tomato wedges Bay leaf Pepper corns Cinnamon stick Seasoning Potatoes Water
Procedure: In a baking dish add all the ingredients and mix. Add the water and cover with aluminium foil. Bake in a moderate oven for 2 hours about.
Ingredients: Pork fillet Artichoke grilled and diced Sun dried tomato diced Egg white Thyme Fresh coriander Parma ham Pig’s cowl Tomato sliced Courgette sliced Eggplant sliced
Onion sliced Olive oil Procedure: Sauté the pork fillet on all sides and chill. Take the artichoke and mix with the sun dried tomato, thyme, fresh coriander, egg white and seasoning. Place the pig’s cowl on the working bench and on top place the Parma ham. Cover the Parma ham with the artichoke mixture and place the fillet on top and wrap firmly. Bake in the oven till cooked. Sauté the onions in olive oil until cooked soft and golden brown. Arrange in a baking dish. Then arrange the tomato, courgette and eggplant one by one in layers. Season and sprinkle with olive oil and thyme. Cover and bake for about 20 minutes.
Ingredients: Roast diced pumpkin Diced onion Diced courgette Diced eggplant Diced peppers Chicken stock Truffle oil Seasoning Cous-cous Chopped parsley Olive oil Procedure:
Sauté in olive oil the onion, peppers, courgette, and eggplant add the couscous and slowly add the chicken stock until the cous-cous in cooked. Season, add the pumpkin, truffle oil chopped parsley and serve.
Ingredients: Lentils Olive oil Rice Onions chopped Water Bay leaf Procedure Bring the water to boil and blanch the lentils 2 to 3 times in clean water. Change the water and let the lentils to half cook, add the bay leaf and rice allow simmering till ready. Season to taste. Sauté the chopped onions in olive oil until golden brown. Put the lentils in a plate, place the onions on top and drizzle with olive oil.
Ingredients: Green peas Artichokes Chunky carrots Chunky potatoes Chopped onions Tomato sauce Seasoning Olive oil Garlic chopped Procedure: Sauté the onions and garlic in olive oil. Add the carrots, potatoes, artichokes and the tomato sauce. Allow to simmer. When close to ready add the green peas and seasoning.
Ingredients: Cauliflower Chopped onion Garlic Olive oil Cumin Potatoes Chicken stock Water Fresh cream Procedure Roast the cauliflower in a moderate oven until golden brown. Sauté the onions, garlic, potatoes and cumin in olive oil. Add the water, chicken stock and cauliflower, season to taste. Allow to simmer for 1 hour then blend the soup to make a puree. Serve with whipped fresh cream on top and dust with cumin.
Ingredients: Melon Avocado Yoghurt Fresh coriander Lemon juice Seasoning Crab meat Diced peppers Procedure: Take half the avocado and dice it finely. Puree the rest of the avocado, add the yoghurt and mix with diced avocado and shape into a kennel. Place on the bottom of a cocktail glass. Blend the melon with a little lemon juice and pour in the glass. On top drop some crab meat and fresh coriander.
Ingredients: Gigantes Chopped onions Garlic Olive oil Tomato peeled Water Celery Carrot Chopped dill Feta cheese Chopped parsley Seasoning Procedure: Put Gigantes in water and leave to soak over night. Change the water and bring to boil with the Gigantes when ready remove from heat. Sauté the onions, garlic, carrot, celery in olive oil add the tomato peeled and some water and the Gigantes and allow to simmer until ready season to taste add the dill and parsley.
Allow to cool and serve with feta cheese on top.
Ingredients: Scallops Prawns Spinach Spring onion White wine Garlic Seasoning Baklava Fillo Butter Water Procedure: Boil the water and blanch the seafood in and cool immediately. Dice the seafood. In olive oil sauté the onion, garlic and the seafood, deglaze with white wine add the spinach. Season, toss together and cool. Cut the Fillo into a square shape and butter put some mixture on the Fillo and roll into a long spring roll shape. Deep fry and serve.
Ingredients: Chopped onions Garlic Chopped leek Olive oil White wine Dill Feta cheese Béchamel sauce Eggs Baklava Fillo Butter Seasoning Procedure: Sauté the onions, garlic and leek in olive oil. Deglaze with white wine add the béchamel sauce to bind the ingredients. Add the feta cheese, dill, and eggs. Allow to cool. Cut the Fillo in a square shape and butter it. Put some of the mixture on it and roll as a spring roll Deep fry and serve
Ingredients: Chopped onions Chopped spring onions Garlic Olive oil White wine Mussel’s meat Black shell mussels Arborio rice Chicken stock Chopped parsley Seasoning Parmesan Butter Procedure: Sauté the onions, garlic in olive oil add and mussels. Add the rice and sauté another 2 minutes. Deglaze with white wine. Add the chicken stock slowly slowly and simmer until cooked. Add the butter, parmesan cheese, chopped parsley and seasoning.
Ingredients: 1 sea bream filleted Lime White wine Fresh herbs Julienne of vegetables (carrots, zucchini, turnip, fennel) Black olives sliced Olive oil Seasoning Procedure: Take the 2 fillets of fish and sprinkle with fresh herbs, olive oil, seasoning add some lime slices and put together. Place the carrots, zucchini, turnip, fennel and black olives on the parchment paper. Put the fish fillets on top drizzle with white wine add some lime zests and more herbs. Seal the parchment paper and bake in a pre- heated oven at 180 ‘C.
Ingredients: Water Lemon grass Lavender Procedure: Bring the water to boiling point. Drop the lemon grass and the lavender in the water and steep for 5 minutes. Remove and chill.
Ingredients: Water Orange juice Ginger peeled and chopped Ingredients: Bring the water to boiling point add the orange juice. Add the ginger and steep for 5 minutes. Chill and serve
Ingredients: Pork fillet picata Coriander dry Commandaria Olive oil Anari cheese Chopped parsley Procedure: Sauté the pork in olive oil and coriander deglaze with Commandaria. Top with Anari cheese and parsley and gratine.
Ingredients: Chicken breast Anari Cream cheese Chevre cheese Sun dried tomato Proscuito Seasoning Tarragon mustard Fresh herb crust Procedure: Slightly slice the chicken breast to open into 2. Mix the cheeses together and place on the chicken add the diced sun dried tomato and the julienne proscuito and season. Roll in cling film and poach for 25 minutes. Remove from water and cool. Remove the cling film and brush with mustard. Pass through fresh herb crust, bake for 5 min. in the oven and serve.
Ingredients: Chopped onion Garlic Olive oil Diced carrot, courgette Rice Tomato juice Chicken Stock Lemon juice Chopped parsley Dry mint Seasoning Small tomatoes Courgettes Peppers Onions Procedure: In olive oil sauté the onion, garlic, carrot, courgette, add the rice, chicken stock and water, tomato juice. Allow rice to cook and then cool. Mix in the lemon juice, parsley and mint. Season to taste. Stuff the vegetables. Place in a baking tray, cover with tomato juice. Cover the tray with aluminium foil and bake for 35 min. in moderate oven.
Ingredients: Kefalotyri Cheese Edam Cheese Gouda Cheese Parmesan Cheese Feta Cheese Boiled Potato Bread Crumbs Garlic Sesame Seeds Parsley Flour Eggs Procedure: Mix the cheeses, potato, bread crumbs, garlic, eggs, parsley and shape onto balls. Pass through flour and sesame seeds and deep fry.
Ingredients: 1 Rabbit cut in small pieces Olive oil Shallots Garlic Red wine Red wine vinegar Bay leaf Cinnamon stick Peppercorns Water Tomato paste Seasoning Procedure: In a big casserole heat the olive oil, add the rabbit pieces and brown on all sides. Add the shallots, garlic and tomato paste and deglaze with red wine and red wine vinegar. Add some water to cover the rabbit add the herbs add spices and allow to simmer for about one hour. Season to taste.
Ingredients: Peppers Florinis Olive oil Garlic puree Cream cheese Anari Fresh cream Sun dried tomatoes Chopped parsley Seasoning Procedure: Sauté the peppers in olive oil and remove the skin. Make a mixture with the rest of ingredients stuff the peppers. Char grill the peppers , chill and serve.
Ingredients: Vine leaves Hiromeri Chevre cheese Cream cheese Fetta cheese Pine nuts Olive oil Fresh coriander Fresh mint Seasoning Procedure: Mix the cheeses, pine nuts little olive oil, coriander, mint in a bowl and season. Blanch the vine leaves in salted water. Lay the vine leaves on a working place, on top place a thin slice of Hiromeri fill the centre with the cheese mixture. Shape into desired shape and serve cold.
Ingredients: 13 Eggs 325gr Almonds crushed 325gr. Sugar 400gr. Olive oil 175gr. Semolina 175gr. Flour 10gr. B.P Procedure: Mix all together, place in a baking tin. Place in a preheated oven and bake for 40 min. 180 degrees.
Ingredients: 1kg Semolina 550gr. Sugar 500ml Olive oil 10 eggs 2gr. Mastixa 2gr. Vanilla paste 280gr. Yogurt 30gr. B.P Procedure: Mix all ingredients together, place in a buttered baking dish. Place in a preheated oven and bake for 30 min. in a moderate oven.
Ingredients: Fillo Baklava Butter 1L Milk 150gr. Sugar 10 eggs 110gr. Corn Flour 20gr. Orange Filfar 5gr. Vanilla Procedure: Boil the milk. Wisk together the sugar eggs, corn flour, vanilla paste. Add the milk slowly. Allow mixture to almost boil .Allow to cool and add the orange liqueur. Butter a baking dish, place 2 fillo baklava. Repeat 3 times. Add the pastry cream and repeat another 4 times the fillo on top. Bake in a moderate oven until golden brown. Add Cold syrup to almost cover the galktoboureko.
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